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ANINTR" -, -"--O'D'U'C' '·ro' R'·Y"C'O'URS' r ""'E'BAS':'ED'" O'N"

___ ,_ 'I', ,_,I' '~ ,__,-' ,:, • '~" "~~ "-, ,,' ','_

,SR1IA,JIVA GoSVAMl'S'GRAMMAR

"ii Is Nloi Very Difficult 11

mil aj,iana-Urn. i randhasya. jnan:iiiijana-salakaya. caksur unmrlitam yena tasmai sri-gurave namah

This booklet is an introduction to Sanskrit, taken from our Beginner's Sanskrit Course. It contains the following: a brief description of SrI CaitanyaMahaprabhu and ,Srfia Jlva Gosvaml, pronunciation, SrIla Prabbupada on pronunciation! Part Doe, and Part Two.

Part One. in sevenchapters, explains the bask elements of grammar, based on Harinamamrta-vyiikarana by $rIla Jiva Gosvaml. Part Two has instructions and exercises on conversation, adopted from the Rapid Sanskrit Speaking Cour-se of Dr. K.C_ Mishra.

It is important to learn the grammar of a language and also to approach it through conversation. You. wJ]j be surprised to discover for yourself, how easy Sanskrit actually is.

SrTla Prabhupada: "Yes. So any serious student can learn at home. It is not very difficult And after studying one or two or a dozen sentences like that, antomaticafly, yes, he learns sandhi, he learns verb, he learns subject, object, everything. I have uo time, otherwise I would have made Bhagavad-giu: grammar. Yes. ( .... ) You can do thar, You can do that People will read it Bhagavad-gttii grammar. On the Bhagavad-gita teach them grammar. Just like Iiva Gosvarnt compiled Hariniimdmrta-vyiikarana, similarly, you write. You have got both the knowledge, Sanskrit, and through English; Bhag(J.vad~grla grammar. People win take it I have no time; otherwise I would have done it Simply nominative case, 'Objective case, sabda-rupa" ~Conversalion with Dr. Patel)

All quotations are taken. from Srn~l Prabhupada's books, lectures, or conversations unless marked otherwise. To exemplify a Certain rule, we have sometimes taken portions of a. Bhagallad-gltii verse and arranged the words in a different order, followed by a rudimentary translation.

Begging for the well wishes of an the Vaisnavas, The publisher. Vrindavan, Kartik 2000

I

Sri ICaitanya Mahaprabhu (14B6-15J4)

ka.ta dine U!i§rap~~t:re.r hate klU)iji tiift, a/pa dine dv,ada§(J_-plu~hl aksara iik11ifa

"Afrel' some day:sIa,gann~Hha. MiSra inaugurated the pdlll:31ty edl!.lca.~ioJU of his son by performing the hlite. kha~l ceremony, Within a very few day_s the Lord Mearnoo, ,aU (be letrersnnd comblnarions of letters.' (OC. Adii m 4,94)

The fo[lowin,g is paraphrased from different Bhektivedanta purports:

i-liit'e kha{lii.s the beginning of primary education. Ar the' age 'Of four or five years, on an auspicious da.y caned vidyiirambha. there is a ceremony wo~hiping Lard Vj~lJlil. And after that the teacher givesthe ehild a long chaTh pl~ncinand" guiding the l1and of the student, 'he instructs him how to write: the letters of the alphabet (3J 31T~ t and so on) by ~riti:IJ:g big letters on the floor. When the child is alinle advanced in writing" he is given a slate for his priraary edueaticn. Thi-s ends wherr he 11m; Ieamedjhe two-letter combinations (19 ?f iI' end so on). lord. Caitanya Mah,aprahhu was given lessons by teaehers named Vi:$f;Iu and Sudarsana,

~n His; eighth year, He' WIlS admlned Into the tala (geboo.l) of Gang.3(hlsa. Pa(~,~nt:a in Gan,ganag~Ia, close .by the village of MayapMra.,. [0 twa years He became well read in Sanskrit grammar and rhetoric. Anyone seriousahoue s:rl!Jdying the Sanskjrit language s~lOllIld first i.emll gratmnar,. It takes SOUle time, but once one has learned the' grammatical rules and n;gll]atlons very nicely, all other scriptures OJ subjectmatters in Sanskrit are extremely easy to understand, for Sanskrit grammar is the gareway to education. There are many s,cboO:ls. of grammar in the Sanskrit lauglulge. The most famous of \vbieh are tile systems of Pa.JJini, K:aUipa (which was, studied by Mahaprnbhu).and KfIlJ;T11udI, with their difierenr branches of grammatical knowledge. A student was supposed to sttkly fortwelve years, but Ma.:hapratdlll W0l:11d immediately learn gnannunieal rutes and defirririons by heart simply by hearing them once.

It appears that A1aba_prabhuread the smrti and also the, ny,aya in His own 'study and .f'le was in competition with H1$- friejjds" '\:V.lto we:re' studying under the celebrated P~u;t~ita Ragh:unat.l1a SiromulJi In His house 1.;le fouud all the :inl.pooal1t books, which belonged to His father, who was .alsip a paf)dlta" At 'the age of fourteen ije was considered one of the best sehelars of Nadia"the renowned seat 'Of II)'Qya philosophy and Sanskrit Ieamiag. The SiJliirttJ parJ.~itas and the rmJyftyi}.i;as' were all afraid of confrontiIll!g Him in Ute.nrry discussiorss. Kes3:va MH;ra of Kashmir, who called Jtimself rhe great dlcgvUayr (,conqueter of the world)" came to Nadia with a view to discllss with the p'a~tflitQs there. Afraid of him, the tol,a professers of Nadia, left town 011 [he pretext of being illvited·elsewher'e. KeS.av,a Misra met Mab:aptabhll at tbe Bilfokoo,a~gha*~. in, M.ayatpfirn~ and after a VeEr short discussion he was defeated by 'the boy ..

Lord Caitanya.llad started His own c(Jt.u~piiFhr (village school) in the can.,ar-}'nuJiump.a within the courtyard of the fortunate Mukuada Satljaya. He tau,gnt granUllaI to Hi'S students, who became extremely expert in ,aeabng' with wordjugglery. Almost anyone expert in :studyin:g grammar H:lterp'n~ts the sastras III many ways by ctl!a.nging the reot meanings of their words. A student of grammae can som6tirnescompJetely change the meaning of at sentence by juggJljuE ,gramti,,~(ical rules.

After retumingfronrGays, where He had taken imitiatioll. from lfivaF..al PUll, Caitanya Mahaprabllutooi.1tinued teaching; S'eeing tbe word jugglery of His stllldellts. He started. toexplain grammatic-al rules by simultaneously speaking about '(he glories of the Lord .. For example, dJliltu means verba] root, withoutwhkifl U;L(;re is no Ianguage, But dna'tu. also 'means vital force .. So Caitanya Mamprnbhu explained that. dJlii;Ju means Kr~lJa,. \Vi:tboutWbom there is no life.

Understanding tbe desire of C.aitany.a Ml;lhip.rabhu,t 8111 a, J'lvn Gosvami later developed this form of grammar in hls book Hariniimiilnrta-vyiik(lrana C' GraIDnHl1 with the nectar of SrI Hari's

.i" ~ '"

names. It is, stilleurrent and prescribed ill 'the syn~blls of schools in

B ellgru.and considered toha ve. an almost mystical effect 'OIl its readers ..

Srna}Iva 'GosvamI (1511-96)

J1V8. Gosvamiw.as barn. in RimakeI i, 'W,est: Bengal As he grew .iil. yeara, b.egradually developed anI the bodJly symptoms of a. mQlm~' p,rJrll!ja, or an. empowered penon. Scriptural descriptions of such. souls include elongated lio:tuslik!eeY'f;s, large :shou)de:rs. and. chest, an effulgence that appears illite molten gold. and other specific £eatures. ]J1 1514 his father, Anupama, U'me younger brother of Rupa: and SaniUana Gosvamls, passed :away .. This devastatiug event had the effect that JiV3, although. only a. child ,at the thne, resolved to renounce the wcrld, Thus, with a burning p'3siion for spiritllaJ enfighten men t,. ,SrI Jiva. ,studjed tll,e

. .' . ~

scriptures as be grew into his teens. He was gt,eatly fond of Srurum-

Bhagavatal.tl.lat:er~'w came to Navadvipa to study .nyaya Oogtc)" and in the compsay of S:n Njtyana:nda. Prabhll,i1!B clreumambulased the entire Navudvlpa-dhama. Following the instructions of Nityrummda Prabhu Jlva proceeded ro Varanasi to srudyLlnder Madhusudana Vica1}pa:ti, an imponantt discipm.e of SarvabhaumaBhanac,arya .. ]n a. re.l,atiYely short lime, Sri ]iva became pa:rticubldy well-versed in all aspects of V'edanUl pmlosopiby and he developed a. reputation as an embrent scholar. To this day, 'both Benares Hindu Unilllersity and tbe Sanskrit University honor Jiva G0sv§:r.oi by dedicatin.g sub-departments to tbe study of his works.

At (be .ag~ 'Of twenty years, navjn,g compl't;te¢W his:stupjes,tie went to Vrn.davana, where he was initiated by Rijpa OosvamJ. Jl\~ Goslllmm's; fame spreadall oyer India. As a result, Emp~or Akbar traveled to Vrndiivarul in the year .L'570, just ~o have aa exclasive.audienee with 11H:::

GosvamI. It is said tha;~. Akbar was moved beyond words. In the-garden ealled Nidhuv2ln4l"tbe emperor bad a genuine spirit~8!l experienee,by the ,graoe of Jlva Gosv.§ml" and then. he. directed. ills men 'to commeaee cOJ]'stJr'uDtion of the four angina] templea of VrndaMloa.1fter the disappearance of Srna R:upa GOBvimi and S:anatana Oosv:rum~ Sma JIva Gosvami becamethe aC(i,rya. of all the Va.i~,i;Ui:'V~I:'S in. V:rndavan.Bi.,.13engaJ,. and Orissa. U is to his credit that three of his sUlldents were Srilla Naronama dasThakUi.a, Srlnivasa Acarya"and Stli Sy:li:mananda Prabhu, the great preachers of GauQiy:a Va] ~.lJa'rism.

Besidesmaintaining 'remples, tea.clldElgpb:ilosopny. reeeiving gussrs, ande~cavatingfule holy places, StilJI'va GosvrunI composed and edited at least twenty~five books with a 'to~aj of 40o,oonv,er,sesj whieb Is equal to an e.iigbteem Pmiiljlas.His books are all iro.oortant c1.a:SS1CS, But thee

From the,Maiigalacara~a of Hannlimilmrta- vyakaT,a~a

I offer m v humble obeisances to SrI Sri Radha and Krsna. To

J ~ ,. ~

worship Kr§,.I}3. I shall arrange a row of His names as a garland for' Him.

ACY~lta Ajita A.dh()k~{Jja 1.§G liv.a'ra Upendra Kamsari Kapila Kalki Kr~l),a Keiava Gopala GQvinda Caturbhuja Caturvyiiha Trivikrama Diil'nodar(J; Nanl-N4raya.J}(J Nr:silhha P7tiimbar:a Punl-~(}ttamaBaJa Buddha BhUtesa .Bhii.teivan;l' M(dlapui'u;ya Mii4hava YiidaVll Rlidha Riil'na. l..ak;fJ'fll Vam.ana Virifici Vi;,\itm Vi,Y'.J:/itcakl'a V#lJ.uj1JJla ViJl:,uuwsa V;~'l}np,ada Vi¥1Jubhakti Vi~{m:varga Vlf(lUSarga Vr:snilldra Siva SaiikiJ,r~at.!a SaJsait,ga Sarvesvara Hara Hari Harikamala Harimitra

This. garland will quickly bestow joy to the reader. I have seen many intricate explanations of Sanskrit g-r-amm-ar which use terminology that lacks any transcendental meaning. For t1:l'e pleasure of the, Vaisnavas, I have therefore, compiled Hari:nartllilnrta~vyakara~la, which is beautified with the names of Han. Those who are desperate for water in the desert of Sanskrit grammar and who constantly find complications and obstacles, may now drink this Hmnamamrta'l11 and dive into it hundreds and hundreds of times. "One who chants the hoiy name ofthe Lord is imrnediately freed from the reactions of. unlimited sins, even if he chants indirectly (to indicate something else), jokingly, for musical entertainment, or even neglectfully. This is . accepted by all the learned scholars of the scriptuees, to (SB 6.2.14)

Srila Prabhupsda: "S'rila JiV3 Gml'vamI compiled a grammar in two parts named Laghu~.Ha:riharnamtta-vyaka:r:a':Ja and BrhadHarlnamiiJurta-vyaka:ra!ja.. If someone studies these two texts in vyilkartu:ta, or grammar, he learns the grammatical rules of the Sanskrit language and stmultanecusly learns how to become a .great devotee of Lord Kr~~a." (Ce. Adi IJ~29 PWPQrt)

Mad.hy.aJna-HaY;inamamrt,um.

A bbre viarion of Harilliimlimrta- vya:k~l~a{"a

PaJ)ihi i.s the authority of Sanskrit grammar, and Srl1a J'i\ra Oosvami follcwed his sJan.dwds .. But. because. P1aJJ)ini's grammar is extremely concise, .l't required many commentaries of other geniuses. Therefnre Jiva GOSVilJil1 gave specia] attention toclarity even. at thesacrifice of being; concise. Another special - feature of his. grammar isjhat he enriched it with the holy names of Haril. of which the Val!]J)av3ces are v~ry foad ..

Yadu dasa has been studying and teaching Harillam:a.mttam for the last ten years in Vdndav.an.With Madhyama-Harifli'ifflli-'llTtam be is presenting a summary study, especially meantfor latecomers" i .. e. for [Rose who did~n't start at the a.ge of six .. Out of tbe total 1.200. sutras he sel ected tile most Important ones for nlOOl.orizing.His commenseries are self-explanatory and can be studied a~ home .. Twice a. year be offers courses in Vrindavan,

In Volume One you find:

AU .sutr-as wwth a teehaical Englishtranslation, Vrttis (Sanskrit comments),

The examplesgiven by JIva.Oosvamf.

Volume Two isproviding;

The trsnsltteratlon of each s:ftfra. with a small refer;e.ftlce. to Rarb"la"iamrta-v:yaka.ra~a.

Wor-d-by-word meaning;

Explanations of siUras, vrlti<'i., and examples, Moree:xamp]e.s and references to related siitras.

