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IMPACT OF JNNURMJNNURMA CASE OF KERALA
Presented by: Tessy Varkey Roll No:10AR60R25 MCP First Year Dept. of Architectural & Regional Planning Under the guidance of Prof. Banhi Chakraborty
DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM
To analyze the impact of JNNURM objectives on Slum Rehabilitation. To compare with other older schemes under Slum Rehabilitation
The comparison and studies undertaken in my report are solely in the context of the state of Kerala.
INTRODUCTION OF TERMINOLOGY
SLUM REHABILITATION : The universal definition of a slum is a heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and unhygienic conditions. Rehabilitation is to rebuild the homes, reunite the community, and re-render the living standards and habits. JNNURM: Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
METHODOLOGY OLDER SLUM REHABILITATION PROJECTS ONE MILLION HOUSING SCHEME SLUM CLEARANCE SCHEME SLUM REHABILITATION PROJECTS UNDER JNNURM BSUP TRIVANDRUM MUNICIPAL CORPORATION IHSDP CHANGANASSERY MUNICIPALITY .
WHO ARE THE POOR .
Slums that are located along the sides of canals. railway margins and water bodies. Provision of basic infrastructure-Roads. these areas can be classified as:Those where in-situ developments are possible. Housing to all poor families. No. Sewerage. Provision of land tenure security. Drainage. Based on the location features and the general population characteristics a detailed CATEGORIZATION OF THE SLUMS can be attempted as follows: Slums that are located in low lying areas. Broadly.VISION AND ROAD MAP FOR BASIC SERVICES TO THE POOR A Slum Free KERALA by the Year 2031 Sl. The nine risk factors of the POVERTY INDEX in urban area Less than 5 cents of land/no land Dilapidated house/no house No sanitary latrine No access to safe drinking water within 150 meters Women headed household No regular employed person in the family Socially disadvantaged groups SC/ST Mentally retarded / disabled / chronically ill member in the family Families without colour TV Any family having 4 or more factors is classified as family at risk. since these locations are critical / vulnerable as they are canal / road / railway margins or floodable areas. Thiruvananthapuram) . Provision of safe drinking water within 150m. Total Sanitation.5 2006-07 80 60 40 30 50 2012 95 90 85 75 85 80 15 50 2020 100 90 90 90 100 100 0 85 2031 100 100 100 100 100 100 0 100 Goals and service outcomes 100% Literacy. Vision outcomes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Literacy (Percentage) Access to school Access to primary health Sanitation (% coverage) Drinking Water (% coverage) Access to housing (% coverage) Incidence of poverty Slums (% of reduction) 25 0. Slums that are located adjacent to sewage and drainage ponds. and Re-location of slums. located in hazardous and vulnerable areas. and Those from where the squatters may have to be ultimately relocated. Access to qualitative and affordable basic services to the poor. Community empowerment through community mobilization and capacity building. (Source: Kudumbashree. and Slums which have a concentration of Scheduled Caste population All these slums and slum like habitats do not have uniform characteristics. Universal access to health care through microinsurance. Slums which have a concentration of fisher folk. Sustainable livelihood to all the urban poor.
ONE MILLION HOUSING SCHEME (1972) .
gov. about 57590 are single houses and 16309 are duplex houses (for 32618 families). Government sanction received.000/. Housing Minister in the 1972 Achutha Menon Ministry. Government has set apart the income from Vishu Bumper Lottery for this purpose. The cost of construction of each house was fixed between Rs. The present condition of most of the houses so constructed are very pathetic without routine repairs and maintenance.000 each. reconstruction of dilapidated twin houses into single units and reconstruction of single houses will be implemented through the Board. A house with 2 rooms and a kitchen within an area of 250 sq.for General Category. Source : http://www. Construct and distribute the houses to the beneficiaries free of cost.00. Rs. .110/. 50.kshb.ft. There were 960 panchayats in the state and it was decided to construct 100 houses in each panchayats. 15036 applications received and 8326 units of 183 Panchayaths were sanctioned by the Board. The entire amount spent for the purchase of land and development of house-sites was received as subsidy from the Government of India.from each allottee. Of this.N. thus making a total target of 96000 units. The Government Subsidy will be 50. 25000 as contribution from Panchayats/NGOs etc.ONE MILLION HOUSES SCHEME Launched by the Government of Kerala under M.. Under the scheme.000 for ST Category.and Rs. Govindan Nair. the panchayats were directed to realize Rs. for common categories 75 percent of the amount as subsidy for SC and 100 percent as subsidy for ST) is being implemented. For beneficiary involvement. A scheme to renovate the single houses at the cost of Rs.1. 25000 as subsidy and Rs. 75000 for SC Category and Rs. The Kerala State Housing Board propose to implement a scheme for the renovation/repair of the single units and also reconstruction of the duplex houses to single houses.in/ RENOVATION OF ONE MILLION HOUSES After 36 years (2008) most of them are in a dilapidated condition. According to the details collected from the Directorate of Panchayats there are a total of 90208 houses under the scheme. 50% of the subsidy amount will be given by KSHB and the balance amount shall be met by the Local Bodies. 1250/. 1500/-.kerala.
