Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide
PURPOSE
This practice establishes guidelines and recommended procedures for the design of Tank foundations using AFES (Automatic Foundation Engineering System). AFES can design Tank foundations as either soil- or pilesupported footings.

CONTENTS
This practice comprises the following:

Create or Open New Project Setting Soil and Pile Parameters Creating New Structure Exporting Load Combination Assign Foundation Grouping Editing footing sizes and other parameters Pier and Footing Reinforcement Set Pile Layout for Pile Foundations Import Load Combination for various foundation groups Assigning Equipment Data Performing Design and Analysis functions Quantity BOM (Bill of Material) function Construction Drawing Export 3D Modeling Data (PDMS, PDS Frame Work Plus)

FOUNDATION TYPES
Types of foundations normally considered as are the following: Gravel ring walls supporting the tank shell. Concrete ring walls supporting the tank shell. Concrete mat on grade supporting the entire tank. Concrete mat on piles supporting the entire tank. Concrete rib beams and mat foundation for cold storage tanks. Concrete mat and heating coils for cold storage tanks.

Foundation type to be utilized depends on the design requirements, type of tank, tank dimensions, soil and site conditions, environmental conditions, material availability, local codes, and Client requirements. 1

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide
Design data sample for equipment is shown below based from actual projects. This equipment is a Exchanger supported by rectangular shape foundation.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Assumptions: The center to center diameter of ring wall is equal to the nominal tank diameter. If not applicable, an alternate foundation type shall be used.

W=

Empty Load − Bottom Plate Weight π x Tank Diameter

Bottom Plate Weight = γ steel x Bottom Plate Thickness x Bottom Plate Area

t.cal =

2 xW q x H − 2 x h x (γ c − γ s )

t.min = 300 mm

γs =

γ s 1 x h1 + γ s 2 x h2
h1 + h2

Where:

q = unit weight of Tank fluid γ c = unitweight of concrete h1, h2 : Filling material height of ring wall γ s 1, γ s 2 : unitweight of soil under Tank W = weight of Tank shell plus the tributary weight of a cone perimeter of circumference N = thickness of Tank shell plate H = height of Tank h = height of Ring wall D = tan k diameter

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Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide

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Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide

Create or Open New Project
The first step is to enter project specific items. These items include general data, client data and Job data about a project. General data includes project No. Project Name, Client Name, Site Name, any more. The client data includes your client manager name, e-mail, number of telephone and fax, address. Job data includes assigned engineer, supervisor, duration of project, project rate that values the program needs to use for the specific project.

The Project Number and Structure Name entered in Project Information will display as a menu header

Note: General Data should be input. This data needs to use for the specific project.

To open the existing project, or create a new project, Click on the “New/Open Project” from Top toolbar menu

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5 . A window dialogue will display as shown. select New/Open Project. A window dialogue will display as shown.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Create New Project From File menu. Select New Project option then click OK button.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Enter information then click OK button. 6 . Or Open Existing Project From File menu. select New/Open Project. A window will display as shown. Select Open Existing Project. Select a project then click OK button.

allowable increase of soil. material and unit weight.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Setting Soil and Pile Parameters Setting of constants options include design information that AFES needs in order to design a foundation. Enter Soil Bearing Capacity (Qa) value. strength reduction factors. set all design parameters from the “Setting of Constant” form. Select Bearing Capacity of Soil tab. Set Bearing Capacity of Soil from the Setting of Constant command Click Setting of Constant button. allowable increase of pile. bearing capacity of soil. capacity of pile. supports and anchor bolt options. Enter name in the Soil Bearing Capacity Name text box. 7 . This includes a number of parameters such as design code. clear cover. safety factor. In case of New project. Click Save button.

