CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Nowadays, in modern society, English becomes more important as a tool of communication. English as a global language sets the important role in teaching English at school from elementary school until senior high school and even in university. From these facts, students are not only expected to speak English fluently but they also have to be able to fulfill four language skills; speaking, writing, reading, and listening. These four skills are integrated and related to each other. Based on curriculum KTSP, all skills in teaching and learning English that are integrated each other must be learnt and taught by both students and teacher, including writing skill. Writing will help students mastering the other skills and of course in mastery English completely. The students are sometimes afraid and shy to speak what they want to say but they can tell what they think and what they want to say into draft or writing before speaking. Thus, if students are having problem in expressing an idea, he/she can write it down. Then, student itself or possibly the reader will understand it. While, there are still some teachers who haven’t given their attention on this case completely. If teacher want to help the students to be a good writer in English, he / she must be able to teach writing effectively in the classroom.

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Teaching writing is always related to how to give feedback directly or indirectly on writing in a good way, especially by the teacher. Roger (2001) tells that some feedback from teacher serves unhelpful feedback to student; they are too generalized or unclear, subjective and focused on some aspect of performance that make the students cannot change. That is why giving feedback to students’ writing is important skill that is seldom taught. Through feedback, we can help students compare their own performance with the ideal and to diagnose their own strength and weaknesses. Feedback that is given directly or indirectly can improve student’s writing. But there will always be of what feedback will give the best impact of the improvement toward the students’ writing itself not only in the short time but also in a long time of their life. The researcher thinks indirect feedback is one of positive support that can be given by an English teacher to their students in order to improve students’ writing and minimize their errors. Beside that there are some reasons why indirect feedback is so helpful for the students’ writing, it is because oral/direct feedback can be durable, but it will keep only in mind of receiver and the feedback can just lost in certain time. In contrast, the indirect feedback, the thought and comment will be saved for a very long time in the memories. Indirect feedback will be read and resistant. The researcher did preliminary class observation to find the problem in class X1 SMA Negeri 9 Kendari. The researcher had got a fact about the performance of

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teaching writing in SMA Negeri 9 Kendari. In this school, the students had problem in writing a text because they learnt writing without using a good approach and treatment. They were just asked to write a composition based on the picture or topic that had been prepared in the text book without checking their ability in mastery aspects of writing. The students didn’t understand about certain instruction of text for example the generic structure of the text, purposes and the language feature of the text. The students also didn’t really know how to correct their own writing because they had gotten the correct answer from their mistakes, but most of the corrections only for the correction in punctuation and spelling without giving correction in organization, language use, content of writing, and vocabulary. In addition, they couldn’t evaluate their own writing because they haven’t trained to do so because the teacher hadn’t had a good approach or strategy to make their writing better. Using teacher’s indirect feedback might be a starting point to start the improvement for students’ ability in writing. Because the researcher thinks that the evaluation in writing process in classroom should be started by the teacher first before it can affect the students’ ability to evaluate their writing by themselves. Total students in X1 are 38 students and after doing the pre-observation, the researcher got 30 students who had problem to compose writing in a good organization and language use. The researcher assumes that the problem can be solved by this technique and the students also can improve their writing ability

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The reason why the researcher wanted to do her study in this school. the researcher observed in SMAN 9 Kendari. the researcher interested to investigate whether indirect feedback from their teacher would affect and increase their writing or not. Based on that. 1.3 Objectives of The Study The objectives of the study referred two main issues: It can add the students’ and teacher’s knowledge about how to give comments/constructive feedback indirectly to writing 4 . because it is a new school that has just registered as a senior high school in kendari in 2003 and opened the opportunity to do more study or research in this school. the researcher had got some problem related to her study in this School and wants to solve it. the problem that came up in this study was formulated as follow: “Is teacher’s indirect feedback able to improve students’ writing ability in part of organization and language use aspect on the first grader in SMAN 9 Kendari?” 1.2 Problem Statement Based on the background above. The researcher in doing her action put the target on the first grade students in SMA Negeri 9 Kendari with the purpose of students were able to write a composition better than before and to apply their knowledge into writing text. Moreover. To support this study.through the teacher’s feedback before being able to correct the mistakes by themselves.

5 Assumption The researcher had an assumption that Teacher’s feedback indirectly on students’ writing is effective for developing and promoting students' English writing skill.7 Scope of The Study Specifically. this study investigated whether students’ writing ability improve or not under teacher‘s feedback. All students’ compositions 5 . While. 1. 1. this study could be a thinking contribution in improving teacher’s quality in giving indirect feedback. 1. As information to another researcher who investigate the same problem deeply. the type of feedback provided was indirect feedback that was given on students’ writing. the students’ writing ability will improve. For students: the student were hoped to be able to correct their own writing independently. 1.- To investigate the increasing of students’ writing trough the teacher’s indirect feedback.6 Action Hypothesis Based on the context of the study.4 Significant of The Study For teacher. the hypothesis that proposed in this study was if the teacher applies indirect feedback strategy in connecting of student’s paper.

1995).” 6 . which results in action. This study focused on the students on the first grade of SMU Negeri 9 Kendari academic year 2007/2008. The reason why the researcher focused only two aspects because based on pre-observation. Those were language use and organization. so that they may take action based on the findings. Action researchers typically triangulate data. the researcher found that most of students had problem on those aspects of writing and the students can improve their ability in writing if the teacher help them to give the constructive feedback. 1. The text type was descriptive text.8 . using both quantitative and qualitative data sources.were assessed based on two aspect of evaluation in writing. Results are shared with those directly affected. Kepner (1991: 141) defines feedback in general as “any procedures uses to inform a learner whether an instructional response is right or wrong. In comparison to traditional research which aims to generalize its findings. For the purpose of the assignment however “feedback” will strictly refer to indirect feedback given by teacher as response to their writing. action research is primarily concerned with relevance to the specific site in which it occurs (Hitchcock & Hughes. Definition of Term Action research is applied research done to answer a specific practical problem. In the pre-observation the first grade class which had problem was X1.

1996). or indirectly by indicating in the margins that there is an error on that line but without providing the correct form. it involves ideas. discovering how to organize them and discovering what you want to put on your reader. - Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like or to provide enough vivid detail to help the reader create a mental picture of what is being written about (Martin in Grabe and Kaplan. 1981: 60) 7 . organization. vocabulary. highlighting or circling. (Lee. Writing is a thinking process (White. 2004) - Writing is a discovery process. - Students’ writing ability refers to the students’ competence in applying the components of writing were content. 1987:1).- Indirect feedback is provided if the teacher indicates the location of the error indirectly on the paper by underlining. language use (grammar) and mechanic (Jacob.

However. the Role of Teacher in Giving Indirect Feedback to Students’ writing. Feedback.CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter presents some actual theories as references to support this study. Yet many teacher and students alike consider writing to be most difficult subject of language skill to learn. speaking and listening. So. 2002: 13) The teaching of writing is a matter of prescribing a set of predetermined tasks or exercises to the students. (Senduk in hasyim. writing should get much attention as reading. Teaching Writing. The Assessment Technique of Students’ Writing.1 Teaching Writing Writing is one of important skills that language learners need to learn as an essential component not only for their academic practice but also later in their professional life. but also need a serious attention of how to write English sentences grammatically and systematically. many teachers agree that in the classroom. and Review of Related Studies. Overview of Process in Descriptive Writing. Stages in Writing. 2. It contains at the following sections. teaching writing will be 8 . Teaching or learning how to write successfully gets even more complicated and challenged for both language teachers and students. When teachers teach writing course not only teach about how to develop ideas in writing.

In this section. In assessing writing. When they apply the criteria.good if depends on the teachers' ability how to teach writing effectively which can make the students’ ability being improved. they become better informed about the requirements of good writing (for specific genres) and Provide students with a language for discussing their writing. In teaching writing. teacher should respond to writing based on criteria that have been communicated and taught to students and responses to errors. 9 . in improving the effectiveness of writing. there are some important notes must be noticed in teaching writing and assessment. the teaching should engage students in peer /self-evaluation. usually with the objective of improving their performance”. Feedback is kind of assessment that concern to the giving information about students’ writing performance. 2.2 Feedback One of the ways to make students be able to create good writing is the teacher should provide constructive feedback to their writing. According to Lee (2005). the writer wants to explain what kind of feedback that important to students’ writing. feedback is information that is given to the learner about his or her performance of the learning task. To respond the error teacher can use a feedback that contains specific criteria for the writing task and criteria that have been taught and communicated to the learners. the advantages and disadvantages of the feedback itself. Ur (1996: 242) says that “in the context of teaching general.

In addition, Roger (2001) says “Feedback is not just about weaknesses. Student will respond if teachers are encouraging as well as allowing mistakes, emerging capabilities, and give ideas for directing further learning”. From these definitions, it is clear that feedback is very useful in teaching and learning process, besides students will learn how to evaluate their self (self-evaluate), it also help students to take greater confidence of their learning and increasing the students’ performance. In providing feedback, teacher should encourage students to continue writing, in order students feel good with their writing and carry the activity through completion (Grabe and Kaplan, 1996 : 275). So, in process writing teacher must motivate students to do more toward their writing. 2.2.1 Types of Teacher’s Feedback Feedback consists of some types. One of them is teacher’s

feedback/correction. Feedback from teacher on the students’ writing could play a vital role especially in teaching process. In this case, teacher recognizes that teachers’ feedback is essential element in helping students improve, and an essential part of the teaching process (Anderson, 1982). It indicates that under teacher’s feedback, students will know the appropriate of the language feature for their composition, how their composition should be arranged and their composition will be better. There are two kinds of teacher’s feedback; they are direct and indirect feedback. Direct feedback is a technique of correcting students’ error by giving

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explicit written feedback. While, indirect feedback is when the teacher/tutor alerts students to error using general comments, but gives students the opportunity to fix errors themselves (Ferris, 2002 : 19). Lee (2005) defines Direct feedback is provided when the correct form is written on student’s paper whereas indirect feedback is provided if the teacher indicates the location of the error indirectly on the paper by underlining, highlighting or circling, or indirectly by indicating in the margins that there is an error on that line but without providing the correct form. 2.2.2 Direct Feedback Vs. Indirect feedback Although there are some types of feedback, there must be the difference when using direct or indirect feedback on students’ writing. Frodesen (2001) notes that indirect feedback is more useful than direct feedback. Students are able to express their ideas more clearly in writing and to get clarification on any comments that teachers have made. Similarly, Fulgor (2006: 34) states that in indirect feedback, students appreciated its beneficial effect on their learning and direct feedback to be more helpful when revising syntax and vocabulary, whereas they felt that indirect feedback was useful in encouraging them to reflect on aspects of their writing and to develop improvements. Moreover, some research evidences suggest that indirect feedback is more helpful on students’ long-term writing development than direct feedback (Ferris, 2003; Fratzen, 1995). The results showed that indirect feedback with student selfediting contributes to accuracy more than direct feedback. Others have reported that

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indirect feedback may be more beneficial to students than direct feedback in editing, because indirect feedback can guide learning and help the students solve problem by themselves (Lalande, 1982). From those statements, the researcher believes that indirect feedback will be more increasing the students’ ability in writing and students who get indirect feedback will be preserved in his/her brain in a long time. While, direct feedback will be kept in their mind in a short time. If the students are only provided by direct feedback, the student will not have opportunity to reflect and correct the errors for themselves; they only note the note of the errors from the teacher. To make indirect feedback is more effective, Lee (2004) state that indirect feedback can be done by a symbol representing a specific kind of error (T=verb tense, Sp=spelling) and to reduce student confusion, teachers can consistently use a standard set of symbols or markings to indicate place and type of error and train the students in what kinds of corrections to make based on each symbol. Furthermore, teachers should familiarize students with the system so they will not be surprised when new symbols are occured. Finocchiaro in hasyim (2002:23) gives the symbols or codec that can be used to indicate error in indirect feedback can be seen as follows:

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Table 1 Correction codes used to indicate error types in indirect feedback No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Code WC PREP VT S/V A SP ART N. detail.P ^ ? Meaning Word choice Preposition verb tense or GR = more sentences/ meaning Wrong preposition Kinds of errors The words are inapplicable with the 10 11 good WO Wrong tense/ use another tense general grammar problems subject verb agreement subject and verb don’t agree Wrong spelling/punctuation your spelling error spelling Use article a. You have something good here: a good Good idea. The meaning is question mark) unclear not clear. they need someone to check about the mistake that they made. idea. good detail word. they need guidance. Write in another way to meaning make the meaning clearer. To pass the process from the first draft until the final draft. Therefore. etc the words in this sentence are in the word order wrong order 2. It could be from 13 . an or the for singular Article noun new paragraph Unorganized paragraph missing word There is a missing word need to insert I can’t understand this.3 The role of teacher in providing indirect feedback to Students’ writing The students cannot write alone and writing also not only a single step but a process. supporter and counselor/advisor to make their writing better.

