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aka Gas Dynamics

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• When a gas flows there may be changes in density and temperature. p primarily deals with y • Compressible flow p fluids where density changes occur as a result of flowing at speeds comparable to the local speed of sound. • If fluid speeds are about 30% or more of the l th local acoustic velocity, th fl id l ti l it the fluid density no longer remains constant throughout the flow field field. • Typically, this does not occur with liquids but can easily occur in flowing gases gases.

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**Choking & Shock Waves
**

Two important and distinctive effects that occur in compressible flows are: c o g e e t e o s ted t e 1. choking where the flow is limited by the sonic condition that occurs when the flow velocity becomes equal to the local acoustic velocity 2. shock waves that introduce discontinuities in the fluid properties and d h fl d d are highly irreversible.

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Varying Density

• Since the density of the fluid is no longer constant in compressible flows, there are now four dependent variables to be determined throughout the flow field. pressure, temperature, density, and flow velocity.

1. 2. 3. 4.

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4 Governing Equations 1) the continuity equation 2) momentum equation 3) energy equation ti 4) A fluid equation of state • Solve simultaneously to determine all the flow field variables. 5 .

t s co e e t combine the enthalpy and the kinetic energy of the fluid into a single term called stagnation (or total) enthalpy h0. it is convenient to o g speed o s. defined as V h0 = h + 2 2 (kJ/kg) • The properties of a fluid at the stagnation state are called stagnation properties and are indicated b the subscript zero. d d by h b 6 .Stagnation Properties • For high-speed flows.

• Hence they are also known as reservoir conditions. 7 .• The stagnation temperature of an ideal id l gas with constant specific h t ith t t ifi heats is 2 V C PT0 = C PT + 2 V2 T0 = T + 2C P • which represents the temperature an ideal gas will attain when it is brought to rest (V0=0) adiabatically.

Isentropic Stagnation Properties • The (isentropic) stagnation properties of an ideal gas are related to the static properties of the fluid by P0 ⎛ T0 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ P ⎝T ⎠ k ( k −1) ρ 0 ⎛ T0 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ρ ⎝T ⎠ 1 ( k −1) 8 .

Propagation of a Disturbance gas. • Initially the gas and piston are at rest with a small pressure P. • It shows how density changes with pressure pressure. • A pressure pulse causes a disturbance to spread t e ed u in the medium. 9 ⎛ dP ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ dρ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ is related to the compressibility of the . • This is transmitted as a pressure wave wave. • The piston is given a small impulse and the gas at its surface experiences a small pressure rise.

(P + dP) A = [ ( ρ A c) c + d ( ρ A c) c) ] .Consider the disturbance • Perform a momentum balance over a small wave front.( ρ A c) c ) ) ) ) • If A is constant then: ρ A c = constant and ρ c = constant = G • . Assume frictionless flow.dP = ρ c dc 10 .Rate of mom “in” • P A . • Sum of surface forces acting on control surface = rate of mom “out” .G dc • .dP = d ( G c) = . Consider the control volume shown.

c2 dρ • The velocity at which an y p infinitesimally small pressure wave travels through a medium is the y ( velocity of sound (or the sonic velocity).c ) = 0 • Therefore: ρ dc + c dρ = 0 • ρ c dc = .dP = .c2 dρ • Hence: .c = constant. d(ρ.• Since ρ. ⎛ ∂P ⎞ c =⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂ρ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠n 2 11 .

Weak Pressure Wave • Amplitude of ordinary sonic wave is very small and travels with negligible heat transfer or friction • Propagation is adiabatic and almost i l t isentropic t i • Thus for an ideal gas c= P ρ −k ⎛ dP ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ dρ ⎝ ⎠s = constant ⎛ dP⎞ ⎛ P ⎞ k−1 kP ⎜ ⎜ dρ = k⎜ ρk ρ = ρ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠s ⎝ ⎠ c= kP = kRT 12 ρ .

