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Blooms Revised Taxonomy Presentation for Teachers New

Blooms Revised Taxonomy Presentation for Teachers New

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‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A quick history of Benjamin Bloom. The original taxonomy. Why it is revised. Explore each of the six levels Using the taxonomy in the classroom.

He who learns but does not think is lost.


A quick history lesson«
‡ In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behaviour important in learning. ‡ After extensive research, Bloom discovered that over 95 % of the test questions most students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information.

Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest orders which he classified as synthesis and evaluation).
Bloom originally classified µevaluation¶ as the highest cognitive skill, this has since been revised. We will be working with the revised taxonomy.

One can be critical without being creative but creative production often requires critical thinking.During the 1990's. This is in deference to the popularly held notion that creative thinking is a more complex form of thinking than critical thinking. As a result of the investigation. The reasoning behind this is that the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process. a number of significant improvements were made. The order of synthesis and evaluation have been interchanged. The names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. . Lorin Anderson (a former student of Benjamin Bloom) led a team of cognitive psychologists in revisiting the taxonomy.

Original Terms ‡ Evaluation ‡ Synthesis ‡ Analysis ‡ Application ‡ Comprehension ‡ Knowledge New Terms ‡Creating ‡Evaluating ‡Analysing ‡Applying ‡Understanding ‡Remembering .

«and less of this.Bloom proposed that students should be doing more of this« The more complex and least commonly used cognitive processes. . The most straight forward and commonly used cognitive processes.

understand it. . students must already have the necessary information. be able to apply it and analyse it.The pyramid structure is taxonomic as each subsequent level depends upon a student¶s ability to perform at the levels that precede it. To reach this level.

Why encourage higher order thinking skills? .A turtle makes progress when it sticks its neck out.

generalise. the teacher¶s main instructional task is to create activities or environments that facilitate the opportunity to engage in higher-order thinking. Thus we can create independent learners. . explain. At this point. hypothesise or arrive at some conclusion or interpretation.What is higher-order thinking? Higher-order thinking involves the transformation of information and ideas. Manipulating information and ideas through these processes allows students to solve problems. This transformation occurs when students combine facts and ideas and synthesise. gain understanding. Higher-order thinking helps students to become producers of knowledge. discover and create new meaning.

A good teacher makes you think even when you don·t want to. Teaching Thinking) . (Fisher. 1998.

A more detailed look at how the cognitive levels work« .

It involves the ability to know what is being communicated in order to make use of the information. ‡ Evaluation (evaluating) is the ability to make a ‡ Synthesis (creating) is the ability to combine judgement about the value of something by using a standard.A little bit about the levels« ‡ Knowledge (remembering) is a starting point that includes both the acquisition of information and the ability to recall information when needed. existing elements in a new way to create something original. ‡ Comprehension (understanding) is the basic level of understanding. ‡ Analysis (analysing) is the ability to break something down into its component parts so that its organisational nature may be better understood. . ‡ Application (applying) is the ability to use learned information in a new situation.

inventing. hypothesising. describing. carrying out. classifying. or ways of viewing things Designing. Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking.BLOOM¶S REVISED TAXONOMY Creating Generating new ideas. products. retrieving. finding . deconstructing. producing. organising. explaining Remembering Recalling information Recognising. judging Analysing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing. finding Applying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing. using. critiquing. experimenting. paraphrasing. constructing. naming. planning. executing Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting. listing. interrogating. summarising.

How do you get from school to home? Explain the method of travel and draw a map. Explain why some vehicles are large and others small. Make your desk into a form of transport. Write a song about traveling in different forms of transport. Survey 10 other children to see what bikes they ride. What problems are there with modern forms of transport and their uses. Collect ³transport´ pictures from magazines. draw a diagram and label the parts. . Make a jigsaw puzzle of children using bikes safely. What changes would you recommend to road rules to prevent traffic accidents? Debate whether we should be able to buy fuel at a cheaper rate.. Write a play about a form of modern transport. Read a story about ³The Little Red Engine´ and make up a play about it. Invent a vehicle. Rate transport from slow to fast etc. Write a story about the uses of both.write a report. Explain how you felt the first time you rode a bicycle. Display on a chart or graph.make a poster with info. Describe one of the vehicles from your list. Draw or construct it after careful planning. write about it and report to the class. What sort of transport will there be in twenty years time? Discuss. Compare boats to planes.Sample Unit : Travel Remembering Understanding Applying Analysing Evaluating Creating How many ways can you travel from one place to another? List and draw all the ways you know.