In addition. 2003 ). the students cannot have the chance of correcting the wrong behavior and re-practicing the correct behavior. present themselves as helpful facilitators offering support and guidance. they may act as an authority imposing critical judgment on writing products (Ferris et al . on the one hand. But before that. The assistance and feedback given by the teacher should not be confined to the last stage of the writing process. The marking of products should always open more opportunities in which students can redraft their work. Teachers can offer self–correction opportunity for their students by providing indirect feedback on student’s grammatical errors (Chandler . teacher should be a reader and as advisor for them. the teacher’s feedback is eventually needed to provide a whole class impression before they are engaged in an individual writing as practice. Teachers may. students are able to express their ideas more clearly in writing and to get clarification on any comments indirectly that teachers have made to their writing.teacher or peer because writing usually involves one person for another to help them in expressing their ideas in writing form. Even though peers feedback is more advantageous. By depriving them of their opportunity for redrafting and reassessing. 14 . Here. on the other hand. teacher can be as describer when he/she gives feedback. 2001). The patterns of feedback and responses given by the writing teacher depend very much on the teacher’s conception of the composing process and his/her understanding of learner’s errors.

Young writers.}.4 The Assessment Technique of Students’ Writing In assessing the students’ writing Quality. both consciously and unconsciously.1984:596). Additionally. semi colon {. Exclamation mark {!}.2. benefit from the structure and security of following the writing process in their writing”. substantive. 2. idea clearly stated/supported. cohesive. Organization of Writing must be fluent expression.}. Crimmon . Content of Writing must be knowledgeable. well-organized. the students will create the sentences based on their ideas and the words in the sentences must be arranged grammatically which deals with tenses and agreement. thorough development of thesis. Vocabulary of Writing must be sophisticated range. Question mark {?}. Accomplished writers move back and forth between the stages of the process.5 Stages in writing Gardner and Johnson (1997) describe the stages of the writing process: "Writing is a fluid process created by writers as they work. relevant to assigned topic. effective word/idiom choice. Apostrophe {‘}). however. Period {. Jacob (1981: 60) suggests five components or criteria to evaluate the students’ writing quality: content. vocabulary. as Campbell points out.}. Language use (grammar) in writing activity. succinct. logical sequencing. word form mastery. and appropriate register. The last is Mechanics of Writing which consists of Spelling and Punctuation (Capital letter. 15 . (Mc. Comma {. language use (grammar) and mechanics. organization. and usage.

In this stage. Revising is a series of strategies designed to re-examine and re-evaluate the choices that have created a piece of writing. Drafting is a series strategy designed to organize and develop a sustained piece of writing. more interesting. grammar. the author/writer just builds basic of a topic that should depends on the writer/author’s knowledge. Revising writing can be started by making decisions about how you want to improve your writing. there are three basic stages writers go through: prewriting. three basic stages in writing also delivered by Ron White (1987:325) states that the stages of writing process consists of planning. and revising. and revising. and picking places where your writing could be clearer. the writer can explore and improve his/her idea. The feedback is important to tell which the words/sentence should be changed or need correction. Planning is a series of strategies designed to find and produce information in writing planning is any orderly procedure used to bring about a desire result. more informative and more convincing to the reader. or spelling. Appelebe in Mappe (2000) states more complete stages. that “there are different views on the stages that the writers go through in producing a piece of 16 ."there is no single writing process" (1998: 10). drafting. ideas and experiences. looking at your writing from a different point of view. drafting. The revising always comes up after giving feedback to the writing. Besides. In here. This stage also concentrates to the content tan punctuation.

writing, but a typically through model identifies four stages: pre-writing, drafting, revising and editing”. The description of each stage is shown as follows: 1 Pre-writing In this stage, students involve the activities, such as reading, brainstorming, mind mapping, discussing, fast writing, questioning, interviewing, encourage them before they write their sentences in the first draft. A typical pre-writing activity in the process approach would be for learners to brainstorm on the topic being provided. By this way, students would get motivation to write because they feel that they have something matter to say. (Richard & White in Mappe, 2000). 2 Drafting In this stage, students would select among ideas during pre-writing and structure. The result of brainstorming session to provide a plan of description of topic. The content might be written without considering the grammatical aspect first.

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Revising In this stage, the students review a draft to check content and organization based

on the feedback from him or herself and teacher or peers. Biaael in Mappe (2000) emphasizes that revision is a process in which writers not only polish their style, but also develop their ideas. In this stage, the teacher help the students through the

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revision to shape and reshape the text into final form, and it’s focused more on audience, mood, voice, length, clarity, completeness and consciousness. 4 Editing This is where the role of teacher in giving indirect feedback will be applied. In this stage, the students check their final text for some mistakes they have made based on the feedback given, such as spelling, punctuation, grammar, and all presentation. Shih in Mappe (2000) classifies three stages of editing for grammar: editing at discourse level, sentences level and word level”. Editing at discourse level is meant the writer needs to make changes in one sentence, such as making the subject plural instead of singular. Editing at sentence level is to find out the errors in sentences, such as: phrase, clause and sentence pattern. Editing at word level, editing morphological errors require checking to see that affixes and grammatical function words, such as: auxiliary verb, articles and preposition correct. The writer needs to focus his/her special attention on the ends of words in order to catch the missing of an incorrect ending: s/es, d/ed, ing as well an awareness of different points of view. 2.6 Overview of Process in Descriptive Writing There are some approaches in writing; one of them is genre based approach. The use of genre approach in solving the problem in students’ writing, particularly in language use and organization is very effective way. According to Derewianka (1992:17) a genre is kind of text types that have structured in different way and

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characterized by own language feature. Genre based approach can be said to make the text structurally and characterized which consists of purpose, generic structure, and language feature. According to Martin in Grabe and Kaplan (1996), the factual writing consists of six types, they are; recount, procedure, description, report, explanation, and exposition. However in this study, the text will be focused on the descriptive text. Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like or to provide enough vivid detail to help the reader create a mental picture of what is being written about. Descriptive text can be divided from its purpose, generic structure and language feature. The purpose in descriptive writing is to engage a reader's attention, to create characters, to set a mood or create an atmosphere, to bring writing to life, and also to help a writer develop an aspect of their work, for example to create a particular mood, atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures of characters, places, objects etc (Martin in Grabe and Kaplan, 1996). The generic structure of descriptive text are Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described in general and Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics. They may choose vivid, fresh language, they may use examples, they might take something ordinary and by comparing it with something extraordinary, make it interesting, or they may use their senses. (Medina , 2003 : 152).

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7 Review of Related Studies Some studies have been done to investigate the use of feedback on students’ writing in teaching and learning process. similes.The language uses of this text should rely on precisely chosen vocabulary with carefully chosen adjectives and adverbs. Paryatun (1997). Sri Luciani (2002) did her study in junior high school. In the procedure of giving correction in Hasyim’s study. Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. smelt. after that. seen. Although she investigated the effect of teacher feedback only focused on giving feedback in students’ homework in general. Hasyim (2002). Using attributive and identifying process. metaphors to create images/pictures in the mind. It is focused and concentrated only on the aspects that add something to the main purpose of the description.2003 : 152). Hasyim conducted the study by focusing on the effect of correction provided by lecturer. 2. and not focusing on students’ writing task. and then asked one to ten students to write their essay on the whiteboard. Sensory description .what is heard. Strong development of the experience that "puts the reader there" focuses on key details. Dewi Santi (2007) had conducted their studies in Haluoleo University. the lecturer correcting students’ essay. tasted. to investigate the effect of teacher’s feedback on students’ writing. and Using simple present tense (Medina . Precise use of adjectives. the lecturer asked the students to rewrite their essay and finally collected 20 . and then. the lecturer asked the students to write about a given topic. powerful verbs and precise nouns. felt.

the students’ essay. He focused giving feedback on students’ writing that would be assessed based on five aspect of composition. It was found that the group 21 . In a similar study. language use.22 and after lecturer gave the correction. vocabulary.36. Dewi Santi investigated the effect of teacher’s feedback on students’ writing and found that teacher’s feedback was effective. the writer did not also explain clearly why there was no significant different between direct and indirect correction on students’ writing performance. That was on pretest 74. The result showed that before lecturer gave the correction the total score was 48. the total score was 77. 1981). Dewi Santi exposed teacher’s feedback under correction and assessment (comment and grade).2 and in post test was 78. In the end the result showed an improvement of students’ writing. The writer exposed direct correction technique in her experimental class and exposed indirect correction in the control class.15. content. organization. However. Lalande (1982) in Turkish University of pre-intermediate learners with regards to what strategy to use in responding to students’ writing in the English Preparatory Program compared two groups: one with direct feedback and the other with indirect feedback using correction codes. Moreover. Furthermore. and mechanics (Jacobs. Paryatun (1997) conducted the study by showing us that either direct or indirect correction does not improve students’ writing significantly. also suggestion and praise.

Hence. 22 . Those results of previous studies indicate that feedback both directly and indirectly are effective approach to be used in improving students’ writing. the present study will conduct the study that is different with previous studies by using indirect feedback. those are organization and language use.which received indirect coded error feedback had more accuracy than direct feedback in writing. this study serves a different design from previous study because those studies mostly focused on giving direct feedback to students’ writing or compared between direct and indirect feedback. But. Further. While this study only uses indirect feedback that is used to solve the problem in two aspects of writing. the writer not only wants to prove that the students writing performance will be better than direct feedback but also indirect feedback as the way to solve the problem of student’s writing performance. another research proves that indirect feedback is better than direct feedback. In this case.

and observation. The cycle consists of planning.1 Design of the study The design of this study was classroom action research because the teacher is directly involved in improving students’ ability by doing self-reflection. instrument of the study. Therefore. the evaluation. The procedure of the research in this study consisted of design of the study. This action research aims to follow the process of the improving students ability and is conducted by the teacher itself by reflecting his /her work and trying to improve his/her way in teaching writing especially to give indirect feedback. and reflection (Kemmis and Mc Taggart in Stringer. implementation. procedure of giving feedback on students’ writing. 1999: 18). setting of the study. data and technique of collecting data. both teacher and student can be improved. technique of data analysis and indicator of performance. 3.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY This chapter explained the methodology of the research that was conducted. 23 . The model that is proposed for teacher in doing action research follows the cyclical structure outlined by Kemmis and McTaggart (1988). factors that were observed. subject of the study.

the teacher and the researcher prepared the technique will be applied in solving the problem they face. prepare the instrument 24 . This stage involves the teacher and the researcher prepared the lesson scenario for the action. Developing an action plan. preparing the teaching material.The four “moments” of action research defined by Kemmis and McTaggart guide the research model: a.

The lesson plan can be seen in appendix 1. It can be seen in appendix 4. 2. The teacher planned to teach students about what appropriate content to be written in descriptive text. The model text is prepared in appendix 4 25 . In regarding with this pattern of text organization. support of ideas (details/examples). Teacher would teach the student based on the lesson plan as a guide of teaching that has been made by the researcher cooperates with the English teacher. in which the text was formed into orientation. To make students understand easily about the content. in which the language feature will be shown in underlined words. teacher prepared a model of text. teacher prepares the model of text. Planning is the activity of preparing the problem solving to be used in reflecting the problem that is gotten before action. then following by description (characteristic). To make students understand easily about the use of language feature itself. description and re-orientation/ conclusion. Teacher planned to teach students how to organize their writing in a good order. and finished by re-orientation/ conclusion (appendix 4). Teacher planned to teach students the language feature of descriptive text. the teacher and researcher have preparation as follows: 1. Related to the generic structure of description. teacher prepares model of text. teacher must teach the students in order to organize their composition by using pattern orientation. 3.that will be used to collect data. In relation with the problem that students have.

