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“In the name of ALLAH the most Compassionate,

the most Merciful.”

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(10/12/2010 – 03/01/2011)

Submitted By:

Muhammad Ali Khalid

Muhammad Hammad Khan
Muhammad Shoaib Idrees

2nd year student (Bachelors of Engineering)

Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Eng.
Ned University of Engineering & Technology

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We want to dedicate this project

to our parents, and all our
for being with us and helping us
in each and every difficulty we
faced in this project completion
and to our teachers and all
those who taught us, trained us
and polished our abilities at
Atlas Engineering Ltd.

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All praise unto Almighty ALLAH, the Lord of all worlds, who endowed us
with the ability to complete successfully this period as internee, Though we
did not conceal our self capable to do so

“Our Lord, we have never been unblessed in our prayer to you.”

We are thankful to Mr. Javed Iraqi (GM - HR) for providing us this great
opportunity of doing internship at Atlas Engineering Ltd. We are highly
obliged for the kindness and great cooperation provided by Staff of the Atlas
Engineering Ltd.

We are extremely thankful for the cooperation and help provided by:
Mr. Junaid Ahmed Siddiqui (Manager Al dept.),
Engr. Muhammad Umair (Engineer machining dept.),
Engr. Waseem (Foundry Engineer),
Mr. Khwaja (Assistant manager Al dept.) and
Mr. Qamar (Supervisor Al-foundry)
for spending their valuable time and responding to our queries and giving us
an insight of how an organization runs, what are the important principles of a
working environment.

We would also like to thanks

Mr. Syed Adeel Ahmed Bukhari (HR coordinator) for guiding us
throughout the project. And last but not the least, we are also thankful to all
those personnel’s who always have sincere feelings and guided us at their

Group members
Muhammad Ali Khalid
Muhammad Hammad Khan

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Muhammad Shoaib Idrees

The foundation of the Atlas Group was laid in 1962 with the
establishment of Shirazi Investments (Pvt) Limited with a capital of half a
million rupees and three men doing business in trading shares and real estate.

Today Atlas is a diversified group dealing in engineering, power

generation, financial services and trading. It consists of seven public limited
companies out of which five are quoted on the Stock Exchanges in Pakistan,
and six private limited companies. Atlas shareholders equity now stands over
25 billion rupees; assets have increased to over 65 billion rupees; personnel
strength is over 7000 and annual sales have crossed 70 billion rupees.
The Group strategic direction is determined by the Group Executive
Committee while each company functions autonomously within the
framework of the predetermined policy.

Fig 1: Growth at a Glance (Atlas Group)

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Atlas group operates in three sectors:

1- Engineering Sector
2- Trading Sector
3- Financial Sector


The engineering sector includes the following listed companies

1- Atlas Honda Limited
2- Honda Atlas Cars (Pakistan) Limited

3- Atlas Engineering
4- Atlas Battery Limited
5- Atlas Power


The trading sector includes the following listed companies

1- Shirazi Trading Co. (Pvt.) Limited
2- Honda Atlas Power Product (Pvt.) Limited

3- Total Atlas Lubricant Pakistan (Pvt.) Limited


Atlas Group has following three financial companies

1- Muslim Insurance Company Limited
2- Atlas Investment Bank Limited
3- Atlas Asset Management Co. Limited

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Atlas Engineering Limited (formerly Allwin Engineering Industries
Limited) was established in 1951 as a partnership firm. It became a private
limited company in 1964, and a public limited company in 1967. The control
of the company was acquired by the Atlas Group in 1981. At present, Atlas
Engineering is one of the largest and oldest manufacturers of automotive
parts and components in the private sector in Pakistan.
Atlas Engineering has state-of-the-art facilities to produce Cast Iron
process pig iron and aluminum alloys through various stages into high
precision automotive components and has full access to technical know-how
and back-up of world renowned manufacturers like the Shindengen Japan,
F.C.C. Co. and Honda Foundry Japan.
The Company manufactures diesel pistons, piston pins, cylinder
liners/sleeves, motorcycle pistons, cylinders, CDI & Regulator, Pressure Die
Casting, Aluminum Components, radiator assemblies and radiator cores and
a host of fully-machined cast iron parts (both grey and ductile). These
include brake drums, brake discs, flywheels and other high quality precision
engineered components for all manufacturers of cars, light commercial
vehicles, trucks, buses and tractors including Millat's Massey Ferguson and
Al-Ghazi's Fiat Tractors, besides Honda, Suzuki, Toyota, Daihatsu and
Hyundai cars, Nissan , Hino, Mazda, Dong Feng trucks & buses and Honda
and Yamaha motorcycles. Atlas Engineering products are comparable with
those of any international manufacturer and as such are also exported
wherever demanded. Various assemblers have given excellence awards to
Atlas Engineering for achievements in quality and delivery.
The facilities at Atlas Engineering have been extended and
modernized steadily over the last decade, and are amongst the best in the
engineering sector of the country. As old machines are phased out, new
machines including CNCs, and semiautomatic machining lines are being
added. Further expansion of facilities for manufacture of piston and allied
products pressure die casting and cast iron parts is being undertaken. The
production facilities are backed by well-equipped quality assurance system,
design and applied research facilities.
Atlas Engineering policy and operations are guided by the
management approach of Atlas Group, Organization development through
self development.