• The Mach number is the ratio of the actual velocity of the fluid to the velocity of sound at the same state: Mach Number V M= c • Th flow i The fl is – – – – – sonic when M = 1 subsonic when M < 1 supersonic when M > 1 hypersonic when M » 1 transonic when M ≈1 13 .

y equation for a single-stream. the conservation of energy q g .1D 1-D Energy Equation • When stagnation enthalpies are used. 14 . steadyflow device can be expressed as q iin + w iin + (h 01 + gz1 ) = q out + w out + (h 02 + gz 2 ) where h01 and h02 are the stagnation enthalpies at states 1 and 2. p y respectively.

Frictionless Adiabatic (Isentropic) Flow of Ideal G in (I i ) Fl f Id l Gas i Horizontal Conduit Pv = RT Pv = constant1 k • These must be satisfied AV & m= v V h0 = h + = constant 2 2 2 15 .

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases • The ratios of the stagnation to static properties for ideal gases with constant specific heats can be expressed in terms of the Mach number T0 V =1+ T 2Cp T V kR =1+ 2 2Cp c V k(Cp −Cv) =1+ 2 2Cp c 2 2 2 16 .

T0 ⎛ V ⎞ k(1− Cv / Cp ) =1+ ⎜ ⎟ T 2 ⎝c⎠ 2 T0 ⎛ k −1⎞ 2 =1+ ⎜ M T ⎝ 2 ⎠ P ⎡ ⎛ k −1⎞ 2 ⎤ 0 = ⎢1+ ⎜ M ⎥ P ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ k ( k −1) ρ0 ⎡ ⎛ k −1⎞ 2 ⎤ = ⎢1+ ⎜ M ⎥ ρ ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ 1 ( k −1) 17 .

• They perform opposite conversions! 18 . Diffusers • A diffuser is a device that increases the pressure of a fluid by slowing it down. expending kinetic energy.Nozzles o es • A nozzle is a device that increases the velocity (kinetic energy) of a fluid at the expense of pressure • A nozzle whose flow area decreases in the flow di fl direction i i is called a converging ll d i nozzle.

Nozzle Modelling Assumptions • Flow through nozzles and diffusers may or o t oug o es a d d use s ay o may not be assumed to be adiabatic. i but ll h l d • However. b usually they are neglected. 19 . • It is also assumed that changes in thermal energy are significantly greater than changes in potential energy and therefore the latter can usually be neglected for the purpose of analysis analysis. • Frictional effects may sometimes be important. the external work transfer is always assumed to be zero zero.

Momentum balance on isentropic 1-D flow dρ −VdV −VdV = 2 = ρ ⎛ dρ ⎞ c ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dP ⎠ dρ ⎛ V ⎞ dV 2 dV =−⎜ ⎟ =−M ρ V ⎝c⎠ V 20 2 .

Then by Continuity Equation • ρ A V = Constant • In differential form: d(ρ A V) = 0 • i.e. ρAdV+ρVdA+VAdρ=0 dρ dV dA + + =0 ρ V A 2 dV dV dA −M + + =0 V V A dA dV 2 = − 1−M A V ( ) 21 .

Area Velocity Area-Velocity Relations 1) For incompressible flow dρ ρ =0 dV dA ∴ =− V A A decrease in area gives a proportional increase in velocity. 2) Subsonic velocity. 0 < M < 1. decrease in area gives a relatively greater increase in velocity since 1-M2 < A 1 M – basically like incompressible 22 .

dA =0 A • • Sonic velocity can only exist where change in area is 0. . M=1. ) y. The highest velocity to which a fluid can be b accelerated in a convergent nozzle is l d l the sonic velocity.Sonic Area-Velocity Relation Area Velocity 3) Sonic velocity. 23 .