The teaching and learning process was begun by preparation. Lesson plan is prepared in appendix 1. the teacher and the researcher would do the planning that had been arranged. students would be asked to deliver their knowledge about descriptive text and what they have written before.4. The model text is prepared in appendix 4. Concerning to the limited time in each meeting. To make the process of teaching and learning would run effectively. The teacher taught based on the lesson plan that have been made in planning stage. The teacher would start the action by giving the students model text and asked the students to compare the text with their first composition. In discussing about organization and language use in descriptive writing. the teacher will explain more what should be written in each part of descriptive text. the teaching and learning process are divided into two meetings. 26 . the teacher would ask the students to discuss about the organization and language use both in the text model and their writing. the teacher made the plans in lesson plan. b. The teacher also gave some copies of material to the students including the codes used to evaluate their writing and prepared the observation sheet (appendix 7) and field note (appendix 10) to do the observation during the teaching and learning process. After that. Implementing the plan requires: In this stage. After that. the students responded and gave their understanding about the discussion. Then teacher asked the students to identify the model text and learn it. In this step.

For example touch. All of the senses can be used in a descriptive text. observer and counselor during the process. The teacher would prepare some topic option that can be chosen by student to make their writing.The teacher would explain that a well-focused subject can be ordinary or extraordinary. the teacher will write the question on whiteboard in order to other students can learn and help in their writing. describe a thing. but should do the best to make it as interesting as possible by emphasizing what makes it interesting or new and unusual. have several paragraphs that develop and describe the topic. smell. a person. animal. although the students may just pick one or two. When the students want to create a clear pattern of organization the introduction should work from general to specific. hearing. and vision. or an animal and ask them to give the detail description. the role of teacher here as a guide. 27 . for example. The teacher would notice the students that they can use their senses to describe the scene. ending in a thesis sentence. In which teacher and students cooperate to make a draft. the teacher would conduct the joins construction section. an event. or the most important person in their life etc. After discussing about those characteristic of descriptive text. If a student has questions. asked them to pick something specific. and the conclusion should restate your thesis. taste.

The first grade students of SMU Negeri 9 Kendari who enrolled in academic year 2007/2008 28 . also the teacher and the researcher analyzed the data that have been taken during the action. they decide what ways will be applied in the next cycle as the problem solving in the previous cycle and arrange the second lesson plan. d. This school had registered in 2003. the researcher then did the test again. In this study. Reflecting on the effects as a basis for further action enhances informed decision-making. Observation would be done during the teaching and learning process was conducted. 3.c. In here. The observation sheet can be seen in appendix 7. first the researcher did observation by interviewing the teacher to know the students’ problem in writing and giving test to the students to know their writing performance. the strategies and the way of teacher in solving the problem and students’ work. After the actions were conducted. Observation is activity to collect data that is related to the application of writing. In reflection. before the action was conducted.2 Setting of the Study This study was conducted in SMU Negeri 9 Kendari. It was aimed to know whether there was an improvement of students’ writing performance after the action. The researcher and the teacher work together to find out the mistake or obstacle they have during the action is conducted. Observing the effect of the implementation relies on collecting data. The study was conducted in the first grade students.

From these six classes. More clearly about the classes can be seen in table 2 below: Table 2. The pre-observation was conducted on April 10th . the teacher only took one class purposively which the problem found. X4. they were class X1. the researcher had gotten about 30 students who had problem in writing a related text. The researcher found that most of the students had problem in organization area and language use. the researcher took the students’ composition. Figure of the subject No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Class X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 Total Sum 38 40 38 36 38 36 226 3. because the researcher took the subject based on the problem found before conducting the action. To make it easier to be controlled and see the writing improvement in 29 . X6. To find the subject that was observed. The researcher found the problem in the first grader at X1. consisting of five parallel classes. 2008. X2. which consisted of 38 students.are 226 students.3 Subject of the study The researcher took the subject by using purposive sampling. After doing the pre-observation before the study was conducted. X5. which told the description about the most important person in their life or their family. X3.

3. the researcher observed some factors. In addition.5 Instrument of the Study The instruments that the researcher used in this study were as follows: 1. 4. researcher and teacher saw and took a note about students’ progress in the classroom 3. The way of teacher gave indirect feedback to students’ writing Students’ improvement before and after the action. Observation sheet.part of organization and language use. it was used to check the application of teacher’s indirect teacher feedback in teaching and learning process. The strategies of teacher in solving the problem during process. the researcher only focused on 10 students which had been taken randomly.4 Factors that were observed In this study. as follow: 1. which was aimed to note the supporter data that related to the object in this study. Students’ writing performance during the process. Observation sheet referred by put a mark/tick to statements of process writing was done. Field note. Students’ writing 2. This note also was used to record the teaching learning process related to weaknesses and obstacles found in the research. 3. 2. Also the researcher observed the teacher’ strategies in solve problems during the action 30 . 3.

7 Procedure of giving indirect feedback on students’ writing The procedure that was conducted in this study consisted as follows: 1. students’ writing and teacher feedback itself and the strategies of teacher to solve the problem. In collecting data. 2. the researcher used two ways as follows: a. 3. b. While. (See observation sheet in appendix 7). the quantitative data is the result of students’ achievement before and after the action is applied. 1. Students’ writing. 3. The qualitative data is the description of the process during the action.6 Data and technique of collecting data The data of this study was qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher checked whether each indicator of descriptive text has applied. Teacher explained about the descriptive text in general and explains the codec error that was given in their composition.to help presentation of the data and taking conclusion. Observation. The researcher observed the students’ composition in process. the researcher observed the teacher’s strategies in solving the problem 3. 31 . the teacher evaluated the students writing from the first draft until the final draft.

Students draft and ‘monitor’ their texts 3. Students responded to codec given and comment. 3.8 The Evaluation In evaluating the students’ writing the researcher used the ESL composition profile proposed by Holly Jacobs. Students write the first draft 4. After the teacher gave feedback to students’ 2nd draft. First and second drafts were then handed in. in which the evaluation of writing consist of four component bur the researcher only focused on two component of 32 . 12. The teacher again noted down on the first draft any further explanations that were necessary. 5. Students produced a second draft 7. 8. the students rewrote their compositions and corrected their own mistakes. The teacher provided grade and praise to students’ final draft. 10. Teacher responded to the first draft by giving feedback of all aspects but more concentrate on the body of text in area of language use and organization and returns the paper. et al (1981:67).2. Teacher responded to the second draft checking whether the student is able to deal with the problems. 11. Teacher/editor responded to students’ writing in second drafts 9. then rewrite their drafts 6.

article.10 Fair to poor. Excellent to very good. few errors of agreement. loosely organized. somewhat choppy. Organization 13 . word order/function. no fluent. preposition. preposition Good to average. major problem in simple complex 33 . but main ideas stand out. pronoun. pronoun. logical sequencing cohesive 17 . no organization or not enough to evaluate. they are language use and organization. tense number. limited support. minor problem in complex construction. several errors of agreement.writing. effective complex construction. does not communicate. article. tense number. well organized. succinct. but meaning seldom obscured 17-11 Fair to poor. effective but simple construction. ideas clearly stated/ supported.14 Good to average. Here are the criteria of ESL composition: Table 3. word Level Criteria order/function. ideas confused or disconnected lacks logical sequencing and development 9-7 25-22 Language Use (grammar) 21-18 Very poor. The Marking Scheme of ESL Composition in Two Components Aspect of Writing 20-18 Excellent to very good. fluent expression.

does not communicate. pronoun. the English teacher and the researcher rated student’s writing independently and record each other and calculated the inter rater agreement is calculated. she is qualified for assessing students’ writing. The two raters. not enough to evaluate There were two independent raters in assessing students’ writing. virtually no mastery of sentence construction rules. deletions meaning confused or obscured 10-5 Very poor. 34 . Ten compositions were taken to evaluate in order to represent different level of quality. agreement.construction. article. For that reason. the names of students are covered by piece of paper to avoid the scoring animus. tense. The researcher chose the English teacher of the first grader students because she taught writing subject in the fist grade. To be reliable in evaluation. number. and/ or fragment run-ons. frequent errors of negation. During the assessment session. word order/function. dominated by error. preposition. The students’ writings were taken randomly. the rater conducts following procedures: 1. The first rater was the researcher herself and the second rater is an English teacher of SMU Negeri 9 Kendari.

it showed that there was high correlation between raters (appendix 9. In analyzing data. 1. as follow: rxy = Where: rxy x y N = the coefficient correlation of inter rater = the students’ scores from the first rater = the students’ scores from the second raters = number of subjects { N ∑ xy − ( ∑ x )( ∑ y ) } { N ∑ x 2 − ( ∑ x ) 2 }{ N ∑ y 2 − ( ∑ y ) 2} The result of inter-rater agreement is 0. the presentation. 3. Reduction. 35 . the researcher applies the product moment formula.2. the researcher uses three steps. whether both raters have significant correlation or not. Those data are analyzed after the observation is conducted. and taking conclusion. 3. The score of composition in inter-rater training was calculated in product moment until the correlation was achieved. reduction. Then to measure the applying inter-rater.100).9 Technique of data analysis The data analysis of this study is qualitative where the data is presented in words.947. pg. The score scale description was discussed again after the scoring session has begun to make sure that the raters are not deviating from scoring guides.

In this step. pg. CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION This chapter presents the finding and discussion of the findings. This study would be stopped if the students were able to write a good composition relating to the organization and language use in their descriptive text under teacher’s indirect feedback on their writing text by achieving marking scheme (good) in ESL composition (see table 3.10 Indicator of performance The students as the target of this study are expected to achieve score 14 upper (good) for organization and 18 upper (good) for language use by using ESL composition proposed by Jacob et al (1981). The Presentation of Data. the researcher took conclusion about the teacher’s feedback whether it had improved students or not. Taking conclusion. 3. the researcher selected the data in which the data was focused object that the writer observes. After describing the data. In this step. the researcher described all the data that have been found into words. The findings consist of the description of students writing problem that was got from pre36 . 3. 2. 32-33).

A part from this student’s lack to understand how to write a descriptive text. we can see that the student didn’t know about how to organize descriptive text with a good organization. implementation. This student just shared about TV in General. The student also couldn’t divide orientation/general description. In this student’s composition. activities of the first cycle until the second cycle which each of them consist of planning. This composition was taken from one of their writing assignment in English text book. sentences and ideas to write as much as possible 37 . A student composition was entitled “My TV”.observation. it also can be found that actually based on the topic given. 4. It can be seen on one of student’s composition in appendix 13. it found that there were several problems related to the organization and Language use aspect of Writing.1 Students’ writing problem Based on the observation of the result of students’ composition before conducting the action. the special item in this student’s TV. or other detail things about this student’s TV. observation.1 Finding of the Study 4. this section includes the discussion of result of this study and the supported theories. To view the improving of students’ writing through indirect teacher’s feedback. most students produced disorder organization of text. the students couldn’t develop his words. and reflection. This student’s composition was like a report text about TV without giving some description about what this student’s TV looks like.1. For organization. description and re- orientation/conclusion.

In the end of the composition. Word order/function. Beside organization. Responding to those problems. this student also had problem of using Language use to produce good text. For example. In organization. in which consists of Agreement. The component of language use. Here. Mostly. in case of descriptive text. he/she didn’t give conclusion/ reorientation as in generic structure of descriptive text. the researcher and the teacher planned to apply teacher’s indirect feedback in their writings. pronoun. description and reorientation/conclusion. in language use area. “the television is information with very you know by many peoples”. Most students made the same mistake or even worse. students made mistakes in part of. and article. tense. It seemed that students needed to be taught about how to organize the text based on its generic structure in order to produce a text in good organization. agreement. word order. in which it consisted of orientation. Number. Related to the generic structure of descriptive text. This result indicated that students did mistake in part of language use and organization. especially in descriptive text. there were many unstructured sentences from beginning until the end of the composition. Pronouns. Tense. Preposition. This student was not the only one who made mistakes. “much different distinction television to use by much peoples”.about the topic. “television in very too big”. it was written for example. This method was used to solve two basic 38 . the students didn’t know about good order in organizing a text. articles.