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Location Atlas Engineering is situated at 15th mile, National Highway,
Landhi, Karachi –75120Pakistan.
Land 83,651sq.m.
Built-up (covered) area 31,217sq.m.


1- Melting (Cast Iron, Aluminum)

2- Casting (Cast Iron, Aluminum)
3- Machining (Cast Iron, Aluminum)
4- Assembly (Radiator, CDI + Regulator)
5- Quality Assurance
6- Logistics
7- Information Technology


CAD, applied research facilities, coordinate measuring machine

(CMM), Spectrometer standards room, chemical and metallurgical
laboratories with which the company has built up a reputation for quality and
reliability of supply. The company manufactures components for all leading
manufacturers of the country as well as for the replacement parts market
where its products compete favorably with established imported brands.
Recognition of human resource as a key resource guides the
company policy and operations. With emphasis on training and self-
development the company is making strides towards creating a center of
excellence. Staff are sent to prestigious certification of Pakistan for training
and development. Further more continued education of staff is encouraged at
higher level.


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Aluminum products department was our department of interest. An
introductory visit started our internship. Diesel piston was made our product
of study. Objective was to completely study the process followed by Atlas
Engineering Limited in manufacturing diesel pistons and to give sound
recommendations to improve the process with respect to cost effectiveness,
production rate increment and control over rejection.

Aluminum Products Plant at Atlas Engineering Limited is the purpose
build plant which fulfils the needs of the company. Workers working in plant
are very skilled persons; they show their devotion to work. Numerous quality
products are manufactured here, including precision engine and body parts
and pistons for diesel as well as petrol engine, pressure die components and
other Aluminum components.

Atlas Honda Limited

Piston CD-70
Piston CG-125
Piston KCC-100
Piston KTA


Hub rear CD-70
Hub front CD-70
Panel rear CD-70
Panel front CD-70


Holder handle pipe KCC-100
Holder A-1 up KCC-100
Metal upper CG-125 Honda
Metal bottom CD-70 Honda
Holder A-1 upper common
Holder B-1 under CD-70
Front metal comp upper KTAA
Joint metal comp upper KTTA
Upper holder KTAA
Bridge fork top KTAA

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Millat Tractors
Piston, MF240

Al Ghazi Tractors
Piston FIAT

Piston (commercial market)

MF – 240/135/375
FIAT – 32/38
Bedford – 330
Ford T/Van
Ford tractor 3600/3610/4000/4600

Other Parts
Bracket upper (L) Yamaha
Crown handle Yamaha motorcycle


The piston can be called the “heart” of an automobile engine. Pistons

play a central role in powering a car by means of its pumping motion within
the cylinders. Metal rings are encircled on piston which with oil lubrication
eliminates friction between cylinder wall and piston. Pistons are normally
round or slightly elliptical. The piston crown (top) can be flat or roughly
convex or have some cavity on it. A rod connects the piston to a crank shaft
which turns the gears and powers the drive train.

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Fig 2: Piston – brief overview







The process followed by Atlas Engineering Ltd for making pistons

has a logical flow i.e. the forward flow. Raw materials enter from one side of

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the plant and complete pistons are delivered form the other side, only the
scrap has the opposite flow.

Mainly Aluminum is used for manufacturing pistons, where as, little
quantities of other elements such as Silicon, Magnesium, and Iron also take
part in piston manufacturing.

