Vibration Analysis Services

FES Systems Inc.

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FES Systems Inc.

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What is Vibration?

Vibration is the movement of a body about its reference position. Vibration occurs because of an excitation force that causes motion.
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Vibration Terms FES Systems Inc. 4 .

re overall vibration tim e low fre q. cy en qu fre Individual vibration signals combine to form a complex time waveform showing overall vibration complex time waveform FES Systems Inc.Time Waveform Analysis hf hig q. 5 .

6 . – includes a combination of all vibration signals within measured frequency range – does not include vibration signals outside measured frequency range – produces a numerical value FES Systems Inc.Overall Vibration The total vibration energy measured within a specific frequency range.

1X amplitude 2X 3X 4X frequency FES Systems Inc. – Vibration frequency indicates the source of the problem. Frequency – Vibration amplitude indicates the severity of the problem. 7 .Amplitude vs.

Vibration- Measurable Characteristics
Velocity is the first derivative of displacement as a function of time, it is the rate of change in displacement (the speed of the vibration). Acceleration is the second derivative of displacement, it is the rate of change of velocity (the change in speed of the vibration).

0

90

Acceleration

180

Velocity

270

Displacement

360

Time
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Scale Factors
– When comparing overall vibration signals, it is imperative that both signals be measured on the same frequency range and with the same scale factors. NOTE: RMS is .707 of peak.

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Measurements & Units
Displacement (Distance)
mils or micrometer, mm

Velocity (Speed - Rate of change of displcmt)
in/sec or mm/sec

Acceleration (Rate of change of velocity)
G’s or in/sec2 or mm/sec2

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Lines of Resolution Individual Vertical Lines or Bins Located Adjacent to One Another Along the Frequency Axis. 7200 CPM 7200 CPM 3570 CPM Amplitude Amplitude Frequency in CPM Frequency in CPM FES Systems Inc. Each Bin is used to Store Individual Amplitude at a Specific Frequency Location. 3570 CPM 11 .

Accelerometers • Rugged Devices • Operate in Wide Frequency Range (Near 0 to above 40 kHz) • Good High Frequency Response • Some Models Suitable For High Temperature • Require Additional Electronics (may be built into the sensor housing) FES Systems Inc. 12 .

13 .500 Hz) • Self Generating Devices FES Systems Inc.Velocity Sensors • Often Measure Bearing Housings or Machinery Casing Vibration • Effective in Low to Mid Frequency Range (10 Hz to around 1.

14 .Displacement Probe/Eddy Probe • Measure Relative Distance Between Two (2) Surfaces • Accurate Low Frequency Response FES Systems Inc.

6091 LOAD = 100. events (imbalance.Model 32L S/N AB10099P #2 West -C3H Compressor Inboard Horizontal Route Spectrum 06-Feb-01 14:02:05 OVRALL= . events (bearing faults.83 Reference Env/Prf-Std 0. RPS = 49.40 . low freq.19 LOAD = 100.32 PK Velocity in In/Sec 4 PK Acceleration in G-s 0.Multi-Parameter Monitoring Same Data in Velocity and Acceleration 0.) show best in the velocity spectrum.0 RPM = 2990.83 Reference Env/Prf-Std 5 FES Model 32L S/N AB10099P #2 W est -C3H Compressor Inboard H orizontal Route Spectrum 06-Feb-01 14:02:05 OVR ALL= . misalignment.08 1 0 0 40 80 120 160 Frequency in kCPM 200 240 0 0 40 80 120 160 Frequency in kCPM 200 240 Velocity Spectrum On the same bearing.6123 V-DG PK = . gearmesh) show best in the acceleration spectrum Acceleration Spectrum FES Systems Inc. 15 .24 3 0. while high freq. RPS = 49.0 RPM = 2990.6123 V-DG PK = 8. etc.16 2 0.