There are various appendices:

.Sabda.~ ri1pa~J]aiJlJ.ralla ~the declension of the mosteommen words, lJhalu~rUpa-sa1'lgraha-tbe cO'fl]Hgation of ma,st important verbs, DJUflru-sai'f.graha-. -a Jist of more than 1000 dhatus oompiled by Jiva nos:vJiim.i

Pronunciation

Lord Br~-I.hma is the personal representation of Nara.YaJl.m, the Supreme Lord,and the source of the rran scendental sound i()ri~kara" ,~, composed of tlsethree original sounds of the alpaabet: a-u-m: Orhkii.ra ]s the secret essence and eternal seed of all Vedic hymns .. From O1nkcln3 Brahma, created ,aU the otbersol'lndst of' the-alphabet, including the seven musical notes: ~'a (,yafl)aJ" r (ffabha)., gil (gandhar:a), mo (madhyama), pa (p(l.ikanUl~the "fifth note"), ,dha {dha.ivataJ", and lli (ni§ada).. These sounds are are known as Sa, Re, Gn; Ma, Fa, Da! Ni,

The word, Sanskrit means "[110St perfect" because not a single letter" word", orverse can be pronounced withou t.having :8l bona fide: principle. The first principle, which is hardlyseen in any other language, is that for every soundthere is only one letter.und for every Jetter there lis '()(11I1y onesoimd.

There are five placesfor pronunclstion: the throat, the; palate, the upper part .of the palate, theteeth, and the lips .. In pronouncing vowels a sound, is, produced byair by these different organ~ and the tongue. The air is not stopped or blocked. alt· any point. With consonants the. sound is produced in a simdlar way, but the tongue or the ~ips make a full contact, stepping and releasing the air.

1 kaJ)thya\ a a 1m kha ga gila na ba
(gl!tmrai)
2. tala"v ya: f cha jha na "
l' co, .1r:J ya sa
(~latai,j
3. ffiEiIdhanya .r r ta !1M {fa (lha r.ta .ra sa
(retroflex)
......
4. dantya ! ! ta too ita dna 'nce la sa
(dental)
5. osthya. u u pa pha ba bha me)
(labial) '7

1. Ka and kha are the samesounds, Ka is Ilon .. aspirated O'ess, air) and kha Is aspirated (moreair), The letter is written ;QS ,kha" but do not pronounce nltE~ "h", Rather" :say ka. but release more air, Tile same holds true for caand cha ~a "l!Dd!~la, mand t:lw:, and po.: and ph-a., There is, however t;o,e Iener ha which is pronounced,

2. The sound lz is snnilar to ha. 'When bappears atthe end of a 'Word it is, pronounced as, an echo of the preceeding vowel For example i~ is pronounced i1'li.

3. To pronounce the palatals (please see the chart) put thetolilJglae 'illl me position to pronounce' i. Now. in this position, practice the other letters of this group. For lh,e letrers ca t,o iia the longue makes: full contact with the palate. Por so and. ya the tongue makes less contact Be especially cM'efJ)~, to practice proaeuncing la witli,the 'longue in Uus position to produce a sound found in German words S:UiCIl as, "ich" en.

4,. The retroflex letters are pronounced. w lth tnt'! tongue bent upwards so thatthe tip of 'the tongue touches the palate,

5. The dental letters are pronounced with the tongue touching the upper front tedh. Americans maJ experience some diffic\l:l'lJ in pronooneing the dental Ictters ..

6 .. The letter ai is pronounced as in.aisle, and au as in hour.

• krwaivtQ ,trpthil blwj{da sadaiva (from Sri rGll1V-~~akam 4), vande rilpa-S,QIlljtanou raglm-.}'u;gau (from ,Sr71 $:afl'-gosvjjm.y-a~:~:(JklJm).

8. By the Lnfiuence 'Of modem lan,guages;, JiM is most I,,. pronounced gya.

8

L~ _ "

STrIa Prab.hupad,a on P'r:onuncI,ation

"The childrea cannot pronounce correctly the Sanskrit Let them read It correctly, l!1l'at is wanted first They rnust pronounce .nicety Enehsh aid S"'SI'C' The E····· .1~h,: .. ,., dlfficuln If ··'ou ca dothis

.gIL n __am.t'!4.tli. 11- ng..l..lts is nQ _ lCUllty.,l y n ",!i,.

then your edecation is all right, You may introduce contests, but if the children .afIIO also the older devotees cannot pronounce Sanskrit correctly, it is all a useless waste of time. II' (on Guruknla, letter to Ak1,:obhya)

"So we should tty to learn, get it by heart" at least one slokri,. two :§lokas in a. week. And if we chant tbat,.. Just like youarechanting so many songs, similarly, if we chant one or two verses of Sr[mad~ .Bhilga-vatam, that wiU make you very quickly adva.nced for spm,tna.l realization. 'We are 'therefore taking so much trouble to get this transliteration, the meaning, so that the reader may take advanced step, full advantage of the mantra. It is not that to showsome scholarship, ~bHr~"r know so milch Sanskrit" No .. It is just offeredwita humility to learn the ma:ntra because one who willi c.bant t:he-lUIlntra ... They are aU transcendental. vibration ... lust Ilike Hart': K!lQa mantra ... This is IrUJ!xantr:intra'f but they are also mantras, all the verses from Bhagavad-grta, ,Srfmad-Bhligavatam, spoken by Krsna, spoken by." Bhiigavara also, spoken by Kr~Q:a. Vyasade\'u is fncarnation 'of Kf~:tJlL 'Ihey're also maJltras, infallible instructions .. So try to get it by heart, chanting. Either you chantby seeing the book or get it by heart, it is, all the same .. But try to chant one.two slokas daily. Chant,

Pradyumna: (chentswith devotees respceding)

.srT~§ukaUI":Zca

atma'-lnii:yli.1n rte rlJjan p{u~a.zyanublU1.\lat11lalUJ.~2 na ghaf,etartha -samba.nd/~a.b ...

Prabhupada: (correcting) Na gha;etlfrtha-sa.mbandha.{t. Like that It is writte.nlike that?

Pradyouloa: Gha!etartIUl~san'dUlncJJw;l'!:, Prabhupada: ll,rtita, at:tha separated? Predyumna: No .. Together. Ghaf,e.tlirtha ..

Prabhupsda: No .. G'w!etlirlha~saJ'flbandhalJ. It should, should not be, Na gha/etartha-sam:bancll!a/;. .. Like tbat. Til should be long, ~a. Gha!et~ ,artha-.tambaJzdlrob·. Na ghaleta,rtirW:'hYambrm.:dlwl;l. Is thatall righ.t?

pr,adyumna: Yes ...

Pr.abhllpida: So prQRounce like that

PradYl.lmn.a:: .Na gha!e.tiirtha.~.samb'mdha1f.,· Prabbupada: Loud, Na gha!.eiiirtIM-s.G!I'tmmdluzil. Pr:ad.yumIl3.: Na gha~·etar.tha~sarnba",d!l;ab .. Prnbhupada; Yes .. Na ghatetiUtna-1;amoonahalJ. De''VQtees: Na ghateta.rtha-sa':l1bal1dhal,l. Pradyurnna: Svap1Ja-.drtl~tnr ivaiijaSii. f'r;abhlllpada:: Db. Again ]JI'onomu:e.

Pradyumna: Srl-suka. uvactl' (repeats verse)

Praibhu.p.8ja.a.:· Very impartant verse, Now we .shaU ge ro the 'wolds and. meaning. Again recite .. Srf~sJ,d(aEwMa.

Devotees: (repeat verse)

PrabH:IlIpada: Once again. Do it again .. Pradyumaa: (repents verse)

Prabhupada.: Ag'3.in (devotees repeat verse egain), Anyone caa recite? An right. See the book. and recite ..

S:yamasundara:- Sr.f"-Julka ,waco .aUtla-mlfyiirn rte rajan par-asyiinubhavaJmana:!j.

Prabhupa:da: Parasya. The transliteration is, the long: a .. You have seen? You just :tzy [0 follow the ttan:sliter.a'llio.n .. That wiU be easier,

Syima:sundara: Para.syitnu.,.

P"-Ib· bupida:' ru ... -;- -'''Y)\'i~u ~r- .... -- b-·I,·""~'a-1T aJii",ft A~ tmil H!L _._ ._ _ §'"".,ro", "'"_ .. _ ufl.,..V('l;, . "~., .. __ " J_ .. _ ... (_, ._ ....•

Sya.masundara.: Yes. Long a over a. A.l1nal!u/J. Prnbhupacia: Yes .. Now, beginning'.

SyamaSUJld.ara: Parazyanu .

Prabbupada: No, First line (aevote;esr·epeal) .. Syamasundara:: Srl~.fuka uvqca litnw,,:m~ay&'n rte riijan parasylinulihal'iJf!1Jianaj.l.

P-rabbtllpa.da: Read it again ..

SyamasuJiI.dara: Srt-sukauvacaatma -flitO:ylitN fl·e fltjem paragyanqbhav,iitlflanall naghatetiir#ia,.,

Prabhupada: Na .gn(.ltetfirtha-sambaru:1h41)-. Svapl'ul·~dra.~!Mr .iV'a~Na~ra, Next. Next You read .. Goon. One after another.

(Devotees· eonunue reciUi1i, ·Prabhupadacon~ects..)

10

You read the transliteration. The thing is hearing the meter and repeat. That's all. The writin.g is already thera jransllteratioa. Simply you have to hear the words, Just like you have chanted so many verses, songs. by hearing. The hearing hi very important A child learns another language simply by hearing, pronunciation" hearing, That is natural. If we hear one thing repeatedly, you will learn. You will Iearn, So one bas, 'to hear tittle attentively. Then. :it win be easy. There is no difficulty. Just like you are . singing our song in tune, (sings) samsara-diivanala-lrf,ihaloka. 'This is by hearing, SoO simply you have to hear. Therefore whole Vedic iast~a is called sruii. It is a process, of hearing, (Coughing) This isa disease of old age. These are the warnings that the body is. getting rotten. Go 00. (Recitation continues.) Next. Each one of you" Na ghate.tartha-sambandhaf;l, svapna-drastur iviit1jasa. What is the uiijasa spelling'?

(Prabhupsda continues correcting.)

Prabhupada: Tsa-r, Yes; Tsa, artha. So you were missing that r, No ghatetartha·,slunhafldhab. AU right. Next. (Recitation continues.) Get it next. Come here. So you have to. study like that. So many slokas, ] am taking, so much labor. If yon do. nor read it carefully .... II is not that I am making business, for selling only, and not for my students. You must all read like this" practice. Why so much trouble is being taken, word to word meaning and then transliteration? If you chant this. mantra, that vibration win cleanse the atmosphere. (, .. ) Next c'hant (Another devotee recites: verse.) Very good, Next, nex,t. Bbanu prabhu (Bhanu recites), Thank you very much .. He has pronounced very nicely. So he win teach you" Yes, Next. (Another devotee recites verse.) Very good. (Another devotee recites verse.) Very good. Yes. In this way, each one of you, you chant and others will follow. Then one or two days, you get the slo:ka by heart. You can chant. It is not difficult Now read the word meanings and translation." (lecture on SB. 2.9..1)

"So we want to create a. new generation 'in your country so that in the future tJ],ere'll be fluent speakers in Srlrnad-Bhag.avatam and preach all over the country, and yO\U·· country will be saved. This is our program.. We have come here not to exploit your country, but to give you something substantial. This is Kp?Q~a consciousness movement, So read Bhagavatam, pronounce the verses very nicely. Therefore we're repeating. You hear the records and try to repeat. Simply by chanting the mantra, you'll be purified. Simply by chant,.. Even if you do not

- -

understand a single wordof it, simply if you. chant; this vibration has

got such power. Srfjv:a,taih $va-ka$hii{: kr~lJ4b pU1}ya·srava!W-kTrt(J.:na~. " (lecture on SB. 1.8.22)

II

Chapter One Samjfia-S:andhi~Prakara~am

Ha"i:namiimrtrl-liIYakarl1~a is organized in seven chapters:

I. StJmjifij~Sandlzi~· tenniinohogy and. tuph.onicc:u.mJbinalLon .of letters

2. ·V~I.:I.upa-da ·----declension

3·. Akhyata

4. Ko';,aka

5. Krdwlta 6.Satll&a 7. TaddhUa

----(:l)onjugati.on

-<)'ase,si

-primary dedva.ti ves from. verbs. ~ompoufid words

~eri:yative words

a ,Q
,i !' R ,R r .r t I
,e ai 0 au
I m. IQ
"lea kha ga ,gha ll!a
,ca cha: ja j;l:a: .fia
ta .tha eli r)ha J;til
• • .a
.fa tha da .aha na
pll pha ba .b}u~ ,m·ll!
.yo ra .la Vi~
I la
~a sa
I Ira I~

'The first fourteen leuers are vowels andSn1a JiV3 Glosva.mI' calls them SarvCs,Vill1US. Sarvesvar:ameans"oonti'oUer of eve'ytli.ring';~God. Just as Be is independent, 'tlley can also be pronouaced rn.dependlently from. any Otfler letter.

,. Amengsr the Sa.we.fva;r;us, the first ten are. caned DaiiWa.tiirtlS and they appear in. five pairs of 'EkiitmakllS (having me seal), ODe is short, the other long. The short one is c:aHed Ya1nan~ and the long one ~riv,ikmma·, The Val',Uana: takes onetime 'Unit, and the TTivikrapll,arnk'B') two time unHs,.

[

r-' f

-

/-(

The letter III is til nasal sound, called :Vif~~·ucakra or amlsvnl~a;, and b ls called V~~~usarga or visarga.

The censonanss are calledV~:[Iltja"UlS. Vl~~m}a.na means devotee of Vi'$l.1u .. JUst ~S, a. bhaktt;l is always associated with the Lord and fully depending 'OD Him, the Vi~1J.ujan(J; needs a Sa;nJeivara (vowell) for its pronunciation.. 'Ihe association of two Vi,ftlujanas OWf.) coasonaats tog:e;thet) is called Sat&;ranga.

from. ka~o .l.na,each ,group of five letters is caUedVif~'lol;arga!and each iTOiUP is named after the first letter: ka-varga, (;(l-varga,. etc. In Sanskrit litera.ture· the materialistic way of fife is refered to as pa-llarga" because tb,e five Letters in the pac group can be interpreted as:fliariframll (hud work)! phena (follIll-·at the mouth. of an exhausted anima]), bamIlw (bondage)! blroya (fear of d.eath)., and ultimBit,ely rll:rtyu (death) .. And 'the path of Iiberaticn from ma'terial bondage is called ap(j;varga.