Company purchases virgin ingots from different dealers. Since our
project is related to diesel pistons so we will discus the composition of ingots
purchased for diesel pistons. Mainly two types of ingots are purchased for
diesel piston, namely, LM-13 & LM-28.
LM-13 are purchased from SUN METAL (local dealer) and LM-28
imported from LUCKY ALLOY (Dubai). A single bundle contains up to 108
virgin ingots, weighs approx. 700 kg.
Our piston of interest is of FIAT tractor, LM-28 type of ingots is
used for manufacturing these pistons. Composition is shown below:

Elements Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Ti Ca
% % % % % % % % % %
Compositio 17.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0010
n 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Range 19.0 0.6 1.8 0.3 1.3 0.6 1.3 0.2 0.2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Elements Cd Co Na P Pb Sn Al
% % ppm ppm % % %

Composition 0.0019 0.00 11.17 80.00 0.00 0.00 78.7

Range 0.50 120.0 0.15 0.15


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Swarf ingots are those ingots which are made by atlas itself from
the chips which are removed from the piston in the machining operation and
the slag and residue left in the furnaces. In these, usually the composition of
magnesium decrease from the permissible limit, to over come this problem,
few ingots of magnesium are also added along with swarf ingots.


Atlas Engineering Ltd. has its own lab, equipped with numerous
machines related to material testing, such as, SpectroMAX, Brinnel &
Rockwell hardness testing machines etc.
The ingots purchased from dealers are first checked for there
composition. One ingot is taken out from each bundle and sent to lab to
check for its composition, SpectroMAX is used for this purpose. Hardness is
also tested in the lab, if the ingot is found to be in the permissible limit of the
composition and hardness, then it is stored in the stores and issued MIR
(material issuing requisite).

 In foundry, the casting starts from melting the ingots.
 Five electric furnaces are there in foundry for diesel pistons, out of
which four were currently working for diesel pistons, where as, one
was busy for child parts (due to there high demand).
 Furnaces have the capacity of max. 500 kg.
 Virgin ingots along with swarf ingots, runner, risers and magnesium
ingots as per requirement are melted in the furnace.
 It takes around 1.5–2 hours in melting and degassing both.
 Degassing means to remove the impurities such as slag etc.
 When the metal melts a sample is taken out from this melt, poured in a
testing die and the specimen is sent to lab for testing its chemical
composition and hardness.
 The lab quickly calculates its hardness and checks its chemical
composition by using SpectroMAX.
 If the melt have its composition and hardness within the permissible
range, the melt is ready for pouring purpose, else, the element less or
more then its permissible limit is balanced by adding other ingots.
 Gravity die casting is carried out in the foundry.

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Why gravity die casting ?
Die casting is an efficient, economical process offering a
broader range of shapes and components than any other manufacturing
Die casting provides complex shapes within closer tolerances
than many other mass production processes.
Die casting produces parts that are durable and dimensionally
stable, while maintaining close tolerances. They are also heat resistant.

 Rollover die machines are used in foundry.

 6 such dies are working here.
 5 piece dies are used in these machines.
 The 5 pieces are the male part of the die and serves as a core.
 The dies are first pre heated.
 Skilled workers pour the melt in the dies.
 Then, machine automatically rollover.
 It takes approx. 3 min 30 sec in solidification of FIAT tractor pistons.
 Now, the pistons are heat treated as per company requirement through
quenching followed by tempering.
 The pistons are first quenched in BBC machine, the temperature is
maintained around 480ºC.
 Then, dipped in water, which is at 70ºC-100ºC.
 Then, tempered in FULMINA, here, the temperature is maintained
around 180ºC.
 After, heat treatment 3-4 pistons are send to laboratory for testing
there hardness.
 The runner and risers of the casting are then removed and the castings
are ready to be dispatched to the machining area.

The casted parts are then moved to machining area, several machining
operations are performed here which gives pistons its required shape and
finish. Four machining lines are there in machining department out of which
three were currently working. One was making pistons for OEM, where as,
other two were making pistons for open market.

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Casting received form

Al – foundry

Proof Seat Finish face & Finish Taper

Turning Machining rough dia cavity


Lock Copy G. pin

Filling Accurizing Grooving turning Boring Drilling drilling

Piston final inspection

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In machining area the manual lathes, automatic lathes, plc and drilling
machines take part. The process flow is a “U” which utilizes the workers in
there best way. Each worker at the same time works at two machines. The
preferred process flow is not followed here, the actual process starts with
making seats first, discussed below:

Machining process starts from making the seat of the piston. Seat
basically sets the reference for the preceding machining operations.
Automatic lathe is used for this purpose and two tools take part in this
operation. The machining time is approx. 18 sec here.

Here also automatic lathe is used. Worker clamp the part w.r.t the
seat made. Two tools take part in the operation. One tool removes the
material from head giving it primary rough finish and specifying its length,
where as, the second tool makes the rough cavity in the head. Cutting fluid is
used here to reduce the friction and heat and to carry the chips away. The
machining time is approx. 25sec here.

