b

-

lS

The Oscillating Current Transformer

_. ~_... .......

The oscj_~~ati.n.g current transt"ormer functions quitedi.:f:ferent~y than a conventiona~ transformer in that the ~aw of die~ec:tric induction is ut:i~ized as we~l. as the f'amil.iar l.aw of magnetic induction. The propagation of waves a~ong the coil. axis does not resemb.le the propagation of' waves al.ong a conventional. transmission ~ine,

but is complicated by inter-turn capacitance &: mutua.l magnetic inductance. In this respect the O.C. transformer does not behave .like a resonant transmission.l:ine, nor a R. C .L. circui. t, but more like a special. type of' wave guide. Perhaps the most important feature of' the O.C. transformer is that in the course of propagation along the coi~ a.x.i.s the electric energy is dematerialized, that is, rendered mass :free energy resembl.ing Dr. Wil.hel.m Reich's Orgona Energy in its behavi.or. It is this feature that renders

the O.C. transformer usefull. for wirel.ess power transmission and reception, and gives the O.C. transformer singul.arimportance in

the study of Dr. Tesl.a's research.

FUNDA.MENTALS OF COn.. INDUCTION

Consider the e.lemental. sli.ce ·of a coi.1 shown in figo1. Between the turns 1,2 &: J of the coi~ed conductor exists a comp~exe~ectric wave consisting of two basic components. In one component (fig. 2), the ~i.nes of magneti.c and dielectric f~UX cross at right ang~es, producing a photon £~u.x perpendicular to these crossings, hereby pro'pagating energy a~ong the gap, paral.l.e.l to the conductors and around the coi.~ .. This is the transverse e~ectro-magnetic wave. :In the other component, shown in fig. :3, the lines of magnvtic fl.ux

do not cross but ~te a~ong the same axiS, perpendicul.ar to the coil conductor5, hereby energy is conveyed along the coil. axis. This is the Longitudinal Magneto~Die1ectric Wave.

May-June 1986 JBR, Page 15 ~S

J

'S:IAf' ~ ,.&:'.1. G* X RS4A?/o"""","S'

Ca /N.Po S' .ITe:~~,,~ 7I,.,r?rRA.7 ~ ~O ,7"'C;~NS

~//2lcr~o"""" O~ ~~6"~G Y FJ. ow"

May-June 1986 JBR, Page 16

J.4 I "1
/ tr
if 1.11
/b r"'~A r,--"'c;;. ; ,
RC-D$ _.... I!' 111111 i~
I I lei
~ I
/ I I, t
/ !
!1 ~!
f
I
(
,
~
I .'
1 " 3 ; ~
~ : I
"
U/ , SOL.~...,_,c:u L),A~ COI'-

o.c N n.,./'l:-""", so

..".Q l> i..c.,.. /R.~ "'<TA..'~ OF ~D_

'S.JJcF ~ Co~" ""-'""""J.)/~, T.-va FE r c...~"""".s

Hence, two distinct forms of' energy f'l.ow are present in t.b.Q coiled conductor, propagatiIlg at right angl.es with respect to each other, as shown :in fig. 4. Hereby a resul.tant wave is produced which propagates around the coi~ in a heli.ca~£ashion, leading

the transverse wa.va betveen the conductors. Thus the oscillati.ng coi! posses a compl.ex vavelength which is shorter than the wavelength of the coil.ed conductor ..

con. CALCULATION

If the asswnptions are made that an alternating current is applied to one end. of' the coi~,the other end of the coil is open circu:ited .. Additionaly external. indtictance and capacitance must be taken into account, then simple :formulae may be derived :for a sing~e layer solenoid.