Design an advertising program for trips to the moon. Make a display or a collage. Compare the benefits of living on Earth and the moon. Keep a diary of your space adventure (5 days).Sample Unit : Space Remembering Understanding Applying Analysing Evaluating Creating Cut out ³space´ pictures from a magazine. Create a game called ³Space Snap´. List the names of the planets in our universe. . Make an astronaut for a puppet play. Design a space suit.explain why. Use it to tell what an astronaut does. You can take three people with you to the moon. Write a newspaper report for the following headline: ³Spaceship out of control´. Make a model of the planets. List space words (Alphabet Key). Choose and give reasons. Make your desk into a spaceship. List all the things an astronaut would need for a space journey. Prepare a menu for your spaceship crew. Distinguish between the Russian and American space programs. Choose a planet you would like to live on. Make an application form for a person applying for the job of an astronaut. Compare Galileo¶s telescope to a modern telescope. What sort of instruments would you need to make space music? Make a list of questions you would like to ask an astronaut.

Remembering The learner is able to recall. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Recognising Listing Describing Identifying Retrieving Naming Locating Finding Can you recall information? . restate and remember learned information.

Remembering cont¶ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ List Memorise Relate Show Locate Distinguish Give example Reproduce Quote Repeat Label Recall Know Group Read Write Outline ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Listen Group Choose Recite Review Quote Record Match Select Underline Cite Sort Recall or recognition of specific information Products include: ‡ Quiz ‡ Definition ‡ Fact ‡ Worksheet ‡ Test ‡ Label ‡ List ‡ Workbook ‡ Reproduction ‡Vocabulary .

Classroom Roles for Remembering Teacher roles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Directs Tells Shows Examines Questions Evaluates Student roles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Responds Absorbs Remembers Recognises Memorises Defines Describes Retells Passive recipient .

Make a facts chart. Make a time line of events. What animals were in the story? Make a chart showing« Make an acrostic.Remembering: Potential Activities and Products ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Make a list of the main events of the story. . Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. Recite a poem.

Thinking to Learn.... Learning to Think...Questions for Remembering ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ What happened after.? Can you name ...? What is.? (Pohl.. p.? How many...? Who was it that.? Find the meaning of« Describe what happened after« Who spoke to.. 12) ....? Which is true or false.

Understanding The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Interpreting Exemplifying Summarising Inferring Paraphrasing Classifying Comparing Explaining Can you explain ideas or concepts? .

Understanding cont¶ ‡ Restate ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Describe ‡ Report Identify ‡ Recognise Discuss ‡ Review Retell ‡ Observe Research ‡ Outline Annotate ‡ Account for Translate ‡ Interpret Give examples of ‡ Give main Paraphrase idea Reorganise ‡ Estimate Associate ‡ Define Understanding of given information Products include: ‡ Recitation ‡ Summary ‡ Collection ‡ Explanation ‡ Show and tell ‡ Example ‡ Quiz ‡ List ‡ Label ‡ Outline .

Classroom Roles for Understanding Teacher roles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Demonstrates Listens Questions Compares Contrasts Examines Student roles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Explains Describes Outlines Restates Translates Demonstrates Interprets Active participant .

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cut out. Write and perform a play based on the story. Write a summary report of the event Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Cut out. or draw pictures to show a particular event. Retell the story in your own words. Cut out. Write a summary report of the event Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. Make a colouring book. Illustrate what you think the main idea was. Retell the story in your own words. or draw pictures to show a particular event. Illustrate what you think the main idea may have been. or draw pictures to show a particular event. Understanding: Potential Activities and Products . Illustrate what you think the main idea was. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Write and perform a play based on the story. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Write and perform a play based on the story.

? Who do you think.. Learning to Think.? What do you think could have happened next. 12) ... p.. does? (Pohl....Questions for Understanding ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Can you write in your own words? How would you explain«? Can you write a brief outline.? What was the main idea.? Can you clarify«? Can you illustrate«? Does everyone act in the way that ««.. Thinking to Learn..

Applying The learner makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned. ± Implementing ± Carrying out ± Using ± Executing Can you use the information in another familiar situation? .