Sometimes we may desire to mow the meter of a. verse. The basic rules are as fellows, In Sanskrh poetry thesyllables are classified as lagh:u and gu,ru (light and heavy), To determine this clas,siJ[lcatio:n we :ha.veto focus om IDe vowels, A Yamana is, laghu., a. Trivikram.ais glJf,fl, but when, IS Vatt!'ana is t:oUowoo. by .Sat"'sail.ga it is also ,guru.

In other' words, a syllablls18 guru (b~a:vy) w.h.en its vowel is dtl:~ef Rule (1) Triy;kraNUl (Iong-ji. r; n,rl and also e, ai, 0; ,au)."

13

Rule (2) followed by Vi§,!II.!"cakru (m). V:i"'~Hlsarga (M or Sat~.saJ~g!l (a double conscnant).

The last syllable of a pa.da (quarter verse) may be la8~u Of' :guru as perthe requirement of aparticl.lIM me,lier,

A syllable 1$ lagh.ll (light) only when it ends with a!iJtQ11:lana ~short vowel) whi:cn is not followed by a double consonant

Let"s give an example, Below is thee first Mine oif the L'1;ntama~li 'prayers of Lord Era:hma,W':i:tlJir.l1e Devana,garI ]ettm grouped .into .syIla:l::d.es -, You may nom. the peculiarity of this; division, It jls; done this way because in [)eva:nigrui we keep the Hgaturestogether, Now we can see whether III vowel is followed by two consonants ..

~ ~ :q 'fUr If cp (" B" Gl ~q; F'Ci'!1'! ,ea C-1 uta mlll!)i praka ra sa dma su lea Ipa. vr k$,a

I S

The first sylhllble: has a short i rvanllana), but it is followed by Satsa,iga.,. therefore it is gu,ru. For the same reason the syllables !;li. sa, ka (or kalpa:) and Vi!'" are also guru.

Ii .... H!

Aoooroingto the traditIonal ;system,. the U.gllf'syUab,ies r( lo.ghn} are maiked here with a straight line ( I ) and you say "la" (the first letter of the word lagh.u) wane time unit. The :h.e·avy syliable.s (guru) aremarked wHh a crooked line ( S; )'!' and you say" geniC (the: first letter of the word guru plus, Vi:rQuca.kra) in twotime units,

S 5 I .s

II S

I $

s s

This is the verse meter ofall tile fourteen-eyllable verses of B'rahm.(J.~

• l!.' ~(' l' ...ll' ~ }J • ")

sa.,:n,t.fiUJ, . 11lC.llUuillg: 001i'lutam ,acyurll.UI.... . '.

The two. verses beginning with ij~riyab kiintlJ{l are of ,I differetltmeter (see below), They have seventeen sy'llIab~es and make a. small pause after the sixth syllable, bul otherwise the rules cf guru and tagh tl are observedin tile' same way, Rule (2) is applied for y.aQ,.nta}_r" ~~,

~- iq CfiF' ".~. '¢fiT ";ff

, '. oIj ~ '-.' - . _. ,I! -_ . I . .,' ~

~ o'II~' ' , '_ :_Y'J ",_'1' , ..

'J"l 'Ji Lir. . 1],';r m', ::::r :'IT 'ri' '7 ...:.

III " .,! .J. .~ ,.. '"1'l {"'", "'II ~ 'qll

sri yalJi ko§: nta~ ka. ntah, S 5; S S S

pa ra rna pu ru S.td;lk;al lpa ta ra vo

S S 1,1 III S.

~------------------------~--------------~~~~~

14

SaRdhi (Conjunctions)

SantilB means union, ltbe cOinjunctiJon of two immediate sOllQ;ds,.Sctil!,a Jrva Gosvil'ui prays, "With great joy I begin this .explanation of SGlulhi" by whieh my mind. ma.y ,also have sfnulhi with Your lowiS feet, 0 Krsnal' The rules are just ebservatiensof how sounds natu:raUv cha.mg-.6

•• , ,;I I

wben words and sentences are Joined in a.n. uO:brckrffllt ehain of g,yUables. Fer-example, the: words sat",cit ananda combine to. s:ac-.,cilJ,'..,QJuD'uia.

$aJu1hi is the basis 'Of Sanskrit, Nimai P,anl;.Iit,a, used to chaDen,g,e the scb.olmn 'Or N avadvYpa, saying, !!In this age of Kali" one who dOO$lil'r ev,ellmow the primary roles, of ,s.al)(/hi, as, to'und. in children"$ books. 'IS still ,gives the 'tlneEka~tacarya. (learned scholar of sr:ud:s, Ilyiiya or mlmiZri-ls:a)." (C, Bhig. Adi 10..43), We have selected aad simplified a few prominen:~ ru.les?gi¥mg them the name ora weU~kn(}wn example.

1. pammi'hUi (p,arama~atma~Su.preme soul) ~ul!e: Two ElWtnmkascombine into TrivikrQmD.

It means that a + ala + 0. a + ,a., anda~ + awl eombiae.mtc ,a. The same: is true witn. the other pairs, of Eklllmakas: i and ;:, u and fl, and so on.

~ ~

.. janma-~1a.m:f~ ja'lI1ldnam$-:tbe day c:a11edCU,jatni,wben Sri lQlij31

appeared.

ditiva-aoola'-i dlWiim:ala-forestfir1!;!:.

bhl'Cfmati iV4-J> blu:,a'1Ia~rlFJ.a ca me' "I:tmab (Bg, 1.30).

bahu-udar:a~ aneKa-bahiiJa.ra.-vaktra:-Nel.ntllll (Bg .. 1. ],16). niyam~graka, can. be: in.t.erpreled a'S (I) l1i'atiUNlgta.~la_;i1egJ,ecti~g tm.e prescribed fe-guEa;ti.ons, or (2) niYallUJ;~agrahar-ju.st: fdilliowin.g rales,

This.is the omy sandhi rule we request you. to memorize. You will master it by meditating lOti ,artnliilda~Ja1tJyatiilq:a {B'Tahma~ sathhitll 30)--eyes whtehare nke blooming Iotas petals ... Aravi!.tda-dala means lotus, pewl,. -ayata~b]oornin,g!. alqa--eye .

. 1., parame8vm-a. (para»la-fka,ra-;sup:reme controUer) Rule: a-Dvaya and f~Dvay.a combine into e.

III

Dvay'a means, pair .. It is also a name of the divine couple Sri-S6- Li1!ks.mi-NiTiym;t-a. A-Dvaya is a and ii" i-Dvaya is i and [

~. ka11t:w~ifulriya'~li~ kanr)endriYli:J.#-the working senses (3.6) .. pa:rwn(l--{i:trna iti____"pammatJ'l~eli~a]led paramiitntli (13.23).

PI.e3!Se see more examples in the followiag Bha:ga-v;ad-gftd verses: 5.28 (twotimes) and 7.5 (two times).

3:, lPurll~otta_ma (pllftqa-uttama-supreme: person) Rule:a~D",ay.a ,and. tt-Dv.aya: (u and u) combine into o .

.. darna-tldara""" diimodara-one whose beny~s bound by a rope. ifta-u;~:~la~ ilto,~t;l~wLnter and summer (2.] 4).

See 12.] 5 (3x) and 11.19 (2x).

4,.caiv8. (caeva-c:ertainl y)

Rule: .a~Dvaya ande-.Dv:aya (.e and ai) combine into 61,

~. mama. ·ev;a am§,a~ manz,aivaJ.hiab-my fragmental part (15.7). kr~f}a-eka-iaratJam""'" kr~~laik(J-sara{lam-taking Kr~l~a as on~y shelter. See 9.34 (2x;) and 15 .. 8.

kriv{i.;!e'J)a and saali ·eva~ krtvaiva. sadaiva {from Sri G~~rv~,ast(Jk:(Jm 4). Let [JS remember to (JroI:1o~nce ,at properly and that'we will ~help us to a.ctuaJlynnd.erstand krtva eva and :8aoo ,ev:ll.

!t nasty eva (no a.'iu'eva-the.re is certainly DO ••• ) R.ule: :i~Dv(Jya becomes y oeforeS.a11J:esvara ..

It· hi e§fJ-7 daivf l:leye$'ii-this is divine (7.14). lI'tf,hiiH~J lIham~' vai'lilmyahaf~l carr)' (9.12J. See 35 (2x) and IS.IlL (4x).

6:. gunr-~kaOl (g.zIru-afrakam:---eig,ht verses, glorifying the BUnt) Rule:u~.Dvaya becomes v before SaTVesvara. .

.. tu atma; eva~ jiUlni t'llatltuJiva-' . out the lfianf is just like Myself (7.t8),

tu untagatarn---+ yle~aiil tv ''''taga/am papam~but of those whose sin is erndica.ted (7.28).

See 7 . .5 and 8,2,3.

18

,., dehino Is'lillin (dehina asmin=- the sou) inthis) Rule: After e and 01' a is Hartt (dropped)

Ilara is a name of Lord Si va who is, responsiblefor destruction.

Tberefcre thata· is. dropped.

~ dehe asmin-« dehe ''smin-in this body (8:2).

y .. api-.) ye 'pytl.nya-dellata-bhaktiib--those who are devotees of other SOOS (9.23).

See 1.21 (2:~) and 9.23 (2x).

Examples for words ending jn 0 are given under rule 16; because 0 is mostly de:ri ved from ab. (deh.ina~l~ deidno].

V" . . S d"'I'

r~,f.lUJcUla-"an ",:11 (sandhi amongst consonants}

fl., jagadiSa (jagat:-i~fa~Lord of the universe)

R uleHard letters become soft before soft letters,

.' .faxut vlpariuartate-« jagad viparivartare-lhe uni verse is revolving ((),IOJ.

§r7nu;lt iLriitcm1r-"~ srDnad firjit6}'fl-. beautiful andglorious (10 . .41). See 13 .. .31 and 14.4.

For $i~.np]icity we have used the terms "soft" and "hard". The following consonants are hard .. (AU. the, vowels and other consonants are soft)

ka kha
ca cha
ta tha
fa tha
pa pha
sa ~'a sa 9. Sllbp sa'm,m (sulrrd satilm~.· a friend of devotees) Rule: Soft consonants become hard before hard ones.

11

10., aharil bh;~iimi (a ham: blrojami-· ~ worship) Rule: m becomes Vi",lfTJucakra (Til) before' a. consonant.

, govindam iidi-purusam tam aham bhajiim.i~ govindam adi-puru.y.an,! tam alwrh bh(ljwni-! worship Govinda, rheprhneval lord.

Examples of this you will find in almost every verse.

1]. mils titi~asva (tlin titik~as:'m-you ha ve to tolerate them) Rule: n becomes Tils before t Of tho n becomes rit.s before c or ch.

~ putri.i.n pautr:iin saldtrn-tathij~ putriin pautrlin s:akh[rils flf.rhil-sons" grandsons and friends (1.26).

§rl.-gul"u:n vai:rpavan CQ-)' sr'i-;gur:un vai~{iavan.ls ca~nnto'the spiritual masters and Vaisnavas,

See 2.11 (2x) andl2.71.

12. mac~,cittib '(" ,r.kilt~cittii/1-· those who think of Me)'

. . .

Sometimes, words endings in t or d adopt the following letter.

,. abrak.ma-bhuvanat ioka/J.-?' abrahma-bhuvanallokiii,I-thewarlds, n.p to Brahmaloka (8 .. 16).

sylUjanardaJU1~ lea p"f'ltif} syaj janiirdana~wh.at pleasure could there be (1.35).

j'tl:g.at~nlUha-"-7 jaganniitha-tJhe Lord oftheuniverse.

13. Please observe the following examples: prahasanu i.va (prahasan .iva-a,s if smiling)

Reduplication ofn before vowels: anicchan api-« a;nicclu1nn api-"even unwillingly (336). See 4.6.

karmma (karma)

After r; consonants Me optionally reduplicated. This rule is notBBT standard, but in India it is often used. Both. are correct: karta and karttii~ purva and piavva, kary1a and karyya, ardlw: and arddha.

j.agad-dhitaya JjCJsal-hi1aya-unto the benefactor of the world) sa}qlU hariwena--t.sa~iid dlwritvena (from Srr Gurv-ostakam. 7)

18

Vi:?~us.aTga-Sand.hi (sandhi of .~)

14~. i~ara\l paramalJ k"1}aJ} (-Kr~I)a 'is the supreme controller) Rule: bremains unchanged beforek, kh, p, ph, .1" s, s .

• Jribdab khe-sound in ether (1.8).

See 2.1.2 (2x) and 2..18.

15.. namas te (nama~ t,e-obeisances unto You)

Rule: Q changes to s before r andth. ~l changes to :I before c and ch:

.. dllfra[t tatra---+ dhiras tatra na Ifmhyati-the, sober person is not bewildered by this (2.13).

aru:myab ci'ntayanta1}~ an"anyiii' ciraayanto mam-those who meditate on Me. without deviation. (9.22) ..

See 2.14 (2x) and 2.47.

16. nam.o nam.ai} (nanwb lUJ11Uib-rlepeated obeisances)

Rule: atl becomes 0' before a and soft consonants. Thereafter; our sandhi rule 7 is applicable.

:~dehiMf;l. asmin-« (rule 16) dehino asmin-r (rule 7) dehino 'smin. nam.ab astuse-« (rule 16) I1QlnO astu te--+ (rule 7) llanw "stu te.

, In the following example we have to apply three rules, narn.e!y 16i 15 and 14 respectively: iamah dainab tapalJ' saucam-« samo dll11UJS tap.ai} saucam (18.42).

itaiz tlrsithhab paratah' nrsithlwb, ),atah yatab yiimi tala!), nrsirnhary" ruhi:f.i nrsin~ha1.z hr.di4ye rlrsilfUia{h, nrsimhamadim: sara~t:am prapadye After applying the rules of s:alldhi. the verse becomes,

ua nrs.i.mhalJ, parato nrsimho yato yato yiimi tato nrsiJi'ilra:lj.,

bahir nrsimho hrdaye nrsithho nrsimham iidi.m §ara~,am prapadye

"Lord Nrsirbhadeva is here, and He is also there an the opposite side, Wherever I .go, there I see Lord Nrsimhadeva, He is outside and within My heart, Therefore I take shelter of Lord Nrsirhhadeva, the original Supreme Personality of Godhead. 11 (Nrsililna P:urli',JQ)

The forms nfslmhal". and. nrsilhho are. correct ill. their respective places.

