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CHAPTER #1: INDUSTRY ANALYSIS 2
1.1: INTRODUCTION........................................................................................3 1.2: HISTORY/ BACKGROUND......................................................................3 1.3: MAJOR PLAYERS......................................................................................4 1.4: PEST ANALYSIS.........................................................................................5 1.4.1: POLITICAL FACTOR.............................................................................6 1.4.2: ECONOMIC FACTOR.............................................................................6 1.4.3: SOCIO-CULTURE FACTOR..................................................................7 1.4.4: TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR................................................................7 1.5: PORTER’S FIVE FORCES MODEL.........................................................9 1.5.1: THREATS...................................................................................................10 1.5.2: POWER OF BUYERS................................................................................10 1.5.3: POWER OF SUPPLIERS..........................................................................10 1.5.4: THREATS OF SUBSTITUTE...................................................................10 1.5.5: COMPETITIVE RIVALRY......................................................................11 1.6: STRATEGIC GROUP MAP.........................................................................11 CHAPTER # 2: COMPANY ANALYSIS 2.1: INTRODUCTION….....................................................................................14 2.2: BACKGROUND............................................................................................15 2.3: SWOT ANALYSIS........................................................................................17 2.4: PLC.................................................................................................................19 2.5: BLC.................................................................................................................19 2.6: BRAND ANALYSIS......................................................................................20 CHAPTER # 3: COMPETITORS ANALYSIS 3.1: ANALYSIS OF MAJOR PLAYERS............................................................23 CHAPTER # 4: FINDINGS 4.1: CUSTOMERS ANALYSIS...........................................................................38 4.1.1: AIOD............................................................................................................38 4.1.2: REFERANCE GROUP INFLUECNE MATRIX....................................39 4.2: PERCEPTUAL MAPPING..........................................................................40 4.3: BCG MATRIX...............................................................................................43 4.4: MARKETING MIX.......................................................................................47 4.5: FCB GRID......................................................................................................53 CHAPTER # 5: RECOMANDATION AND CONCLUSION 5.1: RECOMANDATION AND CONCLUSION...............................................59 CHAPTER # 6: REFERANCES 6.1: REFERANCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY.....................................................61
derived from easily-accessible petroleum from natural fields in the region. for producing fuel oil and gasoline (or petrol). In the 9th century. both important "primary energy" sources (IEA Key World Energy Statistics). extensive bamboo pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. but may vary much in appearance and composition. 5 . These discoveries rapidly spread around the world. is a thick. Poland's Ignacy Łukasiewicz discovered a means of refining kerosene from the more readily available "rock oil" ("petr-oleum") in 1852 and the first rock oil mine was built in Bobrka.) The modern history of petroleum began in 1846. including solvents. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products. sometimes colloquially called black gold or "Texas Tea". to produce naphtha. In the 8th century. These fields were described by the geographer Masudi in the 10th century. Azerbaijan. and plastics 1. dark brown or greenish liquid. with the discovery of the process of refining kerosene from coal by Atlantic Canada's Abraham Pineo Gesner. At that time Baku produced about 90% of the world's oil.1: INTRODUCTION Petroleum (from Greek Petra – rock and elation – oil or Latin oleum – oil) or crude oil. and by Marco Polo in the 13th century. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper echelons of their society. The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt. They had depth of up to 243 meters and were drilled using bits attached to bamboo poles.2: History / Background The first oil wells were drilled in China in the 4th century or earlier. oil fields were exploited in Baku. largely of the alkane series.1. fertilizers. and Meerzoeff built the first Russian refinery in the mature oil fields at Baku in 1861. who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. near Krosno in southern Poland in the following year. by volume. The battle of Stalingrad was fought over Baku (now the capital of the Azerbaijan Republic). It consists of a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons. Petroleum is used mostly. Petroleum exists in the upper strata of some areas of the Earth's crust. (See also: Timeline of Islamic science and technology. pesticides. the streets of the newly-constructed Baghdad were paved with tar. By the 10th century.
Early "local" finds like those in Pennsylvania and Ontario were quickly exhausted.5%). on the Aspheron Peninsula north-east of Baku. the most common and popular predictions were always quite dire. Even until the mid-(1950s). Semyonov. About 80% of the world's readily accessible reserves are located in the Middle East. leading to "oil booms" in Texas. including World War II and the Persian Gulf War. Some would argue that because the total amount of petroleum is finite. with 62. The industry grew slowly in the 1800s. and Mexico. Others argue that technology will continue to allow for the production of cheap hydrocarbons and that the earth has vast sources of unconventional petroleum reserves in the form of tar sands. Ontario. The American petroleum industry began with Edwin Drake's discovery of oil in 1859. By 1910. in Masjed Soleiman). near Titusville. Oklahoma.N. dug by James Miller Williams. Peru. but oil quickly took over. UAE. Persia (1908. Pennsylvania. significant oil fields had been discovered in Canada (specifically. the introduction of the internal combustion engine provided a demand that has largely sustained the industry to this day.5% coming from the Arab 5: Saudi Arabia (12. Iraq. Access to it was a major factor in several military conflicts. The USA has less than 3% 1. Following the 1973 energy crisis and the 1979 energy crisis. dense energy source powering the vast majority of vehicles and as the base of many industrial chemicals makes it one of the world's most important commodities. and were being developed at an industrial level. 1938. Petroleum's worth as a portable. USA Today news (2004) reports that there are 40 years of petroleum left in the ground. there was significant media coverage of oil supply levels. The first commercial oil well drilled in North America was in Oil Springs. and California. This brought to light the concern that oil is a limited resource that will eventually run out. in the province of Alberta). The first modern oil well was drilled in 1848 by Russian engineer F. It became a major national concern in the early part of the 20th century. with both the Canadian tar sands and United States shale oil deposits representing potential reserves matching existing liquid petroleum deposits worldwide.3: Major players 6 . driven by the demand for kerosene and oil lamps.Oil field in California. The future of petroleum as a fuel remains somewhat controversial. but is responsible for only 2% of electricity generation. bitumen fields and oil shale that will allow for petroleum use to continue in the future. in Sumatra). coal was still the world's foremost fuel. Canada in 1858. Today. at least as an economically viable energy source. the dire predictions of the 1970s have merely been postponed. Petroleum also makes up 40% of total energy consumption in the United States. and when they did not come true. Qatar and Kuwait. Venezuela. the Dutch East Indies (1885. At the time. many dismissed all such discussion. about 90% of vehicular fuel needs are met by oil.
and Shell.g. Mobil.The oil industry is often described as having an oligopolistic market structure that is. our external customers. BP. and Technological forces. These are known as PEST factors. 1. The internal environment e. In fact. The micro-environment e. 2. Political (and legal) forces. PEST is used by business leaders worldwide to build their vision of the future. Economic forces. 7 . Socio-Cultural and Technological environment you are operating in. staff (or internal customers). Economic. it is dominated by a small number of big major players.g. A slump in oil prices in the late 1990’s resulted in heavy cut backs in staff and operating costs in 1998-99 and merges between BP and Amoco and Exxon and Mobil. etc. etc. agents and distributors. The organization's marketing environment is made up from: 1. Sociocultural forces. OR PEST analysis is very important that an organization considers its environment before beginning the marketing process. Chevron. wages and finance.4: PEST ANALYSIS OF SHELL COMPANY PEST Analysis is a simple but important and widely-used tool that helps you understand the big picture of the Political.g. our competitors. suppliers. 3. office technology. environmental analysis should be continuous and feed all aspects of planning. The macro-environment e. which include Exxon.