The well. known formula :for the total inductance of' a single layer solenoid is'

L = r2 N2 (9r+10l)

x 10-6 Henry (inches)

( 1 )

Where r is coi~ rad.iUS

~ ;is coil. ~eligth Hi. nu.IIIber or turDs

May-June 1986 JER, Page 17 ~7

(. )

t.t)

CS',/,."" .P ~ e: ..-.~ '" X" /Z C ~7""/ 0..<,.0 r

~ _.." w ~">.(I
~~ "
;. , ,
.. "
-s , "., "'"
~ .... . ...
..- ~ ~
~//! ...
,. )' • ~H,~
, - •
. ~ ~~~~~--~-r--~~~~ -,"At:.u,-"C ~;'~S'

Co",,;;¥:J'S .re: "'~"'N'.7>A77~/:l"""'- OF r~Q. ~;A.,.lS

-+
..
:p
rr .ct/._., rr ..... '-',;
,. ""
/ a
~.;:;~ ~"
" "',t,f_
... ~t:JNr;;, T'c,..~~..u~4 U/Avtr

;JP;'A2£ C7'?<::) ..u ~ ~----~-

o--6if!o/ ~W/

May-June 1986 JBR, Page 18

The capacitance of a sing~e ~ayer $o~enoid is given by the

formu~a

C = pr

2.~~ x 10-12 Farads (inches)

(2)

where the factor p is a function of the ~ength to diameter ratio, tabu~ated in tab~e (1). The dimensions of the coi~are shown in . figure (1). The capacitance is minimum when ~ength to diameter ratio is equal to one.

Because the coil. is assumed to be in oscillation with a standing wave, the current distributiona~ong the coil is not liniform, but var:ie& s:inuso:idia~~y with respect to distance along the coil. This alters the resu~ts obtained by equation (1), thus for resonance

Henrys

(3)

l:ikewise, for capacitance

C = 8 c o 1f

Farads

(4)

Hereby the velocity of propagation is given by

units/sec (5)

=7] Vc

w'here

Inch/sec (6)

That is, the velocity of light, and

v o

27T 109 Inch/ sec

Where

D = the ratiO or co1.1 length to coil diameter. The values of propagation factor ~ are tabulated in tabl.e (2).

Thus, the frequency of' oBci~lation or resonance ot: the coil is given by the relation

cycles/sec

(8)

Where

1 = total length of' the coiled conductor in inches. o

May-J"W18 1986 JBR, Page 19 ~q

The characteristic impedance of' the resonant coil. is given

Ohms

Hence,

Z ::r NZ

e s

Ohms

Where

(11

(182.9 + 406.4n)pj ~

-

Ohms (inches)

2

and

N = number of' turns. The values of' sheet impedance, Zs' are

tabul.ated in table (3).

The time constant of' the coil., that is, the rate of energy dissipation due to coil. resistance is givl:!D by ,the approximate :f'ormu~a

u = Rol2Lo ;;: ( ail! + ~!.i:l )n J"F;

Neperslsec (inches)

Where

r = coil. radius

l. ;;: coil. length

May-Jun. 1986 JBR, Page 20

(

o

In geDera~, the dissipation of' the coi~'s osc.i~~at:i.ng energy by conductor resistancel

1) Decreases with increase ot' coi~ diameter, d;

2) Decreases with increase of coil ~ength, ~t rapidly when the ratiO, n, of' length to diameter is smal.~ with ~itt~e decrease beyond n equal. to unity;

.. J) Is min:imum when the ratio of wire diameter to coil pitch

is 60".

By examination of' the attached tables, (1), (2) & (3), it is seen that tbe long co115 of' popu~ar designs do !lot result in optimum performance. In general, coils should be short and wide, and not longer than n=l. The frequency is usually given as F = V fA

. 0 c 0

wh:ich by equation (7) :is incorrect. Winding on solid o:r continous formers rather than spacedsl.ender rods, as shown in figure (1), great loy retards wave propagation as indicated in equation (6), thereby seriousl.y distorting the wave. The dielectric conatant of' the co1.1, e: , should be as close to unity as is physicall.y possible to :insure high ef'f'iciency of' transformation.