Applying cont¶ ‡ Translate ‡ Manipulate ‡ Exhibit ‡ Illustrate ‡ Calculate ‡ Interpret ‡ Make ‡ Practice ‡ Apply ‡ Operate ‡ Interview ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Paint Change Using strategies. principles Compute and theories in new Sequence situations Show Solve Collect Demonstrate Products include: Dramatise ‡ Photograph ‡ Presentation Construct ‡ Illustration ‡ Interview Use ‡ Simulation ‡ Performance Adapt ‡ Sculpture ‡ Diary Draw ‡ Demonstration ‡ Journal . concepts.

Classroom Roles for Applying Teacher roles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Shows Facilitates Observes Evaluates Organises Questions Student roles ‡ Solves problems ‡ Demonstrates use of knowledge ‡ Calculates ‡ Compiles ‡ Completes ‡ Illustrates ‡ Constructs ‡ Active recipient .

Write a textbook about this topic for others. Dress a doll in national costume. . Make up a puzzle or a game about the topic. Make a papier-mache map / clay model to include relevant information about an event. Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point. Make a clay model« Paint a mural using the same materials.Applying: Potential Activities and Products ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Construct a model to demonstrate how it works Make a diorama to illustrate an event Make a scrapbook about the areas of study. Design a marketing strategy for your product using a known strategy as a model.

can you develop a set of instructions about«? (Pohl. Thinking to Learn. p. 13) . Learning to Think.Questions for Applying ‡ Do you know of another instance where«? ‡ Can you group by characteristics such as«? ‡ Which factors would you change if«? ‡ What questions would you ask of«? ‡ From the information given.

Analysing The learner breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Comparing Organising Deconstructing Attributing Outlining Finding Structuring Integrating Can you break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships? .

Analysing cont¶ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Distinguish Question Appraise Experiment Inspect Examine Probe Separate Inquire Arrange Investigate Sift Research Calculate Criticize ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Compare Contrast Survey Detect Group Order Sequence Test Debate Analyse Diagram Relate Dissect Categorise Discriminate Breaking information down into its component elements Products include: ‡ Graph ‡ Spreadsheet ‡ Checklist ‡ Chart ‡ Outline ‡ Survey ‡ Database ‡ Mobile ‡ Abstract ‡ Report .

Classroom Roles for Analysing Teacher roles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Probes Guides Observes Evaluates Acts as a resource Questions Organises Dissects Student roles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Discusses Uncovers Argues Debates Thinks deeply Tests Examines Questions Calculates Investigates Inquires Active participant .

colour and texture. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view. Devise a play about the study area. ‡ Review a work of art in terms of form. Prepare a report about the area of study. Write a commercial to sell a new product Make a flow chart to show the critical stages. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Write a biography of a person studied.Analysing: Potential Activities and Products ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Design a questionnaire to gather information. . Make a family tree showing relationships.

. p...? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did..changes occur? Can you explain what must have happened when.? What are some or the problems of.. Learning to Think..... what might the ending have been? How is. Thinking to Learn.Question for Analysing ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Which events could not have happened? If..similar to...? (Pohl.happened. 13) .? Can you distinguish between.? What were some of the motives behind..? What was the turning point? What was the problem with... ..

Evaluating The learner makes decisions based on in-depth reflection. criticism and assessment. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Checking Hypothesising Critiquing Experimenting Judging Testing Detecting Monitoring Can you justify a decision or course of action? .

Recommend Discriminate Appraise Value Products include: Probe ‡ Debate Argue ‡ Investigation Decide ‡ Panel ‡ Verdict Criticise ‡ Report ‡ Conclusion Rank ‡ Evaluation ‡Persuasive Reject speech .Evaluating cont¶ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Judge Rate Validate Predict Assess Score Revise Infer Determine Prioritise Tell why Compare Evaluate Defend Select Measure ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Choose Conclude Judging the value of Deduce ideas. materials and methods by developing Debate and applying standards Justify and criteria.

Classroom Roles for Evaluating Teacher roles ‡ Clarifies ‡ Accepts ‡ Guides Student roles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Judges Disputes Compares Critiques Questions Argues Assesses Decides Selects Justifies Active participant .