SLUM CLEARANCE SCHEME (2001) .
The total number of houses to be built in the colony is 252. There are some clubs for young men and 3 Anganwadis. A space can be made available for the relocation of this market. The wide drain which runs through the colony needs to be considered while effecting improvements in Rajaji Nagar Slum area. This market is located by the roadside and is operated in very unhygienic conditions. An informal daily market is operated in the area where the vendors are mostly the elderly. Chengalchoola (Rajaji Nagar) HOUSING BOARD KERALA STATE The total area is 12 acres. Only the pucca houses have toilets and water supply. The flats are being allotted free of cost to the eligible. has constructed 90 dwelling units and 70 are scheduled for immediate construction. Recently TMC. Being a low lying area located by the side of drainage canal the colony is flooded during monsoons. 700 dwelling units have been constructed by the Kerala State Housing Board (KSHB) of which 200 require intensive maintenance. There are 1042 households with a total population of about 5000.SLUM CLEARANCE SCHEME(2001) : The scheme envisages rehabilitation of slum dwellers in Chengalchoola in Thiruvanathapuram city. . The overspill water often carries sewage and solid wastes. Nearly 182 shacks still remain to be taken up. through COSTFORD.
These can also function as meeting halls and for vocation centres for NHGs. heaps of dirt and litters and garbage thrown around. governmental agencies or by NGOs under any of the schemes provided only bare facilities like one room for sleeping. Environmental Improvement Most of the settlements have very poor environment. In the core city areas sewer lines are to be constructed from within the settlements to the main sewers. Some dwelling units also have more than one household living under the same roof. Connectivity to each house is necessary. 4)Community Centres for use of both men and women. 5)Provision of play fields and organized open spaces for out door activities. The Support Services not available are: 1)Day Care Centres for young children of pre school age 2)Remedial Education Centres for school dropouts and for school going students who need teaching assistance to get through with studies. Roads In all the colonies proper internal roads are absent. Only 45% of the houses have electricity connection. one common room and a kitchen.CONCLUSIONS The common features of all these colonies include the following: The slum dwellers have land rights There are no common facilities for girls or women of any age. At present they suffer in terms of quantity and quality of drinking water supplied. . puddles of water. These centres can also be used as vocational training centres. Drinking Water Supply This is an essential input in improving the quality of life of the slum dwellers. Water supply is mostly from public water supply taps (street fountains) Storm Water Drainage Lack of proper storm water drainage is a serious problem especially in low lying settlements. Sewerage The pollution of the settlements from the overflowing sewage is a serious problem in Chenkalchoola. creates lots of environmental problems. Very few have some clubs for men. In Chenkalchoola where the entire sewage of the city is coming and getting collected for pumping out. These houses are over crowded with as many as 5 to 10 members in a few households. 3)Centre for counseling/ Preventive Health Clinics for people of all age group. Many of them do not have house connections. Housing The dwelling units constructed by government.