Select Capacity of Pile tab. Enter values for Allowable Capacities.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Set Capacity of Pile from the Setting of Constant button. Click Save button. Enter name in the Pile Name text box. Enter values for Pile dimensions. Enter values for Elastic Modulus (Ep) and Pile Area. Select Pile Type. 8 . Select Pile Shape.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Creating New Structure Every input and output data can be saved in AFES Data Base according to projects. Choose Create New Structure button. Input structure name. 9 . reuse data from projects conducted previously. or eliminate old and useless data for the user’s own sake. which provide work efficiency in control over project information. and then click on the “New” button. An engineer is able to create a file for a new project. “Add: New Structure Name” dialog window will appear.

Export Load Combination before assigning group otherwise they will be deleted.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Exporting Load Combination This function enables us to export load combination data that was saved in text file in AFES program. After exporting the file. 10 . Click Load Combination button. Click Load Case/Combination button. Click OK button. A warning message will appear as shown. The Load Combination form will appear as shown. it will be available for import in this program.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Click Export button. assign file name then click Save button. 11 . This is very important because it eliminates repetitions of commands. Foundations with the same load combinations are recommended to join in one group. At the end of this step. The Assign Foundation Grouping command is used for assigning group for models with multifoundations. The available foundation types are as follows. we will create the structure as shown below. Choose directory to save file. The foundation modules in red box shown in above figure are normally used for Storage Tanks. Assign Foundation Grouping.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Click Geometric Data button. Enter coordinates as shown in figure above. 12 . Create 3 nodes by clicking Add button 3 times.

option.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Click Assign Foundation Grouping button. Select node 1 from the Using node list form. Click New button. Assign group for node 1. Assign name from the Group name text box. Select Same size. Click arrow pointing to the right. Select Tank_1 from the Group type. Select Pile fdn. Click Save button. 13 .

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Assign group for node 2. Select Tank_1 from the Group type. Click New button. Select Non Pile fdn. Click Save button. option. 14 . Assign name from the Group name text box. Select node 2 from the Using node list form. Click arrow pointing to the right. Select Different size. Select Block Foundation.

Click Save button. option. 15 . Select node 3 from the Using node list form. Click New button. Select Different Size. Click arrow pointing to the right. Select Non Pile fdn. Assign name from the Group name text box.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Assign group for node 3. Select Tank_1 from the Group type.

16 .Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide The preliminary structure configuration is shown below.

Click Feature Data/Dimension button. Select TANK1 from the Group selection in top menu. Plan footing dimensions should be in even 2 inch (50 mm) increments. The footing thickness adequate for embedment of pier or column reinforcement should be checked in accordance with Building Code. the footing thickness shall be checked in accordance with Building Code. Size for both footings should normally be the same. the possibility of the moment increasing the punching shear should be considered similar to the way it would be for slabs (refer to Building Code). Edit footing size of group TANK1. The footing thickness shall be 12 inches (300 mm) minimum and thickened in 4 inch(=100 mm) increments. For thin footings with a large concentrated pier moment. Choose SUPT-01 in the Soil Name selection.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Editing footing size and other parameters The Feature Data (Dimension) command is used to define the dimensions and other parameters necessary for the foundation and piers. If top tension exists. 17 . Engineering judgment should be used in deciding when this might be applicable.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide <Footing tab> <Pier tab> 18 .

<Footing tab> 19 . Click Save button.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Enter values as shown in the Feature form for Footing and Pier. Click Feature Data/Dimension button. Choose SUPT-01 in the Soil Name selection. Edit footing size of group TANK1RING. Select TANK1RING from the Group selection in top menu.

Choose SUPT-01 in the Soil Name selection. Click Save button. Edit footing size of group TANK1BLOCK. 20 .Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide <Pier tab> Enter values as shown in the Feature form for Footing and Pier. Click Feature Data/Dimension button. Select TANK1BLOCK from the Group selection in top menu.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide <Footing tab> 21 .

