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Published by: io8 on Jan 02, 2011
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Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

y Storage devices.

y y y y

Optical drives. Floppy disk. Hard disk. Components of Hard disks. RAID technology. Levels in RAID technology. Summary.

Storage devices
y Some of the storage devices are as follows: 

Optical drives such as floppy disks,CD/DVD Rom  Hard disks.

Floppy disk drives. FLOPPY DISK .

CD/DVD drives .

.  Landing Zone. y They are specified by numerical values such as:  Heads.  Cylinders.Geometry of hard disk y Hard disk is an organization of data on the platters.  Write precompensation.  Sectors per track. y It shows where the data will be stored in each platters.

o o Platters and Media Read/Write Heads o Head Sliders.Components of Hard disk. Arms and Actuator o Spindle Motor o Connectors and Jumpers o Logic Board o Integrated Cache .

.Sectors per track.

y IDE(ATA/PATA). y SATA Hard disk.Types of Hard disk y SCSI Hard disk. .

Some of the IDE hard disk are as follows: y ATA-1 y ATAPI (ATA Packet Interface) y ATA-2 y ATA-3: y ATA/ATAPI-4 y ATA/ATAPI-5: y Enhanced IDE (EIDE y Fast ATA y Ultra ATA .IDE(Integrated Drive Electronics) y IDE is older type of Hard disk . It is also called ATA/PATA hard disk.

SATA(Serial ATA Hard disk) y SATA is latest technology that is replaced by PATA/ATA hard disk. y SATA has several advantages over PATA they are as follows:  Superior cabling and connectors.  Greater reliability. .  Higher bandwidth.

.  Ability to dairy chain many drivers on computer.SCSI(Small Computers System Interface) y These hard disks are used in workstations and servers because of following advantages:  Improved performance over IDE and SATA in multitasking and multiuser environment.

.RAID(Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk) y RAID is the method in which information is spread across several hard disk and maximize the ability to recover information in case of hard disk crash.

. Error detection is done by parity checking . Striping refers to splitting of data across multiple hard disks. i.Some Information about RAID technology Mirroring refers to copying of data to multiple hard disks. ii. Error correction refers to detecting hard disk failures and recovering from the failures. iii.

Different levels of RAID are as follows: y RAID 0 y RAID 1 y RAID 3 y RAID 4 y RAID 5 y RAID 6 y RAID 10 y RAID 53 .

RAID 0 level  RAID 0 level specifies data stripping.  It means that data will split up into several smaller parts without any parity. It requires minimum 2 number of hard disks to operate. RAID 0 level provides good performance over single disk storage. .

RAID 1 level  Specifies data Mirroring(same copy of data in all hard disks) but without any parity. .  This means data is copied to multiple disk but there is no error correction of RAID1 level like RAID 0 level also requires at least two hard disk drivers.

 If any data is lost then we can recover the whole data with the help of parity bit. If any data is lost then we can recover disk.  Minimum 2 HDD is required .)  RAID 2 level suggests data is split across multiple hard disk with parity bit is stored in the same hard disk .RAID 2 level (Stripping with parity.

y Minimum 3 HDD is required for building RAID3 level . This means RAID 3 level generates parity and dedicated one of its hard disk drive for storing the parity information.RAID3 level y RAID 3 level specifies data stripping with dedicated parity disk . .

RAID 3: XOR y Exit Hamming Code. Enter XOR (eXclusive OR) XOR Logic Table A XOR B Result 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 y XOR in Action: 01012 XOR 00112 = 01102 0 1 1 If ????2 XOR 11002 = 01102. Then 11002 XOR 01102 = ????2 = 10102 Thus we can use XOR results to recover lost data .

RAID 3: Pros and Cons Advantages: y High Read/Write Transfer Rates y Disk failures don t slow the system y Low Ratio of Data Disks to Parity Disks Disadvantages: y Transaction rate slowed by Parity Disk y Complex Controller Design y Software Implementation y Resource Intensive .

RAID 3: Uses y Video Production y High-end Video and Image Editing y Other uses that require high throughput of data .

RAID 4 level y RAID 4 level is similar to RAID 3 except with a difference . . The difference is that :  In RAID 3 we stripes data one byte at time.  Whereas RAID 4 strips data in blocks.

low write situations y Inefficient data recovery y Even more Complex Controller Design than RAID 3 *Has most of the other Advantages and Disadvantages of RAID 3 . and other high read.RAID 4: Uses Advantages: y Very high read rates y Disadvantages: y Very slow write rates y Multiple files read at once Even small writes fill up parity write queue Uses: y Web Servers.

 RAID 3-Stripping with dedicated parity.  RAID 4-Block level parity.  RAID 1-Mirroring. The advantages are as follows:  RAID 0-Stripping. . Therefore . RAID 5 level has got highest popularity as it uses all the level and it is used widely.  RAID 2-Stripping bit level parity.RAID 5 level y RAID 5 took all the advantages from RAID 0-RAID 4 and build up this technology .

RAID 5 y Highest Read data transaction rate y Medium Write data transaction rate y Most complex controller design y Used For Server Applications. .

RAID 10 Characterized by: .high implementation cost .each drive duplicated .

RAID 10 y Uses multiple (mirrored) RAID 1 in a single array y Data striped across all mirrored sets y Very high fault tolerance y High performance rate .

How are the HDD are designed in RAID technologies .

. Disk stripping is also a hot topic when we discuss about the RAID drives. y The mirroring is the complete duplication of the data.Advantages of RAID y The foremost advantage of using a RAID drive is that it increases the performance and reliability of the system. y The RAID drive is a credible example that could be used in a server. y The performance is much highlighting and increases a lot when the disk stripping is done. Or in the other sense the mirroring is the 100% duplication of the data on two drives. y The RAID increases the parity check and thus it regularly checks for any possibility of a system crash.

y Hence the major fact and also the most important usage of the RAID system is that it is essentially designed and extensively used in a server.Disadvantages of Raid y A major disadvantage regarding the RAID drive is that there needs to be written the drivers for a Network Operating System (NOS). y The ability to dynamically enlarge the RAID server is also complex process. y Another disadvantage regarding the RAID is that it is very much difficult for an administrator to configure the RAID system. especially for those administrators who are the IS managers and also the LAN administrators. .

Summary RAID level Mirroring 0 No 1 Yes Striping Block No Parity No Min . 3 4 No No Byte Block 5 No Block . Dedicated 3 Larger blocks improve performance. 32No 2 Requires double capacity but fastest protected solution. but lacks data protection. Dedicated 3 Distributes each block across disks. Dedicated parity disk is potential bottleneck. Distributed 3 Eliminates parity bottleneck. drives Key features 2 Fastest.

Thank you ANJAN KUAMR.B. Pintunath . -Guided by Mr. .

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