the constraints of the current legal and institutional frameworks and the weakness of urban local governments. recognising the economic importance of urbanisation. Renewal and re-development of inner city areas. efficient. In line with this objective. solid waste management. road network. urban transport and redevelopment of old city areas. It is the largest national urban initiative to encourage reforms and fast track planned development of 63 identified cities. the first prime minister of independent India. Planned development of cities including the peri-urban areas. Accelerating the flow of investment into urban infrastructure services. This Mission is a key plank of India s Eleventh Five-Year Plan which seeks to achieve inclusive growth. with a focus on water supply and sanitation. Manmohan Singh on 3 December 2005 It has two sub-missions: the Sub-Mission for Urban Infrastructure and Governance administered by the Ministry of Urban Development. and Universalization of urban services so as to ensure their availability to the urban poor. The scheme was officially inaugurated by the prime minister. community participation and accountability of ULB's/Parastatal agencies towards citizens.JNNURM. and urban corridors. Objectives: The primary objective of the JNNURM is to create economically productive. the Mission focuses on: Integrated development of infrastructure services. equitable and responsive cities.JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION It is a massive city modernisation scheme launched by Government of India. It is named after Jawaharlal Nehru. outgrowths. Securing linkage between asset creation and maintenance for long-run project sustainability. Focus is to be on efficiency in urban infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms. It envisages a total investment of over $20 billion over seven years. the Sub-Mission for Basic Services to the Urban Poor administered by the Ministry of Urban Employment and Poverty Alleviation with a focus on integrated development of slums. .
Source: http://jnnurm.in/ .nic.
BSUP TRIVANDRUM MUNICIPAL CORPORATION .
35 million people reside in urban areas. etc. the urban population has grown five times. community toilets/baths. water supply. Construction and improvements of drains/storm water drains. Mission Objectives 1. Street lighting. As per 2001 estimates. like. Secure effective linkages between asset creation and asset management so that they are not only maintained efficiently but also become selfsustaining over time. etc. 5. Slum improvement and rehabilitation projects. 2. basic services and other related civic amenities with a view to provide utilities to the urban poor. In postindependence era while population of India has grown three times. Houses at affordable costs for slum dwellers/ urban poor/EWS/LIG categories. Focused attention to integrated development of Basic Services to the Urban Poor in the cities covered under the Mission. iii. It constitutes 27. xi. v. Duration of the Mission The duration of the Mission would be seven years beginning from the year 2005-2006. Convergence of health. housing and development of infrastructure projects. i. child care centers.8% of the total population of the country. Scale up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to urban poor.Need for Sub-Mission on Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) under Jawahar Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) As per 2001 population census. Environmental improvement of slums and solid waste management. education and social security schemes for the urban poor NOTE: Land cost will not be financed except for acquisition of private land in the North Eastern States & hilly States. Integrated development of slums. 3. vii. The ever increasing number of slum dwellers causes tremendous pressure on urban basic services and infrastructure. Operation and maintenance of assets created under this component. Projects on water supply/sewerage/drainage. Civic amenities.8 million. Provision of Basic Services to Urban Poor including security of tenure at affordable prices. Ensure adequate investment of funds to fulfill deficiencies in the Basic Services to the Urban Poor. (b) Inadmissible Components Projects pertaining to the following will not be considered : i) Power ii) Telecom iii) Wage employment programme & staff component iv) Creation of fresh employment opportunities . Scope of Mission Programme The main thrust of the sub-Mission on Basic Services to the Urban Poor will be on integrated development of slums through projects for providing shelter. sanitation and ensuring delivery through convergence of other already existing universal services of the Government for education. viii.e. improved housing. 6. iv. community halls.. vi. ix. x. the slum population is estimated to be 61. Mission Components (a) Admissible components:i. 285. Care will be taken to see that the urban poor are provided housing near their place of occupation. health and social security. ii. Projects involving development/ improvement/ maintenance of basic services to the urban poor. 4.