1: Political Factors:The political arena has a huge influence upon the regulation of businesses. rule of law and levels of bureaucracy and corruption Regulation and de-regulation trends Social and employment legislation Tax policy.2: Economic Factors:- 8 . and trade and tariff controls Environmental and consumer-protection legislation Likely changes in the political environment 1. EXAMPLE:Some political factors that influence of shell are as below:• • • • • • • Government type and stability Freedom of press.4. OR Political factors include government rules and regulations and legal issues and define both formal and informal rules under which the firm must operate. and the spending power of consumers and other businesses.1.4.
public opinion. It is very important that such factors are considered. social attitudes and social taboos Lifestyle choices and attitudes to these Socio-Cultural changes 1. These factors affect customer needs and the size of potential market. OR Economical factors affect the purchasing power of potential customers and the firm’s cost of capital.4: Technological Factors:- 9 .4. Example:Some socio cultural factors that influence of shell: • • • • • • Population growth rate and age profile Population health. Example:Some economical factors that influence of shell are as below: • • • • • • • • Stage of business cycle Current and project economic growth.4. job market freedom and attitudes to work Press attitudes. OR Sociocultural factors include the demographic and culture aspects of the external micro environment.3: Sociocultural Factors:The social and cultural influences on business vary from country to country. inflation and interest rates Unemployment and labor supply Labor costs Levels of disposable income and income distribution Impact of globalization Likely impact of technological or other change on the economy Likely changes in the economic environment 1. education and social mobility.Marketers need to consider the state of a trading economy in the short and long-terms. This is especially true when planning for international marketing. and attitudes to these Population employment patterns.
This provides the context within which more detailed planning can take place to take full advantage of the opportunities that present themselves. from this. Example:Some technological factors that influence of shell is as below: • • • • Impact of emerging technologies Impact of Internet. reduction in communications costs and increased remote working Research & Development activity Impact of technology transfer KEY POINTS OF THIS ANALYSIS:PEST Analysis is a useful tool for understanding the “big picture” of the environment. you can take advantage of the opportunities and minimize the threats. and influence outsourcing decisions. and the opportunities and threats that lie within it. By understanding your environment. These headings are used firstly to brainstorm the characteristics of a country or region and. OR Technological factors can lower barriers to entry. PEST is a mnemonic standing for Political. Social and 10 . and is a major driver of globalization. in which you are operating. reduce minimum efficient production levels. Technological. Economic. draw conclusions as to the significant forces of change operating within it.Technology is vital for competitive advantage.
and competitive rivalry. Five forces analysis looks at five key areas namely the threat of entry. the threat of substitutes.e. stand alone. one of its SBUs. the power of buyers. For example. 11 . business or SBU (Strategic Business Unit) rather than a single product or range of products. It has similarities with other tools for environmental audit. Dell would analyse the market for Business Computers i. but tends to focus on the single. the power of suppliers.5: PORTER’S FIVE FORCES MODEL Introduction:Five Forces Analysis Analyzing the environment .Five Forces Analysis Five Forces Analysis helps the marketer to contrast a competitive environment. such as PEST analysis.1.
Will competitors retaliate? Government action e.g. There is a possibility of the supplier integrating forward e.g. This desensitizes the influence of the environment. from one fleet supplier of trucks to another. 1.5. switching from one software supplier to another. The Champagne brand cannot be copied. Do our competitors have the distribution channels sewn up? Cost advantages not related to the size of the company e. Where there is generic substitution (competing for the currency in your pocket) e.5. Video suppliers compete with travel companies. the benefits associated with bulk purchasing.g.3: The Power of Suppliers:• • • • • Customers are fragmented (not in clusters) so that they have little bargaining power e. This is high where there a few.2: The Power of Buyers:• • • The cost of switching between suppliers is low e. cigarettes. Pizza Hut. Brewers buying bars. Where the switching costs are high e. large players in a market e. If there are a large number of undifferentiated. how much will it cost for the latest technology? Ease of access to distribution channels e.5. Gas/Petrol stations in remote places.4: The Threat of Substitutes:• • • 12 .g. The high or low costs of entry e. Cadillac. personal contacts or knowledge that larger companies do not own or learning curve effects.g. email for fax where there is substitution of need e. Microsoft.g. Power is high where the brand is powerful e. Where there is product-for-product substitution e. 1.g.g.1. small farming businesses supplying the large grocery chains? 1.g. The power of suppliers tends to be a reversal of the power of buyers.1: The Threat of Entry:• • • • • • • • Economies of scale e.g. We could always do without e.g.g.g.g.g.g. small suppliers e.g. will new laws be introduced that will weaken our competitive position? The Government of that country in which that company is working they fix a high taxes for them to import that oil from out side. better toothpaste reduces the need for dentists. the large grocery chains.5. How important is differentiation? E.
there is the threat of substitute products. Identify competitive characteristics that different firms in an industry from one Step 2:characteristics.6: STRATEGIC GROUP MAP:During constructing a strategic group mapping we can fallow some steps.5.5: Competitive Rivalry:• This is most likely to be high where entry is likely. Step 4:- Draw circles around each strategic group. making circles proportional to size of group’s respective share of total industry sale. Plot firms on a two variables map using pairs of these differentiating Step 3:Assign firms that full in about the same strategy space to the same strategic group. This is why it is always seen in the center of the diagram. 13 . and suppliers and buyers in the market attempt to control.1. Step 1:another. 1.
STRATEGIC GROUP MAPPING BRAND IMAGE QUALITY SHELL TOTAL PSO CALTAX CASTROL ZIC RIMULA 14 .
specially rubbers and plastics. largely industrial organics. A small but growing area is specially products. shell haven and moss Moran. One of the later. its major interests are petrochemicals and derived products. Their product range now covers several hundred chemicals.2. synthetic rubber). e. After the difficult period at the beginning of the 1980s. Developments into chemicals led to the setting up of the shell chemical company in 1929. resins. Stan low. petrochemicals production is much healthier.g. was the first petroleum based chemical to be produced in Western Europe in 1942. but also polymers (plastics. 16 . the liquid detergents teepol.1: Introduction to Shell Company The Royal Dutch shell company is known as the best as one of the ‘seven sisters’ that dominates the oil industry. As one might expect. Major locations are to be found at Carrington.