..advising on changes needed. ‡ Write a letter to. ‡ Prepare a case to present your view about. ‡ Make a booklet about five rules you see as important.. .Evaluating: Potential Activities and Products ‡ Prepare a list of criteria to judge« ‡ Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest. ‡ Write a half-yearly report. Convince others. ‡ Form a panel to discuss views. .

? Do you think.? What are the consequences....? How would you feel if.. p... 14) .is a good or bad thing? How would you have handled.. . ...? What changes to....? Can you defend your position about...? Judge the value of... What do you think about.Questions for Evaluating ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Is there a better solution to..have on our lives? What are the pros and cons of. would you recommend? Do you believe. Learning to Think.......? How effective are.? What influence will..? Why is ..of value? What are the alternatives? Who will gain & who will loose? (Pohl. Thinking to Learn...

± ± ± ± ± ± ± Designing Constructing Planning Producing Inventing Devising Making Can you generate new products.Creating The learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned. ideas. or ways of viewing things? .

.Creating cont¶ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Compose Assemble Organise Invent Compile Forecast Devise Propose Construct Plan Prepare Develop Originate Imagine Generate ‡ Formulate ‡ Improve ‡ Act ‡ Predict ‡ Produce ‡ Blend ‡ Set up ‡ Devise ‡ Concoct ‡ Compile Products include: ‡ Film ‡ Story ‡ Project ‡ Plan ‡ New game ‡ Song ‡ Newspaper ‡ Media product ‡ Advertisement ‡ Painting Putting together ideas or elements to develop a original idea or engage in creative thinking.

Classroom Roles for Creating Teacher roles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Facilitates Extends Reflects Analyses Evaluates Student roles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Designs Formulates Plans Takes risks Modifies Creates Proposes Active participant .

. .Creating: Potential Activities and Products ‡ Invent a machine to do a specific task.. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. book or magazine cover for. ‡ Design a record. puppet show. ‡ Write a TV show play.... ‡ Sell an idea ‡ Devise a way to.. song or pantomime about. ‡ Make up a new language and use it in an example. ‡ Design a building to house your study. ‡ Write about your feelings in relation to. ‡ Create a new product.. role play.

..? ‡ Why don't you devise your own way to. 14) .to... Learning to Think....? ‡ Can you develop a proposal which would.? ‡ What would happen if . p.? ‡ Can you see a possible solution to..? ‡ Can you create new and unusual uses for. Thinking to Learn.Questions for Creating ‡ Can you design a..? ‡ How many ways can you.........? ‡ If you had access to all resources.? (Pohl. how would you deal with..

(Fisher. 1998. Teaching Thinking) .A good teacher makes you think even when you don·t want to.

. ‡ Typically a teacher would vary the level of questions within a single lesson.Blooming Questions ‡ Questioning should be used purposefully to achieve well-defines goals. ‡ Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification of thinking organised by level of complexity. It gives teachers and students an opportunity to learn and practice a range of thinking and provides a simple structure for many different kinds of questions and thinking. ‡ The taxonomy involves all categories of questions.

understanding and lower level application levels of the taxonomy.Lower and Higher Order Questions ‡ Lower level questions are those at the remembering.uiuc.oir.htm .edu/Did/docs/QUESTION/quest1. ‡ Usually questions at the lower levels are appropriate for: ‡ Evaluating students¶ preparation and comprehension ‡ Diagnosing students¶ strengths and weaknesses ‡ Reviewing and/or summarising content www.

oir. evaluation or creation skills.Lower and Higher Order Questions ‡ Higher level questions are those requiring complex application.uiuc. analysis. ‡ Questions at higher levels of the taxonomy are usually most appropriate for: ‡ Encouraging students to think more deeply and critically ‡ Problem solving ‡ Encouraging discussions ‡ Stimulating students to seek information on their own www.htm .edu/Did/docs/QUESTION/quest1.