Teacher would teach the students based on the lesson plan as a guide of teaching that had been made by researcher cooperate with the English teacher. The lesson plan can be seen in appendix 2. and students were hoped to be able to produce the text based on the pattern by using appropriate language feature and structurally. it can be seen in appendix 4.2 Activities of the first cycle In relation with those problems. The researcher and the teacher planned to teach how to organize their writing in a good order related to the generic structure of descriptive text. supporting ideas (details/examples) and finished by reorientation/conclusion. 2. description and re-orientation (Appendix 1). and then followed by description (characteristic).problem of writing. the researcher and the English teacher discussed about the problem and planned some follow up activities as follows: A. In applying this method. 4. teacher used one of a text which was descriptive text. The teacher ought to teach the students in order to organize their organization by using pattern of Genre approach. To make students easily in using of language feature itself. teacher prepared a model of text in which the text was formed into orientation. orientation. For more clear. Planning 1. In regarding with this pattern of text organization. teacher prepared 39 . The teacher planned to teach students the language feature of descriptive text.

Then in the 2 nd meeting. The teaching learning process would emphasize on the independent construction of 2nd draft. The observation sheet can be seen in appendix 7 and field note can be seen in appendix 10. In doing the observation and taking note during the action the researcher cooperated with the English teacher. The 1st meeting were three phases of genre approach. B. Action 40 . Concerning to the limited time in each meeting. The model of text can be seen in appendix 4. In this meeting. they would get the feedback from the first draft and revise it in this meeting. modeling and joint construction. the students were hoped to understand the generic structure and the use of language feature in descriptive text and also they started to write their first draft. which was hoped to write a descriptive text composition independently better than before and also to see their improvement under teacher indirect feedback 4. preparation. The researcher prepared the observation sheet and field note to observe the process of teaching and learning activity. To make the process of teaching and learning run effectively. the teacher made those plans in lesson plan. the teaching learning process were divided into three meetings. The lesson plan was made in form of genre approach instruction.the model of text. in which the language feature was shown in underlined words/ sentences. 3.

the codec errors/ the symbols that the teacher were going to use in their writing then asked the students to write their 1st draft.30–10. For more clear about the meetings the researcher explained more detail. The first meeting was the activity where the teacher shared and taught the student about the purpose. In explaining and teaching writing. generic structure and language feature of descriptive text. The teacher started the learning process by giving students copies of model text and asked students to compare with their composition on 1st draft. modeling. as follow: 1. august 23rd 2008 at 07. The students already got the result and indirect feedback from the teacher. Then the 41 . beside that the teacher also discussed about the feedback. the teacher used genre approach which consists of preparation. the teaching and learning process focused on students’ 1st draft. Then the students created 2nd draft as revision of 1st draft and they made their writing based on the pattern of descriptive text that had been taught by the teacher in the first meeting. The second meeting. The actions of fist cycle consisted of two meetings. discussed it and found what the problem on their writing and wrote the revision of the 1st draft after the teacher gave indirect feedback on their writing. 1st meeting The first meeting was held on Saturday. and joint construction. The teaching learning process was done based on the lesson plan that had been made in planning session.Action is kind of activity that was done by applying the planning that had been arranged before.20 am.

they said “Syakir is my classmate”. Another student said “Syakir cleaver. the introduction should be started from general to specific description and ended in a 42 . In this process. The teacher told them. description.teacher instructed students to learn the model of text. namely Syakir. “Syakir is age 15 years old”. they gave description about Syakir. teacher asked them to pick something specific. he always get good score in math and physic subject”. the teacher asked the students opinion about the pattern of descriptive text. the teacher explained what should be written in each part of descriptive text (see appendix 4). The model text can be seen in appendix 4. students pick one of their friends in that class. They mentioned that the generic structure which provided in the text consisted of orientation. or a thing. After that. It means that they had to make it as interesting as possible by emphasizing what makes it interesting or new and unusual. teacher asked students to discuss about the generic structure and language feature of the model text. Here students responded teacher’s command by delivering what they read in the text. Then. the teacher asked them to give the description orally. “Syakir is handsome boy and tall”. as person. After that. etc. In discussing about introduction. Here. the subject of writing could be ordinary or extraordinary. an animal. Teacher explained to the students that in descriptive text. and re- orientation/conclusion. After that. when they wanted to create a clear pattern of descriptive text. The teacher continued the explanation about the organization.

“passive voice present” and other students said “simple present tense”. It had several paragraphs that was developed and described the topic and then in conclusion. Does. The teacher also gave some related example (he eats banana every day. he goes shopping twice a week) and the adverb frequency (sometimes. teacher asked some students to identify and show what tense that the text model used. usually. the teacher wrote in the whiteboard “he always get good…. All of the senses could be used in a descriptive text. touch. etc). you have to use simple present tense and the characteristic were Do. Vs/Es. the teacher then explained the language feature in descriptive text. in discussing language feature. for example the teacher said “can you tell me what tense does the text use?” some students responded by saying “simple continuous tense”. and vision. The teacher then asked the student to recall the sentences they had made about their friend “Syakir”. The teacher also noticed them that they could use their sense to describe the subject. it should restate the thesis. always.thesis sentences. smell.” The students then corrected the sentence “he 43 . although the student just picked one or two senses. for example. never. Sometimes students made mistake to make sentence but the teacher asked students correct it by themselves. I go to the market every Sunday. V1. Teacher said “if you want to describe about something or the person activity or condition in the present. ToBe”. After that. taste. hearing. After discussing about the characteristic of descriptive text. teacher clarified the wrong answer by showing the sentences were taken from text and teacher herself.

and It. The teacher suggested describing about “Syakir”. “Borobudur is well-known all over the world”. The text was an example of indirect feedback they would receive and be completed with the symbols of codec errors.. In this session. She. S/VA (subject/verb agreement). For example for language use consisted of SP (spelling). VT (verb tense). The students gave response by showing the sentences “Borobudur is located in Magelang. After discussing about the organization and language feature of descriptive text and also gave them the model text. “Syakir is age 15 years old” and corrected by the teacherby explaining when they wanted to say/write somebody’s age. put an arrow and gave notes/comments about the sentences. Here the teacher wrote all the sentences that students made about “Syakir”. their friend once again. 44 .” and told them when they want to make simple present sentence. in which the verb should in form V+s/es. if the subjects were He. words or paragraphs needed to be corrected. they had to notice with subject pronoun and verb. teacher conducted join construction.always gets…. etc. the teacher asked the students to find out the simple present sentences in the model text. Then another sentence was made “. The teacher then gave students another text. both teacher and students cooperated to make a draft. WC (word choice). they just need to write “Syakir is 15 years old” because years old representative of age itself. and GR (sentence structure) and for organization the teacher underlined. Central Java……”. After explaining the tense pattern to them.

Some topics were prepared by the teacher. the teacher distributed their 1st draft. the teacher asked the students to submit their draft. The teacher asked the students to search the topic to be written as their first draft. and “my favorite place”. Then teacher explained that they could write about one of their family members. 10 minutes left before the teacher ended the class.After joint construction. August 26th 2008 at 07. 2.15 am. they would receive their draft and look for their writing problem. a girl friend or a boyfriend. The teacher then asked the students to write a composition consists of 3 or more paragraphs and each paragraph can consists of 3-4 sentences. Most students chose topic “the most important person in my life”.15 – 09. 2nd meeting The second meeting was held on Tuesday. overall the process teaching and learning was running well. such as “my favorite thing”. the teacher asked the students to compose a draft independently. The implementation in this session was running well because students were given opportunity to deliver their idea and to ask some question about the material. The teacher started the class by greeting the students and checked the attendance list for about 5 minutes. She told them that in the next meeting. “the most important person in my life”. Even though there were some students who didn’t pay attention to the teacher’s explanation. a best friend. In this meeting. 45 .

Some students also discussed about the topic chosen with their partner. The field note can be seen in appendix 10. but also used field note. This activity ran for about 30 minutes. After that. and how to organize paragraphs. In here. teacher monitored students activity and help them when the students got difficulties. Most students reported what problem they had in composing a text. the teacher and the researcher used observation sheet that had been prepared before. 46 . This process of writing was run for about 70 minutes. The last 10 minutes teacher collected the students’ compositions and informed that they could take the result in the next meeting. vocabulary. the teacher did brainstorm about the previous material and asked their difficulties in composing a draft. the teacher and researcher kept writing notes to see the process of technique application. They said they still had difficulties on grammar/ tenses. During the process. Observation During the implementation of writing process in classroom. C. Starting from beginning until the end of the lesson. The teacher and the researcher not only used observation sheet. the teacher started the main activity. while the researcher was taking note and observing the class activity. The observation sheet can be seen in appendix 7. sometimes students walked around the class to find a dictionary to their friends or came close to the teacher and researcher to ask some words in English.Before starting the main activity.

2. The teacher explained about each symbols were used in part of language use and told them in part organization the teacher would comment the introduction. they got some general illustration about the descriptive text. So the students could correct their writing and add their knowledge. the function of indirect feedback . teacher explained the material to the student. 6. the researcher had several points about both teacher and students’ activities while observing the class. in case of descriptive text. the teacher would give feedback to their writing. that was “the most important person in your life” 47 . After explanation of the material to the students. At the beginning of the lesson.During class activity. 3. the teacher asked them to write their 1st draft about the topic they had chosen before. 7. and how later the teacher would give indirect feedback to their writing 5. So. Teacher explained the general and language feature of the descriptive text. The teacher and the researcher took note about students’ questions. the teacher explained what indirect feedback is. 4. Here are some teacher activities in classroom during the 1st meeting and 2nd meeting were underway: 1. Teacher told the student that every finishing their writing/draft. In here. The teacher then explained kind of feedback would be used. their strength and their weaknesses during the process. description and conclusion.

students participated by asking question to the teacher about the purpose of descriptive text 2. In the second meeting. Teacher asked them to write a composition that would be their second draft based on the revision of their first draft. Students mentioned what things could be put in generic structure and language use in descriptive text. 5. 4. Students discussed about generic structure and language feature in descriptive text by using model text and material from the teacher. The teacher monitored the process during students composing their draft and the teacher sometimes helped them when they had problem with the vocabularies or words in English. To overcome this problem. The teacher informed to the students that they would receive the result in the next meeting. 11. students’ activities were as follows: 1. 10. the teacher distributed the students’ 1st draft and the drafts were already checked and given indirect feedback by the teacher. the teacher asked them to deliver in Indonesia 48 . Some students were shy to deliver or express their idea especially in using English words.8. The students concentrated to the teacher’s explanation about the material and asked about how the teacher gave indirect feedback to their draft. While. 9. At the beginning of the lesson. 3.

In the second meeting. the students took their first draft and saw the indirect feedback on their draft. especially in language use. organization and language use. even the teacher already explained and gave them some copies of feedback symbols in the previous meeting. and the way teacher gave the feedback to the students’ composition. 9. During the process of writing students often asked the teacher and their friend about the word they wanted to use. The students wrote the composition based on teacher instruction and revised their first draft based on the feedback given by the teacher. Based on the activities. etc. circle. 10. So. observation. what ‘s the meaning of SP. The students paid attention to their writing and asked some question about the feedback. D. Reflection Based on observation that had been done in the first cycle. VT and arrow sign. 7. the first meeting didn’t get any difficulties to transfer the material and students also often asked about some 49 . For example. especially about how teacher gave indirect feedback and symbol in part of organization and language feature. The students took notes about the important points from the teacher’s explanation. 8. and the students’ 1st and 2nd draft result in the first cycle.6. the researcher and the teacher planned the second cycle to deal with the problems. the researcher found there were several problems on the students’ vocabularies.

She is 50 . this student composed unorganized composition and poor language use. The problem appeared when the teacher asked them to write their 1st draft in the second meeting. draft 1): “hai SP my name is Adnin Aderiska And uSP can call me Adnin. the fact that they confused how to move from the first paragraph to the next paragraph and also how to differentiate the general description-detail descriptions-conclusion. how they can start to write and what for the copy of marking scheme had been given to them. The students wrote a composition based on teacher’s instruction. When teacher checked their work before giving indirect feedback on their 1st draft. In this time. students didn’t make a good improvement because they still lack in part organization and language use. the students got difficulties to express their ideas into writing. In the first draft. it can be seen one of student’s composition. they had to write a descriptive text about the most important person in their life.1(PUNC.) I have one sister. Actually the student already had good content but the student got problem how to organize and develop the idea in the composition. etc. As an example. It can be seen on student’s composition in appendix 14. I live in Haeba Street Pengadilan tinggi agama No. draft 1. Here is an untitled composition (appendix 14. During the process.question such as what the descriptive text is. They still hadn’t understand yet about descriptive text even the teacher had explained them in previous meeting and some of them made it in disorder organization and language use. In the first draft.

this student didn’t write the composition based on the generic structure of descriptive text.(PUNC) because they want to real friendship(unclear meaning) to me and nice wit SP all. It can be seen that the student did many mistakes from beginning until the end of sentences. I like my class. In developing the idea. the student was still lack of vocabulary and the student didn’t put the title of composition. and VT/ verb tense (my sister old 20 years old. In language use. wit). In language use. Those sentences could be an introduction. Here is a composition entitled “my brother”: 51 . my school is SMA 9 Kendari) (PUNC) my class in X1VT. WC/word choice (college). the sentences were still choppy even the reader might be able to understand it. I am a man.college WC in universitas Hasanuddin Makassar my sister old 20 years old VT I love my sister. For the organization aspect. It means that. Every in class we play and study together GR” Some mistakes had been made in language use aspect and organization.And next time I want to college WC in Makassar too. the mistakes were underlined. my class in X1). Moreover. it can be seen that some mistakes were occurred in composition. In here the student wrote about parents. comma). PUNC/punctuation (period. description or even conclusion. Another students sample was taken in the same problem. this student hadn’t made a good improvement that is related to the generic structure (organization) and language feature (language use) of descriptive text. for example SP/spelling (hai. u.