This step gives the piston its finished head (not the head cavity)
and the rough surface to piston skirt. Three tools take part for the operation.
Firstly two tools give rough finish to the piston skirt (two tools are used for
this purpose because different diameters are required). Then, the third tool
descends to give piston head (not the head cavity) its final finish. Cutting
fluid is also used here. The machining time is approx. 39 sec here.
After every 5-10 parts the worker checks for the accuracy. Dial
indicator is used for this purpose. Firstly the dial indicator is set with the help
of gauge for the desired length of the piston and then, after wards the dial
indicator shows whether the piston is within the tolerance limit or not. OK
parts are moved to get there head cavity finished.


Manual lathe machine is used here for giving the head cavity its
super finish. Skilled worker makes it easily. No cutting fluid used.

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Automatic drilling machine is used here to drill the taper holes.
Worker clamp the piston with respect to the seat made and machine
automatically drills 4 holes. These holes allow oil to get inside the piston.


Manual drilling machine is used here to drill the boss oil holes.
Skilled worker drills total 4 holes in the piston, these holes allow oil to get
inside the piston and reduce friction with the pin attached.


Automatic lathe machine is used here to give piston skirt finer
finish and to make the groves on it. The worker clamps the piston with
respect to the seat made and then the lathe automatically with the help of 4
cutting tools finer finishes the skirt and then 7 tools work for making the
groves on it. Cutting fluid is also used here. After 5-10 parts the worker
checks for the accuracy. Dial indicator is used for this purpose.

Automatic lathe machine with two diamond tip cutting tools
gives piston skirt its super finish here. Worker just clamps the piston and the
machine operating automatically super finishes piston skirt.


Here also automatic lathe machine is used. The operation takes
place in two steps here. Firstly, the first tool gives rough finish then the
second one gives it the required super finish.


In this process bore is chamfered and lock is produced in the
bore. This process is done in two steps. First a piston is fixed on machine and
the bore is chamfered and then that chamfered piston is placed on next slot
where the lock is produced while a new piston is fixed on the chamfering
slot. Both operations are done at the same time.


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It is the final step of whole machining operation. Here the bore
is made accurate. First a rough finish then fine finish is achieved. After this
process the bore finish is inspected using an air pressure gauge machine.

All the manufactured parts are then sent to piston inspection area
for final and thorough inspection. Following parameters are checked and
cleared in inspection area.








If any defect is seen then the piston is send back to the machining
area or foundry, as per requirement.
Around 300 – 400 diesel pistons are checked on daily basis. In case
of over production to achieve the target max 700 diesel pistons can be
inspected in one day.


The pistons are now ready to be used. They are stored in the well
managed store room and delivered to OEM’s and to the market as per

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 Forged pistons should be manufactured instead of cast pistons. They
are found very effective with respect to cost. Most of the companies
globally are manufacturing forged pistons and saving cost now a days.
 Gas furnaces should be used instead of electric furnaces. They also can
reduce the cost up to some extent.
 Traditional lathe machines should be replaced with CNCs as they are
the one time cost. A single CNC can do the job of several lathes, with
more efficiency and less cost. Fewer workers will b needed for them.


 Forged pistons here also take the advantage, there manufacturing time
is much less than the cast one, as there is no melting, degassing,
quenching, tempering required, and not so many machining processes.
 Automatic die casting machines can increase the production rate.
Manually, to set up the dies (cores) it take a long time while in
automatic die machines it will be faster, manual dies for diesel pistons
can be compared with the automatic machines for petrol piston, they
are quite faster.
 CNCs can reduce the machining time to great extent, as a single
machine will be doing several operations in less time with more


 At present the dies are maintained only when the rejection come from
machining area, and in mean while time plenty of more defected parts
had been casted from the defected die. Periodic checking and

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maintenance can solve the problem, after every 10–15 castings the part
should be checked for its dimensions, this will reveal the condition of
die side by side and maintained before getting in to adverse conditions.
 In machining, the tools used were cheaper and not of such a good
quality, good quality tools can give excellent results.
 The cutting fluid being used in the machining area is replaced when it
comes to adverse conditions, it should be replaced periodically,.

 Safety precautions were lacking in the plant. It should be made
compulsory for the workers to at least wear the glasses, gloves and
helmet, cap where applicable, as:
“Quality makes no sense without U & I ”
 2 shutdowns per year should be managed for complete maintenance of
the machines and every thing in the plant.
 Machines should be periodically oiled, it was not practically followed
in the plant.
 In a nut shell, 5S should be followed.


Training at Atlas Engineering Ltd. is really a true learning

experience. It has not only taught the utilization of bookish knowledge into
practical field but also the ethics of professional life. This internship would
remain the part of magnificence memories for the reason of AEL’s
hospitability & efforts of my seniors to teach their activities. It is expected
that this technical guidance & professional knowledge would be helpful in
my future studies.

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