URBAN POOR IN TRIVANDRUM As per the Census of India. URBAN POOR IN TMC The population of urban poor in the City is 120367. wanderers. Various groups who come under the urban poor category. health conditions & medical facilities. Greater participation of the beneficiaries and other stakeholders. The proposals put forward in this DPR adopt and incorporate the general planning strategies stipulated in the CDP prepared by the Corporation. It was an important town during the period of the kingdom of Venad and thenbecame the capital of Travancore state from 1800 AD. socio-economic & engineering aspects of the the colonies. but they depend on the City to make a living and they depend on the City s infrastructure. 2001 ) This accounts for 16. water supply.36 % of the total City population. migrant workers.THIRUVANANTHAPURAM the capital city of Kerala State. . the City area has expanded to 141. 2001. COSTFORD conducted detailed surveys covering topographical. Project Name :Basic Services to the Urban Poor Nodal Agency :Kudumbasree Implementing Agency :Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation METHEDOLOGY: At the outset. and sanitation and drainage systems. pavement dwellers. Studies regarding nature of soil & the movement of storm water during the rainy season were done with respect to the contour levels. This expansion of the City limits included 5 erstwhile adjacent Panchayats to the City. They are not space-specific . access roads.44 lakhs. CENTRE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT (COSTFORD) was entrusted to prepare the DPR for three selected slums within Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation. It is roughly identified that now there are about 355 unnotified slums and slum like housing areas within the city. The engineering surveys covered aspects of housing. has a continuous cultural heritage of more than thousand years. Analysis of these facts and interaction with the residents produced a better understanding of the issues faced by the people living in the colonies. communities & their relationships. electricity. (BPL Survey. data were collected on population & its density. beggars etc. COASTAL AREAS Urban poor are in coastal areas in scattered houses.74 sq km with a total population of 7. In the socio-economic survey. Vendors in the informal sector. education & types of occupations.
Dec 2006) .21 years. Primary Survey) Schematic Section and Plan of Site ± Existing Condition. Existing houses COSTFORD. SURVEY OF EXISTING CONDITIONS a) Population b) Topography c) Housing and Settlement Pattern d) General Environment e) Services Drinking water supply Storm water Sanitation Electric supply Street Lighting Access f) Social Amenities g) Community Facilities h) Social Services i) Sewage Waste Management System Location of Two Cents Colony (Source: COSTFORD. Families rehabilitated by the Railways from railway land at Thampanoor. The site is water-logged and unhygienic. The colony is situated near Chakkai.5 cents. Relatively a new colony .TWO CENTS COLONY Introduction Belongs to the Karikkakom ward. Primary Survey) (Source:General Environment COSTFORD. All are given a title deed of two cents. beside the Parvathy Puthanar canal with a total area of 59. Primary Survey) (Source: Level difference of NH from site (Source: COSTFORD. Primary Survey) Access to Slum COSTFORD. Primary Survey. Primary Survey) (Source: Storm Water Drain (Source: COSTFORD. It was meant for 38 families but only 25 are residing . At present houses have been constructed after infilling.
000/- Schematic Section of the Proposed Pond Proposed filling in the site Sketch of Overall Mechanism . To prevent back flow from Parvathy Puthanar (which happens twice in a year). This canal which is connected to the Parvathy Puthanar should be cleaned on a regular basis. desilted. Number of units to be constructed 21 Cost per unit Rs. so that the road is restored. The existing condition of 11. d) Canal The existing canal is to be cleaned. e) Drains The existing kuccha drain should be properly constructed and covered. f) Housing Of the existing 32 households. A drain will be constructed after the expansion of the existing NH in the future. b) Filling The site is to be filled in order to reduce the problem of water logging.92000/For Renovation Number of units to be renovated 4 Cost per unit Rs 25.DESIGN STRATEGY & PROPOSALS a) Pond To be desilted and excavated at a depth of 2. c) Retaining wall A retaining wall is a necessity to retain the filled earth in the colony. it is expected that the water from NH area will not be flowing into the site. the edges strengthened by providing stone pitching on either side.7% of the households call for immediate maintenance work .5 m to assure proper rain water collection while retaining the existing condition. a drain is proposed to allow overflow when necessary from the pond to the canal. Hence when this is implemented. 50% are shacks made of thatch & sheet and will have to be replaced by new construction.