Mostly. word choice (WC). (Appendix 15. He very(WO) like(S/VA) to play by her boy. Bedidest(SP) its(WC) he also like(S/VA) sports. the mistakes are about the subject and verb agreement (S/VA). Sports that he likes is badminton. From the title. Even the ideas were choppy in the first draft but in the next draft. Spelling (SP). some mistakes were occurred in composition. He already have(S/VA) family now. He have name is Ramadhan(S/VA). it can be seen in underlined word. he is the most important person in my life because he that(NN) always to(NN) pay me to school. this student was able to make an average composition. draft 1).(PUNC) But one that I’m very(NN)like. it was still general and needed to be improved. NP He have(S/VA) one boy. punctuation (PUNC). Ir. So(PUNC) he don’t(S/VA) like if I don’t go to school one day. He to strike me if I don’t bring about it(?????). Soekarno number 42T. He live(S/VA) in jl.I have brother. He is policeman. From language use aspect. This student wrote two paragraphs that talked about “Brother”. not necessary word (NN). Although he often sports He don’t(S/VA) like if see peoples (WC) but her person very biggest and fat(GR). football and table tennis(GR). He is chil(SP) second from fife(SP) collegues(WC). that I don’t know. This student wrote some ideas about “brother” that obviously. that always to(NN) play dice(PUNC) he (WC) always(NN) teach(S/V)A me about lessons. 52 . This composition is different from above sample. it can be seen that the student had a good idea to write. word order (WO).

The second meeting activity focused on students’ composition. I like shopping.PUNC and you can call me Adnin or chupid. WC Him love me so much.1PUNC I have one sister. watching TV and listening music (MOVE THIS ) I like film horror. I was born in Takke 27 September 1991. SP Bay the way. I really like yo know why? Because my friend in class reallSP friendship and my class SP nice with all?????. She collegeWC in UniversitasSP Hasanuddin Makassar.PUNC and I’m 17 years old now. My favoridSP book isVA novel and all bookGR from Indonesia. action.(MOVE THIS SENTENCE)” (Appendix 14. and romantic comedy. She is 20 years old. I live PREP in Haeba street Komp. And now I’m 17 years old in this years my parent really nice to me. I really like watching film because that can make me fresh and eliminateWC to against the stomach and stress?????. my name is adnin Aderiska. those are distributing students’ 1st draft. 53 . I’m mosleamSP and I really like reading. draft II). now I’m schoolNN in SMA 9 KDI. I’m in X1. discussing about the problem on their writing and revising it based on the feedback given. Pengadilan tinggi Agama No. She now liveS/VA in Makassar. Some problems appeared during the process of writing 2nd draft as a revision of 1st draft. They often asked about the English of some words or what vocabulary that they can use in a sentence and many other problems found when the process was over. An example of students’ writing can be seen as follow: “SPHai.

From the result. In here the students get difficulties because they didn’t bring dictionary. Based on the overall process in cycle I. the question “mam. the problem came from their vocabulary problem. The 2nd draft it increased but it was still far from the target want to be achieved. while in organization aspect. this composition is better than in the first draft. mostly the mistakes were in language use aspect. First. the students often asked about some words in English or what vocabulary they can use in their sentences. 54 . For example. The researcher found that some problems appeared during the process of writing from 1 st and 2nd meeting in the first cycle. in the first draft the students who achieved the target Average to Very Good only 6 students for organization and 5 students for language use.The sample writing above showed that some mistakes were still occurred. The role of teacher in here was clearly seen that the teacher at that time helped the students who got problem in their vocabulary and informed to them to bring dictionary in next meeting. friend class atau friend?”. etc. what english for “ibuku baik sekali”?. students always walked around the class to borrow the dictionary or asked the teacher and researcher to help them with it. it can be seen in appendix 14.” Another question is “what good language for “ teman kelas”. That’s why during the process. To compare the first draft and the second draft. During the process of writing.

In solving the problem. stuck with the ideas and sentences going to be developed. for example less of attention. Beside about students’ problem in their composition. The teacher wrote the comments in English. so the students sometimes had difficulties to translate it into Indonesia. Planning 55 . Too many mistakes made them difficult to see the feedback within their sentences and sometimes didn’t know if there was feedback on theirs.Even there were some problems. the next cycle will be conducted to solve those problems. This problem was influenced by the way teacher in giving feedback to them.3 Activities of the Second Cycle A. Another problem was also shared by students about the teacher’s comments. 4. The students showed an improvement in part of language use but only few students who achieved the target. They didn’t understand because the teacher wrote the feedback in unorganized style. less motivation to write. based on the result of 2nd draft the students also made an improvement after the second meeting was conducted. The students were able to produce composition based on generic structure of descriptive text. etc. there were also several problems that affected the teaching and learning process.

Besides. the way applying feedback made students confused because teacher wrote the feedback in unclear way and messy. 3. 2.The result in the reflection of previous cycle showed several problems. So the teacher and the researcher planned a new strategy in giving feedback by using feedback sheet model (see appendix 12). Less of attention may also be the important factor why the first cycle still got problems. the teacher and the researcher planned to solve those problems by controlling the class more than before. etc. the problem in using language feature was about Verb1. possessive adjective and noun. Some students did other activities. etc. Dealing with those problems. The students’ score on organization and language use aspect were far from the target and it caused by less of attention and motivation. and sit or stood around the noisy area. preposition. Teacher would distribute students’ 2nd composition result. the researcher and the teacher did preparation as follows: 1. and the). This model was used when the teacher gave feedback on their 2nd draft. subject and object pronoun. article (a. Based on the problem they had on the second draft. giving warning to the students. The previous problems of the students were they composed better organization order but still poor language use. Verb + S/ES. such as chatting with friend. an. 56 . Teacher and the researcher planned to give more explanation about the use of language feature. drawing.

In the third meeting. The first meeting in this cycle would be used to focus their attention on teacher explanation about language use. teacher applied new strategy in giving feedback. the teacher and the researcher prepared the lesson plan. 5. students’ mistakes in the second draft and then to check their writing. B. The forth meeting was an activity to 57 . they would write their 3rd draft as a revision of 2nd draft. so this cycle was hoped can solve the problem they got from the first cycle from 1st meeting – 2nd meeting. While in the second cycle. The material was still about descriptive text with the students’ compositions but this cycle more focused on their comprehension of language use.4. the teaching learning process focused on language use of descriptive text. The lesson plan of cycle 2 can be seen in appendix 3. Teacher and the researcher prepared observation sheet and field note to observe the process and the condition of teaching and learning activity. This model text was the students’ composition which represented the students’ mistakes. because the first cycle had already solved the problem in area organization. The teacher and the researcher did this cycle because the first cycle couldn’t solve the problem. 6. To make the teaching and learning process would run effectively and efficiency. Teacher and researcher planned to prepare model text to be analyzed together in classroom. Action In this cycle there were two meetings (3rd meeting and 4th meeting). 7.

For example grammar. The teacher informed to the students that she had checked their composition and already written the feedback with new strategy by using feedback sheet on their compositions. because the teacher used both Indonesian and English for the comment they might not understand. After that. as follow: a. For organization.15 – 09.15. The teacher informed the students she would distribute their writing for a while to see their improvement and the student had to collect them back in the end of the meeting. teacher started the material. In the forth meeting. so the students didn’t confused with the feedback given. the students composed the 3rd draft based on the correction given on their 2nd draft and see their improvement. The teacher took one 58 . For more clear about the meetings the researcher explained more detail. punctuation. etc.find out whether there was improvement after applying the new strategy of written feedback to their 2nd draft or not. The class begun with usual activity such as greeted students and checked the attendance list for about 5 minutes. proper words. underline the sentence /paragraphs but it was little bit different. The teacher focused this meeting to explain about their problems until the students comprehend and be independence in writing. The teacher explained by focusing on most mistakes that student had. the teacher still used comment. word order. September 2nd 2008 at 07. 3rd meeting The third meeting was held on Tuesday. The teacher also let the students to ask about the comment they didn’t understand.

Those mistakes were about the using of Verb I. in order the other students could remember by taking note. and the). Some students responded the teacher command by mentioning the mistakes. While the students were asking some questions. The student most asked about the changes of verbs for “he. “mam……. The teacher explained that when the students wanted to use subjects “he. or “apa bedanya he-him. the teacher prepared the copies of the text.”. kan mam?”. Ves/s. etc. During this process. and they”. We.we-our…. Some of students’ question were shared by combining English and Indonesian. etc. “kalau kita mau pake she berarti we must use is. To get students’ attention on the text. You. 59 .they-their. To Be. In here the teacher always repeated what she had explained in the first meeting. the teacher didn’t forget to write the point of their questions on whiteboard. I. The teacher then explained the question one by one to the students. the students looked so enthusiast to ask questions to the teacher. She also asked the students to pay attention to her explanation and keep asking questions if they didn’t understand. an. punctuation. It really helped because they teacher didn’t have to spend her power to explain all about language use itself. she.example of student’s composition. After that teacher presented one of student composition in whiteboard and asked the students to find the mistakes. she-her. The teacher asked the students to remember what they had written as 2nd draft and also let them to ask some questions about language use. Pronoun. it. when we bisa gunakan V+ S/es”. and articles (a.

15 . taste. The teacher started the lesson by distributing their 2nd draft. To train the students. Whereas.she. etc) when they wanted to describe someone. the use of sense (hear. Beside about the change of the verb. we.” The students also asked when they can use S/ES. This activity was done for about 70 minutes. see. they. I. the teacher asked them to give and write some sentences on their textbook. The teacher then explained that they had to put adjective before noun.15 a. you. Before ending the meeting. b. The teacher always reminded them about agreement between subject and verb. the students also asked about word order when they wanted to combine a noun with an adjective. touch. for example “he manages the housework everyday”. The teacher re-informed 60 . for example black (adjective) and hair (noun) to be black hair or beautiful (adjective) and girl/woman to be beautiful girl or beautiful woman. for example “they manage the housework together everyday. The students gave very good responds for that. September 9th 2008 at 08. 4th meeting The 4th meeting was done on Tuesday.10. the order of noun and adjective.m. The teacher didn’t forget to encourage them in the end of meeting to write a better composition and always consulted their problem to the teacher. it” they must change the verb by adding S/ES. the students must use V1 without adding by S/ES when use the subject. the teacher informed the students that they would revise their 2nd drafts and applied what they had learned in the next meeting.

the students paid attention on teacher’s feedback about their mistakes. the teacher gave 10 minutes for students to see the feedback sheets and the comments on their compositions. The teacher was helped by the researcher to distribute the result of their draft. 61 . it can be seen that they still had problem in part of language use. The teacher motivated the students again as she did in the previous meetings because it would help the students to do better. Having discussed about some mistakes in the composition. So in this meeting the teacher explained more about language use. the teacher explained the language feature mostly by using students’ mistakes they always made. In the class. Based on the problem on their first and second drafts. This was one of her strategy to make students learned about their mistakes and didn’t repeat that again. In this process. the teacher then asked the students to rewrite their composition based on the feedback given. but she used students’ error in the second draft (see appendix 15) After distributing all the composition. the teacher reminded again to look at their mistakes. In their writing. The students who always walked around the class were less than in the previous meeting because the teacher reminded them to bring a dictionary as one of regulation to get in the class and the English score.to the students about the students’ lack in their composition in this case the students had problem in using language feature. the teacher didn’t teach the students by using hand out anymore. they received not only their drafts but also their feedback sheets. Here. Then.

the class activity was better than before. The teacher strategy to stand around noisy area was successful and the students also quieter than before. 3. During the process of writing. While. 2. the teacher always reminded them about general structure and also language feature of descriptive text. as follows: 1. C. Observation While doing the implementation in the second cycle. The last 10 minutes. but the discussion between partners were still done by them. the teacher was monitoring and helping students with the process. The teacher informed to the students about the students’ lack in their composition in part of language use. At the beginning. When the teacher distributed students’ 2nd draft. the teacher asked students to correct and rewrite their composition based on the feedback sheet given. in second cycle. In this activity. researcher observes some important things during the lesson. the teacher started class activities by asking about the previous material and what the students got from the material before. the students finished their draft and then collected to the teacher. the researcher helped the teacher and did the observation. the teacher didn’t work alone she was helped by the researcher to control the class. she also gave the feedback sheet to the students and asks the students to put attention on their mistakes that had been written in their own feedback sheet.During the process of independent construction. 62 . Then.

