Hypnosis

Contents
 APA Definition of Hypnosis  “Father of Hypnosis”--Mesmer  History of Hypnosis  Hypnotic Induction Procedures  Suggestibility/Susceptibility  Behavior Under Hypnosis  Hypnosis and Changes in Perception  Hypnosis and Involuntary Control  Theories of Hypnosis  Hypnosis and Emotional Health  Hypnosis and Physical Health  Self Hypnosis  Hypnosis vs. Sleep and Dreams  Brain Activity • Delta • Theta • Alpha • Beta  Sources

Hypnosis
Hypnosis is a state of heightened suggestibility in which people experience imagined test suggestions as if they were real.

APA Definition
According to the American Psychological Association (APA)’s Division of Psychological Hypnosis, hypnosis is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests while treating someone that he or she experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. Although some hypnosis is used to make people more alert, most hypnosis includes suggestions for relaxation, calmness, and well-being. Instructions to imagine or think about pleasant experiences are also commonly included during hypnosis. People respond to hypnosis in different ways. Some describe hypnosis as a state of focused attention, in which they feel very calm and relaxed. Most people describe the experience as pleasant.

Father of Hypnosis” Franz Anton Mesmer

Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815)

Mesmer used the power of suggestion to ‘cure’ illnesses in the 18th century. The Austrian physician referred to his ability as a type of animal magnetism. Although his abilities have since been discredited, he is immortalized in the verb “to mesmerize”. He was born in Swabia, Germany 1734.In 1774, Mesmer had a patient swallow iron, and used magnets to “heal” her. In 1775, Mesmer was unsuccessful in curing the blindness of a young musician. In 1777, scandal and embarrassment caused him to leave Vienna. Mesmer believed that illness was caused by obstruction of the free-flow of life processes, and as a conductor of animal magnetism he was able to help restore the natural process. The evolution of Mesmer's ideas and practices led James Braid to develop hypnosis in 1842.

Mesmer’s Treatment
Mesmer treated patients both individually and in groups. With individuals he would sit in front of his patient with his knees touching the patient's knees, pressing the patient's thumbs in his hands, looking fixedly into the patient's eyes. Mesmer made "passes", moving his hands from patients' shoulders down along their arms. He then pressed his fingers on the patient's hypochondriac region (the area below the diaphragm), sometimes holding his hands there for hours. Many patients felt peculiar sensations or had convulsions that were regarded as crises and supposed to bring about the cure. Mesmer would often conclude his treatments by playing some music on a glass armonica.

A glass armonica is a type of musical instrument that uses a series of glass bowls or goblets graduated in size to produce musical tones by means of friction

History of Hypnosis
18th Century Paris: Franz Anton Mesmer gained popularity for what he termed “Animal Magnetism”. In 1784, The Royal Commission of Inquiry into Animal magnetism was established. – They concluded that Animal Magnetism did not exist and therefore had no curative powers. Marquis de Puysegur renamed what we now know as hypnosis, artificial somnamulbism. The Abbe Jose Custodia di Faria called it lucid sleep.In 1843James Braid coined the term hypnosis, which comes from the Greek work for

sleep, “hypnos”.In 19th Century Hypnosis was viewed as a matter of the degree of a person’s suggestibility.Late 19th Century, A.A. Liebeault reconciled the sleep metaphor with suggestibility theory. At end of the 19th Century, Two “schools“ of hypnosis were formed in France. First three decade of 20th century: Interest in hypnosis declined until Clark L. Hull’s book, Hypnosis and Suggestibility: An Experimental Approach. World War II: Small group of hypnosis clinicians were able to provide pain relief and alleviation of suffering to their severely injured patients through the use of hypnosis. This group of clinicians banded together after the war and formed the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis and later on the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. 1950’s: Invention of the electroencephalogram (EEG) which measured differences between hypnosis’ pattern that is indistinguishable from being relaxed, alert with eyes closed and sleep’s EEG that consists of four distinct polygraph-defined stages. 1960-1990: “Halcyon Days” of hypnosis. During this time, three major hypnosis laboratories for the research of hypnosis were formed. Today, one still remains in Philadelphia at the University of Pennsylvania.