it is necessary to provide a space for children to come and study even at night. Pathways It is proposed to provide concrete pathways in the colony. The garbage and bio-degradable wastes could be converted into useful electrical energy in the form of street lights and for yard lighting in the landscaped area. The pit would serve to recycle any bio-degradable waste that cannot be channeled into the biogas plant. Compost pit It is proposed to provide a compost pit near the biogas plant. The bio-degradable wastes (excluding sewage) are to be channelized to a biogas plant in the vicinity. Sanitation Connection of the municipal sewerage lines is not feasible as they are located around 3kms away. Street Lighting Bio-gas plant is proposed to generate electric energy for the 4 street lights. BIO-FENCING Continuing the concept of sustainability. Markets. Kiosks TV kiosk SELF SUSTAINING MECHANISMS MODE OF INCOME Public facilities include Community halls. Study Centre As 6. These amounts may be used for the upkeep of the common facilities. it is proposed to include bio-fencing as a feature in the design. A reasonable rent may be collected from the users of these spaces and a nominal amount from the residents. This would contribute to the gradual enrichment of the existing ecosystem along with the benefits of air purification and increased water absorption. etc. Tree planting and Landscaping It is proposed to provide landscaping and tree planting in the common area . It was noted that 20% of the population consisted of children below the age of 5 years. h) Social Amenities Anganwadi The nearest Anganwadi is around 1. which would involve the planting of softwood trees such as Poomaruthu (Queen s flower) and Sheelanthi in designated areas of the colony. Hence leach pits are proposed for sanitary disposal. TREE PLANTING An extensive program of tree planting is proposed.5 km from the colony. . Biogas Plant The bio-degradable wastes (excluding sewage) are to be channelized to a biogas plant. Kiosks. An Anganwadi of 45 Sqm has been proposed for 30 children. This would be in the form of closely placed bougainvillea and lantana hedges. Electric Lines Hence electric line extensions have to be done for 50m to these areas.g) Services Water Supply Water supply line is proposed along the main line with three more public taps. Individual connection be taken at the expense of the beneficiaries. BIOGAS PLANTS The settlement will generate an appreciable quantity of bio-degradable and non biodegradable wastes. They would do away with the problems of wastage and unnecessary expense as is encountered in conventional means of fencing.3% of the population presently goes to schools or colleges. The garbage and biodegradable wastes could be converted into useful electrical energy in the form of street .
NBO .SOURCE: JNNURM PROJECT CELL.
IHSDP CHANGNASSERY MUNICIPALITY .
It is located in the Main Central Road (S. Housing should not be provided as free to the beneficiaries by the State Government. compare to the overall residential density of 65. . CHANGANASSERY is situated at the southern end of Kottayam District. Kudumbashree is the Nodal Agency for IHSDP.80000 per unit .H. Cost of land for such projects will not be provided under the programme and has to be borne by the State Government. Release of central share to nodal agency will depend on availability of state share and submission of utilization certificates in accordance with the provisions of General Financial Rules. Ceiling cost for dwelling unit will be @ Rs. A minimum of 12% beneficiary contribution should be stipulated. State share has to be deposited in a separate account to become eligible for the central grant. 50% of the central grant will be released to the State Nodal Agency after verification of the state share and on signing the tripartite Memorandum of Agreement.1) at a distance of 20km. The basic objective of the scheme is to strive for holistic slum development with a healthy and enabling urban environment by providing adequate shelter and basic infrastructure facilities to the slum dwellers of the identified urban areas. The programme was formulated by combining two erstwhile schemes viz. The funding pattern of IHSDP is 80:20 shared by Central and State Governments.INTEGRATED HOUSING & SLUM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (IHSDP) Integrated Housing and Slums Development Programme (IHSDP) was launched during 2006-07. right at the centre of the former Central Travancore region of Kerala. which in the case of SC/ST/BC/OBC/PH and other weaker sections shall be 10%.mtrs. These slums are with poor housing quality and their residential density varies from 170 persons per hectare to 1157 persons per hectare.91 persons per hectare of Changanassery town. IHSDP is to be implemented in all towns and cities identified as per 2001 census except cities/towns covered under JNNURM. Kottayam and 140km North of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. Minimum floor area of dwelling unit is not less than 25 sq. Central assistance released will go directly to the nodal agency as Additional Central Assistance. The State share (20%) would be equally shared by (10% each) the State government and the Urban Local Self Governments. SLUM POPULATION About 29 slums were identified in different part of the town. south of the District Headquarters. Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) and National Slum Development Programme (NSDP).