Reflection In this cycle. They could compose 3rd draft better than in the 1st draft and 2nd draft (see appendix 16). they had problem how to decide the proper word to use in sentence. Based on observation in the second cycle. Based on the classroom observation conducted at the second meeting. 5. D. The teacher permitted the students to ask some question about their composition and the feedback given if they got problems. for example they asked wash the dishes not wash the plate. The role of the teacher was really important in here where she can help students by explaining every misunderstanding word. there was actually no significant problem found since the solution from the teacher and researcher was successfully useful to students. Both teacher and researcher kept focusing to see the students’ progress in writing. do the laundry not wash the clothes.. The problems generally treated well since the solutions from teacher and researcher were successfully useful to students.he every lesson math always present…. There was only about their language choice produced by students where very Indonesian style like “…. The teacher’s strategy to use feedback sheet in their 2nd draft was successful based on the result of their 3rd drafts. the result of 3nd draft showed that they had good improvement during the process.” It Should be 63 .4. researcher found that when students were writing.

64 . 15 students in draft 2 and 4 students in draft 3. It clearly gives sample evidence that most students’ writing ability is improved under teacher’s indirect feedback. where in Fair to Poor. the second draft and the third draft in the class that showed in the following chart: 25 20 15 10 5 0 verypoor fair to poor good to average excellent to very good draft 1 draft 2 draft 3 Figure 1.he always presents in math class ……” This mistake corrected by teacher to explain the appropriate and encourages students understanding when interaction did. 4. but from their mistakes were decreased from draft 1 until draft 3. Even sometimes they still made it mistake both in organization or language use. The number of students is increased in Average to Very good score in draft 3 and no one is in Very Poor score in draft 3.“…. The same condition also shows improvement in Fair to Poor and Average to Good score. there are 18 students in draft 1.1 The Result of The Student’s Writing This section is about the result of the student’s writing in the first draft. Students’ writing achievement in organization aspect This chart shows the students’ improvement in part of organization.4.4 The Result 4.

it gives the strong impression that teacher’s indirect feedback can improve their writing. there aren’t any students both in draft 1 and draft 2. 21 students in draft 2 and 11 students in draft 3. While.In Average to Good. there aren’t any students who achieved good to average score in draft 1. 5 students in draft 2 and 1 student in draft 3. there are 18 students in draft 1. there are 3 students in draft 1. 14 students in draft 2 and 21 students in draft 3. In excellent to very good score. From the chart. it can be concluded that numbers of students 65 . 25 20 15 draft 1 10 5 0 verypoor fair to poor good to average excellent to very good draft 2 draft 3 Figure 2. there are 7 students in daraft 1. 4 students in draft 2. in this case the students who achieved Average to Good score increased in draft 3 become 21 students and no students in draft 3 achieved very poor. In Excellent to Very Good score. In good to average score. Students’ writing achievement in language use aspect The figure 2 shows the students’ improvement in language use aspect and once again. In very poor score. but there are 2 students in draft 3. and 16 students in draft 3. In pair to poor score. but it increased become 1 student in draft 2 and 5 students in draft 3. It can be concluded that the target has been achieved. there are 9 students in draft 1.

mostly students wrote disorder organization of text and irrelevant with what they wanted to write. The first cycle consists of two meeting and students made two drafts. word order. 66 . it indicates that the application of teacher’s indirect feedback in teaching writing can improve students’ writing performance particularly in organization and language use aspects of writing. the researcher did pre-observation and the result was 30 students had two main problems among those five aspects in writing. The researcher conducted the researcher in two cycles. In the first draft.achieved the target “good to average “were increased to be 16 students in draft 3 and 2 students achieved excellent to very good score. word choice. etc. namely organization and language use. It can be seen on students’ composition on first draft. Seeing the students’ draft in process from the first draft and the third draft.5 Discussion The aim of this research was to prove that the students’ ability can be improved through teacher’s indirect feedback. they indicate that there is improvement of students’ writing during the process. 4. The major problem is the use of language use. especially in English. Students did improvement in draft 3 better than in draft 1. That is to encourage students to learn English through writing. particularly the use of present tense in their composition. Beside that it helped students to be a good writer and become more confidence with their writing. Before starting the research. From the result in figure 1 and figure 2. While.

The text used is descriptive text. In the first cycle. The 2nd meeting. joint construction and independent construction. the teacher took those compositions and provided the feedback. In the first draft. modeling. Organization and Language Use. which consists of preparation. et al (1981:67) of two components. pg 105). the students showed improvement in part of organization but it was still far from the target achieved. The teacher taught writing by using genre based approach. students had been taught about the material intensively.in the second cycle consists of two meetings and students made their final draft in the forth meeting (see appendix 13. In this study the researcher collaborated with the English teacher to give indirect feedback on their writing. irrelevant and incorrect language use in the first meeting (see appendix 14. To evaluate the students the teacher and researcher used the evaluation proposed by Holly Jacob. The implementation of the first cycle which consists of two meeting (1st meeting and 2nd meeting) still had problem. the students made 2nd draft as revision of 1st draft and some students know how to apply the generic structure on their writing and could differentiate what sentences should be put in introduction. 67 . pg 106). the researcher found that even though. the result was After the first cycle was applied. Most students still wrote in disorder organization of text. so the evaluation was based on the pattern of organization (generic structure) and Language use (language feature) in descriptive text (see appendix 1). After finishing their writing in each meeting.

especially the teacher’s feedback. conclusion. The researcher analyzed that the students could perform a better writing after taking their draft back and revising it. The mistakes they had in their writing were more decreased because their full attention and encouragement to write better and also they were supported by many factors. word order. In the second cycle. possessive. After implementing the action on students’ writing. the researcher found there was an improvement on students’ writing under applying the teacher’s indirect feedback. motivation. The common mistake that students made were particularly the use of tenses (simple present tense). While. in the fourth meeting. second draft and the last draft can be seen in appendix 8. there were two meetings (3rd meeting and 4th meeting). the students’ were taught more intensively about the language use in descriptive text and what they should reach in language use. agreements.detail description. That’s why the researcher conducted the second cycle to solve this problem. So it can be said that this second cycle can solve students’ writing problem in language use aspect. and time. The result from the first draft. the students rewrote and corrected their previous draft and the result was the students produced a better result than the first cycle and the result already reached the target (see draft III in appendix 14. pg 107). In the third meeting. pg 109). pronoun. and etc (see draft II in appendix 14. 68 . From this result the researcher decided to stop the action because the students’ performances already reached the target of performance.

3 % in draft 2 and 16 students or 53. While. It is before the action is conducted. the students’ numbers who achieved the target were categorized Good to Average level or score upper 14 only 6 students or 20 % for organization in the first draft. 15 students or 50 % in draft 2 and in the third draft it decreased become 4 students or 13.6 % and 21 students or 70 % in the final draft.3 % increased in draft 3. While for fair to poor level.6 % in the first draft and it decreased in the third draft become no student achieved very poor level. the students who were achieved very poor level consisted of 5 students or 16. then it increased about 14 students in draft 2 or 46.6% in the second draft and it decreased in the third draft become 1 students or 3. the students who achieved that category consist of 18 students or 60 % in the first draft. 5 students or 16. for fair to poor level. the improvement also achieved for the students who achieved target score Good to Average or upper 18 increased from 3 students or 7 % in the first draft. It also can be seen in figure 1 that for organization. the students who achieved that category consist of 18 students 69 . In which the number of students who achieved Good to Average level of Jacob at al category of writing did increase.3 % (see page 61). then increased to 4 students or 13. For language use.33 %. it can be seen in figure 2 that the students who achieved very poor level consist of 9 students or 30 % in the first draft.The students’ score which achieved by students before and after conducting action support improvement of this classroom action research. For language use.

In this study the teacher had been placed herself completely to help students. The researcher agrees by Frodosen (2001) that indirect feedback indirect feedback is very useful because students are able to express their ideas more clearly in writing and to get clarification on any comments that teacher have made.63 % in the third draft (see page 62). Indirect feedback will increase the students’ ability in writing and the corrections will be saved in his/her brain in a long time. Another influence of the students’ improvement is the role of the teacher. Furlgor (2006:34) stated that in indirect feedback is very useful in encouraging the students to reflect on aspect of their writing and to improve their performance by solving the problem themselves. and use transitional devices (Fox. 1992). obtain a variety of sentences. because to compose a good writing. it helped students to minimize their mistakes during writing. it‘s supported by a theory that in this process the student learns to rearrange words and sentences. eliminate redundancies. The students’ improvement can be said as the result of applying teacher’s indirect feedback which it applied in two cycles. during writing process. subordinate sentences and clauses. Similarly.or 60 %. The teacher was not only had a role as a writing teacher but also she gave direction and 70 . the students were not only taught about how to write but also what the process when they write. the writers not only write once but many times. By using indirect feedback. The students as the writers could decrease some mistakes they always made. Moreover. 21 students or 70 % in the second draft and it decreased become 11 students or 36.

Next. and a language expert. It is supported by Seamus (2008) that there are three distinct roles of teacher. When they revised. and the last is Language expert. Biaael in Mappe (2000) emphasizes that revision is a process in which writers not only polish their style. working on text organization and coherence. we can see that teacher feedback can positively help the students to improve their writing. It might include comments or suggestion. In here. it started from pre writingdrafting-revising-editing-post writing. helping the students with lexis. As Ferris suggested that teachers should offer 71 . but also develop their ideas. The students followed the process of writing. here the teacher is in the more traditional role. grammar. they are as a reader. they learn many things from their mistake and how to correct their mistake. the teacher helps the students through the revision to shape and reshape the text into final form.suggestion to students when looking students writing. First. In this stage. grammatical skills etc. etc and correcting any problems or other language errors that they find. spelling. Writing teacher obviously involves helping students grapple with the writing skill as a whole and with its different sub-skills such as focusing on genre. a writing teacher. reader involves interacting with the written work and reacting to the content and ideas as a simple reader. in this study the teacher helped the students by giving the feedback to the students. The teacher took the role in revising and editing process. The teacher gave feedback after writing had composed and they revised it back.

because it increases students’ own investment in the process and if students are revising or rewriting their papers after receiving teacher feedback. 72 . Feedback forms also accommodate tutors' concerns over the time it takes to mark and give effective feedback. the researcher and the teacher always helped them. the students didn’t understand and the symbols seemed become one with their writing. Even they sometimes had problem during the process. it is clear that students perceive those divided into criterion-based sections with room for comments as the most useful. (2000) said that by using the feedback sheets. According to Clerk et al. It caused this method wasn’t done very well. so sometimes the students didn’t see whether there is a feedback/symbol or not. An additional global comment is also seen as highly valuable or even essential. The researcher found that by putting directly the feedback symbols is not a good idea. This become the teacher and researcher’s problem and in the next cycle the researcher and the teacher tried to solve the problem by giving feedback sheet to students writing.indirect rather than direct feedback (marking the error but not correcting it). then the teacher prepared the feedback sheet to put students’ mistake. It happened when the teacher put the symbols on the students’ writing. they are expected merely to transcribe the teachers’ suggested corrections into their texts (2002: 19). so that was not only gave them feedback but also guide them to find the truth and they had more confidence to write and were able to decrease their mistakes in writing.