000 Common Machinery Operating Range Frequency (Hz) FES Systems Inc. 16 . g’s) Velocity (in/sec) 0.Sensor Relationships 100 Displacement (mils) 10 Acceleration (g's) Amplitude 1.01 10 100 1.0 (mils. in/sec.1 1 0.000 10.

Resonance typically 10% or greater FES Systems Inc. 17 .

Detection vs. FES Systems Inc. and to its root cause. analyzing exceptional measurements provides insight to the problem itself. Analysis Once detected. Analysis Detection Alarm limits are established for each measurement. the predictive maintenance software or data collector notifies the analyst of a problem. 18 . When the measurement’s value exceeds its programmed alarm limits.

60 Hz.e. Two pole motors will always display a 2X line frequency peak. Electric motors always have frequency peaks at shaft rotational speed and at line frequency i.Important Frequency Peaks Rotational Speed or Even Multiples Always present but excessive amplitude or multiple harmonics can indicate a problem. FES Systems Inc. 19 .

gas pulsation frequency(cpm) occurs at [No.Important Frequency Peaks Gas Pulsation Frequencies Screw compressors . of lobes on male rotor] X [ rotational speed (RPM)] Pumps or fans . lobes or blades] X [ rotational speed (RPM)] Recip.gas pulsation frequency (cpm) occurs at [No.fluid pulsation frequency(cpm) occurs at [No. 20 . of vanes. of pistons] x [ rotational speed (RPM)] Harmonics or even multiples (2X and 3X) of gas pulsation frequencies always present and are most noticeable on oil separator vessels. FES Systems Inc. Compressors .

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Setting Up the Measurement Physical Considerations – – – – – Selecting the Machinery Selecting Measurement Planes Selecting Sensor Locations Surface Preparation Sensor Mounting Techniques Database Considerations – – – – FES Systems Inc. Parameters (multi-parameters) Alarm Limits Setting Fmax Scale Factors 22 .

however. or machine performance creates an unsafe environment Essential Spared . production is disrupted Non Essential Spared . production is stopped.If a failure or shutdown occurs. a spare unit can be brought on-line. production loss is inconvenienced.If a failure or shutdown occurs. 23 . or a repair can bring the production unit back on-line without significant loss of production FES Systems Inc.Selecting the Machinery Critical .If a failure or shutdown occurs.

Thinking Ahead Walk Through Machinery Data Sheets FES Systems Inc. 24 .

25 .Measurement Planes radial – vertical – horizontal axial FES Systems Inc.

26 .Sensor Location (qualifying and identifying) Measurement POINT numbering follows flow of power: Motor Non-Driven End (NDE) Motor Driven End (DE) Compressor Driven End (DE) Compressor Non-Driven End (NDE) FES Systems Inc.

Air gaps will skew vibration readings.Sensor Location The accelerometer must be located over the bearing of interest. 27 . FES Systems Inc. Avoid air gaps in housings whenever possible.

Sensor Location FES Systems Inc. 28 .

29 .Mounting Methods FES Systems Inc.

Hand-held/Probe Mounting Rapid and convenient. Use only as a last resort. Subject to many sources of error. 30 . FES Systems Inc.

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32 .Types of Alarms Overall Vibration Limits Spectral Enveloping Spectral Bands Phase Alarms FES Systems Inc.

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Some engineering evaluation should be conducted to determine this.0 ips RMS would be cause for concern though actual stress values induced by the vibration may be quite low and no corrective action needed.3 ips RMS would be cause for concern For piping and valves overall readings exceeding 1. 34 .Acceptable Vibration Levels Tables are published that show overall vibration levels as a function of rotational speed or vibration frequency for the purpose of determining whether vibration levels are acceptable. FES Systems Inc. As a general rule for compressors operating at 3600 RPM an overall vibration level of 0.

ISO Guidelines ISO 2372 overall velocity vibration guidelines FES Systems Inc. 35 .

in/sec (peak) . 36 velocity .Gs (peak) Assessing Overall Vibration Severity Frequency .acceleration .CPM FES Systems Inc.