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide <Pier tab> Enter values as shown in the Feature form for Footing and Pier. Note that only Grout Thickness is activated. 22 . Click Save button.

minimum reinforcing is #4 at 12 inches c/c. The arrangement of footing bars are parallel to the X and Y axis except for Tank1 and Tank2 Ring type modules which are in radial and longitudinal directions. Size and reinforcement for each pier should normally be the same. Minimum reinforcing for piers is #5 at 12 inches on each face with #4 ties at 12 inches. When the required reinforcing approaches ρmax. Size and reinforcement for both columns should normally be the same. From the main tool bar. Reinforcement bar sizes depend on the design code designated in the Setting of Constant command. Minimum Pier Reinforcement Piers should be designed as cantilever beams with two layers of reinforcement. Reinforcement data form will 23 . click the “Reinforcement data” appear as shown in below figure. Use dowels to transfer the column loads to the footings. use dowels with minimum projections required for tension splices in accordance with Building Code. through ties are not required. investigate the pier as a column. button. If top reinforcing is required. Pier ties are not normally detailed as column ties. All ties should encircle the vertical reinforcement. Dowel splices are not required if the vertical pier reinforcing projection is less than 6 feet in height. or the rebar size in feet above the top of the footing. Set of bar array options are available in the Footing option. Minimum dowel projection should be that required for a tension splice in accordance with Building Code. Place double ties at top of piers to protect anchor bolts. If longitudinal reinforcing is not required to resist vertical loads. as is normally the case. For cases that exceed this limit. Minimum Footing Reinforcement The minimum amount of bottom reinforcing is #5 at 12 inches c/c. Below are based from our company standards.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Pier and Footing Reinforcement The Reinforcement Data command is used to assign bar sizes and spacing for piers and footings.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Tank1 Foundation with Ring Wall Pier Set Array Type Select from the array types of footing reinforcement layout. Set Footing reinforcement arrangement. 24 . Different forms for single and double layer arrangement are presented.

Enter the values of footing re-bar as shown. Select Save then Close button. Tank1 Block Foundation 25 . Select Pier tab.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Select Save then Close button.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Set Pier reinforcement arrangement using the Pier tab. Set Footing reinforcement arrangement. 26 . Tank1 Ring Foundation with Ring Wall Pier Set Array Type Select from the array types of footing reinforcement layout. Different forms for single and double layer arrangement are presented. Select Save then Close button.

27 . Enter the values of footing re-bar as shown.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Select Save then Close button. refer to Help documents. Fore further discussions. Select Pier tab. Select Save then Close button.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Set Pile Layout for Pile Foundations The Pile Data command is used to layout and assign piles in the foundation. Click Pile Data command. Click Regenerate button. No. Enter Star Angle. Define pile features first before proceeding to this function in the Setting of Constant command. in the Assign Foundation Grouping command. and Pile Circle Dia. Select PHC-12 from the Pile Name selection. (PCD). Select Origin Point. Set Pile Arrangement for foundation group TANK1 (Circular Array) Select TANK1 from the Group selection in top menu. Set Circular option. Click OK button. Select Array Wizard tab. This function is activated only when the selected type is Pile fdn. Regular pile arrangements are available for circular or rectangular arrays. 28 .

one way shear check. Combinations referring to Ultimate Strength Design are used for footing reinforcement. The Load Case/Combination command is used to define. sliding. Import Load Combination for various foundation groups. Assigned load cases can be combined with factors in accordance with a few design methods and specifications. The purpose of the combinations is to take into account soil bearing capacity.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Repeat above steps in creating new circular pile array arrangement then click “Add Draw” to include to defined pile arrangement. add. overturning.0 factored value. pier design. Combinations by Allowable Strength Design are normally applied with 1. and pile capacity check for a pile supported foundation. and taking different factors for various cases. uplift check. Mainly applied load combinations are Allowable Strength Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination. edit or delete load cases and combinations. 29 .

