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Front Mob Doc Tech-1 Pdfandps Qam

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Brand, Philips Semiconductors, PCALE

QAM Demodulation

0

QAM Demodulation
o o o o o

Application area What is QAM? What are QAM Demodulation Functions? General block diagram of QAM demodulator Explanation of the main function
(Nyquist shaping, Clock & Carrier Recovery, AGC, Adaptive Equaliser)

o o

Performance Conclusion

Wireless Communication s

S. Brand, Philips Semiconductors, PCALE

QAM Demodulation

1

Example Application Are a “Wireless Cable” Digital TV using Microwave Transmission
QAM Modulation Multiplexing Compression Set-top Box

Radio Channel

• Compression = bit rate reduction • Multiplexing = assembly of multiple programs • Modulation = conversion to transmission format • Set-top Box = Integrated Receiver Decoder (IRD), provides a subscriber access to a wide range of programs

Wireless Communication s

Brand. Philips Semiconductors.ai cos ( ω c t ) + ---------bi sin ( ω c t ) Ts Ts +7 +5 +3 +1 -1 -3 -5 -7 +7 +5 +3 +1 -1 -3 -5 -7 ai-1=+3 ai=+1 ai+1=-7 7 Q I 5 3 √Εο √Εο Ts bi-1=-5 bi=+5 bi+1=-1 Tc 1 −1 I Q −3 −5 −7 time −7 −5 −3 −1 1 3 5 7 64QAM in time domain 64QAM Constellation diagram Wireless Communication s . PCALE QAM Demodulation 2 What is QAM? o o Amplitude Modulation of Two Orthogonal Carriers xi ( t ) = 2E o 2Eo -------.S.

PCALE QAM Demodulation 3 Q M-ary QAM Satellite b1b0 Noise power I { { Cable b5b4b3b2b1b0 S/N > 21 dB for M=64 S/N > 27 dB for M=256 signal power S/N > 3 dB for M=4 Wireless Communication s . Philips Semiconductors.S. Brand.

PCALE QAM Demodulation 4 What to do to recover the information ? Functions Automatic Gain Control Quadrature down conversion (Half) Nyquist Filtering Clock Recovery Carrier Recovery Adaptive Equaliser Demapping Result Optimal position of constellation diagram in reception window I & Q base band signals Pulse shaping Sampling reference for A/D Converter Carrier frequency reference Compensate for channel distortion Representation of received data in bits Wireless Communication s . Brand. Philips Semiconductors.S.

PCALE QAM Demodulation 5 System Block Diagra m IF f f fs f 1.0.S. Brand.-1.0.1 4fs Cable Connection VCO VCXO I2C QAM DEMODULATOR fine AGC Tuner BPF LPF ADC Complex Equaliser √Ν Q AGC detect Carrier Recovery Clock Recovery DAC clock detect DAC DTO Digital Analogue loop filter carrier detect DAC AGC Wireless Communication s demapping √Ν I .-1.0 0. Philips Semiconductors.

S. * Fine AGC to position contellation diagram to decision window coarse AGC Q Q Q I I I Tuner output Equaliser output Fine AGC output Wireless Communication s . PCALE QAM Demodulation 6 Automatic Gain Contro l IF down conversion ADC n Filtering & Equalisation * 2 loops AGC I Q fine AGC * Coarse AGC to prevent ADC from overloading * After Nyquist filtering and Equalisation ‘small’ QAM remains. Brand. Philips Semiconductors.

S. Philips Semiconductors.0.-1.1 I * Pulse Shaping required to realise ISI=0 in limited BW * ISI=0 when zero crossings occur at multiples of Ts=1/fs √Ν Q * Achieved with Nyquist Criterion (DVB: α = 15%) Ts=1/fs Sn S Ts n+1 Sn+3 Sn+6 BW=∞ time 0 (1+α)fs fs BW=8MHz time 0 freq freq * Cascade of Transmitter & Receiver fulfil Nyquist Criterion (Half Nyquist each ) Sn+2 S Sn+5 n+4 * Digital implementation (Tdelay = 9 Tsymbol) * This delay is in the loops and thus influences the demodulator architecture Wireless Communication s .0 0.0. Brand. PCALE QAM Demodulation 7 (Half) Nyquist Filterin g √Ν ADC 4fs 1.-1.