. If the area increases. denominator becomes negative i. increase in velocity is produced by an increase in area – reverse of subsonic flow. equation. • At supersonic velocities any change in velocities. the density decreases so rapidly that the velocity has to increase to satisfy the continuity equation (ρ A V = constant).Supersonic Area-Velocity Relation 4) At supersonic velocities. g y . the ) p . area is more than compensated for by change in density.e. M > 1. constant) 24 .

th fl l the flow velocity at th th l it t the throat i t is 25 the velocity of sound. • The location of smallest flow area of a nozzle is called the throat.ConvergingDiverging Nozzles l • Nozzles whose flow area first decreases and then increases are called convergingdiverging nozzles. l ll d h h • In all supersonic converging-diverging nozzles. • Accelerating a fluid to supersonic velocities is only possible in convergingdiverging nozzles. .

Area Pressure Area-Pressure Relationships • From the frictionless momentum equation .for horizontal flow • From the velocityarea relation l ti dP ρ = −VdV dA dV A = dP − = V 1− M 2 ρV 2 dA 1− M ∴ = dP 2 A ρV 2 Showing how pressure changes with g p g area and depends on Mach Number 26 .Euler’s Euler s .

Mach Number and Pressure Number. 27 .Effect of Geometry on Velocity.

the T ⎛ 2 ⎞ resulting static to static-to=⎜ stagnation T0 ⎝ k +1 ⎠ property ratios for the temperature. pressure.Critical Conditions * • When M = 1. and density are called critical ratios and are d de-noted by t db the superscript asterisk: P ⎛ 2 ⎞ =⎜ P0 ⎝ k +1 ⎠ * k ( k −1) ρ ⎛ 2 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ρ0 ⎝ k +1 ⎠ * 1 ( k −1) 28 .

• A large tank contains a stagnant fluid with outlet (e.g. • The receiver pressure is reduced causing fluid flow through this outlet 29 .Isentropic Flow through a Converging th h C i Nozzle • Consider isentropic process of accelerating a compressible fluid from rest. a converging nozzle and pipe) to a receiver volume.

instability in pipe 30 .Effect of back pressure on pressure distribution and mass flow rate 1) Pexit = P0 2) Pexit > P* ) 3) Pexit = P* Flow choked 4) Pexit < P* Pressure distribution in nozzle is unchanged unchanged.

compared to the stagnation pressure.Effect on Mass Flow Rate • In a converging nozzle there is a receiver pressure. • Under steady-flow conditions. the mass flow rate through the nozzle is constant o ate t oug t e o e s co sta t and can be expressed as & m= [1 + (k − 1)M AMP0 k / RT0 2 /2 ] ( k +1 ) [2 ( k −1 )] 31 . P0. pressure Pr. below which the flow rate (or mass velocity) will not increase.

• The Mach No. • For all back pressures lower than P*. at the exit plane is 1. p • The mass flow rate is the maximum (or choked) flow rate rate. 32 . the pressure at the exit plane of the converging nozzle is equal to P*.Critical or Choked Flow • The pressure outside the exit plane of a nozzle i f l is called th ll d the b k back pressure.

Area-Mach No Relation • For a given throat area and given ideal gas the flow rate can be controlled by varying P0 or T0.Area Mach No. • The variation of flow area A through the nozzle relative to the throat area A* for the same mass flow rate and stagnation properties of a particular ideal gas is A 1 ⎡⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ k − 1 2 ⎞ ⎤ = ⎢⎜ k + 1 ⎜1 + 2 M ⎥ * A M ⎣⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎦ ( k +1) [2 ( k −1)] 33 .

M* • The parameter M* is defined as the ratio of the local velocity to the velocity of sound at the throat (M=1): V * M = • It can also be expressed as c * k +1 M =M 2 2 + (k − 1)M * 34 .

Converging Diverging Converging-Diverging Nozzle • By expanding the gas through the nozzle. • The isentropic flow relationships given p gas earlier can be used to predict the g mass flow rate and the Mach number at any section and the corresponding gas properties. the flow will be accelerated to supersonic flow conditions. ti 35 .