The equations for the To1tampere relations of' the oscill.at:ing coil. are

Comp~ex Input Vo1tage

(1 J)

Compl.ex Input Current

( 14)

z Yo+~
Z c Z
= ........... ~ ........ ~ ....
1 Y Zo· b 0
c Input Impedance, Ohms

(15)

Where •
E = Vo.1tage on e1evatQd terminal.
0

Io = Current into el.evated terminal.
Yc -1
= Z
c
Zo = Terminal. impedance
Yo - Term.i.na.l. admittance
3 = u/2F : Decrernen t

j -. root of 1/ -1 May-J1.Ule 1986 JER, Page 21 ~J

For negligible losses and abs01ute values

E1 = (Z 2 11" Fe) E

coo 0

( 19)

Vol ts (16)

Amperes (17)

Where

Co = Terminal capacitance By the law or conservation of energy

Volt-Amperes (18)

I£ the terminal capacitance is sma~l then the approx~te input/ output relations of the Tesla coi1 are given by

OUtput Volts

Inpu t Ampere IS

Ou"tput Amperes

:&1 =- I Z o c

Input Volts

***

***

TABLE (1)

Coil Capaoitance Factor

Length/Width Factor Length/Width Factor
= n p = n p
0.10 0.96 0.80 0.46
0.15 0.79 0.90 0.46
0.20 0.70 1.00 0.46
0.2.5 0.64 1.5 0.47
o;jO 0.60 2.0 0.50
0.35 0.57 2.5 0 .. 56
0.40 0.54 3.0 0.61
0.45 0.52 3.5 0.67 .
0.50 0.50 4.0 0.72
0.60 0.48 4.5 0.77
0.70 0.47 5.0 0.81
May-JU!le 1986 JBR, Page 22 (20)

(21)

(22)

I)

'J

»

I)

~)

TABLE (2)

Length/Width

= U·

Percen tLuaina~ Ve10ci ty=,,)

TABLB (3)

L/W

:n

0.10 0.15 0.20 0.2'::; 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.4.5 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.5 2.0 2.5

0.107 x 10 0.070 0.116 0.116 0.116 0.115 0.115 0.114 0.113 0.110 0.106 0.103 0.099 0.095 0.081 0.070 0.061 0.054- 0.048 0.044 0.040 0.037 0.032 0.028

0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.5

9.42 % 109 10.9

12.0

13.0

13.9

14.8

15.6

16.4

17.2

18.4

19.5

20.5

21.4

22.1

25.4

27.6

28.7

29.7

JO.3

)0.9

)1.6

32.4

3.3.0

.3.3.9

79.8'; 92.2 102 110 118 125 1)2 139 146 156 165 176 181 187 215 234 243 251 257 262 268 274 279 287

3 • .5 4.0 4 • .5 5.0 6.0 7.0

2.0

2.5

3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5

5.0 6.0 7.0

****

oft .. **

****

CONDENSED INTRa TO TESLA.. TRANSFOliMERS. This book is an abstra.ct o~ theory and cOlu.1;ruction techniques of Teala .tra..nsf"ormers. :It :1s the resulto£ experimenta~ investigations and. theoretica~ considerations. Include. rlSlovaut Tasla patent. and. an artic1e on capacity by Fritz Lowenstein, Te.lats assistant.(BSRA.. #TE-l) ••••••••••••••••••••• 5.50

INTRODUCTION TO DIELECTRl:C & MAGNETI:C DISCHARGES IN ELECTlUCAL WINDINGS. Tbeory o~ abrupt e~ectrica~ o5ci~latiOD. such as those

used by Tasla ~or experimental researches. contains ELECTlU.CA.L OSCILLA.TI.OliS IN A.HTENNAE AND INDtJCTIOH COn..S by John ·Mil.ler, 1919. This i.

ODe o£the few artic1ea containing equations usef'ulto the d •• ign o£ Te8~a C0:118. (BSRA #TE-2) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 5 • .50

.***

****

****

****

Books by Eric Dol~arQ

May-~une 1986 JBR, Page 23 21

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