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Nano Coatings Class

Nano Coatings Class

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Published by Ashwin Vijaysai

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Published by: Ashwin Vijaysai on Jan 03, 2011
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-Ashwin Vijaysai


"Self-Cleaning Materials: Lotus Leaf-1 Inspired Nanotechnology“, August 2008, Scientific

Is this familiar???

http://www.eye-doctor.ca/Content/eyeglasses/lenses/nikon/seecoat/seecoat.aspx Vijaysai http://www.pbma-fl.com/rain-repellent.html


• Significance of nano-coatings
• Why it is needed in MEMS
– Anti- stiction (lube) – Improve lifetime

• Types of nano-coatings
• Various chemistries
– Compare to choose the ideal – Observe aging of nano-coating

• Surface modification at TTU MEMS lab
• Chloro-silane based SAM
– Hydrophobic coating- for MEMS

• {Alumina nanoparticle + Chloro-silane based SAM}
– Superhydrophobic coating- for medical Vijaysai 3 fabric

urface Engineering

Significance of nanocoating

Better Nano-coatings

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is large • In MEMS • Stiction failure surface forces > spring forces • Common failure mechanisms due to Adhesion energy stiction are: – Capillary forces – Van der waals forces c = constant of force i i properties – Electrostatic forces depending onenvironment of surface and Stiction based failure mechanisms n= power of interaction z = distance of separation h(z)=Distribution of distance between rough surfaces * M. pp. “On the physics of stiction and its impact on the reliability of microstructures ”. J. 2003 . Technol. 563–582. V.. 4. Spengen . No. Vol. 17. Vijaysai 5 Adhesion Sci.

J. M.• Design modification – dimple. Maboudian. T. 1998. skewness • Anti-Stiction Coatings – – Plasma deposited coatings Poly-Silicon MEMS – Self-Assembled monolayers (SAM S. . Srinivasan. R. 7. Houston. FEM • Roughening surface – selective etch. curve. Howe and R. Coating Adhesion coatings) type energy 2 1 OTS 30 µJ/m ~1000 times deposited coatings 2 – Vapor phase 2 FDTS 8 µJ/m decrease of 3 Untreated ~56 mJ/m2 – Getters Solutions for alleviating stiction energy! U.No. R. 252-260. MEMS.

• Hydrophobic – fear of water » eg: teflon cookware Vijaysai 7 .Significance of nanocoating • In SUMMiT-V after final release step. » Solution: Critical point drying________ » Future Problem: Capillary condensation • Anti-stiction coating (hydrophobic) minimizes capillary condensation. liquid in-between two poly-silicon layers can cause failure.

Significance of nanocoating High performance devices HPCD •  Under actuation gap reduces ~. 05µ TRA Flexur Vijaysai 8 .

 the last few steps impact the yield. reliability & functionality: • Release step – Critical point drying – Avoid release stiction Vapor Phase deposition of For MEMS devices SAM fabrication under • Surface preparation – Surface cleaning (organic contaminants) – Asher/ Ashing/ UV-O cleaner • Exposure  – Exposed to precursor (nano-coating chemistry) Vijaysai 9 .

straps.stiction (lube) – Improve lifetime In addition to: • Dimples. etc associated with design • Process involved in SUMMiT-V fabrication is not in our hands • Surface chemistry involved in the conformal treatment to all polysilicon layers helps  » Lower adhesion energy » Increase reliability  lifetime of device Vijaysai 10 .• Significance of nano-coatings • Why it is needed in MEMS – Anti. roughness. guides.

Dimethylaminosilanes Common types of nanocoatings * R.Siloxanes 6. 2003.1.Alcohols 4. on device and materials 11 Vijaysai . 173-178. 4. Ashurst et.al.Chlorosilanes 2. vol. “Vapor Phase Anti-stiction coating reliability. for MEMS”.Amines 3. Trans.3. iss.Carboxylic acids 5. pp.

Vijaysai 12 .

* Hydrolysis reaction 1. some of the –OH groups participate in condensation reaction with –OH group on the oxidized surface of the silicon 2. 6. Cross polymerization occurs between the individual micelles Self-Assembled Monolayers for Anti-Stiction Applications in *Vapor-Phase 16. Zhuanget al. 1451-1460 Vijaysai MEMS. J 13 . MEMS . pp. 2007..

Vijaysai 14 .

Amines and Alcohols • -Cl terminated Silicon surface is obtatined by exposing –H terminated Si sample to Cl2 in vacuum  at 80℃ te m e ra tu re o f sa m p l e n s • A m i e i –N H 2 eq ( 1 ) • A l h o li –O H e q ( 2 ) co s Vijaysai 15 .