the shell transport and trading company. Shell was formed in 1907 and is today one of the world’s largest multinational businesses. In 1912. production.000 tones of Russian kerosene to Singapore and Bangkok. refining. On September 16. an equally new shell tank car delivered 8. the oil tanker S. It soon became a thriving import-export business. transportation and marketing. selling sea shells to Victorian natural history enthusiasts. The new fuel was promptly pumped ashore into the storage tanks at a brand new water terminal. The company soon eyed the burgeoning American market. just north of Seattle. Royal Dutch Shell formed the American Gasoline Company. and subsequently delivered 4.S Romany arrived at the small port of Richmond Beach. 1912. forestry and biotechnology. The new company goal was to sell gasoline to motorists in the Pacific Northwest and San Francisco Bay areas. Meanwhile. Marcus’s son recognized a huge opportunity to export oil for lamps and cooking to the Far East. hoping to make in roads in the U. He commissioned the first special oil tanker in 1892. a UK registered company and the Royal Dutch petroleum company.000 gallons of gasoline to its first retail outlet in Chehalis. called “shell motor spirit” had a high specific gravity and performed well for hard to start engines of the day. Ultimate control is vested in two parent companies. chemicals and other operations in coal and metal mining.2: Background to the company and industry In 1833 Marcus Samuel opened a small shop in London.2. The new gasoline. the company Royal Dutch had been formed in the Netherlands to develop oil fields in Asia. The oil industry is often described as having an oligopolistic market structure. Washington. based in Seattle. Shell soon gained a loyal following in the northwestern United States. a Dutch company. Washington.S. 17 . consisting of more than 2000 companies worldwide. By 1896 it had its own tanker fleet to compete with the British. carrying over a million gallons of gasoline from Sumatra. On a visit to the Caspian Sea coast. the groups activities include oil and gas exploration. A few days later.
Linda Cook Executive Director Gas & Power. Rob Routs Executive Director Downstream (Oil Products & Chemicals). Today. the company’s yellow shell emblem remains a familiar roadside symbol to motorist’s nation wide. Malcolm Brinded Executive Director Exploration & Production. when Royal Dutch Group assumed 100 percent ownership of Shell Union Oil.In 1922. forming the shell union oil company. Peter Voser Chief Financial Officer. the various shell companies around the country merged with union oil company of Delaware. the merger creator a publicly held corporation until 1985. a holding company. Jeroen van der Veer Chief Executive. Executive committee The members of the Executive Committee are also members of the Board of Directors opens in new window. 18 .
In SWOT. opportunities. strengths and weaknesses are internal factors. and threats. Opportunities and threats are external factors. SWOT stands for strengths. It is the first stage of planning and helps marketers to focus on key issues. For example: Strength of shell is: ➢ The strength of shell is its retail brand.3: SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT analysis is a tool for auditing an organization and its environment. . 19 . weaknesses.2. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors.
➢ Shell is found almost all over the world ➢ Shell maintain a standard quality process and procedure ➢ Shell launches new and innovative products or services Weakness of shell is: ➢ The main weakness of shell is its networking. In SWOT. ➢ Shell is developing market such as the Internet. opportunities and threats are external factors. ➢ Shell has undifferentiated products with respect to its competitors. (Means have less site with respect to it competitors). Swot diagram of shell Strength: Retail brand Availability Standard quality process and procedure Weakness: Network (means lack of sites) Undifferentiated products 20 . For example: Opportunities are: ➢ Shell launches a new opportunity of LPG. ADMORE etc ➢ Another main threat is that if government made taxation on shell products ➢ Another threat is that your competitor have superior access to channels of distribution For example: in Pakistan if there is one site of shell then there are four site of PSO (Pakistan state oil). Threats are: ➢ Main threat to shell is the new companies like TOTAL.
If the product has no or few competitors. For example. Market share tends to 21 . However. it goes into decline and is eventually withdrawn. it gains more and more customers as it grows. Advertising spend is high and focuses upon building brand. after a long period as an adult the plant begins to shrink and die out (decline). Others have very cyclical maturity phases where declines see the product promoted to regain customers. eventually the market stabilizes and the product becomes mature. it shoots out leaves and puts down roots as it becomes an adult (maturity). joint ventures and take each other over. Strategies for the differing stages of the Product Life Cycle Introduction Shell has first introduced the petrochemicals in start of twentieth century.4: The Product Life Cycle (PLC) of shell The Product Life Cycle (PLC) is based upon the biological life cycle.Opportunity: LPG CNG Threats: New companies (Total. a seed is planted (introduction). Products become more profitable and companies form alliances. Edmore) 2. Shell create awareness by introduced its new products like shell helix and other shell products. After a period of development it is introduced or launched into the market. most products fail in the introduction phase. Growth Competitors are attracted into the market with very similar offerings. a skimming price strategy is employed. In theory it's the same for a product. then after a period of time the product is overtaken by development and the introduction of superior competitors. Limited numbers of product are available in few channels of distribution. it begins to sprout (growth).
At this point the market reaches saturation. Price wars and intense competition occur. etc. There is intense price-cutting and many more products are withdrawn from the market. True. These two products of shell are its growth because these are newly launched in the market. For example more innovative products are introduced or consumer tastes have changed.stabilize. Rimula. Shell decline products are the Shell Super OIL because by the launching of new products like LPG and CNG. 22 . 2. Producers attempt to differentiate products and brands are key to this. could be with Spain. Producers begin to leave the market due to poor margins. Logo COLOR The exact origins of the Shell red and yellow are hard to define. and the price of this logo is 3048 million US$. Promotion becomes more widespread and uses a greater variety of media.6: BRAND ANALYSIS In international ranking this logo come on 84th number. Samuel and Company first shipped kerosene to the Far East in tin containers painted red. Decline At this point there is a downturn in the market. The products of shell which are at maturity are shell Helix. Profits can be improved by reducing marketing spend and cost cutting. Sales grow at a decreasing rate and then stabilize. once again. Maturity Those products that survive the earlier stages tend to spend longest in this phase. But the link. Shell products which are at the growth are LPG AND CNG.
most notably in 1995 when a bright. but colors that would not offend the Californians. As with the Pectin.remains one of the greatest brand symbols in the 21st Century. they had to compete against other companies. the actual colors have been modified over the years. fresh and very consumer friendly new Shell Red and Shell Yellow were introduced to launch Shell’s new retail visual identity. when the Shell Company of California first built service stations. 23 . The Shell emblem . Because of the state’s strong Spanish connections.or Pectin . Bright colors were the solution.In 1915. the red and yellow of Spain were chosen.
but we need to be sure that our formulation lives up to the rigorous conditions you face every day on the road. Testing something in laboratory conditions is one thing. make sure your next fill-up is at Shell. The Story behind our New Petrol At Shell we are constantly striving to create the best fuels for our customers. which have shown that our Better Mileage formula can help moving parts within your engine run more easily which effectively burns less energy . We've conducted a range of laboratory tests. so too does the need to find ways to make your money go further. We're working hard to give you better fuels which will take you further. We have invested heavily in leading edge research and development. We have proven through 25 . So if you like the idea of putting more miles in your tank. means improved fuel economy.1: COMPETITORS ANALYSIS Shell:- Shell is a leading supplier of motor oils to all kinds of customer. Put More Miles in your Tank with New Shell Petrol As the cost of driving increases.and a more efficient engine.saving you money. New Shell Petrol has been tested and specially designed to start working from the very first tank.3.