17 .a,r;juna. uvaca. (arjU1!4~l U'vaixl'-Arj una said) Sometimes the it is dropped.

• daivah iisura;h eva-? daiva iisura eva ca-godly and also demoniac beings (16.6).

safJ. £iiHtim~ sa santim adhigacchati-· be attains peace· (2.71).. See 2 a .18 (2x) and 2.21.

18.. senayor nbbayor madhye (~enayo~ ubhayob madhy.e'-in between both armies)

Q which is nO't preceded by a-Dvaya changes to T before soft sounds ..

• tribhib gWJamay·ai/.t bhiivai~ ebhil;l sarvam-» tribhir gUf}amayair blWvair ebhib sarvam (7.13).

See 1.4 (3x) and 8.24 (2x) ..

There is another type of sandhi rule:

The letter l!J changes. to Q after ra, sa and r-Dv.aya . .. . /t;r~-n,a---'J kr~~a (all-attractive),

There may be' even certain other letters in between:

IJlma-ayana-:> riimi):ya~UJ (the journey of Rama).

Ch«p,ter Two

Visnun,ada~ Pr:aJz.aru:n ... am (Decleneicn)

!II! !!!I"-C '!II

There are two kinds, of words, ,dhjjtu;s and fI:amas, DhiltllS an'!'verbaI roots which are {}oojugated :into verbs (Chap ttl Three), NalnaS are aU ether words .nam.e1y,

]) nouns, pronou:llls~ adjectives,

2) ad.~erbs, coOjURcti.OIlS, and SQ Ql1!, \vhicb are iDd~c1:inab]e (Avyaya).

Theundeelined form of a nama iscalJedP"aJqti." and is found only in Sll}'oos'Q (c'OIDpoond words) or' in dktionary entries. To get a word Wbic.hbas grammatical meaning O~ 'Vif~upatL:r) ferusing in a. seatenee, a suffix (called lIifflubWtf) has tebeapplied ..

P.raJqti + V~1Jiubhakti -,7. Yi:?!l~pflda

und.eclined word + :suffi.x _'" declined word!

material nature + bhaltri

Niill:t{1;S have three. genders; masculii]e"femilline ~ isld neuter . They are declined in :singnlar, dual, and p:lura.I, and eight cages, (explained in Chapter Four) .. Accordingly a nama take!) 24 forms.

The majority of words are mescaline, endjn,g in l'a.1M1W a.They are represeated by the word kr~~fa.

dual

1 I kHfla~i.

2 kr~/Jam.

3 KtllJetUl

4. krt{~aJj~a

S kr~!liit

6 kr~~asya

1 kr~~~e

8 he~~~

kr~~au /..7~~1atl kr$:r;lii.bhylim krs1iabhy,dm: kr~JJabhyijm

kr8n{IJ1olz

.. • 'R ... ~

kr~~uayo!J. he li;r~"wu

kr~I:u1b l{:r~~Jl kriTftlib

kr~1j.ebhyal~

kr~~ebkyalJ krsnli:nam

• • .~ I

kr.~1,le~u he kr~t#!ib

21

Kr$Qanama (pron.ouns, etc.)

Tbereisa lis,f of 40 Kr~{~"mjjm(Js., inclMding::

'" eka (one), dvi (two), ubha (both)" SalJ1lia (all), .1111ya (other), pu~a (frrst •. fOffil.er)., para (other)" dalqi~la (SQuth., righO. uttaTu (hIgher, northern, left), .n~a ('s,elf',r}ne.'$ own, his, her, etc.), bhava.t· (YOllJ,! honorific).

*' kim (who, wb3it,~ihich),. ')lad (rela:tive: who,!;vhat,whic:b;, ,efc,)"etad, i:dam, atlas (dem.onsttati'Ve:this, that, etc.), .tad (3rd person: he! she, it, etc.), Yll§l.nad (2nd person: YOI1), .asmad (Ist person: I).

In !BET puJb.Hcations,lDef10rnlS used ill the word-by-word translafi,Q'D are yat, etat, tat" etc .. This is. due to an optional s(J1'Ic$hi rule.

Asexsmple we see the declension of tad (3rdpetson: he, she, it, et'c..}Vr.~ith one possible translsrion,

1 ' 2: 3 4 5 6 7

tam"""'=-.nim

sab-·he

tau:--they two ,tar.l~them two

Ie-they aU tal'l-~them

,terlla~by rum tasmai - unto him

tabh.y,am~by them talb:~byth{em

tiibhyii1p~lllnto them , tebhyl]h~~cuntQ them

.~ -

tl1.'bhylin,I.-uo:rn them I teblJyia~~from them

tasya-»- -bis tas.,.n:iu-io him

tayob:-theiit tayotl~in~hem.

,

la'$1naf-' - from Ihim

I-

te~u~in them

Avyaya (indedinables)

These M'I; the <conjoocti.ons., interjeC'~iOllls,. prepositions anda:dvetbs: ca (and), na (not), ma (don~t), va (or), tu I kintu (but), apli (although),. ce.t

l yadi: (1)..- - . . .

"tOO {nnw}. s:atatam (always), sada (always)! yada (when)-tada (then) .

. (J.tr:a. (here), taua (theJe), ya.i1'a' (where), sarvatra (everywbere)" ,fha (here). anra{z (inside). bahi~ (outside),

iva (like). eva I n!f (eertaifilly)!, evam (in this wa,), iti (thus)" puna{i: (.again), yata~: (since~tilta~ (consequently)" y:atlw (a.s)-.tQtM(so:). ..

Chapter Thr:ee Akhyata.~Prahara~am (Conjugat'~on)

This chapter deals with. the conjugation of dJ.~atl~s· (verbal roots}.

Very eomraon dha.t~'s are

vac'~to speak, as~tobe;, vici>ho kaow, bha ·to be, drJ'-paJya-to see" kr-to do,ya4o g01' ap-Io obtain, g.an,l·gaccl1.'-to go, brii"liih~to speak, in,,~lo hear; }(m-ja~o take birth, s'thii-tlftha-4:0 atand, 'lIr~-: -to exist, jiia---to know, iis~to sit. Jum,--to kill, nwrt-to dl.link, pad-to go, i$,-icch-t6 desire, labh-to obrain, bhuJ-to serve, won:lIip, arh_;,to be fit for, ba,ulh:---:.to bind, fljas~O' perish.

The dhatu'S are: conjugated by .applying suffixes In singular, dua], pIma][ and.3rti, 2nd, ,and 181: 'person, To mention the 3rd person (he) first Is part of tae Indian culture,

The d1'tqtu gam~ gacch: (to go) in the present tense:

singular

dual

plural

3td person sa~l gacchaiti

-begoos

2nd person .Wmn g·acchasi

-you gu'

1st person. aham ga'ccha.:mi ·-1 go

t:all gacclulta~l -they two go

YllVQ'mgacdlO;tlul,tl -y011l two go

li;vam ,gaccMveiQ'- .. we 'two go

te gacchanl.i ,-they all go

ynyam g,Clcchatha: -yol!1l aU go

vayam.gGcc.hilmab =-we ell ge

There ,are different suffixes, used to indicate past, present, and future tense, orders,and. blessings, In BJtug,(J'vad-gitatile following fonas of the dhiitu kr (to do, make) appear:

.. karot: (he does): sab lciiie:i.t evana karoti-He: doe,s not do. anything wharsoever. (4.20)

karo'# ()flO'll do) and ktm1~a (you should do): y,adkaro# .tad mad~ arp.alJa11Z ksrusva-« W,hat.ever you do, you should do that as all offering

toMe, (9.27) .

karonl,i (I do): kiffcit elVa fla ka.m.mi-l am doing n-otrung, at ;aJL (5.8) ku,ryat (he rnnst do)anid kurvi:J.nti (they do): }Jatka sak:tiil;l:a:viitl'vijm'Sa/J km7nC:l{li kurvan'ti-As the ignorant men. full of attachments perform 'their work ... tatlt.ti ,a.sa.kta~l' v,idr:a.,1. kuryat-intbe: same wsy the wise' man freefrora attachments should act. (3.25)

akunrattl (t:lley rod): kim akurvaso-« What did they do? (1. 1)

la:zr4Je (I will do): tava vacanam. kari'$ye-I wiU execute YO'U! lnstruetions. (l8.?3}

kuru (you should do): yathti kcl'tasi tama kuru-As YOll wish, so you should do. (1:8,63)

As in English, we can alsoappl y a multitude of prefixes, like

Witt after" along: ar.m-gam-to£oUow (rfipatlug~ "fbrllQiwing RUpa Oosvann)

,aur difficult, bad; aUT-,gam-difficult to go (Dur;ga. the

. _Q,evi of this fortress)

pra indicates completeness or achievement; p.ra-ni·-pat-· _ to surrender completely (4.34)

When UVaIa p~ was sta.yillg for a. few 'inonrbs.-in Navadvipa in the bouse of GopInaltha. .Acarya, Nim.iH. P'af.l4ita (Caitan.ya. Mahipribbu) used to visit him m [be ,evenings to offer.1llin His, respectful obeisances, Once Isvara Pun said, < "'YO!] Me a big scholar .. I have written a book about the characteristics of Lord Kr~~m. I would be D10st satisfied if You wouM tell me of ,any faults ill it" N~mfi] rep~~ed~ "W.rn.oever finds :fault in. a devotee's deecripdon of' .Lc)l:dKr~Qa is 3, sinful person. ., .. " Hearing His reply was like a shower of nectar on the body of lsvara: 1'£n1, He then smiled and said, "Y Dill will not be at fault, but You must ten me if there is any error nn the book.

Thereafter Nima,i would da.iJysit with HVm'",a. Pm for one or two hours 'to discuss his book. Orne day rae Lord smiled and said, "The .rlhlitu of this: seneence is incorrect. The iitmapada (~ certain .group of suffixes) shoald Dol be used here." Isvm-a PrniI was a learned scholar who enjoyed an.a]yzing:sdloIastic topics_ Heconclnded that tbe dhatu

bh· ..~.,1' '. d 't .•... ".1.. .. 1;'. .'. tl •• 1· ',.' ... L- .. ' ada

was u· .. 'ayapuaa,. an __ 1· was tnererore no .w:awl ill. asmg tl.le atmap __ .

form .. When the Lord, heard his 'exphmation.!:lie was, most !iatisfiedwith His servWlt"svictory and He did not find any futtber fauU. (S:r1 CaitlJnya-.bhisavar" Adj 1] .96M1d the, fonowing PIJlt'!-S,)

Chapter Four K,dr:aka-.prlahara~!am (Cases)

In Sanskrit grammar; the verb (dha,l£j), expressing action, is taken [0 be the ,f!;ss,enrial cor-e of a sentence, and the 1¥'QN.laS are put into different cases to show theirpa:nicuJar relationship to thedhiitu.These relationsh]p:s are called ,k{Jnakas,;, namely the relations 'Of subject (karU'i), objocit (kannQ)! instruraent (kara~~a)! recipient (sampnruliina), source (apiida,na) and. location (adJ~ihrr(J,;ul).

Sn ,RagbuH,andaI!lWl GosvanlI :iiJJuskated the ,cigb[ grarnmatical cases

. hi hk G" ",,' ,,~p .,_'::<':', .. 1' b ,-,,' 'h, ,,' ne of 'L .,I, G,"

In __ 18'00__ '", 'auriinga y rr:l~va '1 _ Y IlSi1'lg tnename 0. Ofu ,a1Jl,il,.

whicb is decliaed like kr~1)!a,

gaura}:1 ;$ac~ca;ritiimrtiimrt;a,,-nidJ~ir' gaunlJ1I.sadaivu s,tlFlVe ga,ure~ta: p'm#li.taih rahttSya-b.hajanath g.a!U~a}'a sarvati: dade gCHwad ,as,t.i krpiiiu.r atra. ,l;Zil p.arD ga~l.rasya, .hhttyo 'bh'tNCl'J11

gaurtt gauravam lica:raml.blta.gavalt gaum, IJl(;ubl'lo raR-?a mWll'

1. {Jr.Cl.thama (nomiaatlve, subject)

gdura~ sac-cari.tiimrtij1ftrta-lIi,dhi~Lor-d Gaura is the ocean of nectar cf transcendensal nectar-pastimes,

2. dl'itfya (accusative, direct object)

gauria·m sadaiva .stuvcT-I alwayspraise Gaura,

Je. :t{tiyet (instrumeatal, mstrument) "by with"

ga.ureva prathita#l raJulsya:.lihajanlltU-The mOISt se.'Cretform of worshipwas established by Gaura,

4. catul'tb:r (dative, recipient) "to, unto"

ga!.uriiya .sa.rvmh dade-I offer everything to GaUra.

Catw..rthr ns! also 111.&00 for offen.ng respects: nam.(J OlU iVi::ji1.ltl-pt,laa:ya krSlW.,-predhiilJil" kl'snay.:a. vasadeva:'l'Ml (SB:. 1. S.2 P

!I- ~ I • '_ !! 'I ;;. Ii iI· I! _ 'J- '. J

S. paflcamf (ablative, source) "from '\ also for comparison ,

ga;uriid asti krpii.lur atTa 11.,a p'ara~l-There is no one more merciful in this world than G!ura, Here it is used for comparison ("more than"), t.!~Ujd ap.i' Slllllcepa-by feeli ng lower than grass ...

saflgiJt .wJl1jiiyate kanulb-from attachment develops desire (2;62).

,6. Qa~~~lf (geniti vel relation) "of'



gaurasya bhrtyo 'bhavam-I became the servant of Gaura,

7. saptamt (locative •. time and place) "in, at"

gaure gaufavam ikariimi-I act in reverence centered on Gaura, sambllavami yuge' y.uge-- I appear in every millenium (4.8).

Also "in case of" or "when": yadii sattve pravrddhe-when. there is, development of sattva-gurJtl (14.14),

8. l'ambodhmzlZ (vocative, address) "oh!"

bhagavan gaura pru·bho ruks« mam-O Bhagavan, 0 Gaura, 0 Prabhul Please protect me I

'~ ar1fll1ya-c,etiil.l saratalh yo maJh smarati tlitya.sa~l tasy.dhath sulabha~i partha llitya~yuktasya yoginab (8.14) When sandhis are removed this verse reaps:

cmany,a-celab sataiam ya{z mam smarati nitya.iall

tasya .. a/tam sulahha~!: partha nitya-yuktasya yoginal)

As ,lli. s'ansm.t seatence it will read :like this:

p'art]ui~, ya~~ atUlnya-cetiib mam sara/am ni,tyasab smarati, tasya llitya-yuktasya y:o;gi,na.b aham sl,labhab.

