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The social contract is based in consequentialism; the need for the social contract comes from preventing a return to the state of nature, where death, war, and poverty reign. If that need goes away, then there is no justification for the social contract. 2. The social contract has been shown to be empirically not needed, as nations such as Portugal, the Netherlands, and Germany have not fallen to ruin as the social contract would prescribe. In reality, the social contract is just a construct of intellectuals sitting in an ivory tower. AT-Drug courts DRUG COURTS DON T WORK-STUDIES ON DRUG COURTS HAVE BEEN USING FAULTY METHODOLOGY Boyd, Susan C. From Witches to Crack Moms: Women, Drug Law, and Policy. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic, 2004. Print. pg 186 Drug court participant spend a minimum of one year in community drug treatment programs; those unable to complete the program are sent to prison. The percentage of those unable to complete the program is high. Even though drug court participants are screened before being accepted to the program, about half of all participants in drug courts are sent to prison, and some programs have even higher rates of failure. The clams of success, then, are overstated- a 50 percent failure rate is significant. Boyd, Susan C. From Witches to Crack Moms: Women, Drug Law, and Policy. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic, 2004. Print. pg 186 One of the selling points of drug courts is that they are cheaper than traditional criminal justice responses to drug offenders. However, this overly optimistic claim does not hold up under scrutiny. Drug courts cost more per participant than traditional probation although drug court advocates state there are savings to be made due to reduced recidivism, job creation, and earnings. Critics note that access to employment has not been a central feature of the majority of drug courts. THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IS TOO OVERBURDENED TO PROPERLY REHABILITATE PRISONERS. NIDA "Drugs of Abuse Information - NIDA." Web. 09 Dec. 2010.<http://www.nida.nih.gov/drugpages/>. Yet only 7% to 17% of these prisoners receive treatment in jail or prison, so that most of the over 650,000 inmates released back into the community each year have not received needed treatment services. Left untreated, drug-abusing offenders can relapse to drug use and return to criminal behavior. This jeopardizes public health and public safety, leads to re-arrest and re-incarceration, and further taxes an already over-burdened criminal justice system. AT No rational thought 1. This same logic can be applied to incarcerating those legally classified as insane; those without rational thought do not deserve incarceration.
Social duties THE ECONOMIC BENEFIT OF DPA. 09 Dec. hospital. No matter what they try. In prisons." Web. Ninety percent of drug-related crime results. and other treatment facilities from being funded adequately. at the point that this incarceration is actually harmful to both the abuser and society. 80 percent of drug-related deaths are the result of drug prohibition. detox.cato." Drug Policy Alliance.nih.DA to CP that still keeps illegality Patrick Basham 1. Most drug-related crime is prohibition-related crime. Neg AT Voluntary Rehabilitation good VOLUNTARY REHABILITATION IS INEFFECTIVE.. not as pestilence. prisons can't keep drugs out.46 in societal costs (crime violence. http://www. If we ended the war on drugs. there is no way to actually justify such an action. The most tangible cost of the war on drugs is criminal behavior. Of these individuals. 20. Incarceration. A study by the RAND Corporation found that every additional dollar invested in substance abuse treatment saves taxpayers $7.gov/drugpages/>. NIDA.org/reducingharm/treatmentvsi/>. etc. Web. or the crime associated with blackmarket transactions. AT.4 percent of the U. but from the illegality of drugs.S.2 million persons (9.org/pub_display. drug or alcohol rehabilitation or mental health center). Fifty percent of new HIV patients are intravenous drug users.4 percent of the population aged 12 or older) needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem but did not receive it. 2010. <http://www. population) aged 12 or older needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem in 2007. All the arrests and all the incarcerations haven't stopped either the use or the abuse of drugs.4 percent of those who needed treatment) received treatment at a specialty facility (i. "Treatment vs. AT Cost effective . not from drug use. drug addicts could be treated as patients.8 million persons (8. drugs are plentiful and their use is widespread.drugpolicy.4 million (10.e. Prohibition's drain on the public purse prevents the necessary rehabilitation. Filling prisons with substance abusers doesn't make any public policy sense. "Drugs of Abuse Information .php?pub_id=11667 The record of drug prohibition is a record of failure. Thus.NIDA. 23. 2.nida. Drug-related AIDS is almost exclusively the result of prohibition. or the drug trade. 2010.) The study also found that additional domestic law enforcement efforts cost 15 times as much as treatment to achieve the same reduction in societal costs.<http://www. AT. loss of productivity.2. Drug Policy Alliance. Even then.