extensive car fleet tests. and we as a company value the wealth of experience we have with us. improving combustion and the overall efficiency of the engine. On this evening. one running on untreated fuel. which was launched in August 2004 as a top item in our Retail business agenda. dedication and excellent performance. a testament to their commitment to the business. The hall was decorated in royal blues and velvets. From the city to the open road. keeping with the exotic Arabic theme. Such a program is essential to make sure that our top dealers are recognized and rewarded for their commitment. We looked into the heart of the engine and developed a complete petrol formula designed not only to help keep your engine clean but also to reduce friction. Mystery Motorist and TM evaluations conducted on site. For our fleet tests. There are some that are 2nd or 3rd generation dealers.000 miles. the association with Shell is an old one. For every liter we commit to. we held the first official Gala event of the Shell Royal Club in Lahore. All 93 winners will be rewarded Royal Club membership together with special banners for display on 26 . we took a wide range of popular cars and selected pairs of the same model. we tested these cars simultaneously for 10. So we have taken this knowledge to develop our latest generation of fuels which are designed to offer better mileage than previous Shell formulations. with 93 dealers qualifying as members of this exclusive Club. we rely on them to implement. monitoring them continuously. Royal Club Launched for Outstanding Dealers printable version The Shell Pakistan team took the initiative in 2004 to start an exclusive Royal Club for our outstanding dealers. At the end of the tests we were able to see that the fleet which experienced greater fuel economy was that using our Better Mileage formula. our team carefully assessed all the potential sources of engine inefficiency which could impact on fuel economy. that fuels treated with our Better Mileage formula can deliver enhanced fuel economy when compared to untreated fuels. our Dealer team has demonstrated a passion to drive our business to new heights. The aim of this Club is to recognize and reward the top dealers in our network in appreciation of the contribution that they have made to our business. the Royal Club commitment came full circle. How it Works with your Engine Drawing on our extensive experience in developing fuel. Each of the winners had been selected on the basis of high scores on RCVP. we rely on them to sell. the other using Better Mileage formula. continuing a legacy set by their elders. For every standard we develop. On 8th of April 2005. At Shell we know that our dealers are our business partners. Since the launch of the Royal Club. For many of our dealers. It is this realization that has lead to the establishment of the Shell Royal Club. Our customer perceptions depend on the experience they have at our retail sites.
television sets and DVD players. Shell Helix Ultra is for performance motoring. Shell Helix Ultra minimizes engine noise. In addition. It has remarkable long-term oxidation stability. and it rejuvenates and refreshes your engine. Shell Helix plus:27 . The night ended on a high note with a memorable skit performance by famous Pakistani TV artists acting out segments of a popular TV show. There are also a host of fantastic prizes for the top tier. entitling them to fantastic deals with a telecom. and conditions and protects engines from the extra stresses of driving in modern start–stop traffic conditions. Shell Helix Ultra is the only motor oil recommended by Ferrari. Prizes for the next 30 winners included premium wristwatches. on a specially arranged Learning Tour. banking and fast-food company. as well as a plaque. with the top 20 traveling to Kuala Lumpur. which gives your car’s engine extended wear protection. Malaysia. all 93 winners were awarded Shell Royal Club membership cards.their sites. A concert by a famous local singer had participants dancing the night away The products of Shell Company are as follows Shell Helix Ultra:Maximum engine cleansing for performance motoring Refreshing and protecting your car Shell Helix Ultra gives you maximum engine clean-up with special cleaning agents that actively cleanse the engine surfaces and continuously lock away harmful dirt and deposits.
In addition to offering superior engine protection for everyday motoring. whatever your car. Shell Helix Plus rejuvenates and refreshes your engine. Shell Helix Super rejuvenates and refreshes your engine. Shell Helix Super:Superior engine cleansing Refreshing and protecting your car Shell Helix Super gives you superior engine clean-up action with special cleaning agents that actively cleanse the engine surfaces and continuously lock away harmful dirt and deposits.Exceptional engine cleansing in all driving conditions Refreshing and protecting your car Shell Helix Plus gives you exceptional engine clean-up with special cleaning agents that actively cleanse the engine surfaces and continuously lock away harmful dirt and deposits. Shell Helix 28 . In addition to offering superior engine protection for all driving conditions.
Supply Chain. and Transport. It is the top choice for urban and city drivers who wish to minimize engine noise and protect their vehicles from the extra stresses caused by today's stop-start traffic environments.Shell Helix Super Shell Helix Super is one of the world's most popular oils and one of the best mineral oils available for small to mid range vehicles. Shell Lubricants is organised around customers in five main lines of business: Consumer. Fast Lube. Industry.000 tonnes of lubricants a day to customers in approximately 120 countries and operating an extensive network of base oil and lubricant blending plants. printable version Lubricants:- Filling your engine with the appropriate motor oil can help protect your engine from wear and tear. It has remarkable clean-up power that refreshes engines and helps to improve wear protection. For more information see Shell Lubricants. can reduce carbon emissions and can save you money by 29 . Lubricants Shell Lubricants are one of the global leaders in finished lubricants selling 13. Engines cleansed and protected with Shell Helix Super have that just serviced feeling and experience a smoother and quieter drive.
or thin. Check the correct viscosity of motor oil for your car in your owner’s manual. The results of this high stress environment can then be applied to fuel economy improvements in our Shell Helix Ultra and Plus developments for road cars. and it’s this value that most affects engine efficiency. check your owner’s 30 . simply moving from a 20W50 to 10W40 oil could help deliver fuel economy. We also test specific formulations under the most demanding conditions. right up to your next oil change.rather than specific components. and carbon deposits form a sludge that builds up in your engine damaging it and reducing your car’s efficiency. This means less power is used to pump oil around the engine and so less fuel is used. XXXX . Then it keeps on reviving and refreshing. By taking this approach. the oil will be at high and low temperatures. for example 20W50 or 10W40. The letter W stands for winter. as using an inappropriately low viscosity grade could damage your engine.Learn more about Shell Helix motor oils [link to main page of Shell Helix content package] If you need more advice in choosing the right oil for your vehicle. Therefore. Shell motor oil development Because we develop our own differentiated fuels and lubricants we look at the vehicle as a whole – from engine to rear axle . What is the right oil for your engine? Oil grading. Thinner oils are more efficient because they flow faster in the engine and create less friction. Shell lubricants combined could deliver as much as a 6% improvement in overall vehicle efficiency*. Shell Helix motor oils contain special cleaning agents that help to actively lock away this harmful sludge and condition your car’s engine. describes how viscous.See how Shell Helix helps to actively locks way harmful sludge [link to Shell Helix content package – engine cleansing page] XXXX . So it’s not just protected but rejuvenated. Refreshed and protected with Shell Helix Over time. motor oils degrade. The lower the numbers are the thinner the oil will be. on track with the Ferrari Formula One team. revitalized and refreshed.delivering fuel efficiency.