CENTRE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT (COSTFORD) was entrusted to prepare the DPR for ten selected slums within Changnassery Municipality. 34. 97. The general wind direction is southwest to northeast . 10. The nearest bus stop is the Fathimapuram. Access to colony Access to the colony is through a 4. 23. 000 /Beneficiary Contribution Location Map Of Fathimapuram Kuzhi Colony Housing (Source: COSTFORD. 400 /SC/ST : Rs 6. 72. 000 /ULB Share : Rs. Description/layout details Schematic Section of Site Extents: The colony covers an area of 20. 400 /Methodology : COSTFORD conducted detailed surveys of topographical. 3.m wide road connecting it to the main road. 57. Dec 2006) Topography : The topography is gently sloping Soil conditions: Laterite soil The vegetation is sparse with few coconut trees and ground cover.3km away. located 0. socio-economic & engineering aspects of the the colonies. FATHIMAPURAM KUZHI COLONY Location It is located on the eastern side of the municipal dumping yard and temple. 81. Dec 2006) General : Rs 13. 68. 2. 000 /State share : Rs. 47. Primary Survey. Primary Survey. 000 /GOI subsidy requirement : Rs. 17.82 cents (Source: COSTFORD. Project Name : Integrated Housing and Slum Development Program Nodal Agency : Kudumbasree Implementing Agency : Changanassery Municipality No of colonies : 10 Total project cost : Rs.
Employment .Of the total employed. These however are not functioning due to improper maintenance and lack of regular water supply. ST community and 16.4% Caste . 6 houses have been provided with an individual water connection. 6 households rely on public toilets. 2 houses are equipped with septic tanks.45% OBC community the rest are general . Primary Survey) Storage Tank (Source: COSTFORD. Outlet points in the form of public taps have been provided and 12 households rely solely on these taps for water supply. The average family size is 4-6 persons Internal roads: There are no defined internal roads. Water supply The water supply for the colony is through GI pipes laid out by the municipality. Primary Survey) .02% SC. Most of the houses lack sanitation facilities. Education 91% of people are educated. b) Services Electricity and street lighting 90% of the houses have electric connection.6% Females-49. Storm water Drainage Adequate storm water drains are not provided within the colony. 11 houses require renovation. only 34% have reached matriculation. 2 houses are equipped with individual wells. Primary Survey) Transformer feeding the colony (Source: COSTFORD. This contains a partially completed Community hall and a temple. The colony does face a problem of acute water shortage with water supply being available only once in 3 days at present. Existing House and Road Condition (Source: COSTFORD. One family in the colony is both homeless and landless. Existing Conditions a) Settlement Housing condition: Total number of houses is 20 inhabited by 20 families 4 houses are in a dilapidated condition. Open areas: a large open space is present adjacent to the dumping yard and the crematoria. 9 households have ring toilets.Population: Total : 79 Male Female ratio : Males-50. 3 households have no toilet facilities as such and the inhabitants are forced to resort to open defecation. Sanitation 15% of the households lack adequate toilet facilities.73% are manual labourers.62. 98. Street lighting in the form of electric lamps have been provided but has been found to be inadequate.
. Number of units to be constructed 4 nos Number of renovations 11 nos b) Common Amenities Community centre : Anganwadi and study centre Health Clinic Community Hall TV Kiosks Kiosks Playground Park Built in seats Bio-fencing Landscaping Tree planting c) Services Water Supply Localized water supply system Storm Water Drains Water Recharge for Community well Sanitation Street Lighting and Electric Supply Biogas Plant. a) Housing Permanent shelters are o be provided for these inhabitants either in the form of apartments or as individual homes.DESIGN STRATEGIES & PROPOSALS An environment friendly approach is adopted to create healthy livable spaces in both the colonies. Generator Room and Garden Lighting Compost pit Smokeless Chula Rainwater harvesting Leach Pit Schematic Section of Colony Design Park & Rainwater Harvesting Scheme Schematic representation of Localized Water supply system.
PROPOSED LAYOUT EXISTING LAYOUT .
TRIVANDRUM MUNICIPAL CORPORATION-PHASE I DPR.html (MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND URBAN POVERTY ALLEVIATION ) http://jnnurm.nic.in/jnnurm_hupa/index.kerala.in/ (KERALA STATE HOUSING BOARD) LITERATURE REVIEW Guidelines for Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) Guidelines for Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) JNNURM brochure KERALA STATE HOUSING BOARD.REFERENCES: DETAILED PROJECT REPORTS: DPR. CHANGANASSERY MUNICIPALITY WEBSITES https://jnnurmmis. BSUP.nic.in/ (JNNURM) http://www. IHSDP.An Overview Trivandrum Municipal Corporation City Development Plan THANK YOU .gov.kshb.
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