Received clock has crystal accuracy (100 ppm at 7 Msym/s)) .fclock = 4 fsymbol ..Energy Maximization algorithm .-1.Loop BW may be small .-1.1.2. Brand.1 vcxo DAC clock det. I..After Half Nyquist Filter to achieve ISI=0 at detector input * Half Nyquist Filter in loop is allowed .Simple with j-n (n=0.3. PCALE QAM Demodulation 8 Clock Recovery 1.Delay in loop is allowed (no instability) time 0.. Q signal Ts Recovered clock * Quadarture Demodulation .0. Philips Semiconductors.0 ADC * Recovery with 2nd order PLL √Ν * Clock Detector .S.0.) Wireless Communication s .

After equaliser . Philips Semiconductors. PCALE QAM Demodulation 9 Carrier Recovery delay IF LPF ADC 4fs vco vcxo * Recovery with 2nd order PLL equaliser √Ν * Carrier Detector .Large delay causes problems for disturbances like: * phase noise * microphonics (mechanical vibrations) time DAC carrier det.S.PD (lock) and PFD (unlock) * PFD for large acquisition range (100 kHz) * PD for stable behaviour once in lock * Half Nyquist & Equaliser in loop . I or Q Tcarrier Recovered carrier * Alternative solution required Wireless Communication s . Brand.Decision directed .

Brand.Low IL Implementation Loss Cable s(t) Tuner + n(t) QAM demod r(t) BW Wireless Communication s . PCALE QAM Demodulation 10 Carrier Phase Disturbances (1 ) Additive White Gaussian Noise * AWGN Disturbance .Mainly inserted in the cable channel * Result .Enlarged constellation points * PLL Properties .S.Random distribution .Loop BW small .Average the noise . Philips Semiconductors.

PCALE QAM Demodulation 11 Carrier Phase Disturbances (2 ) * Phase Noise & Microphonics Phase Noise/ -No random distribution Microphonics Q -Mainly inserted in the tuner by LC oscillators which are sensative for mechanical vibrations (Microphonics) * Result -Rotation of constellation diagram. Philips Semiconductors. * PLL Properties -Follow the phase disturbance -Loop BW large -Low IL I Implementation Loss Cable s(t) Tuner X QAM demod r(t) * PLL properties for AWGN and BW phase noise are in contradiction Wireless Communication s .S. Brand.

Brand. Loop BW [kHz] AWGN AWGN+Phase noise OPTIMUM Wireless Communication s .S. Ability to average AWGN * Rule of thumb: 1 BW = ----------. Ability to follow phase noise b.f 1000 symbol * Simulations show this is approximately correct * Optimum depends on S/N and amount of phase noise * Problem: Optimum loop BW instable due to large delay in the loop (Half Nyquist + Equaliser). Philips Semiconductors. PCALE QAM Demodulation 12 Phase noise versus AWG N Implementation Loss [dB] * Loop BW trade of between: a.

S.PD only DAC outer loop I or Q Tcarrier Recovered carrier time * Conclusion: optimum loop BW can be selected and causes no instability Wireless Communication s . Brand.Large Loop BW due to small delay . Philips Semiconductors. √Ν inner loop * Outer loop -Adjust (static) frequency offset -Small loop BW due to large delay -PD/PFD * Inner Loop . PCALE QAM Demodulation 13 Double Loop Carrier Recover y large delay IF LPF ADC 4fs vco vcxo dto Loop filter * Introduction of second loop with (relatively) small delay equaliser carrier det.Optimum loop BW as trade off between phase noise & AWGN .