Hypnotic Induction Procedures
Hypnotic induction is the process by which one person leads another into hypnosis. It is not necessary to swing a watch in front of the eyes or say “you are feeling sleepy”!Moss (1965) reported being able to sometimes induce a trance simply by saying “Please sit in that chair and go into hypnosis”!The goal of most induction procedures is to relax the subject and increase his or her attention.The only essential feature of any induction procedure is that the subject must realise that they are being hypnotised. In addition, it is not possible for someone to be hypnotised against their will.People differ in how susceptible they are to hypnotic suggestions. This can be measured by hypnotic susceptibility scales.

Sample test items from the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C
Item Suggested Behaviour Right arm will become heavy Force is pushing hands apart Criterion for Passing Arm lowered by at least 6 inches Hands are 6 or more inches apart Any grimace or acknowledgemen t Three or fewer items recalled

Arm lowering

Moving hands apart

Mosquito hallucination

Mosquito is buzzing nearby

Posthypnotic amnesia

Will not remember suggestions

Suggestibility and Susceptibility
According to Hilgard (1977), in an average testing session 10% of subjects will be completely nonresponsive, 10% will pass all or nearly all items, and the rest will fall in between.Susceptibility can be enhanced by increasing people’s expectations (Spanos et al., 1991; Vickery & Kirsch, 1991).Highly susceptible subjects show significantly more brain activity in the left side of the prefrontal cortex.Under hypnosis the subject becomes more susceptible to suggestion than in his or her normal state. Dialogue is directly related to how the hypnotist directly or indirectly gives suggestions. It is possible to induce alterations in the following areas:

– Memory – Perception – Sensation – Emotions – Feeling – Attitudes – Beliefs – Muscular states

Behaviour under Hypnosis
Hypnotised people are very suggestible and their behaviour will conform with what the hypnotist tells them. Typical behaviour that can be induced include: • Acting out imaginary scenes. • Pretending to be an animal. • Believing a limb cannot move or is insensitive to pain. • Positive and negative hallucinations – seeing things that are not really there, or not seeing objects that really are present.

Posthypnotic suggestibility – a subject is given instructions under hypnosis and follows them after returning to a non-hypnotised state. Posthypnotic amnesia – the subject is instructed to not remember any of the suggested behaviour after leaving the hypnotic state.

Hypnosis and changes in perception
Does hypnosis really change a person’s perception during positive and negative hallucinations?

Miller et al. (1973) tested this hypothesis using the Ponzo illusion. The Ponzo illusion is an optical illusion that was first demonstrated by the Italian psychologist Mario Ponzo (1882-1960) in 1913. He suggested that the human mind judges an object's size based on its background. He showed this by drawing two identical lines across a pair of converging lines, similar to railway tracks. The upper line looks longer because we interpret the converging sides according to linear perspective as parallel lines receding into the distance. In this context, we interpret the upper line as though it were farther away, so we see it as longer – a farther object would have to be longer than a nearer one for both to produce retinal images of the same size.

Ponzo illusion

Miller et al’s study shows that under hypnosis the visual system was still processing sensory information.The effect of hypnosis is solely on conscious awareness.

Hypnosis and Involuntary Control
When under hypnosis people subjectively experience their actions to be involuntary.

Can people be made to perform acts that are harmful to themselves or others? Evans & Orne (1965) told hypnotized subjects that a cup of foaming liquid was ‘acid’. However, a control group who were asked to simply pretend that they were hypnotised behaved in the same way. This behaviour can be explained in terms of “destructive obedience”; i.e., psychological compliance with an authority figure (Milgram, 1974). No evidence that hypnosis has a unique power to coerce people against their will.

Why does hypnosis work?
There are two main competing explanations for how hypnosis works:
• •

Dissociation (state hypothesis) theories. Social Cognitive (non-state hypothesis) theories.

Dissociation theories of hypnosis
Dissociation theories view hypnosis as an altered state of consciousness. Best known example is the neo-dissociation theory proposed by Ernst Hilgard (1978, 1991). Hilgard argued that cognition involves multiple systems of control which are not all conscious at the same time. These systems are controlled and motivated by a central ‘executive ego’.