This report can detail what the best pieces of writing were like. After applying this method the students were improved. In this students. another factor that influences the student’s improvement is the teacher helped the students by student-teacher conferencing. The marking of 73 . and to develop strategies for improvement. the teacher and researcher prepared the feedback sheet because the students in the class had common mistake and strength in their writing and an efficient way of giving feedback is to prepare a written report that is handed out to the class. what the common errors and weaknesses were. This sheet also provides a useful record that can be seen anytime by the teacher and students for later pieces of writing if the strength and weaknesses are the same or have changed. 2003). they understood where they did mistakes and discussed it with their friend and the teacher.Moreover. Fregeau. and what to do about them. The feedback sheet can be seen in appendix 12. Indirect feedback has also been found to be effective when it is coupled with student-teacher conferencing (Brender.teacher conferences. 1998. teachers can offer self –correction opportunity for their students by providing indirect feedback on student’s grammatical errors (Chandler. The feedback sheet was given after seeing the students’ result in the second draft. 1999). Conferencing allows both students and teachers are chance to trace the causes of the problems arising from student writing and feedback. Besides. The assistance and feedback given by the teacher should not be confined to the last stage of the writing process.

The students’ motivation increased when the different way of teaching writing was applied by the teacher in the classroom. Finally. in which after they were given information about their lack in the composition. proper language use. In short.products should always open more opportunities in which students can redraft their work. or teacher. writing helps the students to refine the ideas when they receive feedback.students had been done in this study and it could affect the students and motivated them to write better than before. teachers can use conferencing to assist students for specific problems related to their writing. the students cannot have the chance of correcting the wrong behavior and re-practicing the correct behavior. students then found out the right one for their writing by themselves. students are able to express their ideas more clearly in writing and to get clarification on any comments indirectly to their writing that teachers have made. Based on those explanations. The student were motivated because they knew that writing can be fun and not difficult anymore as long as they know how to write a composition in a good organization. Conferencing teacher-student. To lessen student confusion. students-student. By depriving them of their opportunity for redrafting and reassessing. vocabulary and also mechanic of writing itself. The students’ attitude under teacher’s feedback was good. teachers can consistently use a standard set of symbols or 74 . content. it can be concluded that the improvement of students’ ability in writing of the first grade in SMA Negeri 9 Kendari was because the application of teacher’s indirect feedback.

1987. Fregeau. the researcher found that teacher’s indirect feedback can’t stand alone and it will be more helpful by feedback sheet. teacher’s feedback has also been found to be effective when it is coupled with student-teacher conferencing (Brender. Secondly. seeing improvement is motivation. Thirdly. 75 . it is unpleasant experience to be corrected and some of learners may get frustrated and unmotivated because they might not know what to do. 1998. Students are able to express their ideas more clearly in writing and to get clarification on any comments that teachers had made. Richards & Lockhart. There are also some factors that influence the use of teacher indirect feedback during this study. 1999). in this study also found that teacher’s feedback also depends on students’ motivation to write. so the students familiarize themselves with the signs/symbols. review and revise their writing. Generally. That is why teachers have to inspire and convince learners that teachers welcome their questions and worries. First. and seeing the same error repeatedly helped students target the mistakes. concerning to teacher’s role as a motivator. 1996). So.markings to indicate place and type of error and trained the students in what kinds of corrections will be made based on each symbol as long as the teacher can explain about the symbols they will used in writing. Positive comments on their work are also accommodating to motivate learners to pursue more (Wright.

1 Conclusion Based on the finding. they were taught about the language use more intensively and the result is in the third draft. they started to write a composition by using descriptive text. Before the action was conducted. This result shows that the students did improve in their practices. after students were treated by teacher’s indirect feedback into two cycles. In the first draft. it can be said that the implementation of teacher’s indirect feedback in teaching writing can improve students’ writing quality. the students who categorized good to average level were 7 students for organization and 3 students for language use. students had produced good organization and correct language use. In here they were already able to produce good organization after the teacher gave them indirect feedback that showed their problem in writing. In the second draft. It can be seen on students’ progress during the process. Then. they were still lack in language use aspect. This improvement was supported by the comparison of number students who got score good to average level before and after the action was conducted. total of the 76 . the students started to make a composition by using descriptive text pattern and they produced disorder organization and lack in language use although they had been taught about the generic structure and the language feature of the text. In the other hand.CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. even tough.

the researcher offers several recommendations for further researcher as follow: 1. For teacher. it is better for them to apply indirect feedback in teaching writing. 77 . 2. it indicated that the improvement of students’ writing performance was achieved by applying teacher’s indirect feedback. 5. The next researcher who wants to take the same approach for the same level. especially teachers of SMU Negeri 9 Kendari. the focus is descriptive text.students who categorized in good to average level increased become 21 students for organization and 16 students for language use. For the next researcher who wants to conduct the same design. she/ he may take other kinds of genre because in this study. 3.2 Recommendation After conducting this study. From those comparisons. The researcher also may take the other aspect of writing of descriptive text because this study is focused on organization and language use aspect of writing. may conduct the study in the same level by using different kind of feedback.

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make it interesting. to set a mood or create an atmosphere. to bring writing to life. Description. should restate your thesis or conclude your event. places. Descriptive text can be divided from  Purpose. atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures of characters. for example to create a particular mood. and also to help a writer develop an aspect of their work. or/and characteristics. they may use examples. they might take something ordinary and by comparing it with something extraordinary. fresh language. objects etc. The purpose in descriptive writing is to engage a reader's attention. 81 .Appendix 1 Teaching Material Descriptive text a text which says what a person or a thing is like or to provide enough vivid detail to help the reader create a mental picture of what is being written about. qualities. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. or they may use their senses • Reorientation. to create characters. describing the phenomenon in parts.  Generic Structure The generic structure of descriptive text is: • • Identification. They may choose vivid.

tasted. (Adopted from LKS GITA II for Senior High School. Using attributive and identifying process. seen. Sensory description . similes. metaphors to create images/pictures in the mind. Precise use of adjectives. Pabelan) 82 . Strong development of the experience that "puts the reader there" focuses on key details. The language uses of this text should rely on precisely chosen vocabulary with carefully chosen adjectives and adverbs. and Using simple present tense. smelt. publisher: PT.what is heard. powerful verbs and precise nouns. Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. Language Feature. It is focused and concentrated only on the aspects that add something to the main purpose of the description. felt.

Basic Competence : to express the meaning and the rhetoric stages in a simple essay accurately and acceptable in daily context in form narrative.pay attention to the teacher Time 5 .explain the features of descriptive text to the class. and news item in daily context.Appendix 2 LESSON SCENARIO CYCLE I (FIRST MEETING) School : SMA Negeri 9 Kendari Course : english Grade/ Semester : X/ II Time : 2 x 40 menit Standard Competence: Writing To express the meaning in short functional text and simple essay in form narrative. .pay attention to the teacher . and news item.pay attention to the teacher .teacher identify the major understanding about description text . .Explain how the text is structured and the language feature are used.pay attention to the teacher . descriptive.introduces a model of descriptive text to the class .teacher decide what description to be developed (Person).Explain the function of each stages Students Pay attention to the teacher . . descriptive.pay attention to the teacher 70 83 . Main subject : descriptive text Indicator : understanding and composing a descriptive text Teaching and learning Activity Preactivity Main activity Teacher Introduces the topic to the class .pay attention to the teacher .

students deliver their deliver their idea to the ideas (white in class by writing at the whiteboard) whiteboard .Asks students suggestion about the topic .Revises the structure by .teacher concludes the student pay attention manterial .students deliver their comparing with the model idea about better and asking students’ structure composition suggestion about the composition . Publisher: Yudistira 84 .Asks the students to .Guided students to composing writing compose a descriptive text (first draft) .respond the teacher to be composed request (describing important person in their life) .deliver their idea in .teacher inform the next subject 5 Media Evaluation Source : description text (description person) : on going assessment : Text Book Linked to the World 1 English for Senior High School.Post activity .

Teacher asks the students to write second . Main subject : descriptive text Indicator : composing a descriptive text Teaching and learning process Activity Preactivity Main activity Teacher Students Introduces the topic to the Pay attention to the teacher class and planning class today .LESSON SCENARIO OF CYCLE I (SECOND MEETING) School : SMA Negeri 9 Kendari Course : English Grade/ Semester : X/ II Meeting : second (independent construction and mistake correction) Time : 3 x 40 menit Standard Competence: Writing To express the meaning in short functional text and simple essay in form narrative.Students receive their students’ first draft that draft had been writen before action . Time 5 110 85 .Pay attention to the students to pay attention receipt draft and focus and focus to the indirect on the feedback feedback given to their draft .Teacher expalains their . descriptive.Pay attention to the lack in their composition teacher .Teacher distributes .Students respond a chance to ask questions teacher’s request .Teacher gives students . and news item in daily context. Basic Competence : to express the meaning and the rhetoric stages in a simple essay accurately and acceptable in daily context in form narrative.Teacher asks the . descriptive.Students write the draft draft based on their previous draft referring to the indirect teacher’s feedback. and news item.

Post activity .Teacher collects the .Teacher informs the next subject 5 Media Evaluation Source : description text (description person) : on going assessment : Text Book Linked to the World 1 English for Senior High School.Respond and collect students composition their composition . Publisher: Yudistira 86 .During the process the teacher keep watching their activity .Teacher concludes the Student pay attention material .

students pay attention .students deliver their opinion about the composition .Teacher asks some students to find out the mistake in composition .Teacher presents one of students’ composition in white board that used as the sample of giving feedback .students pay attention .students ask if they 87 Time 5 70 .Teacher explain the students’ lack in their composition.Appendix 3 LESSON SCENARIO OF CYCLE 2 (THIRD MEETING) School : SMA Negeri 9 Kendari Course : English Grade/ Semester : X/ II Meeting : Third (giving feedback and mistake discussion) Time : 2 x 40 menit Standard Competence: Writing To express the meaning in short functional text and simple essay in form narrative. and news item in daily context.Students inform their lack in 2nd draft about language use.students pay attention to their handed draft . Main subject : Descriptive text Indicator : Mistake discussion in their 2nd draft. .Teacher focus on the explanation of language use of descriptive text. descriptive. Basic Competence : To express the meaning and the rhetoric stages in a simple essay accurately and acceptable in daily context in form narrative. and news item. descriptive. . . Teaching and learning Preactivity Main activity Activity Teacher Students Introduces the topic to the Pay attention to the teacher class and planning class today .

.The teacher inform and explain the symbols will be used for the next draft .Students pay attention to the feedback sheet and prepare their question . . Publisher: Yudistira 88 .student attention pay 5 Post activity - teacher concludes the manterial teacher inform the next subject Media Evaluation Source : description text (description person) : on going assessment : Text Book Linked to the World 1 English for Senior High School..Pay attention to the teacher.Teacher distribute the new feedback sheet containing with the symbols and ask the students to learn it have question about the material.

Students Pay attention to the teacher .Teacher distributes students’ second draft . descriptive.LESSON SCENARIO OF CYCLE 2 (FORTH MEETING) School : SMA Negeri 9 Kendari Course : English Grade/ Semester : X/ II Meeting : forth (revising draft) Time : 2 x 45 menit Standard Competence: Writing To express the meaning in short functional text and simple essay in form narrative. and news item in daily context.Teacher asks the students to write the third draft based on their previous draft referring to the indirect teacher’s feedback on the feedback sheet.Teacher expalains their lack in their composition . Teaching and learning Activity Preactivity Main activity Teacher Introduces the topic to the class and planning class today .Students respond teacher’s request .Pay attention to the receipt draft and focus on the feedback . and news item.Pay attention to the teacher . Main subject : Descriptive text Indicator : students can revise their 2nd draft and compose 3rd draft.Teacher gives students a chance to ask questions . descriptive. Time 5 65 89 .Students receive their draft . Basic Competence : To express the meaning and the rhetoric stages in a simple essay accurately and acceptable in daily context in form narrative.Students write the draft and pay attention to the feedback sheet.Teacher asks the students to pay attention and focus to the indirect feedback given to their draft .

During the process the teacher keep watching their activity . Publisher: Yudistira 90 .Post activity - .Teacher collects the students composition Teacher asks students the conclusion about what they are performed . 10 Media Evaluation Source : description text (description person) : on going assessment : Text Book Linked to the World 1 English for Senior High School.Students give their conclusion.Respond and collect their composition .