06350 Date: 11-AUG-95 ALERT WARNING FES Systems Inc.04 0 0 100 200 300 400 Days: 11-AUG-95 To 11-DEC-96 500 VIB .HORIZONTAL Trend Display of FAULT OVERALL VALUE -.Alignment Fault ALIGNMENT -M1H MOTOR OUTBOARD BRG.20 PK Velocity in In/Sec 0. 37 .Baseline -Value: .Overall Vibration Trend Plot 0.16 0.24 0. .08 0.12 0.

3257 LOAD = 100.25 0.40 0.Balance Fault BALANCE -M2A MOTOR INBOARD AXIAL Route Spectrum 14-MAR-96 12:10:26 OVRALL= .3260 V-DG PK = .05 0 0 400 800 1200 Frequency in Hz 1600 2000 VIB .20 0.10 0. RPS = 29.35 PK Velocity in In/Sec 0.0 RPM = 1777.30 0.15 0.62 Reference Envelope alarm is triggered FES Systems Inc. 38 .Spectral Enveloping 0.

39 .Machine #6 (Various Setups) MACH#6 -PPH PEAK PHASE DATA 0 Correlation Display Phase vs Peak Data Period: 26-Dec-96 To 28-Dec-96 2.500 90 270 180 Peak FES Systems Inc.Phase Alarms A2 .

should be used to to measure vibration mils displacement.Acceptable Vibration Levels Motor and compressors with sleeve bearings do notnot lend Motor and compressors with sleeve bearings do lend themselves well to to readings with accelerometers and for themselves well readings with accelerometers and for dependable information a device such as a proximity probe dependable information a device such as a proximity probe should be used measure vibration in in mils displacement. Probes should be oriented in two planes 90 ° apart and Probes should be oriented in two planes 90 bearingand ° apart clearance. displacement cannot exceed the shaft to displacement cannot exceed the shaft to bearing clearance. 40 . FES Systems Inc.

41 .25 ips RMS RMS Rotational speed 1X.27 ips RMS RMS Gas Pulsation at compr.Acceptable Vibration Levels For Individual spectrum peaks limits are set by their perceived For Individual spectrum peaks limits are set by their cause but some general limits are shown below: perceived cause but some general limits are shown below: Compressors: Compressors: Rotational speed 1X. 2X. 2X.15 ips RMS Roller bearings 2. 3X 0.5 g’s Roller bearings (2000-3000 Hz) 2.27 ips Bearing fault frequencies 0.5 g’s FES Systems Inc. 0.15 ips RMS Bearing fault (2000-3000 Hz) frequencies 0. 3X 0.25 ips Gas Pulsation at compressor 0.

2X Bearing fault frequencies 0. 2X.Acceptable Vibration Levels Motors: Rotational Speed 1X. 0.25 ips RMS Line Frequency 1X.13 ips RMS Motors: Bearing fault frequencies 3X 0.13 ips RMS 0.15 ips RMS Rotational Speed 1X.25 ips RMS Line Frequency 1X. 2X 0. 42 . 2X. 3X 0.15 ips RMS FES Systems Inc.

Readings-How Often? •At start up . • Anytime an unusual noise or vibration is noticed. trend observed.Baseline •Six months after start up unless aaproblem is is suspected. extend the time before an internal inspection required. After • Six months after start up unless problem suspected. 43 . FES Systems Inc. •Anytime an unusual noise or vibration is noticed. After that every 66month to one year after that unless aa deteriorating that every month to one year after that unless deteriorating trend isisobserved. • At 25000 hours readings should be taken every three months •At 25000 hours readings should be taken every three months toto extendthe time before an internal inspection isis required.Baseline • At start up .

Spectrum Analysis Techniques Collect Useful Information Analyze 500 HP/3570 RPM Motor Model 23LE C3 C4 C2 M1 M2 C1 C FES Systems Inc. 44 .