As only as little as 40% of the energy created within each engine is available to fight the many other factors within a moving vehicle: aerodynamic drag. * Substantiated by an independent paper by General Motors titled "Fuel Economy Improvements in EPA and Road Tests with Engine Oil and Rear Axle Lubricant Viscosity Reduction" by Goodwin and Havilland.manual or speak to your vehicle manufacturer. in a typical diesel truck engine up to 60% of an engine’s fuel energy is lost through heat exhaust and engine friction. This fuel efficiency is achieved through a combination of lower viscosity for lower viscous drag and friction modifying additives that reduce friction between the sliding metal surfaces in the engine and drive train. truck weight. you can reduce drive train friction. The positive effect that Shell Fuel Stretch lubricants can have on your business is supported by evidence from real world customer experience and Shell’s state of-the-art testing programmed. General Motors Research Labs. terrain. 31 . delivering a positive effect on your fuel economy. Fuels and Lubricants Dept. wind speed & angle. driver behavior. drive train friction. It all sounds rather complicated. Shell Fuel Stretch Lubricants .Fuel Economy printable version Consider this. accessories operation and inertial forces. The science and the savings When you choose the right lubricants. All of these things affect your fuel economy and can vary widely depending upon driving speed. doesn’t it? There is a simpler way to improve fuel economy. The right lubricants can have a significant effect on fuel economy and consequently on your bottom line. and road conditions. who can advise on recommended lubricants. rolling resistance.
strongly believes in Shell products. Italy's Rocco Transport Co... Shell Spirax ASX and Shell Spirax GSX in our fleet. This is.” From the U. Mercedes has made RIMULA®Ultra 5W-30 the exclusive first fill oil for their entire flagship Actros trucks manufactured in Europe. for us.S.Independent studies and customer experience Reputable organizations from around the world as well as leading transport companies confirm the role of lubricants to help reduce fuel consumption. . “Synthetic lubricants with their lower viscosity. suggest that total possible fuel savings." 32 ... fuel consumption. the easiest and most effective way to save fuel.” With low viscosity oils . offer some fuel-saving potential when used in the drive axle and transmission. The UK Department for Transport’s Energy Best Practice Programmed has this to say about lubricants. and reduced operating costs.” And. Therefore. we use only Shell RIMULA® Ultra 5W. The Shell Fuel Stretch lubricants have made quite an impression on fleet & maintenance managers from companies just like yours. . Mercedes believes so strongly in Shell and our products they named us their “2004 Supplier of the Year. . Additionally.. Since these oils are drained less frequently you need to use a smaller total quantity.30. fuel savings are to be expected.” Mercedes-Benz recognizes the benefits of fuel economy lubricants and in their service bulletin states. "Controlling our fuel costs is more important today than ever. .” Mercedes isn’t the only company that has seen a difference from working with Shell. “A number of recent studies have examined fuel economy lubricants for trucks and.Transportation Research Record.. could be as high as 5% using low friction engine lubricants and 4% using low friction transmission lubricants.
40 oils. To reduce fuel consumption. for many truck makes. Shell RIMULA® Ultra and our synthetic Spirax gear and axle oils allow the extension of oil drain intervals. Using this facility Shell has demonstrated the fuel economy benefits of Fuel Stretch lubricants. “We have to cost optimize our operation at all times.3% from the engine oil alone. When using all of the Shell Fuel Stretch lubricants. the savings really add up. For Fleets Engine Oil RIMULA Ultra 5W30 Gear Oil SPIRAX GSX Axle Oil SPIRAX ASX Grease RETINAX LX Fuel Savings* 5% Cost Savings 1.500 € 33 . Experience the difference that Shell Fuel Stretch lubricants can make.40 and 20W. For us. As a matter of fact. In addition.” The Shell Difference Shell Lubricants has spent countless hours developing fuel economy products that can lower fuel costs and deliver excellent wear protection. it’s a simple and effective way to control operation costs. The chart below illustrates the results of testing conducted in a variety of Mercedes-Benz and Volvo engines in both bus fleets and haulage situations. Shell has invested in a state-of-the-art laboratory facility that allows high accuracy fuel economy testing of complete drive trains under simulated driving cycles. Shell has run a number of controlled customer trials that have statistically proven the benefits operators can achieve through switching to Shell Fuel Stretch lubricants. So you can gain additional savings in both volume of lubricant purchased and maintenance costs. we use only Shell Rimula Ultra 5W-30 in all our 300 trucks. Over the last 8 years Shell customers have benefited from demonstrated fuel savings of 2. You can see the fuel savings when RIMULA Ultra 5W-30 is compared to conventional 15W.Diebel Speditions from Germany also experiences the benefits of Shell products. as demonstrated in the tables below.
Professionalism. Chevron and Texaco.RIMULA Ultra10W40 RIMULA Signia 10W-40 SPIRAX GSX SPIRAX GSX SPIRAX ASX SPIRAX ASX RETINAX LX RETINAX LX 4% 4% 1.2001. a new focus and commitment is required to meet our customers' demands for superior products. Service and Efficiency". The new Caltex Lubricants organization is perfectly positioned to deliver on our Lubricants Brand promise of "Quality and Protection".200 € For Bus and Coach Engine Oil RIMULA Ultra 5W-30 RIMULA Ultra10W-40 RIMULA Signia 10W-40 Automatic Transmission Oil DONAX TX DONAX TX DONAX TX Axle Oil SPIRAX ASX SPIRAX ASX SPIRAX ASX Grease RETINAX LX RETINAX LX RETINAX LX Fuel Savings* 4-5% 3-4% 2-3% Cost Savings 1.000km per year with a fuel consumption of 30 litres/100km. .500 € 900-1.200 € 1. ** assuming 100. dedicated service and efficient global distribution networks. Caltex For almost three-quarters of a century Caltex has been manufacturing and marketing quality lubricants on a global scale. The combined resources and technology of Caltex and its parent companies. This promise is underpinned by our core Brand values of "Quality. produce a powerful global Lubricants team with a huge competitive 34 .200 € 600-900 € * possible fuel savings when compared with 15W. In today's highly complex and competitive market.40 engine oils and GL-4 90 or GL-5 85W 140 gear and axle oils.
Caltex Delo is firmly established today as the worldwide benchmark for reliability and unsurpassed performance for all types of diesel engines. The following Caltex Delo line is continuously re-evaluated and upgraded to meet the increasingly severe lubrication requirements of current and future engine designs: • • • • • • Caltex Delo® 400 Multigrade Caltex Delo® CXJ Multigrade Caltex Delo® XLD Multigrade Caltex Delo® SHP Multigrade Caltex Delo® HDD Caltex Delo® 500 Multigrade 35 .advantage. Our top-selling products include: Passenger Car Motor Oils Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Oils Motorcycle Oils Specialities & Greases Xpress Lube Havoline Caltex Havoline quality motor oils combat the extreme demands of modern motoring to provide outstanding engine protection and performance. Caltex Havoline comes in different versions each designed to help you get the most out of your engine: • • • • • Havoline Energy Havoline Fully Synthetic Havoline Semi-Synthetic Havoline Formula Havoline Motor Oil Delo Introduced in 1935 as the first commercially available detergent-type diesel engine oil. This means Caltex is committed to ensuring that our customers anywhere in the world can purchase the same quality of motor oils right-offthe-shelf that champion racing drivers use in their racing cars. Our knowledge of local business environments and our broad experience of operating in a wide array of countries provide local know-how on a global scale. Behind every drop of premium Caltex Havoline products is a concept called "Proof of Performance".