Repeat earlier p experiment with convergingdiverging nozzle di i l Pressures in a Convergent C t -Divergent Nozzle 36 .

B. With Pexit = P0. then the flow in the diverging section becomes completely supersonic However the pressure supersonic.Flow Through a ConvergentDivergent Nozzle A. but the velocity elsewhere in the nozzle is subsonic subsonic. the design pressure of the nozzle. C. there is no flow through the nozzle. If Pexit is reduced further. (Described by the Bernoulli Equation. If Pexit is just less than P0. flow is like j ordinary flow in a venturi meter – almost incompressible flow. Here Pexit = Pd. at the throat remains P*. here the velocity is just sonic ( M = 1). . the pressure at the throat becomes critical pressure P*. Reducing Pexit cannot change the 37 pressure distribution in the nozzle. This is the lowest pressure that can exist in the nozzle for a given Pexit. If the value of Pexit is reduced much further.

38 .Normal Shock Wave D. the fluid which achieved a sonic velocity at the throat of a converging-diverging nozzle and is accelerating to supersonic velocities in the diverging section experiences a normal shock at distance x in the divergent p g portion • This causes a sudden rise in pressure and temperature. In some range of back pressure. l • The flow in the divergent portion is supersonic to point x and subsonic from point y. and a sudden drop in velocity t subsonic l l it to b i levels.

Trans shock Trans-shock Properties • The properties of an ideal gas with constant specific heats before (subscript ) ( b i t x) and after (subscript y) a shock are y related by: T0 x = T0 y Ty 1 + M (k − 1) / 2 = Tx 1 + M (k − 1) / 2 2 x 2 y Py Px = 2 M y 1 + M y (k − 1) / 2 M x 1 + M x2 (k − 1) / 2 M x2 + 2 / (k − 1) 2 My = 2 2 M x k / (k − 1) − 1 39 .

so it cannot be approximated as isentropic. • The entropy change across the shock is obtained by applying the entropy-change equation for an ideal gas across the shock: s y − s x = C P ln Ty Tx − R ln Py Px 40 .Compression Shock Wave • Flow through the shock is highly irreversible.

– Boundary layers are thin in high speed high-speed flow. nb. frictionless and thermodynamically reversible flow simplifies problems: 1)Flow in short passages or ducts – small friction l f i ti losses and negligible h t t d li ibl heat transfer f through walls. 2)Flow around objects in regions away from 2)Fl d bj t i i f the Boundary layer. nb Flow in gas transmission lines is essentially isothermal. 41 .Adiabatic Flow Assumption • Assuming adiabatic.

Cv c) coefficient of ) ffi i t f discharge.Nozzle Efficiencies • Real flow is irreversible but the isentropic condition is a useful reference point p • The deviation of actual nozzles from isentropic ones is expressed in terms of: a) nozzle efficiency. ηN b) nozzle velocity coefficient. CD V ηN = V 2 2 2 2s 2 h01 − h2 = 2 h01 − h2 s V2 CV = = ηN V2 s & m CD = & ms 42 .

CPR. C PR = P01 − P 1 43 . ηD η D = V 2 2 = h − h 1 01 1 b)pressure recovery P02 factor.Diffuser Efficiencies • The performance of a p diffuser is expressed in terms of: ∆hs h02 s − h1 a)diffuser efficiency. FP FP = P01 c)pressure c)press re rise P2 − P 1 coefficient.

• The critical-pressure ratio of steam is often taken to be 0. line and it exists as a supersaturated substance. which corresponds to a specific heat ratio of k = 1. steam does not start condensing when it encounters the saturation line. 44 .3 for superheated steam.Steam • Steam often deviates considerably from idealgas behavior. steam • At high velocities. o Supersaturation states are non-equilibrium (or metastable) states states.546. • Thus it is often necessary to use steam tables instead of ideal-gas relations. and no simple property relations are available for it.

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