Load cases definitions are also discussed for further information. Verify that all items which are to be erected with the vessel are included in the erection weight. This information is taken from the vessel/exchanger drawings/data sheets. Empty Weight (De2) The empty weight is defined as the in-place weight of the completed exchanger/vessel (De1) plus the weight of internals. including internals and attachments that are installed integrally with the vessel. Verification of the operating conditions may be required from the Process Engineering Discipline. Operating Weight (Do) The operating weight (also called "wet weight") is defined as the empty weight of the exchanger/vessel (De2) plus the weight of operating fluids or products.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Below are load cases and load combinations usually used for Horizontal Vessel and Exchanger footing based from Building code. DESIGN LOADS The following design loads shall be considered for design of the foundations. These are also based from our actual projects. This information is taken from the vessel drawings. Erection Weight (De1) The erection weight is defined as the fabricated weight of the vessel. No allowance shall be made for shielding of wind loads by nearby equipment. and ladders and platforms. but excluding the weights of fluids or products which will be placed in the exchanger/vessel during operation. This information is taken from the vessel/exchanger drawings/data sheets and planning study drawings. piping. Test Weight (Dt) The test weight is defined as the empty weight of the exchanger/vessel (De2) plus the weight of test fluid (usually water) and any attached piping and equipment required for the hydrostatic test. Wind Loads (W) Transverse and longitudinal wind loads shall be determined in accordance with Design Guide 3DG-C0100001 unless project criteria dictates otherwise. The calculated design moments and shears due to wind load should be compared to those shown on the exchanger/vessel drawings. Verify with the Mechanical Discipline for this condition. insulation. This information is taken from the vessel/exchanger drawings/data sheets. In case of major discrepancies between calculated 30 . Note that this load condition is considered only when the exchanger/vessel is to be field-hydrotested.

0 EH1 ± 0. Also.3 EH1 ± 1. coordinate with the Mechanical Discipline for resolution.2 Dt The load factors shown above are based on ACI 318.2 De2 ± 1. The longitudinal seismic force shall be resisted by the fixed end pier only unless the piers are tied together by tie beams below the base plates. i.0 EH2).75 [1..9D ± (1. do not need to be considered since they are covered by load combinations (b) and (c).2 is used (instead of 1.4 T + 1.0E).7 Lb (for exchanger foundations only) (g) 1. 31 . E = ±(1. in load combination (g).3 EH2) and E = ±(0.6W or 1.4 (Do + T + Dp) (b) 0. as listed in ACI 318.6 W (e) 1.4 De2 (or 1. The load combinations 0.0 E (f) 1.4) due to the transient nature of hydrotesting conditions. Transverse seismic forces shall be resisted by both piers using saddle or base plate reactions as the basis for computing base shear.6 W (c) 1.2 (Do + T + Dp) ± 1. Seismic Loads (E) Seismic loads shall be determined in accordance with procedures presented in Company Design Guide unless project criteria dictates otherwise.4 De2 + 1. the factor of 1. The horizontal seismic loads shall be applied 100% in one direction and 30% in the orthogonal direction.4 Do + 1. LOAD COMBINATIONS Concrete Foundation Design The following factored load combinations should be used for design of the foundations (a) 1.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide wind loads and the loads shown on the equipment drawings.4 Dp) ± 1. except for load combinations (c) and (e). which are based on the slightly more conservative requirements of IBC 2000.4 De1)] ± 1.e.0 E (d) 0.75 (1.

You can actually create new load combinations through the Load Combination button but in this example. 32 . Click Import button. Similarly. If wind load is calculated using another code which does not include the wind directionality factor.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Wind load is calculated in accordance with ASCE 7-98 (including the directionality factor) and seismic load is calculated in accordance with IBC 2000 (based on strength-level methods.) The weight of the foundation and of the soil on top of the foundation shall be included as dead load in all of these load combinations. for service-level seismic loads based on another code. Click Load Combination button. the load factors for wind in the various load combinations should be reduced appropriately. rather than servicelevel). the seismic load factors should be increased as appropriate. The Load Combination form will display as shown. we will use Import command.2 of ACI 318 for guidance. (See Section R9. Access the load combination file then click Open button.

