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## Electrical Engineering Department

UET, Lahore.

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½.½ Lightning.
½.2 Sustained over voltages due to faults or Maloperation
of the system.
½.3 Transient over voltages caused by switching.

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2.½ By a direct stroke to a phase-conductor.
2.2 By direct strokes to earth wires or towers.
2.3 By indirect strokes.
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3.½ esonance condition.
3.2 Voltage rise under single-phase fault
conditions.
3.3 Load ejection.
3.4 Physical contact between systems at
different voltage levels.
3.5. uto transformers.
3.6 Intermittent Earth's.

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## 4.½ Insulated system neutral.

4.2 Solid Earthing of Neutrals.
4.3 Earthing through a resistor.
4.4 Earthing through a eactor.

## 4.4.½ rc Suppression coil earthing

4..4.2 Earthing through a Distribution
transformers with resistance loaded
secondary.
4.4.3 Voltage transformer earthing.
4.4.4 Earthi Transformer.

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## 5.½ Travelling wave  efraction & eflection

Coefficients)
5.2 Equation for different type of terminations
open circuit, short circuit, esistor
Termination
5.3 Bewley lattice Diagram

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6.½ Introduction.
6.2 Factors influencing the Magnitude of
energisation over voltages.
6.2.½ Types of source.
a) Energisation from an Inductive source.
b) Transmission line source.
c) Source consisting of a combination of
Inductance and Transmission
lines.
6.2.2 eactive compensation.
6.2.3 Non-simultaneous closure of the three
phases
6.2.4 Trapped charges.
6.2.5 Circuit Breaker esistors.
6.2.6 The effect of short reactors.
6.2.7 System Losses.
6.2.8 Circuit Configuration and line
Termination.

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7.½ Introduction.
7.2 Determination of transient over voltages.
7.3 Current Interruption and ecovery voltages.
7.4 Equivalent Circuits.
7.5 Transient nalyzer.
7.6 Digital Methods.
7.6.½ Differential Equations.
7.6.2 Formulation of the equations.
7.6.3 Solution of the Differential Equations.
7.6.4 epesentation of Long Lines.
7.6.5 Limitation of the Method.

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½½.½ Introduction.
½½.2 The Energisntion of Composite Feeders.
½½.3 Overhead Line and cable.
½½.4 eactively Terminated Feeders.
½½.4.½ Line Length and surge
impedance of the transformer.
½½.4.2 Type of sources.
½½.5 Summary.

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½2.½ Introduction Types of temporary over voltages).
½2.2 Power Frequency Over voltages.
½2.2.½ Capacitance effects on long lines.
½2.2.2 Sudden loss of load.
½2.2.3 symmetrical Faults.
½2.2.4Open circuits and single-phase reclosure.
½2.3 High frequency temporary over voltages.
½2.3.½ Sudden loss of load.
lines. ½2.3.2 Energisation of transformer terminated
½2.4 Low frequency Temporary over voltages.
½2.5 Sub synchronous esonance.

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