1 Coordination

Expressions are said to be coordinated when they are listed or joined by coordinate conjunctions. The standard coordinate conjunctions are and, or, but, yet. Clauses, phrases, and even individual words can all be coordinated. However, items which are coordinated must be of the same grammatical type. If they are not, the result is faulty parallelism.

EXAMPLES 1. Jack and Jill did not really go up to the hill. 2. Her parents went first and then his parents followed . 3. They talked to each other yet admired the scenery. 4. Did they bring apples, bananas, peaches or pears with them? 5. They brought some snacks but were hungry when they returned. End of Lesson on Coordination 6.2 Subordination Subordinate Clauses are often used to express a relation between two statements. Frequently, the relation is expressed through the subordinator.

EXAMPLES 1. He bought a slice of pizza because he was hungry. 2. The man who bought the pizza has gained weight. 3. When I am hungry, I like snack food. 4. The doctor told me that I do not eat healthy foods. 5. Eating healthy foods is good in that it may help you live longer. Despite the name "subordinate," subordinate clauses are not necessarily less important than the main clauses to which they are attached.

EXAMPLES 1. The man who killed his mother eats snack food.

2. was a student before she became rich. we saw. Although parallelism can be an effective device. 5. we conquered. Spare the rod and spoil the child. it can also lead to the grammatical error called faulty parallelism. Life is short and art is long. Many people are not sure how to eat because scientific studies of nutrition are inconclusive. These parallel structures can occur within a single sentence or in two or more sentences. It is better to have loved and lost. 3. 3. Parallelism is an effective way of emphasizing ideas. There are four basic kinds: Faulty Parallelism In Lists Faulty Parallelism with Auxiliaries Faulty Parallelism with Correlative Conjunctions False Comparisons On the following sections. by the people shall not perish from the earth. . for the people. She. If science discovers the nutritional factors which contribute to long life. EXAMPLES 1. 2. 5. The government of the people. 4. End of Lesson on Subordination 6. Jack and Jill will be happy. each kind of faulty parallelism is examined in turn. Scientists who have devoted their lives to research are not always satisfied with their lives. We came. 4. too.3 Parallelism Parallelism occurs when there are parallel structures which have either the same or a similar form.

rats. and never will. EXAMPLES 1. CORRECT: The institution will require little loyalty or hard work. INCORRECT: Despite the cuts there are services the hospital has. INCORRECT: The institution will require little loyalty. yet sparing other creatures is difficult. and never will work for less than a fair wage. 2. yet sparing other creatures is difficult. either-or. INCORRECT: Killing skunks.Faulty Parallelism in Lists The items in lists and other coordinate structures should all be of the same grammatical type. EXAMPLES 1. and will continue to provide to doctors. EXAMPLES 1. but will demand overtime . INCORRECT: He never has. both-and). hard work. CORRECT: Killing skunks and rats. . CORRECT: He never has worked. INCORRECT: They not only corrected my grammar but also they suggested several new ideas. CORRECT: Despite the cuts there are services the hospital has provided. Faulty Parallelism with Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are coordinate conjunctions with two (not only-but also. either the main verb form must go with both auxiliaries or a second form must be added. work for less than a fair wage. but will demand overtime . 2. not only) must also come after the second (but also). The grammatical type that comes after the first part (for example. and will continue to provide to doctors. Faulty Parallelism with Auxiliaries If there is more than one auxiliary.

CORRECT: Either Jake or Mary will help the older patients. There are two standard classifications you can use in order to see if all the sentences in a text are all of the same type. INCORRECT: The old lady's forehand is stronger than Jack. INCORRECT: Either Mary will help the older patients or Jake.CORRECT: They not only corrected my grammar but also suggested several new ideas. One of these classifications is rhetorical. and modifying participial phrases and subordinate clauses follow. the main subject and verb come after an introductory subordinate clause or participial phrase. CORRECT: Jane's salary is less than that of the Dean. False Comparisons False comparisons occur when one of the items being compared is not the item the writer had in mind. according to the number and kind of clauses they contain. Still. Balanced Sentences . the grammatical approach. INCORRECT: Jane's salary is less than the Dean. The rhetorical approach classifies sentences according to the way in which they present their ideas. CORRECT: The old lady's forehand is stronger than Jack's. 3. the other is grammatical. Loose Sentences In loose sentences.4 Sentence Variety In order to keep their work from becoming monotonous. (The writer intended to compare salaries. they can give you some idea of where revision may be necessary. EXAMPLES 1.) 2. Periodic Sentences In periodic sentences.) End of Lesson 6. (The writer intended to compare forehands. Neither provides an absolute measure of variety. 2. 2. the main subject and verb are at the beginning. Rhetorical Classification of Sentences 1. writers often try to vary their sentence structure.

Although Mary tries very hard to be polite to her boss. Complex Sentences Sentences of this type have one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. (loose) 7.Sentences which are balanced are characterized by parallel structure: two or more parts of the sentence have the same form. The company will build the bridge because it needs the money. Some cliches are interesting and some are not. 2. (parenthetical) 5. (periodic) 3. The rider. It was the best of times. 4. the girls started telling jokes. 1. to make the project a success. (simple) 2. Compound-Complex Sentences Compound-complex sentences have two or more main clauses and at least one subordinate clause. 3. she has trouble hiding her true feelings. (compound) 3. (balanced) 4. Parenthetical Sentences Sentences of this type have a non-restrictive participial phrase or subordinate clause inside the main clause. Your people shall be my people. (loose) 2. (parenthetical) Grammatical Classification of Sentences 1. handed the passenger a small piece of paper. Compound Sentences These sentences have two or more main clauses. (balanced) 6. (complex) . The woman who heard this cliche did not think it was appropriate. it was the worst of times. (periodic) 8. While waiting for the game to begin. The road to hell is paved with good intentions. We tried. Simple Sentences Simple sentences are those with only one main clause and no subordinate clauses. EXAMPLES 1. as hard as we could possibly could. casting his eyes upon the ground. 4. We will decide what to do next after we have received the results.

4. (simple) . and follow the small path to the old house. (compound) 7. (complex) 6. Any fool can be complicated. but it takes a genius to be simple. (compound-complex) 5. In the spring. Turn left where the river ends. After the first snow. we will have each other. No matter where we happen to move. 8. Mark will pack and Doris will find a city where they can live. (compound-complex). they will return.

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