The words can be analyzed as follows:

pitrtha (sambodhana)-O P'iirtba., SOD of PItbs! yaIJ. (Krf1)ananw; prathttmti)-·one who

(mallya-cetiJ~l fprathama~one whose mind is not diverted mlJm (Kr~.IJ.',(Jnama, dvi.trya)- Me

,s.atatam~ nity.asal.l (A vyayas)-always,contandy

smarati (dhiitl1., 3:rd persOn)-reI11e.I1i1l:bers

tasya nitya-yuktasya yogh~.Ja$,thr,-of tb,a.t yo;gl constantly engaged ,a~Ulm. (Kr~~lanjjma" prathamii}-I

,;'1uiab:lwb (prathama)-e,asUy accessible.

Translation;

O Pinha, one who always remembers Me with, undi verted mind, for such a constantly engaged yogI [am easj]y' accessible .

• 111'afll ca yo 'vyablticii,~e,l,Ul blzakli-yogena, .fevate

sa gm:Ul,t samatTryaitiln b'rahma-b:ll:iiyiiya lealp'ate (14.26) Without. sandhl:

"Jail" ell yab; avyabl:tic:a:re~la bhakti,- yog,ena sevate salJg#~ I,iin :~amatrtyaetan br;alur~,-bh u)lay.a kalp.ate

As a sentence;

(ca) yah: mam avy:ab,hicar:e~w bhakr,i-yog,ena ,sevaM. ,sa1.1 etiin8u~liin saJ71ufltya .bra}mul-bhfty:ayo kal'pute" yab (Kr:Y/Ja1:lluna. prathaluii)~one who

l1:tii.rri {K!~~umama~ dV';lly,a)~Me

avyab~!:i'clire~1a bbakti-)Iogena (trtryli)-by undeviated bIUJ:kti-yoga

. .

sf!N:ale (dhatu! 3rd. person)-senl',es

sat"" (j{r.~tJ.:'mamal pn:ztha:mli)~he

le,tan 8Nl9-iln (dvitfyli pluml)-these material modes s'm"atrtya~transcending

vrahmtl;-bhnyaya, (catun/1'l)-for the spiritua] platform k~lpate (dha.tuj 3rd p,erson)-is fit,

Translation:

(And) one who serves Me with undevieted bhakti-yoga, he, transcending these gl4't.las becomes fit fOI br;ahma-bhfty,a.

,Ch:ap'teT Five Krdanta-P'ra.karllQt1.m Wrimary den vatives)

~r:d{mta suffixes are added to dhijt~s to make namas. Originally all Mmas are. derived from dlliitlJS, but they may also a.cquirea. cnn'ven:tiona:Jrneaning different from their etymological de.ri,vatioTJ. An example in 'this regard is the word k:r~'.Ja.. The conveationa] mem:ing ""Kr~IJ:a, the 'Son of 'mother Vad'iodiir' has pnariity, although the word is derived from the dhiitu. kr~ (to attract) and rherefcre vsemetimes etymologimul yanaly.2Jed us 1!'aJl-,a.:nracti ve'"'.

JIi. .Iata (gone)

The flrst type of suffix is caUed. V:i~tll'£mi~#~ti: and :isllised to make, participles.

gam-dhalu (to go) + [k )a-suffix~ gala (that wbich is gone to or reached), This translatEo!]. gives thepassive sense but gata can also have me active sense (gone) .

.. hila (to be, to beeornej-« bhii.ta ("wbo bas 'beellt'-a gb.ost; or'!wm:ch became;'-the elements likeearth, water, fv'ej.

jata (born), iila, (conquered), hata (~iUed). n~ta (perished), )'ukta. (connooted, engaged), s.thita (silJuat:ed)"d'!fta (seen), ukta (said), k.rta. ((to.ne). lahdJ.w(obtain.ed)l mukta (freed), tr~€ta (satisfied)

2. k:u;1avya (to be done)

The VIt~ukrtya suffixes (tavya, ,unIYQ, ya) are, used to point out duly. k.r-+ .wrtavya: (3.22) I kcrra,:fiya I IWrya (3 .. 19j (mey have the same: m.ean]ng-tha.t which is to' be done" wmch CUll. be done),

.. aya'ln. acche.dya.1J. adahya.~l akledyab ,aso~ya~.~ Thls soul rs unbre,akable1, insoluble, not to' be burned or dried, (2.24)

k1r.tlu~fya sadiJ ht.tri'l}-, -Lord Hart is to be glorified incessently ..

See boddhavya. (4 . .11) and vtdYQ (9.J1).

3,., paSyaD (while seeing)

AcynUfbha suffixesnre used to describe a simultaneous action: "'whHe

_':~I, 'J~"

., .. illg

drs-paJya + {ija,tfrh} paJyat- palya.t~ (while seeing).

~ I)'Qsyafi Jr~n):(J/i sprsali jighr:an. .. na eva ki.iicit kar:om"i Ui-' Althougb being engaged in (whine) seeing, hearing" teuebing, smellmg .. ," one should think, "'1 am acrually not doing anything. " (5.,8-9)

vi,yfdanidam abravft-W:Mle lam,eRuing be said this., (1.21)

19m ity e:kiilujaT'Q1;:I~ brahma v},iiJUlmrl ",lJjcllJ11 anJIS:lOOraJ'l

yab pmylJ.t1 ty:aia;n,dehari:1 sa yiiti p.a.ra.ma,i.l gat/m yyiinar.m'l-(while) vib.rating", amISlnCUtm-ll":emembenng, tyajan~ quitting.

"He who departs: (pmyiiti), Ieeving 'this body while vibrating the sacred syllable ern and wlille remembe~gMfij goes to the supreme des tinatl(m. ".' (8"13)

,4. tyaktva (aft:er givin.g up)

Other suffixes like fk}tvJ' indicatea preceding- .action:: "after ... -ing" tyakwii dehmh puna» Jaml~a naiti~Afler giving "Up the body there is no more 'b.i,rth (f()f those who understaad thetranacendeetalnatnre of the Lord). .. (4.9)

~ jiiiitv,ij; llw,ii,l, flin.r'i:lfl .!iCciulti- -A:Eterlim.owing: Me,. he attains peace .. (5.29)

y:ad g'(ltvii. na nirv:artCJ.1l1e~After goin.g there, they do, not retnm. (].5.6)1 See hatvfi (1.31) and :slhir:v,(l (2.72).

s. v,editum. (ItO understand)

The suffix tum[uJrm!ik.es the infinitive. ved.i:r:uTI' ,icchiimi~lw:a:nt to understand. (13" 1)

.. na warn socit:u}n arhasi-- Youshould not lament (you do-not deserve to lamen"t). (2 .. 25-27)

See I, 1 .. :54 and tyaktum (l8. ] 1).

6.ltog;tSlba (situated im yoga)

There is 11 group of .1qdanta'S, we can call krl~sama:s.a" whichare used only in a compound with a preeeeding noun. hi the following eaample you will see the noun foUow,ed by the verb, slightly modified in some cases by the inflaence of the suffix ..

y.oga (noun) + s.tha. (tbe verb modified by a k!,da'l.m suffixj-« yogas.th(J _' ~eino' situ at ed . '1'0 sos . [do , your' work] ('2, .4·'8')

.0, __ ~ .• __ __ _ . ago '. .. . ... "''',' .. ' .

.,. ~kilra {m~er)_" aJusrlkara {almm.-karaj-tbe ego-maker, a. subtle material element wllich creates our sense of iden.tit)' with tbe material body.

-via (knower) ....... vedavid.-lhe knower ofthe Vedas.

-krt :(perfonner)~ kalyi.iQaJqt-"O!E1e wbo acts for [he .good ofothers,

-ga (g:oing}--" ,san'a.t:rag(j~one who ean go everywhere; the soul,

,:ja (bQm)~dvija-one whosook a second birth by initiation,

Chapter Six Samasa-Prakara~am (Compound words)

This chapter deals with samCisalf (compound words). WeJrave groupedthem into four categories.

111. r,ama-krsna .(, Ramaand Ktrsna) •

., ... ., . " '. '.

riima~krffJll raeaos riim.aJ ea kr~~wica and is caned. a dVaJldva (pair), The two words have the same value.

ak~ara(tat_ll a-kiito 'smi aVUtldvaJ,l ,siimasi1!:a-sy.a ea-Of I,etters 'r am '~b~ !euera,. of compou.l1Ids the dvat:ldva-sa,:oo~'a. ([0.33)

.. ;gauro.- govinda-Gaura and Govinda ... 1iaga~dve.$a-atmchmeNt 'and aversion.

2.. syima~rama (the dark Rima.)

Syi.1Jnt!.-rii1Jm means iyijma~1 raTtw(l (Lord Ramaeandra), This iscalled karma-dhiJraya-samli,sa ... An adjective is qualifymg a noun,

t- sundara- goplil(];~. . beautiful Gopala, suddh:a-bhcaktl-pure bhakti siddha·-pf{ru~a-a. perfected person,

Pftill.nooJ'Q (pn~tl,mb();ra: p.ftam a'nba.rUln~y:enow garments, Samasas have to be understood in context. .Pitiimba.ra may also fall into the next category.

l. pifam.bara (he who has yellow ganuenta)

P"itiimbara, when taken as b«hu-vfihi-samiba. itt means pitasn ambaram yasY4 sab (Lord K!'9I)a) ..

~ ma.hil-hal'lU~·he who has mi.ghryarms.

4 ... kr~a~bhalda (Kn~a's bhakta)

IqgUJ-bhakta means kNtl£1Syt~ blmk.ta;~2" a fatpuru$(l-smniiso. .

• ,. harlfliimamrta (f.arinjjma.-a~.ntta )-the amrta of I'l.a.r;iniirnp, atlh)'a-li~pasana""""",wO'Iship of the acarya (]3.8).

By pronunciasion one cancorapletely invert the dl'ec;t of mantras ..

Once Tva~ta intended to create some, demon who would feel great :~enmity tow:ards Indra, and who would be able to kin him, Offerirlg oblations in the sacrificial fire, be spoke the words, indra·§atro vifJardhaslJt1.. His intention was to say "0 enemy of Indra (iJul.rmtya sazn«; tar-purusa-samasa}, flourish!' As a l"esuDt,. the gigantic demon 'Yrrrasura appeared, who was supposed to fed .great enmity towards Jlldra.,. From the puiport to SB. 6.9~H. we understand that Tva~ta had unfortunately mispronounced the word indr.a'=satruas behu."vflh.:i-

-::- : .. .' . . .

samasa (see' 3 .. above): indraJ.l~atrub yas,ya sab-he 'iN bose enemy is

Indra,

A.Saintly person. is called ajiita-·xat,.-u,. or one who has :1110 enemy-at: least from his side .. Ajlita~sa.trava?1 santit~i:sadMvatl sadhu"bh·~'"i$a{Jiil;. Still, sometimes he gets, enemies. In Sanskrit one can express this important point "Indra, the enemy of'Vrkasnn" mean$, that Indra f'e:lt great e;nrnity towards. Vrtr,asura who was a: siidhu.

3J.

Chapter Seven Taadhita~Prak,aranam, (Derivative words)

1. buddhima.t (possessing intelligence)

TudJ/1.ira suffixes, are added to l1i;rnus to make derivati ve- words (new nw'nas), The first example is the suffix' mat, indicating possession, Afler words endiing in -ttl trw! becomes vat.

buddfti-.rtUltand b.haga-vat (possessing opulences), These words are declined to bucidhimiin (15.20) and bhagaviilil. respectively.

~. hanu-met-« .1u:m,l,u:I,Ii!itIl-having a (good) jaw.

See, sradd}~avi1n (4.39) j jii.iirruviin. (7.19), vibht1tinmt (10 .. 4]) .

. 2.. samatva (-equanimity)

The suffixes tva and. fa are. used for abstraction. Sar-rla (equal) + tva:=-4 s:.ama-tvaru yoga .ucyat.e-EquanimHy I[toward,s success or failurle:in the. performance ofone's duty] is called yoga. (2AS) S.am(l-fa_(lO .. 5) .. ,

~ $a:ttvq.:: stlC/-bhltve sadhu-bhiJ.ve ca sad ity etat prayujyate-The word sa: is used in the sease of existence (sat-tva) and in the sense of

go~xb;es$ {~i1dJtu-tv(l,). (17.26) ..

V.ai~'VClvatva or vm:'HlalJa:ta (file quality of being a V a.i~J}avll).

3. gub.yarUtma. (most secret)

The suffixes . .ta,ra.and 'lama make comparative and superlari ve words. guhya-thesecret ( knowledge that aha,n brahrn.iismi>. brahma-bhuta-~ am spirit soul).

guh.ya-Ia.r:a-kno'wledge which is more, secret (knowled.ge of por;alrliltmii as different from atma, ]8.63).,

guhy.iJ~tama-tbe most secret knowledge (riija-guhya." i.e, bhakti, 9 .. 1, 18.64)..

~. priya.-tara~-Ofle who is-more-dear,

priyakrt-tamal;l-the greatest amongst those who act pleasingly (18.69).

4.maiJ.galamaya (auspicious)

We apphy suffixes like maya (made of, full of) or mutrtJ (much. just dti;s much),

~. f11Q.n~f1il.aya, u~am upij.s,rtal}-beiog fuUy absorbed in Mc aod taking refuge ill Me {4. 1 0).,

nb:lt;ittl1-.mat1:a.~tl bhava~. -become just~ aninstrumeat ( U 33). See him~'-maya (made 'Of gold) and sraddhiimaya (11.3) ..

S;.mattat;. (other than me)

The suffix -tas which becomes -ta~? is an equlvalent for paficaml rfirom~l; "more than")

.matta~i paratamm. na atrya.t-· There is nothmg superior to Me. (7.7)

~ .bhuviipyayau t\1a~.t.att s.r:u.ta~appe-arenceanp disappearence have been heard from You (11.2).

By this pr-ooe.ss some. adverbs are formed: kutQ('l~from where. yat~ yaJab-,from wherever, ,lat(J~l tatab-fr(lm there (6.26) ..

6. gopi (cowherd woman)

With the suffixes ,a[p} and 'lIP] we form the feminine gender from meseuline words: gOfa (cowherd man)____,.. gopf.