2010. During the preceding 12 months. Respondents were instructed that this number should refer only to births from active female participants in their programs. Founder and Executive Director of the Life Education Center. and increases pro-social behavior.Self regarding action 1. therefore it does not include drug free children born to male participants or to previous graduates of the programs.and out-of-prison treatment programs reaps the greatest cost savings. 09 Dec. David Noffs." Web.D.<http://www. psychological. decreases substance abuse. improves prospects for employment. May 2008. health care. In the Painting the Picture survey." NDCI Home | NDCI. "Painting the Current Picture: A National Report Card on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States. and social services are crucial components of treatment for many offenders. 2010. even though a direct harm from the action can t be seen. "Drugs of Abuse Information . As such. Adding an aftercare component to in. Marlowe. Marlowe. The abuse of illegal drugs is the sole reason for the continued existence of the drug trade. Rachel Casebolt 2008. C. AT. NIDA. 2. 65 % of respondents (34 states and territories) provided usable data on confirmed births of drug-free babies to their drug court participants. Huddleston. AT. the potential harms of crashing into a small child or property justify punishment. Especially given a 65% response rate. including incarceration costs.ndci. the action of purchasing or imbibing is no longer self regarding..1. Web. As drug abuse supports the harms of the international drug trade around the world. AT. 2.NIDA.nih. Look to the precedent set by speeding. and Rachel Casebolt. Painting the Current Picture: A National Report Card on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States. IT IS ACTUALLY MOST COST EFFECTIVE TO COMBINE BOTH PUBLIC HEALTH AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE. Douglas B. such as in Mexico.org/publications/publication-resources/painting-current-picture>. Case management and referral to other medical. a total of 844 drug free babies were reported to have been born to active female drug court clients. Applying this logic to drug abuse. PBS . and crime. Douglas B.Needle Exchange NEEDLE EXCHANGE HASN T MADE A DIFFERENCE.nida. Columbia.Crack Babies DRUG COURTS SOLVE FOR IFANTS BORN TO DRUG ABUSING MOTHERS. Ph. or narcoterror in Afghanistan. it could substantially underestimate the impact of drug courts and other problem-solving courts on all drug free deliveries. we can see that the great potential for harm while under the influence justifies punishment. 09 Dec. <http://www. West. Treatment for adults and adolescents is cost-effective because it reduces costs related to drug use. thus the impacts are nonunique. Combining prison-based treatment with community-based treatment upon release reduces an offender's risk of recidivism. Costs are relative to rehabilitation. "Should needle exchange be publicly funded?".gov/drugpages/>. J.D. rehabilitation is negative ground. the actual number of drug free deliveries can be expected to be appreciably higher.