• • • • Caltex Delo® 350 Multigrade Caltex Delo® 340 Multigrade Caltex Delo® 320 Caltex Delo® 300 Revtex The Caltex Revtex 2T and 4T ranges of motorcycle oils provide the right choice of lubricating oil for every kind of motorcycle engine. Caltex Extended Life Coolants deplete slowly. Based on revolutionary new Carboxylate Technology. extending coolant life and eliminating the need for Supplementary Coolant Additives (SCAs) and frequent testing. Our Coolant product line includes • • • • • • Caltex Extended Life Coolant Caltex Extended Life Coolant (N) Caltex Extended Life Coolant Pre-Mixed 50:50 Caltex Extended Life Coolant (N) Pre-Mixed 50:50 Caltex XL Corrosion Inhibitor Concentrate Caltex XL Corrosion Inhibitor Caltex Power CLEAN Fuel System Treatment Improve your engine's performance with Caltex Power CLEAN fuel system treatment. hard water scale or abrasive dissolved solids. they provide extended coolant life while providing unsurpassed protection for radiator and cooling systems. Our two scientifically advanced formulas are extensively tested for reliability and performance in different terrain and weather conditions all over the world: • • Caltex Revtex 4T Caltex Revtex 2T Extended life coolants and power CLEAN Caltex Extended Life Coolants Caltex Extended Life Coolants can "take the heat" in the hostile environment of engine cooling systems. whether it's hot or cold. to save you both time and money. They also act only when corrosion protection is needed and do not produce "green goo". This product has an exclusive formula that provides a burst of cleaning 36 . from the latest high performance machines to the smallest motor scooters. silicate deposits.
carburetors and intake valves.power while you drive for proven clean-up of fuel injectors. reduces octane requirement and improves driveability for up to 5000 kilometers. 2005. The GOP is in the advanced stages of divesting 51% of the in PSO to a strategic investor.P. The special technology used in Caltex Power CLEAN also minimizes combustion chamber deposits. Morgan as the Financial Advisor for the privatization of PSO. PAKISTAN STATE OIL COMPANY LIMITED 37 . With just one treatment. including both direct holdings of the Federal Government and indirect holdings through GOP owned institutions. PSO Transaction Profile The Government of Pakistan (“GOP”) holds approximately 54% stake in Pakistan State Oil Company Limited (“PSO”). The last date for submission of Statement of Qualifications by all interested parties was April 15. it cleans your engine while you drive and restores lost power and performance. For information on PSO please click here Sale Process The Privatization Commission has appointed J. lowers emissions.
in which ESSO undertakings were vested on 15th September 1976. business centers. including Mogas. The company was later converted into a new public company and its name was changed to Pakistan State Oil Company Limited. Canada) for "Strategic Leadership" and "Professional Excellence". PSO was formed on December 30th.Pakistan State Oil (PSO) is the oil market leader in Pakistan having 73% share of Black Oil market and around 59% share of White Oil market. Professionals at PSO strive for providing unmatched and diverse services to the customers in line with best international practices. a private company wholly owned by the Federal Government. storage. It has recently won prestigious AIOU-Commonwealth of Learning (Vancouver . distribution and marketing of various petroleum products. containing 38 . State Oil Company Limited. LPG and CNG. LDO. industrial. took over the entire undertakings of Pakistan National Oils Limited and Premier Oil Company Limited at the date of transfer. 1976 through reorganization plan implemented by the Government of Pakistan pursuant to Section 15 of Marketing of Petroleum Products (Federal Control) Act 1974 and Section 8 of the ESSO undertakings (Vesting) Act 1976. Under the plan. aviation. Fuel Oil. This blue chip company. The company has been a popular topic of case studies in Pakistan and abroad based on its radical corporate transformation over the last few years. The amalgamation scheme did not involve any acquisition of shares from private shareholders of Pakistan National Oils Limited and Premier Oil Company Limited. petro-chemicals. SKO. In its present form. It is engaged in import. convenience stores. electronic dispensing units. Jet Fuel. PSO’s state-of-the-art New Vision retail outlets are equipped with the most modern facilities. internet facilities and Easy Payment Centres for payment of utility and Citibank credit card bills. rated as 'AAA' by PACRA is the the winner of “KSE Top Companies Award” and a member of World Economic Forum. including retail. including auto car wash. HSD. EXCELLENCE IN CUSTOMER SERVICE PSO serves a wide range of customers throughout Pakistan. PSO has launched Green XL plus Diesel. marine and government/defence sectors.
21 ISO 9000 certified Mobile Quality Testing Units ensure top of the line quality of products and services.psocl. Corporate Card. fuel economy and reduced noise and air pollution. An attractive and comprehensive PSO website (www. queries and suggestions. For efficient handling of customer complaints. 39 . provide the lube change facilities at customers’ doorsteps. furbished with a toll free telephone number (0800-03000) and state-of-the-art Customer Relationship Management (CRM) module. Fleet Card and Prepaid Card in addition to collaborative arrangement with various banks offering 0% service charge on use of Citibank’s Visa and Master cards.Diesel Fuel Additive. As innovative customer service initiatives. The Quick Oil Lube Vans introduced by PSO. PSO has launched Loyalty Card. and Union Bank’s AMEX card for fueling at PSO retail outlets. to deliver high value to customers at no additional cost in terms of improved engine performance. PSO has developed 24-hour Customer Service Center.com) is available as a source of PSO-related news and information.
1: CUSTOMERS ANALYSIS “AIOD FRAMEWORK OF SHELL COMPANY” SEGMENTS NEEDS ACTIVITY INTREST OPINION DEMOGRAPHY Tourism Production Student Professional Transportation Doctors Teacher Business Man Industry Professional Students Professionals Business Man Army Air Force Navy Car Racing Bike Racing Going to school Going to office Tourism Traveling Getting output Backup of light Tours Meeting Visits Search their boundary lines Chatting Music Dangerous stunts Parents Friends Family Friends People Friends People Parents Chief Head Friends People Age: 16-25. 50-75. 25-50. Income: 10000-25000. Age: 15-25. Income: 10000-20000. 20000-50000. 30-45. Age: 20-30. 40000-100000.4. 25-75. 30-60. Income: 1000-5000. 15000-50000 Age: 25-50.1. Entertainment Airlines Defense Military Games Sports 41 . Income: 15000-40000. 50000-100000. Age: 20-30. Income: 15000-50000. 250000-100000.
and shell is one of the leading company in petroleum industry. Dissel.We place this as a public necessity because every person has its own choice that they use Petrol.4.1. CNG and 42 .2: REFRENCE GROUP INFLUENCE MATRIX PRIVATE PUBLIC SHELL NECESSITY LUXURY EXPLANATION In this matrix we can place SHELL as a public necessity because at that time petroleum industry is one of the big industry of the world.