, kfflJ'l (Lord Kf~lJa)~ kr~~fij (a name of Draupadf), kumlira (a small bOY)---4 kumarr (.a. small gjd), 'i!:ai~:~wv;a (~ devotee)~lIil;'f(tUlV~, sad/Ul. (3 sa:int)~ slidltv;L

7. .kaunteya (the 'son of Klint!)

Otll.er suffixes cause certain ttansf:uITl1ations inside the word; they ex,prcs,s rrelatk:lfI,ships .

.. bha:salVCJt (til!?; Lordj-» bJ1agavata (anything related to the Lord, like His activities Bnd devotees).

nara (the Lordj-» nartl-somethmgin .relarien to tm.e Lord, fike the kara~,za,.udaka (causal ocean), emaneriag from Maba~Vi"~f.lUl on. which He Jaysdown (ay:ulI:a)., Therefore His t1IIRne .Naraya,a. (.oo;ra~ay(J,FJa).

kumlira. (a chiJd)~ kaUNJara (cl'J:ildhoodJ. TJ!i¥~lu-vaiJ'twv:a. vyiis:a;---? vaya-saJi (Sl1kad_;eva OQiSiViimI, the son of Vyiliisadev3), ja:hnu-4, j-ahtlav'i rGan.gIL the adO{Jl~od daughter of Kin!!: ]ah.nu),.

Readin,gDevanagaYi

An entn.lJ.I;slastic student can memorize the. DevRlli,gaJi letters wiJllin throe" to seven days, but. to become proficient in reading, practice is needed,

The Devanagan alphabet:

'31' a
~ .i
'C!' e
...
th
C6 ka
~ Ctl
c: fa
a ta
It pa
;q- ya
~ "
sa o;uT' \J11 a

~ t i! ,ail

3rt '3iu ~f

3it 0 3it ,au

~=l§t k: .h;<> ~."

.,.-1 gao

~ cha ':Sf Jl1. Q rna '6 (iia

e:r tlw <:( do

tfi' pha 'at ba

"~ gha ~ na
~, .
~ j/w '5J iia
'G' €iha UT' ~,a
q dha ;=r ua
1l bha 11 ,,,ra Some rules:

1. Since a consonant needs a vowel for pronunciation, "a," is always

Inherent: "Cf) means "ka ",'l,Q' "flw",.

3. Wlhcn :lll~ ,C,OJ)s'omlIM is :fo,II!0\~W2d! by '\',o,\:\'els other dHU~ II1a"";, they are wriu¢n: as foU()ws,:

q;J'ku.tai;",kl, c6tkf ¥ k,"', ?i?' kli" '~ kr, ~'kf. ~'ke. 86, kai; em· ko", c@ ka«;

() ru amli'~ ril are e~ceptiolils.

4. \\llIten two ¢'onSOlnJl'!I!~arl'ie ito, :be '\iVrinenl 'I'OSedler ('\y~il:boillr :lfl:C:: ,Q be:nv,ecl ~h:cnll) 'uhey 3J$ oombined, inre ~igaUJres C:'ithcr b}':

dropp,ing the '\!'e,l1ical ~lle or t'he fh'Sllencr (tI_ 'of- (=i' -,> 'C(?f'p"ta).

shoI1,ening the fi,&[ Ieuer {Cf?' + 11-> Cflili ,lwl(J)~

or ,pu'Uing :~be firston ItOI' (~,,,, Cf)....,.'~ llka).

5. R,:a aner another 'conS:OlUUU ii:s \m'lten as a, sm.dl: stroke > ('9& *"a)" Special cOl1lbinatio,nl$ ar:o: ;fua, "'3{ dra' (as 'in ~sr1) ~ Il.r(l. ~'!Ta.

Ra before ,anod:ter consonant becomes ,3 hoo,k on top' ()( th.al I,enel (c6 rk«; Cbr r.kiJ', 31efanbll).,

6. Odler Uga~.ures,: ~ ktra~ M=,kJ:u~" W', !l~'«~ 'if sn«; tCil/"(l,1 )!(51 mla'. :{i311a;'C:'i: tllla.'f~, sna, '{!f sra, ~ .flrat ',5;. nka.~· liklltl; .sf lig:o" 'l!{' ,ngra, 'if Ilglla, :g 1;'kla. it li'lI:.sa~:§I· ~ca. §J (;;ia'~ ,Sfijrl, ~ nca 31" ;;ja'. ~' fla" ~ Iva. :if' (lgo .• 'f ~l<JQ. a (IV(:I'" 'Sf (J,'g{l, lj ,dgra. '~,(lgluz" s: ada,; '~ ddlla, 'g aba. :;sf dbJ,;()" IG:f dma. if ,dY(/,'1 ''9.aVQ"

'TC..Cf dhva, :5' sea, ~ Jla.%T' .tva" l! sta; "§ ~,p:a.'8' $flw" ~ hr, 'l; hna, ~ hna, 1Q hma, 'ftJ, hya, '~ hla,,~ hva.

One has ro be careful to distinguish between ~' sva, ~ kha. and '!Cf rava.

8. The. apostrophe is written s: ; and the end of asentenee is indicated by a "vertical line "-

The numerals are written as follows:

'~ =< ~ '6' .~ t; \9 G '~ a
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 '9 a They were adopted by foreignera-aad are known as ,. Arabian".

Now try to read the Devanagari and. then see the transliteration to. check: how you did.

~ffi=i1 'sfFot"t ~~ ~ ~'lilli ~qi4 Jm

~eu ';afH""fI(qF~ ~('H1ii ;:r ~ II ~·~'III'

dehlno } smin yatlm: dehe kaumaram yau1van(.lfu jara tatha dehantar.a-prap.t.i'r ,dhlras tatra na mukyatl (2.13)

~ de-m f~i-;ft no-sffJ:t~ fsmin-~ ya-~ thii-~ cle~ he-~ ka,u--'l11 fItii;-. i rmn m yau~qva-;:f narn:-'31 ja,--U ra-'-a ta-2TI thii-~ de-{H: JUi__:::;q- nta-~ ra~tn pra~ ~lir-"q)' dh.r_;"( farffi' sta-'~ tra__i=f na~ mu-- 'if hya-Rl' ti

lIAs the embodied soul continuouslypasses, inthis body, from boyhood to youth to. old age, the 'Soul similarly passes iDto another body at death. A sober person is not bewildered by such a change. ,.

Continue with 2.14-30 in your BhQJ!Qvad-J!lltl As h b.

P,art'Two Conversation

E,tique'tte si~!ijCiirab-cultu:i1I:~d bellav ier

uam:as te.'zamaskartl~-I offer my respect to you .

.. IU.llllab JI(Jma~l te asts« sahasr~krtvat~. pnnltt1 ell hhuya.t2, api namat~ IWfllnb te-J offer my :re:spec:tfu,1 oeelsances unrc You a thousand limes, andagain and yet a,gain.! I( II ,.39)

'~I~'c"Y~I~

~ :t., ~ -?t 1."1lllrilj

Jrfn~a,,,~Mr. or Sir! srlmati-:Mirs,or Madarnl but: Iru'l11in ,ga~Jadhrlra·! Jrlrnatl hha.iti-devf.t

fq~q'IIe:III: ,~. ~H:i I

pitrpiidill}. Itru,har~1 sQl~"i?-' How is father?

After the name ,or titi,e-plida can be addedto show respect: J,r7"~a.'}i muku,rul;a-pii4alJ,. And even more by adding ~piida~l (plura!).

1:{r:. JOu~tG;q .. :

-, . " '.

bhoJ.!" mahaaaya(f--two fonas of respectful address. '~II

8t~prabJUitQl;i!L--Goodlnorning.

~:I J~lbka=ratri~.-Good night, a:iRiidl't ~

q,auwaUJI:tfI..-Ex,cllsle me.

-Ri·;fU 'rtllftl I,

cintiJ mastu..-DO.ll't worry. (dnta ma asClI-· anxiety shall .110t be)

ii4ViI

krpaya-· please (by ymJlf mercy I compassion) ~ ~qql 'Cfi:, ~l i

srfmcutl.; krpayii ka/.r stJJlUl)'ab.-· Sir! Please.whet ti.me .~s if? rq;;:::qql((t I

dhan.yaViichll.-Thant: you ..

m~mq'il

sudh:u slidhu~-Ve,ry good. (good. good) fCi I J',I'ij '"'l I

sJlogatanz.-.We1eome.

3;Ld~~Ft1, I

upavi-scurt.u.-PJease sit down,

~' ~ '~r~I(1Jt II~

kith san'am ltulalam 1'-18 everytbing, fine? 12f ~I"\ H:~ill'!f: ~

mahan santo:~ab.-l am very happy. (great satisfaction)

~ tlt-: I.

ti§'/haJu bho".~Ptease stay.

~ :~tLI·d~ en I

as-man 'Vismarat,i-:va ?-8ave yO!] forgotten us?

~I'

nai,Vd.-· Never. fnA eva-certmnly not) 3l1;:j1~c;q qr:1

li,gtlllta;vyath bhQI}.-Ple:ase come fplease visirns]. 31TJ1."a§I.~ 'tU! I:

agacchiimi bhoJ:r..~,I come [soon].

T1.:~IIi: I

purwJ) milamab.-· See you again. ,~II

38

Introducing Som,ebody paricaya~I-. acquaintance

mase, ~ bhavan

fern. ..~ bhavaJ:r

:q."I ~ Ttil]l~.I€r: '[11

mama: :nQUia kr.f1:~a-dQi'l·,a~.-'My name is K_r~Qa Dasa .. ~:;nq·~.1

b:·l-n;"at-·'i ;-'ri:;-~fl J·'·~·-t?:_· WI,.a.t,it!' "rOiU:r T!i~lnI!I",'?' (masc 'I . I""" .va(_ ,'_IfHA- 1'.1.-1_, _. n __ "'" .,1- __ n~uJt ..... " '. __ - .• ,

'"t6iif'tR; "'1111 .~ I

bllavatyi:l/;J.. nanla kim ?-What is. your name? (fem.)

~ 'iitl{1Cb 19'Cidt ~ fCb·l(1

he ,balak:a, bAullo!at~ nama kirR ?~O boy, w:bat is YOUT name"? ~: ~&:n'11

- - --UI - "II '1 ~ , I 'I"'~["'.~,

bhavat.ab Jubha-',Ilu,~a kim. ?-' Wh.at is your good name:?

2. WhO' are you?'

Ll-' .'-. '-"h. 'Wh' .. -- .,'_-. '''}('-c,---) wwvan; fiG.,. - .' 0 are you .. rnase.

~

, ;;r=r' I

t~, _

b.kavatF kii?-Who-ar,e you? (fem.)

~' ~/l~al~,;fll

alUtm, vi:dyarthJ I v.idyarthi.n'f.~I am a (mmelfemale) student.

Aljuoa was asking Kr~1);a the very same que':sdQ:n::

~, illthya1d me, bhaviin kal;l.-Please ten me" who are Yon. (I 1.31) .frl'-bhagavan uvoca. (ahuIh) loka-~ayakrt kii'!nJJ. asmi: The:

Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Time] ,21,111; the destroyer of the worlds. (I 1.32)

Now yoa can .rormsorne answers by choosing words from the following Jist: bhaviin kafJ?~h(Jm.,. .

.. ... ,Mfcfidiifi',:, cikitsa:ka:b-dooto.f

~! lI'airiy. ah-av,n.rvedic doctor

.• IJ,"

m~: :~I,f8JI2hl iikyakal), sik~i"a-- (mmelfemale J teeeher 3tGl;en=i'~':;zf1~: a.rjentrnt}";deSiyG.'.(~-Argentinial]

~: ~:: v.rddhai,! comb-old. thief

~ ~r~: st/~ula~t 8rllasth;a~t-fat houshoIder qi::;'8I,! ~: krl;all bhpya{t-skinn.y setvant

Cflliiii{: 'f@iq:I(J' IIifHfl4)l vii.manall kumiira{'1: I balakal.l-sbort DOY 3iHd,1~lil(1/iillk1:i61 Zirmatal) kUf1~arr lbalika-tall "girl ~itR:ij):I~,~H~:, ~~i'Cb,~ amerika-desfyab YiHrikab-American trBlveLer

;q§;';j?{'~{: '1. I nfl;;q !( 13i1t.liR: bahu-.§u'fcdarai]. b.haratfyal~ raja~ k~~1nliT,a.b~yerybeiitutiful In.dian prince

3ftzraJ: tldhJa.qaf~""""supervisiQr" presidenr

aharh karta-· , ] am the doer. (l.27)

aham flvara!l ... q/f,(Jln bfw'gt ahatn ,siddhali .• balaval1~ sulhi~~l run t~e ecntroller .. I am the enjoyer, I am perfect; powerful 3t;ld happy, 06.]4)'

8: S,a~I,--JU~ ar sa,-sne'

fem.

n. :;:::E:'" I " ... '...,-1·'

St,lt~ k~1! ?-W'ho is he'? m Q5T I

sa kii?-Who is she? 8: 1iiSUJ:q,'1i:: qr I

sab .kr~1)acamirah va ?-.. . Is he (that) 'Kn~acandraj' 3W{R:WiSOI''q~: ,I

auz,sab, kr~.~~acW1tiT:alj. -Yes'lbe (that) is,K.r~Jiliacamllra.

~ (iij~llq:: q( I

h~an r-ag·hu'n;{itkab,l'a?-, Are you Raighunlth:a? 3fP{_.$' ~"9i;;ll'tT: JI

am. ,aha,iL wagb.un,a'hab.- Vies", 1 mnRa:,ghu:nith:a. '.p~uft a(fOIdl qr I'

bhavati sarosvoti \I,a?-~· Are you Sarasvati? :'1, 3Rt~"e:]"14"1

na, (lOOm: saoowndI.-N 0, I am Sad1inandI.

41.

rnase.

~ tllsya-his ~ kasya--WhDse

?rflii: taJya~l'---he,rGfi64II:: ka-syiib- whose

;;::n:::JT" . ~-. . ta~", a-it,~ ~. ,rr___",' - '-w' "If ase

'<"1,"'1 -~:J-- -'" '"it1~ ~JYa ,IL __

fern.

~'ouq~1

,tasya lliin!t1 ki:m ?-' -What is his mune?

~:;:rr:r ~ I

~~ ~,?t,Fq ~ ~II

da.§aratJuuya plltr:asyu. fliimakim"?~What is the name of DaS:aratha''S sotJi?