Using adjective and classifiers. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of Description. The way to the summit extends through some 4. valuable.8 km of passage and stairways. 91 . Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Conclusion Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. The first five terraces are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Buddhist sculpture in bas-relief. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Cambodia. Central Java. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Using simple present tense. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature. The entire edifices are crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consists of eight steps like stone terrace. The upper three are circular. Indonesia. etc India. The temple is constructed. The design of Borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. Borobudur is well-known. It was built Identification.Budhist temple. Borobudur temple in the ninth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom.Appendix 4 : Model Text Here's one descriptive paragraph: Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu .

Appendix 5 Students Assignment Sheet Student’s name___________________________ Class ___________ Make a descriptive text about your family or the most important person in your life in three or more paragraphs. Date _____________ 92 . Each paragraph consists of four or more sentences.

space order. Ideas clearly stated/ supported Succinct Well-organized Logical sequencing cohesive Language use Effective complex construction 93 . or importance? Is this development indicated by appropriate transitional markers? Does each paragraph reflect a single purpose? Do the paragraphs from a unified paper? Are sentences well-formed and complete. building on one another? Are there introductory and concluding paragraphs? Are there effective transition elements-words. limit and direct the thesis Are all ideas directed concisely to the central focus of the paper. using a particular sequence such as time order. and an end to the paper? Are the points logically developed. without digression? Is the overall relationship of ideas within and between paragraphs clearly indicated? Is there a beginning. with appropriate complements? Are single-word modifiers appropriate to function? Properly formed. a middle.Appendix 6. phrases or sentences-which link and move ideas both within and between paragraphs? Is there a clearly stated controlling idea or central focus (a thesis) to the paper? Do topic sentences in each paragraph support. placed and sequenced? Are the introductory it and there used correctly to begin sentences and clauses Are main and subordinate elements linked to other elements with appropriate conjunctions. Component of ESL Composition Profile (organization and language use) Component Organization Description Fluent expression Indicators Do the ideas flow.

relative pronouns or punctuation? Are sentence types and length varied? Are elements parallel? Are techniques of substitutes. 1981 : 92-96) Articles Pronouns preposition 94 . do modals convey meaning? Time? Properly intended Tense Number Word order/function Do nouns. phrase. and the used correctly Do pronouns reflect appropriate person? Gender? Number? Function? Referent? Are preposition chosen carefully to introduce modifying elements? Is the intended meaning conveyed (Jacob et al.adverbial. an. and verbs convey in tended quantity? Is normal word order followed except for special emphasis? Is each word. pronouns. and deletio0n used effectively? Agreement Is there basic agreement between sentence elements: auxiliary verb? Subject verb? Pronoun antecedent? Adjective noun? Nounqualifier? Are the verb tenses correct? sequenced. and clause suited to its intended function? Are a. repetition.

Yes No Yes No 95 . . Teacher explain how the text is structured and the language feature are used. . . . . . . . . . . 1st Meeting Teacher’s Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Teacher introduces the topic to the class Teacher identify the major understanding about description text teacher decide what description to be developed (Person). . Teacher introduces a model of descriptive text to the class Teacher explain the features of descriptive text to the class.Appendix 7 OBSERVATION SHEET 1. . . . . First cycle (CYCLE I) a. . . . . Teacher explain the function of each stages Teacher asks the students to deliver their idea to the class by writing at the whiteboard Teacher asks students suggestion about the topic to be composed (describing important person in their life) Teacher Guided students to compose a descriptive text (first draft) Teacher collects and concludes the manterial teacher inform the next subject Students’ Activity Pay attention to the teacher Students receive their draft Pay attention to the receipt draft and focus on the feedback Students focus on teacher’s explanation Students asked some questions Students write the draft Respond and collect their composition Student pay attention Students collect their draft to the teacher .

b. . . Yes No Yes No 96 . . . . . 2nd Meeting Teacher’s Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Teacher Introduces the topic to the class and planning class today Teacher distributes students’ first draft that had been writen before action Teacher asks the students to pay attention and focus to the indirect feedback given to their draft Teacher gives students a chance to ask questions Teacher expalains their lack in their composition Teacher asks the students to write second draft based on their previous draft referring to the indirect teacher’s feedback. . . . . . . During the process the teacher keep watching their activity Teacher collects the students composition Teacher concludes the material Teacher informs the next subject Students’ Activity Students pay attention to the teacher The students take their draft Students pay attention to the receipt draft and focus on the feedback Students respond teacher’s request Students pay attention to the teacher Students write the draft Students respond and collect their composition Student pay attention teacher conclusion . . . . . .

. . . Teacher focus on the explanation of language use and organization of descriptive text. . . . .2. . Second cycle (CYCLE 2) c. . . Yes No Yes No 97 . . . . Introduces the topic to the class and planning class today Teacher presents one of students’ composition in white board that used as the sample of giving feedback Students inform their lack in 2nd draft about language use. . Students pay attention to the feedback sheet Students ask the teacher about the feedback sheet Students concentrates to the teacher’s explanation . 3rd Meeting Teacher’s Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. . . Teacher explain the students’ lack in their composition. . The teacher inform and explain the symbols will be used for the next draft Teacher distribute the new feedback sheet containing with the symbols The teacher explained about the feedback sheet teacher concludes the material teacher inform the next subject Students’ Activity Pay attention to the teacher students pay attention students deliver their opinion about the composition students pay attention to their handed draft Students ask if they have question about the material.

d. . . . . . . Yes No 8 9 10 no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . Students respond teacher’s request Pay attention to the teacher Students write the draft and pay attention to the feedback sheet. . . . During the process the teacher keep watching their activity Teacher collects the students composition Teacher asks students the conclusion about what they are performed Students’ Activity Students pay attention to the teacher The students take their draft Students pay attention to the receipt draft and focus on the feedback. . . . . . Respond and collect their composition Students give their conclusion. Yes No 98 . . . 4th Meeting Teacher’s Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Teacher Introduces the topic to the class and planning class today Teacher distributes students’ second drafts Teacher asks the students to pay attention and focus to the indirect feedback given to their draft Teacher re-explains about the material Teacher gives students a chance to ask questions Teacher expalains their lack in their composition Teacher asks the students to write the third draft based on their previous draft referring to the indirect teacher’s feedback on the feedback sheet. .

Org LU Y 1 10 12 22 2 12 16 28 3 14 15 29 4 13 13 26 5 13 12 25 6 12 13 25 7 9 7 16 8 11 10 21 9 14 14 28 10 15 17 32 Σ 252 99 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Σ Org 11 13 14 13 12 12 8 10 14 14 LU 13 16 14 14 13 14 7 11 16 15 X 24 29 28 27 25 26 15 21 30 29 254 Rater B : the English Teacher Resp.Appendix 9 The score of Inter-rater Agreement Rater A : the Researcher Resp.

819 =0.Two rater Computation Result Resp. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Σ (Σ X)2 & (ΣY)2 X 24 29 28 27 25 26 15 21 30 29 254 64516 Y 22 28 29 26 25 25 16 21 28 32 252 63504 X2 576 841 784 729 625 676 225 441 900 841 6638 Y2 484 784 841 676 625 625 256 441 784 1024 6540 XY 528 812 812 702 625 650 240 441 840 928 6578 rxy = { N ∑ xy − ( ∑ x )( ∑ y ) } { N ∑ x 2 − ( ∑ x ) 2 }{ N ∑ y 2 − ( ∑ y ) 2} 10 (6578 ) − ( 254 )( 252 ) (10 (6638 ) − (64516 ))( 10 (6540 ) − (63504 )) = = (1844 )(1896 ) = 1772 3496224 1772 65780 − 64008 = 1869 .9476 (high correlation) 100 .

their. he. 2. 6. 13. 12. Students submitted the writings and paid attention to the next explanation from the teacher. Only few students brought dictionary and it caused student walked around the class to find the dictionary. 14. 3. Teacher put the indirect feedback in every error in students’ writing. The students shared their difficulties when they were composing draft 1. Students confused with the feedback on their writings and only understand some of it. 9. Teacher asked them to submit their writing. she it’s/its) 101 . 23rd 2008. some students asked the teacher about vocabulary and sometimes checked their sentences. advise and advice) and most about the use of pronoun (e. During the process of writing. 1. 4. language use and descriptive text to the students.g. Teacher distributed their draft and asked to see the feedback. her.Appendix 10 Field Note Cycle 1 1st Meeting on Saturday. 4. 8. (e. Teacher explained about the organization of the text. August. Teacher explained what kind of symbols they will get in their writing. 26th. 2.g. Teacher explained the activities and the material to the students after distributing the copy of material. 3. I. symbols of indirect feedback and marking scheme of writing. some students also seemed not seriously following the instruction to write a composition. Students unfocussed did their writing because they spent their time to chat instead of writing. Students paid attention when teacher explained the material. Teacher did brainstorming about previous material and asked their difficulties in composing a draft Teacher explained that they still had weaknesses on both organization and language use. him. Students didn’t understand about the symbols used will be used. 11. 10. 5. During the process. Teacher asked students to write 1st draft about descriptive text. they. 7. students sometimes difficult to use the similar sound of words. Students wrote composition based on teacher’s instruction. she. During the process. 6. 5. 1. 2nd Meeting on Tuesday.

3. 11. The teacher distributed the copy of their 2nd draft that hadn’t give feedback and they had to give it back to the teacher in the end of meeting. Teacher monitored students activity and help them when the students got difficulties 11.g. Cycle 2 3rd Meeting on Tuesday. Teacher kept encouraging students to write in a good organization and improved their confidence in writing. 8. 7. 7.Teacher asked the students to revise the 1st. 4. Students collected their 2nd compositions. 12. Teacher reminds the students that they should pay attention to language use aspects they used (e. words. punctuation. The students paid attention to their draft and the teacher’s explanation. Teacher explained that Students got improvement in their organization but still had problem on language use after writing the 2nd draft. Teacher re-explained about the material and their lack in part of language use and introduced the feedback sheet. conjunction. etc). 6. September 2nd.September 9th. 10. 3. 4. Students didn’t walk around the class because they already brought their own dictionary but there were still one or three students who did it. 10. 9. The students gave the draft back to the teacher. Students tried to check their mistakes through the copies. Teacher re-explained the important point related to the material before asking students to perform. The students saw their draft and their feedback sheets. 8. 2. 2008 1. 9. some students still walked around the class to find a dictionary to their friends or came close to the teacher and researcher to ask some words in English. tenses. Students wrote 2nd draft as a revision from draft 1 based on the teacher’s indirect feedback. Teacher informed to the students that she would distribute their draft Two students helped distributing the drafts. 2. 4th Meeting on Tuesday. The teacher reminded them to bring dictionary next meeting and their dictionary will be checked. During the process. The student seemed enthusiasm to follow the process because they could investigate their own mistakes. 2008 1. 102 . Students shared to the teacher about kind of difficulties during writing their draft. 5.

5. all Students didn’t walk around again the class because they brought dictionaries. 7. 9. the teacher asked the students to compose 3rd draft based on the feedback given 8. Students got more confidence to write than in previous cycle and they seemed serious writing the composition. The students sometimes still asked about difficulties vocabularies. The teacher kept watching and walk around the class to control the class. After answering the questions. 12. 6. During the process. Students seemed interested to look their mistake and match with the feedback. 10. Students asked the students about how to use the feedback sheet in the next draft. Students were enjoying their action because they got improvement after their writings were checked. 103 . 11.

You have something good 10 good Good idea. an or the for singular noun This means you must begin a new paragraph you need to insert a word when you see this symbol I can’t understand this. good detail here: a good word. detail. The meaning is not clear.Appendix 11 Correction codes on student’s writing no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 code WC PREP VT S/V SP ART N. idea. etc the words in this sentence are in the wrong order 9 ? question mark) unclear meaning 11 WO word order 104 .P ^ meaning Word choice Preposition verb tense or GR = more general grammar problems subject verb agreement spelling error Article new paragraph missing word Kinds of errors The words are inapplicable with the sentences/ meaning Wrong preposition Wrong tense/ use another tense subject and verb don’t agree Use dictionary to correct your spelling Use article a. Write in another way to make the meaning clearer.

Appendix 12 Feedback Sheet Codes/symbols Mistakes comment Note: if you don’t understand. you can meet me in the office or contact me!!!! (silahkan hubungi saya jika ada pertanyaan!!!) 105 .

Appendix 13 Student’s writing assignment 106 .

Appendix 14 Students’ Composition 107 .

Appendix 15 students’ composition 108 .

109 .

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