Small aliquot dispensed inside package 3.During packaging step 2.Temperature of the chip is raised Example : Demethyl siloxane 5.Liquid evaporates and forms organic monolayer  Vijaysai 16 .Siloxanes Analog devices – ADXL accelerometers 1.Package is sealed 4.

Carboxylic acids Texas Instruments – DMD chip 1.Perfluorinated –n.alkanoic acids (PFxA)  ‘’ decnoic acid (PFDA)     • Minimize friction coefficient • Minimize thermal decomposition • Solid PFDA inside hermetic seal Sublimation of PFDA due to its vapor pressure Healing  one of its kind in MEMS package   350 billion cycles Vijaysai 17 .

Dimethylaminosilanes S yn th e si d fro m : ze • PF8TAS • PF10TAS FO T S FD T S S i i a r p ro ce d u re a s i m l n ch l ro si a n e s o l B u t n o n e e d fo r w a te r va p o r/ w a te r i th e re a cti n n o Vijaysai 18 .

• Types of nano-coatings • Various chemistries – Compare to choose the ideal – Observe aging of nano-coating Vijaysai 19 .

IST system Vijaysai 20 .At TTU – RPX 550.

Vijaysai 21 .

Vijaysai 22 .

Vijaysai 23 .

Vijaysai 24 .

Vijaysai 25 .

that binds the TMA nano-particles) SiCl 4 + 2H20  Si02+ 4HCl  C2H4Cl6Si2 + 6H20  SiOx-(CH2)2-SiOx + 6HCl +3H20 C6H12 Cl6Si2 + 6H20  SiOx-(CH2)2-SiOx + 6HCl +3H20 Vijaysai 26  .Reaction Chemistry • TMA (Alumina) Generation 2Al(CH ) 3 3 + 3H20  Al203 + 6CH4 • Linkerrix generation (Linking chemistry.

Vijaysai 27 .

Nomenclature Vijaysai 28 .

Comparison of contact angle Vijaysai 29 .

C o m p a riso n o f S ize Vijaysai 30 .

Vijaysai 31 .SEM image of highly conformal coating Magnified images of superhydrophobic coating TEM image of alumina nano-particles.

Vijaysai 32 .

Ashurst et. iss. “Vapor Phase Anti-stiction coating for MEMS”.RPX 550 System and initial results FOTS * www. on device and materials reliability. 4. vol. 2003. . pp.3. 173-178.insurftech .com LDDMS VDDMS * R.al. Trans.

• Surface modification at TTU MEMS lab • Chloro-silane based SAM – Hydrophobic coating.for MEMS • {Alumina nanoparticle + Chloro-silane based SAM} – Superhydrophobic coating.for medical fabric Vijaysai 34 .

Vijaysai 35 .

e.MEMS Tribogauge Lateral axis riving comb Normal axis Sense comb Sense comb AD7747 Eval Board LabView Measure Displacement of ‘Head’. i. fingers (as ‘C’) .

Baseline Stiction TRIBOGAUGE MODEL Model Maximum Displacement Approach Retract ‘δ’ Displacement (µm) ‘C’ Capacitance (fF) Release Point .at contact of slider and scrubber 119 3 Maximum δ. C 0 D.use stiction Adhesion  Static Friction . Static . Voltage (volts) 37 In .C.

Nano-coating characterization devices / techniques Atomic Force Microscope: 1.Force – Distance measurement 4.Topography 2.Lateral force measurement Vijaysai 38 .Monolayer topography 3.

Backup Vijaysai 39 .

Types of friction Static friction is friction between two solid objects that are not moving relative to each other. The maximum possible friction force between two surfaces before sliding begins is the product of the coefficient of static friction and the normal force: . and is usually less than the coefficient of static friction for the same materials ith respect to motion wikipedia Vijaysai 40 . typically denoted as μs. The coefficient of kinetic friction is typically denoted as μk. is usually higher than the coefficient of kinetic friction. The coefficient of static friction. The static friction force must be overcome by an applied force before an object can move. For example. Kinetic (or dynamic) friction occurs when two objects are moving relative to each other and rub together (like a sled on the ground). static friction can prevent an object from sliding down a sloped surface.

So alumina nano-particles are very important for roughness and how you distribute the nanoparticles over the surface. IST’s highest durability was observed with a ALD layer. The durability was improved with Amine-TEpoxy reaction schemes. In the ATETATETA is (A=amine step / T=TMA aluminum oxide / E=Epoxy) a sequence. Vijaysai 41 .A1) Super-hydrophobicity is a combination of roughness. But you need to combine this with low surface energy of the Phobix. A2) The boulder formation that IST reports was observed when using amine – epoxy adhesion versus a linkerrix (oxide) adhesion. coverage (aerial density) and surface energy. However.

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