&~Rqfl{~7t@1'4,II-:q ~~ I

dajara:tJ~asya. p,u'(rasya nlillW Tanuz~;l.- The flame of Dasaratha's son is Rama.

R.. er-n,

~fq'ElIMqfq :;nq 1'"1"1"\ il

tusya vidyiilayasya n-anm kim ?-- Wha,[ is the name ofthat school, Uf<I:~. ';:rp:f' ,fcfi,{ I

tasyai}. mNJyjj~lnijmtJkim ?-' -What is the name of mat rivet .

.. ~t!:T:qaTfij vr~ab vrl4,Clsya-tree, of a. tree. '9;,tttli{_ "~fq pll§p-am pU$pasya-tlower, of a flower,

tv:atn usya lokasya pit-a.-¥ou are the fatller offbis. worM. (11 .. 43) a-ham t.lm-rt~a, br:ahma~lab p.ratiftha.~I am. the basis of the immortal Brahman. (14.27)

i(1~ !cifiC1 11 t<I, 1O:<F4 M;xr. I

tasya kalamasya mftlymh kim ?-' What is, the price of that pen? df!1 Cfiii'1'1fll1l1{,""liq~ !~tc;qihlfDl ~

tasya: kal'a'1UlSY(J~ t:n'utytJrll parka rupyakii~:i.-The price of 'that pen is five Rupees.

.' '-::mn,- ....-r,., '~ ID .....-r, L11 - doh ~ ell\;.' f- h '.

""'no;;1- .... ,' "-'1o;;r ........ , ll$Utl.::~, '" a,.sanasya-c)}I.&1I...r, o· a. c. a«.

Cfj!C!: q;;,C!lf'q1 katal;. kafas;ya-s.tr3wmat. of a strawmat,

5 Wk' 'ose ---, - , .• it: ..... '1' _. '. , __ .• nmne IS ~na.

~ -;:nq' ~;~~""I,: I

kasya uiima l..ia.nab?~Whoset name is Isana? ~ ';:u:q ~~111: I

tlUlT/it] nanw 'iia.nah.-Myname is ]:Sana. qr~': ~ ,el~;ftl

(i,.What is tbat1

- ~. - .. - - .

~~.Ii

tad btn:J:-\Vbat is tbat?

~tt,~Cfi''t I

tad pus.takam.--Th,at ·js: a book.

It 1:F-iIli.patl1am-B.eaf; page 'j1Sitft{ pu .. ')pam-tlower lfii?tl{ ~ phalam-fruit ~ tiIi/am-oil

q,'rtCbl'f.. phefUfkatn~-soap ~. 8'rhunl-honse ~ii,\ citrarn-picture C1ti4:"'l vGst'ram-garment 3'6Cb'{_ uruka.m-pant 9'di6'{ yu4ZKa,m.-s.birt

~l(l'{iI{ sarftam-body '1j'''!S''l "1Ul.kllam:~rnouth ~ .'letTam-eye

3cal{ udaranl~beHy qlrfj:t~ vahanam~'vehide ~F11;q HP''(_ rela- yii.nam-trnin 611 Cf) "4 ~~,'"( loka:~yanam-bus ~fu~,;:;p::[_ gh.a/i'- ya.;ltr(Jmwatch

(These areall neuter words)

kim tad brahma ?-What :is that Brahman'? (8.])

brahma para-mum a~(lfialll.-Brahman is, transcendental and iadestraeiible. (8.3)

kim karma, kimakarma.-What is action and what is inaction? (4.1~)

7 Who..?

• 0 'ere.

tw: ~ ~ II

fs-v:ara/:t kutra asti ?~\Vb.ere is' the Lord?

., ~ iha~her,e (in this place. world.Iife) 3ff atra~-here, ~, tatra-there

~ anyatro-« elsewhere

~o sarvatra-everywbere

}'a(1, mam S,Qn'ot;ra pa§yazl., sarvam mayi. pasyati CCl~ tasyaa./w,riJ na pf:at)Q~}'am.il sal! ell me na p,.a~".asyati.-For one who sees Me everywhere and sees, everything in Me,. I am never lost. nor is, be,

, Umjiia11;eI'UJ. sadrsaJ1t pa:vitra";lna vid}l{1te.-In this world, there is nothing so sublime ami p:ur,e astranscendental knowledge. (4.38)

atra y,l1;dh.imahe~vasa~~, iil.r:(jt~-He:re in this army t.here are many heroic bowmen, (1.4)

},atr:a J1o;ge§~la.rab kf~~'l:atl, yatra clha:rutn:l1'larat, piirthaQ. tarre srfb: vijayab· bhu;(:i~~ nJtii'!:. (ycltr:a , .. 'la/ra)-Wherever there is K~·s.lja, fbe master of all mystics, and wherever there is ,A1j.l:ma, the supreme archer, there will also certainly be opulence, victory. extraordinary power. and morality., (18.7'S)

~: 11i~t;<t:U':~'Iit5 ~1:;;jj'lfk1 Ii

,bhalJat-a~l. J bhavatyiib gr1uuh kutriisti.?-Where is your (malel female) house?

For clarity normallyin conversationscmdhi is not done. Of1l.1y vel)' common words are combined: kutrt» asti-« kl,l.iriltti, ka{lltibhab-;o ko labha/.'l-wn,!i't is "!the gain?

qq ~. '~ 3dtl1

mUlnagrhll1./l: bhlimte asti.-My house is tl113h§r;;rd. ~t/''iqflll: ~' ~~'!i1lfEd I

bha:vata~ll bhav:atyii~'l grharh bJ"arate kutrii.'i.ti ?- .. Wherein Bharat is yourhouse?

J:fq ~' ~ 1'!<1 q~~14Pt. 1I rfd II

.Itlmna gr1Wl11 bhll.rate II'UJthl4!riiyal'~l ,(ilsti.-My house in Brbarat is in Mathura.

Vihat 15 He Doing ?

8. Wba.t ts he doing'?'

salJ kil.h karoti?-Vlhat is he doing? What does he do? (The present tense may indicate either of these meansngs.)

a: Fml,ffil

sab n;idriiti..-He is sleeping, l:rq;q: 1lRfT '?jll:=t· qafti I

I:1havataJ.l bhf:at:l1 kutra pathatiP-·WheJre does your' brother stud y?

Ipi" 1:1Tal 31~"if q~1

mama bln'iitli anyatra pathati,.-, My brother studies in another place,

~ 46Rl pathali-' he readsr studies

JliiBikl, gacc:hall-goes ·~J.(tf{1 khadati-eats ' 'Efi'~ kathctyari-. speaks l:HiRl basati=- Isughs 'q1'Ci1~' 'dhilvati-runs "6iMm calati-:n1Qves

'~''t!I kl mcayati-----<:Qmposes J~l9fm nirmati-ooIliStructs,

'3qfCl~lfd upa;vUatt-· sits '3\Ri~:k'r utt~":;Y!haJi-' stands f21M~' mila,ti-', . meets 3ilIIPJ~FcI iitfi\ay,ati-hrmg.s ~;qR1llaytdi-' leads '4~'lItfJ pa.fyati'-· sees '9;,:a&Ri prcc:ha(i~&Bks ~ bhavati-exists f&JqffT k,ripati-throws

kns:eit paSyati, cmyal;t vadati, anya~l "~rl}oti-So.meolle sees, another describes, 'Someone else bears. (2.29)

9. 'What are .)'on doing?

'it11 ~ F* Cf)iI~1 II

blw,vi;in ldrh K(U"Oti ,!-·What are Y'O[!lI doing 7' 31t=We:,c6 ffl;N~~nfif I

ahalfl. ,~I:atakalh Ukhami.-~ arnwritimg a. drama. ~ ~ '5111"ilIM qr il

bholl,iiu lmtlUilll jlinaTl va ?~. Doyou know the story? 31(TI( oaf Cfi'q ::;U=i~fI:t I:

inn,. ahmh ka.thiil;lja,,,a.mL-Yes, I know ,1~e s,tory.

N (lite: bJ)av:Q" killl. kaTot'? Since bhavlin is an honorific prQttPUfl;lite verb is used in the 3:rd.p.ersotJ (kar,o.ti-does) to show special respect NomwaUy we say, kbh !taro.#- (ainas.ii dadiis.i •. tap~y:as.i)-Wha;t are you dointg? (eating!, offerin,g, which a:us~eritie8 are you performing). (9.27)

r.- ,q·8d:Pi pa{hw'Ili-m read I study

'!fi[q,f':I, kltlidaJr,i~' I eat

fq,litli~ pibtil'l'li-l drink ,~8tlf4Jlasa:mi-' I laugh

~C1"I'Pt kJ~eMmi-]play FJ'SllifrLl, lIidra,rtl 1 slee]) .a~.Jr atiUZi ,wiyo:ccuh karomti~I work.

{d~w.?1 tapdl.ni, anaJi:1 va:r~'a,fh rdgthr.zal:ui utsrjami ca._"."f gi ve heat, and ill WllhJlO~d and send furth the raW. (9 .. 19)

]0., Wbe.I1?'

t!f?Cil kcuia-when?'

~. ~ yada~whenl ~ .raJa-then (at Ih,a,t ~]m.e).

yada y:adij d1.wrrutlsya g'lani{l b.hQvatL.ttldii ,aham ,utmiliwm .s,jtimi~.· . 'Wbenever there is .3. decline in religiouspractice ..... , at tl1at

~.<11~ ~T 3ftlMRl I

bJu:wdJ' "(.Uia utti~lhQti:?-Wben do yon get up?

~ ~,ql&=i aRielfq I

aIM.rj~tri.-vlidalU" utt:;~fhij;mL--I getup at three o'clock. ~ ",~ Clic;J Hlri ~€IR1 I

'ot'U(iJ, ,."ctq,!1 '........ _~ .. _ .

. s7te~ bhalVaii kada sndnan« karoti ?-' "SUa, when do. you take bath?

$. %ltlq'i~q 'RFi Ef)~~1

a.haJiI. cat.uT~vlidmu! sniJr"Cilkkaromi.-I take bath at four o'clock.

'-it: iJfq;;flqPJ 'LfQ1c:t;q ifiGT q}>31~ 'fJrE1ftt

bholJ me,dhinJpati~,mahodaya~ kadii bh1Jjanaril lnilati?---IO

MOOthinlpati"at what time is the meal?

...

It( ~II#U q:;>f I

da§;a-viida'1,e.-AF ten o'clock, ~,~ "lfll~li( ~I~~ I

bhavlin.wa mayiipur:mn gacchat~?~· When: do you go to Mayapilcra 1

$ :qI'{lqHl ~r'ii 'f&BJ1M I

aJ2am marc~nlase ma:yapiirQJlI~ gacc.harul e- -l go to Miyapilra 10 March.

3ffl' O'fi: "CfRR:

adya 1mb vasaratr?~ Wh;at d,ay is today?

""

amil9llli&i'61,lfI~~ I

adya sou,a-viisaraI.1 .. -· Tod.a:y is Monday. ~ 'Jcfa-~ ft1Rnq~:1',iUfRI I

<Jdya bhavatab; p'itfnMcJ1a~l, kutriis.ti ?-Wbere jig your grandfatber today?

3W~: mef<U;U411f,_ ~.~ '1

adya .f,a?~: tTrtha:-ylJ;uitylint asti .. -Today he. is on pilgrimage ..

~ ·3fiEfadya~today %1: iva~l-tomorrow qr~: parasva~l-th.e day after tomorrow

~: hya(l~yesterday

1!RlU:: p"i.ral~yal.l-t1!.e day befcre yesterday

'~'GI;fl!"l idimr'I,~--n.ow

8111 1iI1cilif?I(,:: soma- vasaral,1.- Monday .q&Jllcl,et'lfi<: 11lai~,oala-vasaT:"all-- Ttl esdav

""!rw.. ~ ~ "J'

i<t(cU~(: (?Juldha· va~ar~I.-· W ednesday 1,6 atilHl~: gurN~vasar:alJ-Thursday ::Ui.fJ!EtI at: sukra- vlJSllnlb-Frida_y

ql Pl,itua~:: §an;-v(jsar:a~I.-'S;a:turday

I {~qllff{; ravi-vasa.ra.r.l~:SlJllday

1l.. Please do .DoL Y 011 sbm.dd! not!

fEna ~. cR' ;; =tlaJg:1

site, bhavattVtl!:lQm ua gacchatu.-. Slta, you should not go to the forest!

'JilJIHi ll'Q;qrl a~d ~C1,~tt I

bha:g'ini, krpaya sOfi18krl'tJl'n Vo,da:tu.-Sistet, please speak Sanskrit. ~ 'qi441 &11'@"il q(~]S!\ I

bI'lCJvutllqpayii lekJumfm aadattl.-Plea:se lend me your pen.

~I ~ ~,q;ql ;q~q,""1 R1,'tctg I

nayatu. kintu: krpayli yatnena .likf~,uu.=Certai[l[Y'I,m:k;e il. but please write carefully.

19W~1iq ~ W~·ftJif« I

n'uu~galamaya, bhallfjndugdJw'lr~ pibat.u,~Mang,alamaya, 'please drink mi l!k..

~.6J. 'I 'i:4;qqIG~ II

astu. dhan:yalliidab.-Yeg. 'Thank you.

IJ;f:: ~ 3I~6IQ;qcti· en I

punal,amlan1 avaSJiakm1l. vii ,!~Sh('juld I serve you marie? (Again food necessaryr)

~F~ '9l~~Jf. I

mlJstu. ''',Iastu, paryJpttJ1'J,l,-No, no, enough,

h1itrodactof]/' COII!I:8e

Plural

singular

plural

rnasc.

B': saJ.'I-he :aT' ."ta-,sne (1, tad-it

.., -

ct ie-they

'ffi: tli(it-tlley ~ lemi-they

fern.

neut.

tr:: cp. ~

sa(:t ka~~?-Who ls he?

it~ I

te ke?-\Vho are they? tr ~'I~cnP I

te balakail.-Tbey are boys .. ~~I

tad kim, ?-' What is that?' ffiR Cf,iIIR I

tiifJi ktini?-Wllsl are ~'hoo,e'] ffiR "1 JI UFUI II

(ani uagarjj~1i.-Those are towns.

\i4k'iChP fck ~~Pt1, I

bcllakli{l: Idln kurwm,ti?-' What arethe boys doing? ~IMlChI~ ~,(l1pq- I

bi!lalt:li~~ kJudan.t;i,.-The boys are playing.