au/oz-teachernet/training/bloom. Well worth a look.edu. ‡ Critical and Creative Thinking . this site includes a definitive overview of critical and creative thinking as well as how Bloom¶s domains of learning can be reflected in technology-rich projects. The taxonomy presented on this site is designed to represent the varying cognitive processes that can be facilitated by the integration of ICT into the teaching and learning process.htm Part of Eduscape. Many other links to Internet resources to support Bloom¶s Taxonomy.html An excellent introduction and explanation of the revised Taxonomy by Michael Pole on the oz-TeacherNet site written for the QSITE Higher order Thinking Skills Online Course 2000. ‡ Taxonomy of Technology Integration http://education. as well as research and papers on Thinking Skills. .Bloom on the Internet ‡ Bloom's(1956) Revised Taxonomy http://rite.Bloom's Taxonomy http://eduscapes.ed. Pohl explains the terms and provides a comprehensive overview of the sub-categories. 2001). makes a valiant effort towards linking ICT (information and communication technologies) to learning via Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Anderson.htm Another useful site for teachers with useful explanations and examples of questions from the College of Education at San Diego State University.sdsu. ‡ Bloom¶s Revised Taxonomy http://coe.com. along with some suggested question starters that aim to evoke thinking specific to each level of the taxonomy.qut.ed. al. Suggested potential activities and student products are also listed. et.edu/aacu/workshop/reconcept2B.html This site compiled by the Berglund Center for Internet Studies at Pacific University.edu/eet/articles/bloomrev/index.pacificu.com/tap/topic69..

edu/student/utlc/handouts/1414.edu/KSD/MA/resources/blooms/teachers_blooms.htm Questioning Techniques that includes reference to Bloom¶s Taxonomy.au/Assess/Assessment/bloomtax.au/TalentEd/EdSupport/Snugglepot.trincoll.cc.k12.Bloom on the Internet ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ http://www.html http://www.coun.htm http://www.edu. http://scs.bc.htm http://www.htm .utexas.kent.edu/depts_educ/Resources/Bloom.ca/webquests/blooms.officeport.uq.html http://www.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.ash.va.wednet.sd68.hcc.html http://caribou.org.uvic.edu.edu.com/fc/90134.quia.html Model questions and keywords http://schools.com/edu/blooms.au/teachstud/gat/painter.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/questype.nexus.acps.tedi.html http://www.teachers.au/researchskills/dalton.htm http://www.htm http://www.html http://www.hawaii.une.htm http://www.us/hammond/readstrat/BloomsTaxonomy2.

Victoria. (1998). Cheltenham.) (1991). and E. Carlton South.. (1986). Victoria. Vic. Schurr. ‡ Crosby. Inc. ‡ Fogarty. ‡ Frangenheim. Reflections on Classroom Thinking Strategies. Achieveing Excellence: Units of Work for levels P-8. IL: IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing.: Hawker Brownlow. R. Victoria: Department of School Education. Gilliland and P. Vic. Cheltenham. D. Joan. Problem-based learning and other curriculum models for the multiple intelligences classroom. Don¶t Teach! Let Me Learn. Vic. (1992). C. Jean (ed.: Hawker Brownlow. Ministry of Education and Training. N. Extending Children¶s Special Abilities: Strategies for Primary Classrooms. Book 3. E. (1997). The All-New Science Mind Stretchers: Interdisciplinary Units to Teach Science Concepts and Strengthen Thinking Skills. . ‡ Forte.Print Resources ‡ Clements. Arlington Heights. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Loganholme: Rodin Educational Consultancy. Holko. Imogene and S. (1981). (1997). ‡ Crawford. ‡ Dalton.: Education Shop. Thinking in Themes: An Approach Through the Learning Centre. Martin.

(2000). ‡ Pohl.Print Resources ‡ Knight. M. Cheltenham. Maureen. Learning to Think. ‡ McGrath. Wearne and D.7-8 Year Olds. ‡ Pohl. Thinking to Learn: Models and Strategies to Develop a Classroom Culture of Thinking. (1996). Seven Ways at Once: Units of Work Based on the Seven Intelligences. (2000). H and T. Caring. (1995).: Hawker Brownlow. The Gifted and Talented Children¶s Course: Resolving Issues. W. Vic. Cheltenham. Book 1. Michael. Blooms Multiple Intelligences Themes and Activities. Cheltenham. BA. WA: Ready-Ed Publications. Creative. . Noble. S. Teaching Complex Thinking: Critical. Vic. ‡ Pohl.. Michael. South Melbourne: Longman. Vic.: Hawker Brownlow Education. (1999).: Hawker Brownlow. Book 13. Brown. Bailey. ‡ Ryan. Teaching Thinking Skills in the Primary Years: A Whole School Approach. (1997). Greenwood.

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