Neo-dissociation Theory Hilgard argued that during hypnosis the hypnotist gains control of the executive ego, and therefore has access to the various subsidiary control systems. Hypnosis creates a division of awareness in which a person simultaneously experiences two streams of consciousness that are cut off from one another. One stream responds to the hypnotist’s suggestions, while the second stream remains a hidden observer of everything that occurs.

‘Hidden Observer’ Phenomenon
In one study Hilgard (1977) hypnotised subjects and suggested that they would not feel pain. Then placed arm in ice-cold water for 45 seconds and reported level of pain experienced. For another group Hilgard said “Perhaps there is another part of you that is more aware than your hypnotised part. If so, that part of you report the amount of pain”

‘Hidden Observer’ Study (Hilgard, 1977)

Hilgard argued that dissociation between streams of consciousness accounts for why hypnotism appears to produce involuntary actions. The subject intentionally carries out the actions, but only the ‘hidden observer’ is aware of this. The primary consciousness stream is cut off from this awareness and therefore the action appears involuntary to the subject

Social Cognitive theories of hypnosis
Social cognitive theories deny that hypnosis produces an altered state of consciousness. Instead argue that hypnotic experiences result from expectations of people motivated to take on the role of being “hypnotised”. Subjects develop a perceptual set – a readiness to respond to suggestions and to perceive hypnotic experiences as real and involuntary. In a study by Orne (1959) subjects were told prior to being hypnotised that a common feature of a trance is stiffening of the muscles in the dominant hand. This information was fictitious. When the subjects were hypnotised, 55% spontaneously displayed hand stiffening. No subjects in a control group showed this behaviour. Social Cognitive theories do not claim that hypnotised people are ‘pretending’. Expectations can influence behaviour without conscious awareness (e.g., placebo effects etc.)

Hypnosis and Emotional Health
Emotions and imagination, both part of the subconscious, are the underlining factors responsible for most of our behavior. Our present behaviors are usually linked to how our imagination has perceived a past event, and has tied certain emotions to that event. Accessing the subconscious through hypnosis can help to alleviate some or all symptoms associated with following difficulties people experience:  Anxiety  Depression  Sleep difficulty  Social anxiety  Panic  Phobias  PTSD

 Self-esteem  Abusive relationships  Addiction

Hypnosis and Physical Health
Although the exact mechanism by which hypnosis works is still unknown, it appears that the effect that hypnosis has, results in an alteration of how the brain communicates with the rest of your body through nerve impulses, hormones and body chemicals, such as neuropeptides. This alteration is useful in helping control some of the physiological processes that occur within the body. The following list are examples of how hypnosis can be used to do this in order to help a person gain control of their physical well-being:  Treat pain during childbirth and reduce labor time  Control pain during dental and surgical procedures  Relieve symptoms associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome  Lower blood pressure  Control nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy  Reduce the frequency and intensity of headaches, including migraines  Treat and ease symptoms of asthma  Hasten the healing of some skin diseases including warts, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis

Self Hypnosis
The subconscious mind is like an obedient servant—it doesn’t think or reason— and herein lies the power of self-hypnosis. YOU have the power! Your subconscious mind will accept your suggestions and make them a part of your reality! It tells your unconscious that will act on these suggestions and your on your way to a more healthy lifestyle!

It is important to remember that your subconscious mind does not know the difference between good or bad suggestion—so BE POSITIVE! Don’t tell yourself that you are fat, or ugly or unworthy… You should always remain positive, constructive and beneficial! Otherwise, you will ACTUALLY start to believe it, and you will project this out in your personality!

Hypnosis vs. Sleep and Dreams
 SLEEP: While asleep, your brain automatically cycles down from the beta range into alpha, and briefly into theta and delta. Then it cycles back up into alpha where you spend most of your time sleeping and dreaming.  HYPNOSIS: A hypnotist takes advantage of the above natural phenomena. Hypnosis is a technique that causes the brain to cycle down into alpha without going to sleep. In alpha, the subconscious mind is open for suggestive input.

Brain Activity
Electroencephalography is the neurophysiologic measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp or, in special cases, within the subdural or the cerebral cortex. The resulting traces are known as an electroencephalogram (EEG) and represent an electrical signal (postsynaptic potentials) from a large number of neurons. The EEG is a brain function test, but in clinical use it is a "gross correlate of brain activity. Electrical currents are not measured, but rather voltage differences between different parts of the brain.