CWRl: ~·cff:q I

viinarab kurdanti.-=-The monkeys, are jumping, USIf[J': 10( ifi ~ I ~Pcf I

rii~astifJ, matiuluh khadaJ'lti.-The Raksases eat meat, ;:rnq[: ~"M fqiSt~Pt1 I

8ltva,{'I.jala#'~ pibas» .. ti. :rhe cows (go-cow) are drinking water,

-tJi%(!iitI:, ~ (iriq, Mil

tnahi'la~J annam. pac:an.ti.-·The. women are cooking food. "3fi'LiLl: (aJnC'1,Cfid~~ 3iil'"1l1kl I

:8oP."tl~:l Tiasagolakani anaya~lti.,-Tbe gopls are bringing rasagulas.

~~~let41di ~I~;qf!d' I

cau:r~ navanitam co.rayaJIt'i.~ The thieves are stealing butter .

.. sas,t;ra,,"li chindallti (plural) pdva*altdalw.:ti (s,il1g!lI~), iipa~~ kleda~"anti (plumJ.). 1'}laruta1,l ,~o~ayati (sing'UlarJ.·~·Weapans cut, fire bums, water,s: moisten, and wind 100,65, up. (2 ... 23)

~q):: I

bhayem k(J~l?-'Wbo are you? (singu!ar) '~~,'+,',I'

,.,t~~ •. !!' q,

bhavan;taJ:l ke [-Who are you? (plural)

I~ bIUlV{Ui, bMrm.ab ca karl}a/.l ca. ~[My rum.y bas captains like] Yourself, Bhi~m,a and KMlJa. (1.8:)

.bhavantQ}_I sQ:rv,e bh'ifJ1,1(U1J abhb·uqa'lta.You all must fuU, protect BhI~ma, (1.] 1)

.~ -_ 0

~,;q1{I( t,-U'£In I

l!ayW1a bhlil"atryij~l. ~ We~.re Indians.

~%> ~",ciFoI

b.haVctflrab: kim kUrv(lJlti ?-What Jue, you doing? 244 .~ f&1 ~~uLf: I

vayal1:z ka.ihfl1illikhlUJ.la~ .. ~We rure, writing a story, ~: ~: ~ 3iiIJ1,IIW;:g I

chatrtiJ,. bhcw'anta~J sane ,jjgac-chal1tl'l, .. -' , Students, you aU oome please.

IiEU"( mA' lEMIf.i ~' f2:nqllll I

blwviin tani phaliini grhe s-tfldpa:ya1~tu.-, Please keep th.esefnli£ts in the house ...

'dlSl:ilffl&1H,j ";:rp:f ~ I

te$Glit pha.lalflli.,fl nama kim ?-. W·hat.1 s the name' of those fruits'?

:Introductory Course

51

13,. How Ulany?'

saptli,/ze kilti diniilfi' santi ?-. How many days are there .U:1. a week?

Htt1T8 f('tq~;;nFt ~' II

b,JuI17atal)mukh:e kat; dcmttitl ;~.a;Jlti.?-How many teeth ate there in your month?

rp:[' lJ~.·f;1:J,lttG:::tH:fr~1 I

rnamalnukhe tri';Lfat daJltlJlj. simti.-In my menth there are thirty teeth,

qqcr:: ~ ~ 3ti&~j!7;;q! u'f?a· I

I .. t;!'(;Q ,_,,', -, ~ ",' ," 11,1', :

bhavatal,z: haste kati angulyalz sMti?-Ho'W many fingers are there In yourhand?

'I:JIi ;sed q~ 31&.Jj"(,"q: '~ I

"'> .. ..

"nama haste paTica ai~gulyalJ, santi=« In my hand there are five fingers,

~qll~ 6f5Rt i5f1,Q,cA1l:fi,(1IPi SiClUIlfil :1

bha"'iiJ~ kate kadal'i-pbalii',li krf(1'{jti.?-'Howm.any banaea-fnrits do you but?

.~ ~ Cf5tt<ff1'q,(9I~ ~OUPt I

,ulu)'!"," ,daia luulall;.phaltmi krr:~1iimi"-I buy ten bananas, ~ '!'Jfl!'tG qrlfl~:fd;ehIR YoM ,I

bhavan p.rCityahatil kati pu;s,ttlJa1ni pathati ?-How mail)' books do }I.ou read evel'Y day?'

3ftf 'Rt'ZI'S ;ftfOr~R12hI~1 '4',olfli I

alz(lI:h pratyaham trl~li pf1~'itakan£ pafha1l!oi_~] read tMet€; books every day,

)'4., You want to eat?

te tatra bhojanalqye khlidanti.-They eat there in the restaurant,

l1CfFl ~~ I fittlL( ¥S w~ orr I

bhavan. tasra khztdit,um lcchati yaP-Do you want to eat.there?

~ ~.: ~ J01;~~ '~{sUMiJ't ~'atiil.fjq. I

nahi bho.~,., aham mandire eVa kJiaditum icchlilni.-No no, I want to eat only in the temple,

t bhaktab arcitum icchati.-Thc devotee desires to worship .. (7.21) .sva-dJuwmam aveksya; vikam;pitwiz no arhasi=« Considering your own duty, you should not hesitate. Cy·ou do not deserve to .hesitate") (2..3])

15. That O'r tbis~

distant

near

masc,

~~ SaJ.1 (he" that) ~ Q1!tf: e-~ab (he, this) m .sa (she, that) _.J:!'ifT e:..~,a (she, this)

tad (that) ~ dad (this)

fern.

neut,

masc,

.........A..._ 'j( ")

1;1.11., talU '\. .

- QfllA etani ( " )

fern.

~ te (they, those) - ~ ete (they, these)

ffi~ tiil} ( 111) -~: eti'i.~l ( " )

neut

masc. ~ tasya (hi.s, of that) ~ ~ {tsya (his; ofthis)

fern, ~: tasyab. (her~ofthat) - 3{flff: as}'i'i.b (her" of this) I

neut, ~ tasya. (itsl of that)

-,~ asya (its, of this)

"["]". '::r:n::J". r: .' f"1'I!iil'.' ...• ~." I

l~ ,.. ~:r"·-l '" ~ . -s- -(!t!!" '.,,;IIl

~I}att ramal" .e~ab kr~~u2l,~·,-Tha:t is Rama, this is Kr:~'iJa. g 'mm' t!"fr' Uqn I

JO .sua, e:yii rii'clhii.-That is sna, this is Rmd.hi, CF\, ~lSqi{ Q-qE(IflM,{ I

tad plqpcml, etad p.lralarJ,L.~Tlt_at is a flower, tills; is a fruit. ~ '&fIC1 if; I: r:ffi"~6 ~ Iii: ,I

te b.a{a.kaf,l, ete p~~Tlqatl.-Tho8e are boys, these aliI! men.

16. kim akurv.ata?

.. kim ,aku;n,ata.-- Wha.t d~dnbey do? (I.,])

Thi s seed all shewsthe application of interrogari ve words: ka,tham (how),

kutab (from where),

k~cdt (whether; question msrker) , which are all derived from kilfl, (what; questien ,marker).

cfij

~

~

Ci6": kab-w.ho? (whnf?) ~ kam~w.hom?

q;i1 kena-with whom? ~ kasmai-f01" whom?

'CbfLIltt_ kasmiit-· from whom? ,apoR'f ktl-sva-·· wbolSe?

..

:c.p~"'l Kaslnin--in whom,'?

"

qj~I,:,

q;;iIl

~ ~ ~:,

~:

~:: ihql,(

~ kalb maya saha yoddh:avyam.-With whom 1 must contend .. (1..22)

rajy<ena kilii: bhogaib kiln jlv.itena viI kim.-What is the use of a kingdom, pleasures or life itself <] (1.32)

lea pr'i~ilJ syat .. -What pleasure could. there bet (1.35)

y,aya.l;l.Katharh s"khbla~l syilma,.-How could we be happy? (1.36) /i:1;(tab .idam kasmalOlh hillffl s:mnupasthitam.-From where (how) has this impurity come upon you? (2.2)

katha.tn a.halh bhIprul1h dronaii« ca pr:a:tiyotsyami-How can I counterattack Bhtsma and Drona? (2.4)

tata~1 ki.m 4ulJ,khataram.-What is more painfulthan tnat? (2.36) sthita-prajnasjG ka bhii$a, sthita-,dhl.kim pr4bhlif;eta., kim llsf.til, kiln vrajeta,,~Wha-1 are the symptoms of OD,e who. has steady intelligence? How does he speak, how does he sit, and. bow does he walk? (2 . .'54)

,aialJ,tasya kutab sukham,-One who has no peace, from where

(how) wi]) be get happiness? (2.66) .

kin' ghore karm{J~li main niyojayasi .. -W'hy do Yon 'engage me in. this ghastly work? (3.1)

n;igrahal:l kilt! kari~y,ati. - What does repression accomplish? (3-.33) kena prayuktqb·.-By what is one impelled? (3.36)

katham etad vijariryi.lm.~How should I understand this? (4 . .4)

klim ,gatim gacchari.-Whait destination does. he.go to? (6.37) brahma{'tab pathi vimUt;lhab kaccit na n.asyati.-Is someone who i.s bewildered 00 the path of transcendence, not lost? (6 . .38.)

p'rayii1}a~kale kathmh jiieyal} asi.-How can You be known 3.t the time of death? (8.2)

kesu keiu bhii;ve§u 11uzyii dntya['l-asl.-· In which objects are- Yon to bemeditated upon by me? (10_17)

etena .bahuna jijli.tena ki"m.,-Wbat is fbe use of all this detailed knowledge? (10.42)

kasmat te na namera.n.~W·hy should "they (Jot offer their respectful

obeisances? (] [,37) .

abhyailliikat, kutab: aliyal.~.-HQw could tberebe anyone greater? (11.43)

te:Jibll Ice yoga-lV'i'ttamii{l.-Of them, who awe more perfect in yoga? (12.,.1)

te~'iiiiil nLyrhii !ca.-What is tlu.ir \~ituation? (11.1)

kneeit ,etad tvaya: :fr:u.tam.-Has d-lis: been he.arC! by you'], kaccit ,tava tljiiii'lla-sammoJral} pFa'Ja~!n:.a~z.~Are your ignorance and THus-ions dispelled? 08: .. 72)

§r(jVI(Jl;uma .1(,0 (Ra!.;I) labhall?-What is the benefit of he acing? ~ ~: fla:l"ilill(.qP5t~.I:· ~3ilIJ'I~lrgqR11 I

tasya. bltakti-blwvali, sadiicara~bl~a:V(l.nllf:! ca iigamii;yontL-His devotional attitude and aJ.sogood: manners will come (develop~.

{"f~~r~'\1 e5f ~:~ I

s,amskrta~salhbhii§·ar;.u~,na ko Mbhab?;_ What is tbe' benefit of speaJdmJ.g Sanskrit?

a~de~l.tt.~., 8~d .• ~rr. .~ ~

sa.tnskrt.a-sam.bha~a~2,ena samslq:ta-jffiiinam bhavati.~ByS:'peaking Sanskrit we.get Sanskrit knowledge ..

"We Should A,lwlays Rem,ember" .. "

"Yom teaching of Sanskrit prenunciarion has been very much successful; 1 was just lbimkirlg of tea.chiJr.lg our smdems the pronunciation of the Sanskrit verses in the BhagawuJ- gltii, ,Si:immlBhfi:g:aVGlam. ete., and by ~.l)a's will you have already begun this" It will be a. great help for me if the s,tud1ents are tailJlghn to pronounce Sansbjjt vibration. It w:m be another effect of jranscendental sound vibration. But W~ should always remember that our .aim is spiritual. reMizatiol), so in such classes in the be;,giJiUlling there must be kfT/ana and atthe end also there must be klri(J1.la. And Jbey should 'Hot amy pronouaee the versee, bUE they should also understand the ,fl).ellllln.g and purport of each verse; then lt will be grand success .

.. ,. we sheald always remember that we have-to give "filior-e 'Stt~S3 on OlD' s."nmh·"'l side tlrr"" [h. e seholastic "".~-, But at the same ti me ~,4; O'~"

Jt:' 1._. _._ ~_IQlU _. . ... 3~!cI. o:>.iUe. 13U a ',:ue SaHl u ." JJl ......

books are presented in a, scholarly way, that will be very nice. SQ you use the best part of discretionand do the needful," (letter to Pradyumna)

"Yes YOTI can singprayers in Sanskrit, but prayers in English can be. also pronounced bec,ause the Lord accepts the motive noe tile pronunciatien of the language. He wants tosee spiritna:1 motive. Eve;nif some effectiveness is lost in trans] a-tion , if the motive is there, it wm make Ill) diffi~irence." (letter to Madhusiud,ana)

mantratas tatltril(.a'S chi,dn:uh desa~kalarh(l-vastuia1:1 Sliin,(l·,1J: kaTtoti rliJchidral'1'l anusail:k[rtantJr~~ lava

"There may be discrepancies in pronounci;ngmeman:tr,as omd observingtbe regulative principles, 3:l1d, moreover, there may be discrepandes in regard to time, place, persoll' and paraphernalia. But when Your Lordship's holy name is cbanted,e,veTytbing becomes faultless. '" (SB. 8.,23.16)

'"' ..... God will take .your .mind, not your prommeiation. Ifyou mean to :prQnOIJIlOe Ooo'SI'HUne; even itis not formally or pe:rfectly pronounced., srill, God will uaderstand that you are.trying t,o chant His, name, Thal.is yompeRocit.10n.'1! ,(l.ecttKe: 011 Bg, 2.13)

For further i nformetion

please contact: Harivenu Dasa

Shri Krishna B;daran1a Mandir Bhaktivedanta Swami Marg, Raman Reti Vrindavan, U.P .. 28 J i.24, India

@2000 Harivenu Dasa

Thanks to Yadu Prabhu for doing [he Sanskrit proofreading. AI] printing costs werekil1dly donated by Jagadvasu Prabhu.

Printed at Shiv Heri Press Vrindavan,

UAs sucn it is now necessary that men of culture all over the world 'nay learn and readSanskrit, the mother 01" all other languages of the Aryan stock. The League of Devotees, there/one, will maintain a Sanskrit academy and a degree college especia Uy for the pUl'po.se of dissem inating the benefit a/this great language to all. Scholars from all countries will be welcome to remain as inmates at the institute. ,,'

~ ,on. the mission of the League ofDevotees, 1953 -_

"It waJ: my intention in presenting the books that anyone who would read, would learn Sanskrit. n

~1975-