33 . Repeat same procedure for the other foundation groups. Select appropriate button as explained in the warning message form. Click Save button.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide A warning message will appear as shown.

Figure 2: Tank foundation modules showing equipments. Empty load is used to determine required ring wall thickness to be compared to the minimum allowed. Operation and testing weights may need to be entered again in the load case tables as they have no direct links. the input load values for the Empty. 34 . Tank dimensions and soil parameters including of the backfill materials are also necessary. Figure 1: Sample equipment input data for a certain equipment type normally used for Storage Tanks.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Assigning Equipment Data Equipment data is essential for Storage Tank Foundations. Nevertheless.

Click on the Foundation Analysis/Design button to be able to start analysis and design. stability and sectional design of components of footing. Select Analysis button. corbels and tie girders are properly examined. The design codes of AFES support ACI318-99. Korean. It is assumed that all external forces are loaded at the center of the piers and the connection between the pier and the footing is considered to be rigid enough to carry those forces. AIJ-WSD99. 35 . pier. CP-65 and IS456 (2000). 02. BS 8110.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Performing Design and Analysis functions AFES executes Foundation Analysis and Design according to design standards widely accepted. Strength.

36 . Click Analysis button. Temperature and Shrinkage/Stability. you may refer to help menu.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide For through discussion on setting other functions such as General. Tank Design. Detail Report Option and Contents. The calculation report will display as shown below. Click Report button to view calculation report.

select Quantity (BOM) then Take off BOM 3D. formworks. concrete. Options for BOM take off for active structure and all structures in a project is supported. grout. disposal. For Active Foundation structure From Design menu. crushed stone. Set parameters from the Afes – Bill of Material form. backfill. anchor bolts and steel reinforcements. lean concrete.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Quantity BOM (Bill of Materials) function BOM functions are used for estimate of earthworks including other related items such as excavation. 37 . protection materials. Click OK button.

38 . From Design menu. select Quantity (BOM) then Take off BOM 3D (All Structure).Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide The Bill of Material form will display as shown below.

Click OK button. Click OK button.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Set parameters from the Afes – Bill of Material form. Check structures to include BOM Take off calculation from the form below. 39 .

40 .Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide The Bill of Material form will display as shown below.

Set options from this form. The program will create the DWG or DXF file format and display a construction drawing through a viewer. You can set from this command the drawing preferences to be utilized before exporting to AutoCAD. 41 . Click OK button. The Export DXF File command is used to export the drawing files made from AFES to other programs such as AutoCAD and MicroStation. AFES interfaces with AutoCAD and MicroStation to create a construction drawing with bar-schedule. The drawing report consists of the Standards. Click Export DXF File button. Layout and Drawing detail including plan and sections of foundation with reinforcement schedules. Standard drawings are already set up for various design codes.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Construction Drawing AFES is a completely integrated software package for automatically producing drawings of reinforcing details for foundations that have been analyzed and designed using AFES. A form will display as shown below.

<Foundation Layout Plan> <Tank1> 42 .Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Drawing details will display as below.

Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide <Tank1Block> <Tank1 Ring> 43 .

you will experience significant productivity. Set various parameters accordingly and click OK button. you may refer to Help PDF manuals. plant design works involve many design parts. A dialogue form will display as shown. 44 . A 3D foundation model of the objects designed by various design parts effectively communicates the geometric design data. Therefore automating the work process from design to 3D modeling forms an integral component of reducing overall project cost. PDS Frame Work Plus) Today. Export to PDS Click Export PDS Data button. Set Output unit and coordinate mapping options. Export to PDMS Click Export PDMS Data button. For further discussions.Storage Tank Foundation Analysis and Design Guide Export 3D Modeling Data (PDMS. With our design to modeling interface from AFES to Frameworks Plus. modeling objects from each part allows other parts to assess those object on their work process helping streamlining the work process through project completion. A dialogue form will display as shown. Check Send Model Data to PDS option then click OK button.

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