Beta: Alertness/ Concentration/ Cognition 12-40 Hz

EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.

You are wide-awake, alert. Your mind is sharp, focused. It makes connections quickly, easily, and you're primed to do work that requires your full attention. In the Beta state, neurons fire abundantly, in rapid succession, helping you achieve peak performance. New ideas and solutions to problems flash like lightning into your mind. Beta training is one of the frequencies that biofeedback therapists use to treat Attention Deficit Disorder. Beta-centered programs help you prepare to take an exam, play sports, give a presentation, analyze and organize information and other activities where mental alertness and high levels of concentration are key to your success. Beta waves range between 13-40 HZ. The Beta state is associated with peak concentration, heightened alertness, hand-eye coordination and visual acuity. Alpha: Relaxation/ Visualization/ Creativity 6-12 Hz

EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.

When you are truly relaxed, your brain activity slows from the rapid patterns of Beta into the more gentle waves of Alpha. Your awareness expands. Fresh creative energy begins to flow. Fears vanish. You experience a liberating sense of peace and well-being. In biofeedback, Alpha training is most commonly recommended for the treatment of stress. Alpha waves range between 7-12 HZ. This is a place of deep relaxation, but not quite meditation. In Alpha, we begin to access the wealth of creativity that lies just below our conscious awareness - it is the gateway, the entry point that leads into deeper states of consciousness. Alpha is also the home of the window frequency known as the Schuman Resonance - the resonant frequency of the earth's electromagnetic field. Theta: Meditation/ Intuition/ Memory 4-7 Hz

EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.

Going deeper into relaxation, you enter the elusive and mysterious Theta state where brain activity slows almost to the point of sleep, but not quite. Theta is the brain state where magic happens in the crucible of your own neurological activity. Theta brings forward heightened receptivity, flashes of dreamlike imagery, inspiration, and your long-forgotten memories. Theta can bring you deep states of meditation. A sensation of "floating." And, because it is an expansive state, in Theta, you may feel your mind expand beyond the boundaries of your body. Theta rests directly on the threshold of your subconscious. In biofeedback, it is most commonly associated with the deepest levels of meditation. Theta also plays an important part in behavior modification programs and has been used in the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction. Finally, Theta is an ideal state for super-learning, re-programming your mind, dream recall, and self-hypnosis.

Theta waves range between 4-7 HZ. Theta is one of the more elusive and extraordinary realms we can explore. It is also known as the twilight state which we normally only experience fleetingly as we rise up out of the depths of delta upon waking, or drifting off to sleep. In Theta, we are in a waking dream, vivid imagery flashes before the mind's eye and we are receptive to information beyond our normal conscious awareness. Theta has also been identified as the gateway to learning and memory. Theta meditation increases creativity, enhances learning, reduces stress and awakens intuition and other extrasensory perception skills. Delta: Detached Awareness/ Healing/ Sleep 1-4 Hz

EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.

Long, slow, undulating. Delta is the slowest of all four brain wave frequencies. Most commonly associated with deep sleep, certain frequencies in the Delta range also trigger the release of Human Growth Hormone so beneficial for healing and regeneration. This is why sleep - deep restorative sleep - the kind that Delta frequencies help induce is so essential to the healing process. Delta is the brain wave signal of the subconscious, the seat from which intuition arises. Delta is not only ideal for sleep and deep regeneration potential, but also when you want to access your unconscious activity and help that wellspring of information flow to your conscious mind for clearing and for empowerment. Delta waves range between 0-4 HZ.

Sources

www.brainsync.com

 www.toolsforwellness.com
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http://en.wikipedia.org http://skepdic.com/falsememory.html science.howstuffworks.com/hypnosis.htm http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hypnosis http://www.fmsfonline.org/hypnosis.html http://www.institute-shot.com/hypnosis_and_health.htm http://hypnosis.com/whatishypnosis_history.aspx

Submitted To:
Sir Irfan

Submitted By:
Farhat Yasmeen 07-arid-1172 4th Semester M.Sc Zoology (Eve.)

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