Spectrum Analysis Techniques Some compressors have a combination of sleeve bearings and ball thrust bearings that require different analysis techniques. FES Model GL Series Compressors Thrust and Sleeve Bearing Location Sleeve Bearing Location FES Systems Inc. 45 .

46 . clearances were set to specifications. Illustrated Vibration Chart FES Systems Inc.Sleeve Bearing Wear Pattern Latter stages of journal bearing wear are normally evidenced by presence of whole series of running speed harmonics (up to 10 or 20). but may show only one pronounced peak at 1X RPM. Wiped journal bearings often will allow high vertical amplitudes compared to horizontal. Journal bearings with excessive clearance may allow a minor unbalance and/or misalignment to cause high vibration which would be much lower if bearing Source: Technical Associates Inc.

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contaminated Excessive Load Caused by: ..Why Do Bearings Fail? Inadequate Lubrication . Spall On Outer Race Improper Handling or Installation Age FES Systems Inc.too little ...bent shaft .imbalance . 48 .misalignment .etc.too much ..

Typical Bearing Failure Rate FES Systems Inc. 49 .

Bearing Defect Frequencies BPFO Ball Pass Frequency Outer Race BPFI Ball Pass Frequency Inner Race BSF Ball Spin Frequency FTF Cage Frequency or Fundamental Train Frequency FES Systems Inc. 50 .

grow and also develop sidebands FES Systems Inc. fundamental freqs. 51 .” frequency range defect’s “harmonic” frequency range Stage 3 Defect’s fundamental frequencies also appear and may exhibit sidebands Stage 4 Defect’s harmonic frequencies develop multiple sidebands (haystack).Bearing Failure Stages Stage 1 No apparent change on typical velocity spectrum Stage 2 Defect’s harmonic frequencies appear defect’s “fund.

2506 LOAD = 100.6 Ordr: 43.HORIZONTAL Route Spectrum 01-AUG-96 15:15:26 OVRALL= .Sidebands 0.02417 Dfrq: 120. 52 .06 0. .84 Spec: .02 0 0 1000 2000 Frequency in Hz 3000 4000 Freq: 2634.19 VIB .10 FES Systems Inc.Alignment Fault ALIGNMENT -M2H MOTOR INBOARD BRG.0665 V-DG RMS = . RPS = 60.08 0.04 0.14 RMS Acceleration in G-s 0.10 0.0 RPM = 3606.12 0.

01 0 0 VIB . 53 .06 0.960 Spec: .0665 V-DG PK = .05 PK Velocity in In/Sec 0.HORIZONTAL Route Spectrum 01-AUG-96 15:15:26 OVRALL= .10 Harmonics 1000 2000 Frequency in Hz 3000 4000 Freq: 57.0660 LOAD = 100. RPS = 60. .0.69 Ordr: .02572 FES Systems Inc.0 RPM = 3606.03 0.Alignment Fault ALIGNMENT -M2H MOTOR INBOARD BRG.02 0.04 0.

02589 01-AUG-96 15:15:26 RPM= 3550.Waterfall Plot VIB .0456 PK Velocity in In/Sec 0 11-DEC-96 21-NOV-96 28-OCT-96 30-SEP-96 05-SEP-96 01-AUG-96 0 1000 2000 Frequency in Hz 3000 4000 Freq: 57. . FES Systems Inc.69 Ordr: .05 Max Amp .Alignment Fault ALIGNMENT -M2H MOTOR INBOARD BRG.HORIZONTAL 0.975 Sp 1: . 54 .

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56 . Source: Technical Associates Inc. Shorted stator laminations can cause uneven. Soft foot and warped bases can produce an eccentric stator.Stator problems generate high vibration at 2X line frequency (2FL). Loose iron is due to stator support weakness or looseness. Differential Air Gap should not exceed 5% for induction motors and 10% for synchronous motors. Stator eccentricity produces uneven stationary air gap between rotor and stator which produces very directional vibration. This produces thermally-induced vibration which can significantly grow with operating time causing stator distortion and static air gap problems. localized heating which can distort the stator itself. Illustrated Vibration Chart FES Systems Inc.