perhaps not from HIV. New Jersey Family Policy Council. November 16.' (Sullivan. 2005: Addicts still are prone to death. November 16. NEEDLE EXCHANGE IS NOT A PANACEA AGAINS THE SPREAD OF DISEASE. suggesting that free needles are not having their intended effect of preventing exchange of body fluids. New Jersey Family Policy Council. and other health risks. Their conclusion: Since the NEP began we ve seen an increase in dirty syringes on our streets. Toni Meyer. Dr. NEEDLE EXCHANGE INCREASES DISCARDED NEEDLES ON THE STREETS. "Making the case for opposing needle exchange". the city library. 1997) NEEDLE EXCHANGE DOESN T SAVE LIVES. loot. In Cairns Australia. The figures were released by Cairns City Council after a recent audit of its sharps disposal bin program. associated crime and violence follows. which continue to increase at alarming rates. in schools yards. Here is just one example. collapsed veins. Lucy Sullivan of the Australian Centre for Independent Studies states that hepatitis prevalence among intravenous drug users is 65%. City Place has been revealed as Cairn s biggest drug shooting gallery with 1000 syringes discarded since January in toilets and streets surrounding the inner city mall. poisoned dope. or the violence and criminality that go along with the illicit drug trade. 2007 Crime Increases in Area of Needle Exchanges: . including prostitution which contributes to the spread of AIDS. "Why a Needle-Exchange Program is a Bad Idea". Heroin use by American teens has doubled in the past 5 years. November 16. including the Esplanade near Muddy's playground. Record. Toni Meyer. hepatitis. "Making the case for opposing needle exchange". Aaron Lawrence. NEEDLE EXCHANGE INCREASES CRIME. 2007 Discarded Needles: Reports of discarded needles in public places outside of NEP sites abound from cities with NEP s. 2007 Disease Epidemics: Both scientific and anecdotal evidence indicates that NEPs have failed to provide a prevention panacea for drug abusers against the dangers of HIV. IT CAUSES DRUG RELATED DEATHS. New Jersey Family Policy Council. a NY City based group opposed to NEPs. and steal to buy drugs.Although promoters claim that needle exchange programs do not encourage drug use. Sullivan also states that 'There is no sign of an impact on the rate of decline (of HIV incidence rates) with the introduction of needle distribution in 1992. Toni Meyer. A spokesperson from the Coalition for a Better Community. "Making the case for opposing needle exchange". in gardens and in various other public places.Crimes Due to Drug Use: When a needle exchange program (NEP) moves in. and in our parks Brazen addicts shoplift. there has been a major increase in heroin use since needle exchange programs have become widespread. Addicts are also dumping hundreds of used syringes at many of the city's other popular public places. . August 26. visited the Lower East Side Needle Exchange with a NY Times reporter. but from overdose.
the world's biggest producer of opium.: Afghanistan 'world's Biggest Producer of Hashish' Afghanistan Crossroads . "U.N. Web.com Blogs.html?_r=1&ref=drug_trafficking>. then its negative ground 2. in 2009 the value of cannabis resin production in Afghanistan was estimated at between US$ 39-94 million. exploited by militants to fund their operations in unstable areas.blogs. Web. 2010. If there is regulation. legalization would allow for a vast boost in profits for those profiting from the drug trade in Afghanistan.cnn. 27 July 2008." The survey results reflect the significance of Afghanistan's illicit drug trade. about 10-20 percent of the farm gate value of opium production.CNN. however. SCHWEICH. <http://afghanistan. is a "major producer of cannabis" and "the world's biggest producer of hashish. "Is Afghanistan a Narco-State?" New York Times. such as the country's war-torn southern region.N. providing an additional source of revenue for insurgents. The harm is narcoterror-as there is no way to see who the supplier of the opium needed for heroin is.AT. specifically.com/2008/07/27/magazine/27AFGHAN-t.nytimes." Afghanistan Crossroads . CNN World writes. . and the biggest supplier of opium and hashish is Afghanistan. As there can be no regulation of the drug trade on the affirmative.Legalization 1. are taxed by those who control the territory. the affirmative is open to the harms of unregulated drug trade 3. A U. In the aggregate. THOMAS.CNN. <http://www. whether opium or cannabis.com/2010/03/31/u-n-afghanistan-worlds-biggest-producer-ofhashish/>. because opium cultivation far exceeds cannabis cultivation. "All drugs in Afghanistan." Costa said.com Blogs. 09 Dec. report says Afghanistan. terrorists. New York Times.
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