Middle class and poor class. 4. Middle class people use petrol as well as dissel. In Pakistan there are three kinds of classes for people. High class.The people of high class use Petrol. they can afford petrol.2: PERCEPTUAL MAPPING 1ST MAP ZIC CALTEX TOTAL PSO PRIC 10 1 SHELL 00 BRAND E 0 EXPLANATION:43 .LPG. and Low class people use Dissel as well as CNG.
In this map we give numbers of those companies due to its price and its brand efficiency. 2nd MAP ZIC CALTEX TOTAL SHELL PSO PURITY 100 THICKNESS 0 100 0 EXPLANATION:- In this map we can plot thickness along X-axis. According to my opinion SHELL is more efficient as compare to other companies in this way we give this company high weighted / numbers. In this map we can comparison of all those companies related to petroleum industry. purity can plot along Yaxis. 44 . According to this PSO give a high marks because the petrol of PSO is thick as well as pure.In this Map we plot Price along X-axis. Brand plot along Y-axis. Shell comes on number 2nd because this is not much effective as compare to PSO.
So in this way we can give this high marks. due to its availability According to this comparison the availability of SHELL is high.3rd MAP ZIC CALTEX TOTAL PSO SHELL 100 PRICE 0 100 0 AVAILABILITY EXPALNATION:- In this map we plot price along X-axis. In this map we can comparison between all the petroleum companies. 46 . availability plot along Y-axis.
In this map we can comparison between the services of all the petroleum companies. 47 . Shell comes on 2nd number in this way PSO gain high marks. service plot along Y-axis. According to this the best service provider is PSO.4th MAP ZIC CALTEX TOTAL SHELL PSO SERVICE 100 CLEANLINESS 0 100 0 EXPLANATION:- In this map we plot cleanliness along X-axis.
3: BCG Matrix 48 . In this map we can comparison between the petroleum companies due to its advertisement. 4. According to this the advertisement of SHELL is so high in this way we high marks of shell. advertisement along Yaxis.5th MAP CALTEX PSO SHELL ZIC TOTAL 100 AVAILABILITY 0 100 0 ADVERTISEMENT EXPLANATION:- In this map we can plot availability along X-axis.
6 3.6 .2 .2 Marks 4 4 4 4 3 Total .6 .8 .6 .Shell Attributes Smell Thickness Purity Availability Price Weight age .8 .2 .0 PSO Attributes Smell Thickness Purity Availability Price Weight age .2 .2 .2 .6 3.6 .2 .6 .6 .2 Marks 3 3 3 3 3 Total .8 .2 .6 .8 .2 Caltex 49 .8 .2 Marks 3 4 3 3 3 Total .2 .2 .2 .2 .6 3.2 .8 Total Attributes Smell Thickness Purity Availability Price Weight age .
Attributes Smell Thickness Purity Availability Price
Weight age .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Marks 3 3 3 2 3
Total .6 .6 .6 .4 .6 2.8
“BCG MATRIX OF PETROLEUM INDUSTRY”
SHELL PSO TOTAL
4.4: Marketing Mix
The marketing mix is probably the most famous phrase in marketing. The elements are the marketing 'tactics'. Also known as the 'four Ps', the marketing mix elements are price, place, product, and promotion.
The prices of the oil companies in Pakistan is determined by the Pakistan government and that is now a days about 57.77 petrol and 38.56 of diesel it is accepted in all the cities of the country no one have their own prices of selling oil on their on rates. The oil price of all companies are same but their prices of lubricant are different they are according to them for example The price of the shell lubricant is higher then any other oil company like caltex have higher prices of lubricant then any other oil company so every company have their own prices of lubricant.
A channel of distribution comprises a set of institutions which perform all of the activities utilized to move a product and its title from production to consumption.
Bucklin - Theory of Distribution Channel Structure (1966) Another element of Neil H.Borden's Marketing Mix is Place. Place is also known as channel, distribution, or intermediary. It is the mechanism through which goods and/or services are moved from the manufacturer/ service provider to the user or consumer.
The oil companies have the stations to supply the oil to the people so like PSO company it have so many stations in our country as compared to any other oil company but the SHELL company also have stations in different countries but not many as PSO and the other companies like CALTEX, TOTAL, ATTOCK OIL REFIENRY have not to much stations to supply the people needs.
All companies have their own products of oil like shell, Caltex, Pso, Total etc
Shell Helix Ultra
Maximum engine cleansing for performance motoring Refreshing and protecting your car Shell Helix Ultra gives you maximum engine clean-up with special cleaning agents that actively cleanse the engine surfaces and continuously lock away harmful dirt and deposits. It has remarkable long-term oxidation stability, which gives your car’s engine extended wear protection. Shell Helix Ultra minimizes engine noise, and conditions and protects engines from the extra stresses of driving in modern start–stop traffic conditions. Shell Helix Ultra is for performance motoring, and it rejuvenates and refreshes your engine. Shell Helix Ultra is the only motor oil recommended by Ferrari.
Shell Helix plus
Exceptional engine cleansing in all driving conditions Refreshing and protecting your car Shell Helix Plus gives you exceptional engine clean-up with special cleaning agents that actively cleanse the engine surfaces and continuously lock away harmful dirt and deposits. In addition to offering superior engine protection for all driving conditions, Shell Helix Plus rejuvenates and refreshes your engine.
Shell Helix Super
Superior engine cleansing Refreshing and protecting your car 52
whatever your car.Shell Helix Super gives you superior engine clean-up action with special cleaning agents that actively cleanse the engine surfaces and continuously lock away harmful dirt and deposits. It is the top choice for urban and city drivers who wish to minimize engine noise and protect their vehicles from the extra stresses caused by today's stop-start traffic environments. In addition to offering superior engine protection for everyday motoring. Engines cleansed and protected with Shell Helix Super have that just serviced feeling and experience a smoother and quieter drive. Shell Helix Shell Helix Super Shell Helix Super is one of the world's most popular oils and one of the best mineral oils available for small to mid range vehicles. Shell Helix Super rejuvenates and refreshes your engine. It has remarkable clean-up power that refreshes engines and helps to improve wear protection. 53 .
Caltex Delo is firmly established today as the worldwide benchmark for reliability and unsurpassed performance for all types of diesel engines. Caltex Havoline comes in different versions each designed to help you get the most out of your engine: • • • • • Havoline Energy Havoline Fully Synthetic Havoline Semi-Synthetic Havoline Formula Havoline Motor Oil • Delo Introduced in 1935 as the first commercially available detergent-type diesel engine oil. The following Caltex Delo line is continuously re-evaluated and upgraded to meet the increasingly severe lubrication requirements of current and future engine designs: • • • • • • • • • • Caltex Delo® 400 Multigrade Caltex Delo® CXJ Multigrade Caltex Delo® XLD Multigrade Caltex Delo® SHP Multigrade Caltex Delo® HDD Caltex Delo® 500 Multigrade Caltex Delo® 350 Multigrade Caltex Delo® 340 Multigrade Caltex Delo® 320 Caltex Delo® 300 Revtex The Caltex Revtex 2T and 4T ranges of motorcycle oils provide the right choice of lubricating oil for every kind of motorcycle engine. Behind every drop of premium Caltex Havoline products is a concept called "Proof of Performance". This means Caltex is committed to ensuring that our customers anywhere in the world can purchase the same quality of motor oils right-offthe-shelf that champion racing drivers use in their racing cars. from the latest high performance machines to the smallest motor 54 .Caltex The products of caltex are as follows Havoline Caltex Havoline quality motor oils combat the extreme demands of modern motoring to provide outstanding engine protection and performance.