FP appears itself at low frequency (Pole Pass Frequency = Slip Frequency X #Poles).0 Hz). Soft foot or misalignment often induces a variable air gap due to distortion (actually a mechanical problem.Eccentric Rotors produce a rotating variable air gap between the rotor and stator which induces pulsating vibration (normally between 2FL and closest running speed harmonic). Illustrated Vibration Chart FES Systems Inc. not electrical). as well as FP sidebands around running speed. Eccentric rotors generate 2FL surrounded by Pole Pass frequency sidebands (FP). Often requires "zoom" spectrum to separate 2FL and running speed harmonic. Common values of FP range from about 20 to 120 CPM (0.2. Source: Technical Associates Inc.3 . 57 .

these problems generate FP sidebands around the second. or shorted rotor laminations will produce high 1X running speed vibration with pole pass frequency sidebands (FP). Source: Technical Associates Inc. fourth and fifth running speed harmonics. 58 . Illustrated Vibration Chart FES Systems Inc.Broken or Cracked rotor bars or shorting rings. In addition. bad joints between rotor bars and shorting rings. third.

Often will cause high levels at 2X RBPF. Source: Technical Associates Inc. 59 . with only a small amplitude at 1X RBPF. but little or no increase in amplitudes at 1X RBPF. Illustrated Vibration Chart FES Systems Inc. Electrically induced arcing between loose rotor bars and end rings will often show high levels at 2X RBPF (with 2FL sidebands).Loose or open rotor bars are indicated by 2X line frequency (2FL) sidebands surrounding Rotor Bar Pass Frequency (RBPF) and/or its harmonics (RBPF = Number of Bars X RPM).

60 .Phasing problems due to loose or broken connectors can cause excessive vibration at 2X Line Frequency (2FL) which will have sidebands around it spaced at 1/3 Line Frequency (1/3 FL). Loose or broken connectors must be repaired to prevent catastrophic failure. Levels at 2FL can exceed 1. This is particularly a problem if the defective connector is only sporadically making contact. Source: Technical Associates Inc.0 in/sec if left uncorrected. Illustrated Vibration Chart FES Systems Inc.

0 RPM = 3579.3045 V-DG PK = .08 0 0 8000 16000 Frequency in CPM 24000 Freq: Ordr: Spec: 7200.16 0.32 PK Velocity in In/Sec 0.0.283 The 2x Line frequency on this motor is . FES Systems Inc. 61 .64 Reference Env/Prf-Std 0.RAM 700 HP Motor Test1 RAM TEST 1-M2L Mot. Inboard Horiz.283 in/sec.012 ./2X Line Freq Route Spectrum 10-Apr-01 08:20:35 OVRALL= . this indicates a stator eccentricity problem.24 0.3028 LOAD = 100. RPS = 59.0 2.40 Dosk . The spectrum was taken at 6400 lines of resolution.

0.RAM 700 HP Motor Test1 RAM TEST 1-M2L Mot.2922 LOAD = 100. 62 .3045 V-DG PK = .64 Reference Env/Prf-Std 0.012 . Inboard Horiz.16 0.32 2 x Line Freq.40 Dosk . The data collector must be set The 2 x Line F number of lines of resolution to separate these two frequencies to a sufficient FES Systems Inc.0 RPM = 3579. PK Velocity in In/Sec 0.08 7140 RPM 2x turning speed 0 6800 7000 7200 Frequency in CPM 7400 7600 Freq: Ordr: Spec: 7200.283 The 2 x Line Frequency must be separated from 2 x turning speed to determine rotor or stator problems.24 0.0 2./2X Line Freq Route Spectrum 10-Apr-01 08:20:35 OVRALL= . RPS = 59.

The rotor bar pass frequency has penetrated the narrow band alarm. 63 . FES Systems Inc.Vibration analysis can be used to determine rotor problems in motors.

Vibration Analysis Services FES Systems Inc. 64 .

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