Philips Semiconductors.S. Brand. any equalisation enhances noise from the channel * Tradeoff between: Accurately minimising ISI Minimising the noise * Different types of Equaliser Wireless Communication s . PCALE QAM Demodulation 14 Equalisation * Nyquist Criterion specifies a frequency domain condition on the received pulses to achieve ISI=0 * Generally this is NOT satisfied unless the channel is equalised * Equalise the channel = compensate for channel distortion * Unfortunately.

PCALE QAM Demodulation 15 Multipath Distortion Multipath Reflection Φ * Multipath distortion causes ISI * Each original point consists of M new points in the shape of constellation diagram * Amplitude. delay and phase of the echo determine shape/size of the small constellation diagrams A * Varying channel requires Adaptive Equaliser Cable s(t) Tuner QAM demod + r(t) Amplitude.S. delay. Brand. Philips Semiconductors. phase Wireless Communication s .

S. Brand. Philips Semiconductors. PCALE QAM Demodulation 16 Equaliser Structure Linear Equaliser (LE) Symbol Decision Decision Feedback Equaliser (DFE) Symbol Decision Iout Coefficients Iin Qin Complex FIR filter Iout Qout Iin Qin Coefficients Qout Coefficients FFE + DFE Wireless Communication s .

Philips Semiconductors. Brand.2τ) H ( z) = 1 + A z –τ –τ 2 –2τ (+) No residual ISI G ( z ) = ----------------------–τ 1 + Az H ( z) G ( z) = 1 1 G ( z) = 1 – A z H ( z) G ( z) = 1 – A z (+) ‘Fast’ acquisition (-) ‘High’ noise amplification zeroes noise (-) ‘Slow’ acquisition (+) ‘Low’ noise amplification poles noise Wireless Communication s .S. PCALE QAM Demodulation 17 Equaliser Structure Linear Equaliser (LE) H(z) in + Decision Feedback Equaliser (DFE) + G(z) out in out in H(z) + G(z) out in + out A Z-τ -A Z-τ A Z-τ Z-τ A (-) Residual ISI (A2.

PCALE QAM Demodulation 18 Equaliser Adaptation Algorith m Zero Forcing (ZF) Mean Square Error (MSE) (+) Complete elimination of ISI (-) Penalty = Noise amplification (+) Minimize sum of ISI and noise (+) Less noise amplification by (-) Allowing residual ISI Wireless Communication s .S. Philips Semiconductors. Brand.

PCALE QAM Demodulation 19 Adaptive Equaliser ZF (Zero Forcing) Suited for QAM with M≤64 MSE (Mean Square Error) Suited for QAM with M≤64 (-) residual ISI does not allow higher M (+) Fast acquisition (+) High stability Required for QAM with M>64 (+) Stablity guaranteed when zero in spectrum Equaliser channel LE DFE (-) residual ISI does not allow higher M (+) Fast acquisition (+) High stability No suitable solution (-) Because of complete elimination of ISI system is instable when zero in spectrum Equaliser channel (-) ‘Slow’ acquisition Wireless Communication s . Philips Semiconductors. Brand.S.

Brand.1 dB (4) 1.6 dB (5) 1.S.0 dB (1) Theory (2) AWGN (single car loop) (3) AWGN (double car loop) (4) 1 ray echo (5) 2 ray echo (6) 3 ray echo BER 1 2 3 4 56 S/N Wireless Communication s . Philips Semiconductors. PCALE QAM Demodulation 20 Measurement Result s Implementation Loss (2) 0.6 dB (3) 1.9 dB (6) 2.

Delay in half Nyquist filter and equaliser require double carrier recovery loop structure to achieve high performance on phase noise & microphonics . PCALE QAM Demodulation 21 Conclusion Single Chip QAM Demodulator with low Implemenation Loss .S. Philips Semiconductors.Double Loop AGC for optimum usage of A/D Converte r . Brand.Adaptive equaliser * LE/ZF or LE/MSE preferred for QAM withM≤64 * DFE/MSE required for QAM with M>6 4 Wireless Communication s .

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