This includes all of the tools available to the marketer for 'marketing communication'. the basic ingredients are always the same. Our two scientifically advanced formulas are extensively tested for reliability and performance in different terrain and weather conditions all over the world: • • Caltex Revtex 4T Caltex Revtex 2T PSO All companies have their own products Promotions Another one of the 4P's is 'promotion'. It is the same with promotions. As with Neil H.Borden's marketing mix. You can 55 .' Think of it like a cake mix. marketing communications has its own 'promotions mix. the final outcome is different. However if you vary the amounts of one of the ingredients.scooters.
Sales Promotion 3. Personal Selling 2. Remember all of the elements are 'integrated' to form a specific communications campaign. However sales people are very expensive and should only be used where there is a genuine return on investment for example when the customer go to shell petrol stations they deals them in a good way they are in well dressed talk nicely with the customer. Personal selling Personal Selling is an effective way to manage personal customer relationships. personal selling. For example the BOGOF promotion or Buy One Get One Free like shell they opened the scheme to get the 10 liters oil and win the oil of the whole year. Public Relations 4. free accessories (such as get the lubricant and get the oil free) and so on. 56 2. money-off promotions. The elements of the promotions mix are: 1. Sales promotion tends to be thought of as being all promotions apart from advertising. 1. competitions. Sales Promotion .'integrate' different aspects of the promotions mix to deliver a unique campaign. Others include couponing. They tend to be well trained in the approaches and techniques of personal selling. Advertising The Promotions Mix Let us look at the individual components of the promotions mix in more detail. The sales person acts on behalf of the organization. and public relations.
shell companies are now creating the big boards and place in the cities to tall the people and a add in the TV also made to tell the people about shell. Public Relations (PR) Public Relations is defined as 'the deliberate. In addition. Vaughn indicates that the horizontal side of the matrix is based on the hypothesis that over time there is consumers’ movement from thinking toward feeling. television (local. create awareness. 1980. This classification suggests that purchase decisions are different when thinking is mostly involved and others are dominantly involved with feeling. Successful strategies tend to be long-term and plan for all eventualities. The quadrants summarize four substantially major goals for advertising strategy: "to be informative. Four quadrants are developed in the matrix based on these two dimensions (involvement and thinking/feeling) in the FCB Grid. affective. It is used to develop attitudes.Each sales promotion should be carefully costed and compared with the next best alternative. 57 . bus sides). different situations also exist. The insight from Vaughn led to the conceptualization of using a continuum of high involvement to low involvement. magazines and journals. trade). and transmit information in order to gain a response from the target market. free. outdoor advertising (such as posters. 1980). Advertising Advertising is a 'paid for' communication. 4. Also. It is relatively cheap. Vaughn believes that high and low involvement (the vertical side of the matrix) is also a continuum. 1986) uses involvement (high-low) and think/feel as the two dimensions for classifying product categories. The product category matrix is fabricated using these two dimensions. proposing that high involvement can decay to relatively low involvement over time. satellite) cinema. in order to form a space where we can position the products relative to each other. habit forming or to promote self-satisfaction"" (Vaughn. When the customer goes to the shell station they first clear the mirrors and they are well dressed and talk in a nice manner. national. national. 3.5: The FCB Grid (Vaughn. terrestrial. as well as a continuum of thinking and feeling. There are many advertising 'media' such as newspapers (local. 4. planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its publics' (Institute of Public Relations). but certainly not cheap. resulting in decision-making processes which require either more or less involvement.
Vaughn (1986) accentuated the importance of speculation about the involvement and think-feel dimensions 58 . Also. However. advertisers can develop advertising strategy according to consumers’ relations towards a product according to information (learn). attitude (feel) and behavior (do) issues. In spite of the successful validation of the FCB Grid by thorough research. The results are that products and services were reasonably positioned as expected.800 consumers across some 250 product categories.000 consumer interviews in 23 countries. international study about the Grid has been conducted by asking over 20. and some ‘think’ and ‘feel’ items correlated with involvement. 1986).high or low .With this FCB Grid. which corroborated that it was possible to have varying amounts of think and feel . 1986). This study indicates that consumer mental processes are quite similar throughout different countries in spite of communication distinctions in advertising (Vaughn. The primary grid validation study was conducted in the United States among 1.depending on involvement (Vaughn. every theory needs scientific research which can validate its conclusions.
INFORMATIVE(THINKER) I N V O L V E M E N T LOW 3.HABIT FORMATION(DOER) I N V O L V E M E N T FEELING 2.AFFECTIVE(FEELER) It is a affective ad’s picture because.SELF SATISFACTION(REACTOR) 59 .THINKING High 1. No detail We can just feel 4.
AFFECTIVE(FEELER) It is a affective ad’s picture because.SELF SATISFACTION(REACTOR) 60 . INFORMATIVE(THINKER) I N V O L V E M E N T LOW 3.THINKING High 1. No detail We can just feel 4.HABIT FORMATION(DOER) I N V O L V E M E N T FEELING 2.
HABIT FORMATION(DOER) 4.SELF SATISFACTION(REACTOR) 61 .AFFECTIVE(FEELER) 3.THINKING High I N V O L V E M E N T LOW I N V O L V E M E N T 1. INFORMATIVE(THINKER) It is a informative because Some information about the product will affect the engine is given FEELING 2.
improve the quality of the petrol. It should increase its availability to increase its market growth and share more conversing advertisements should be given. oil for the motor bikes to make the engine fresh. 63 . Shell should increase its networking. It should increase its number of Pumps in our country. they have started the poling like give the pole cards to the customers to give them suggestion about them to improve Shell.1: Recommendations and conclusion:A company should first of all work at its weakness. safe and informational-LPG is a golden opportunity for Shell Company to increase the market growth. Shell should make sure that its products are pure cheap then any other available at every where and more important customers are satisfied provide the customers needs like the lubricant of motors. Shell should make sure that its petrol pumps are clean.5.
com Competitors Analysis Source: www. 6.marketingteacher. 3.caltex.com &By own.marketingteacher. 65 .Bibliography analysis of shell 1.com Customers Analysis AIOD.com Strategic group Map Source: by own Company Analysis Introduction.com Porters five forces models Source: www.com\www.com\www.google.shell.com Pest analysis of shell Source: www. Major players Source: www.shell. 9. History. Introduction.marketingteacher. BCG Sources: By own Marketing Mix. 7. Industry and References 2.com.com\marketingteacher. FCB GRID Sources: www.pk SWOT Analysis Source: www. 5.com PLC Source: www.pso. 8. 4.shell. Perceptual Mapping. Background Source: www.shell.
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