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Introduction to Physical pharmacy; Matter, Properties of Matter: State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure, sublimation-critical point, Eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid. complexes, liquid crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline, amorphous and polymorphism. Micromeretics and Powder Rheology: Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume, methods of determining particle size- optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation; measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods for determining surface area; permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties. Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface. Viscosity and Rheology: Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; nonNewtonian systems: pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers. Dispersion Systems: Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability. Complexation: Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis, applications.
Kinetics and Drug Stability: General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalytic species and other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating. Importance of microbiology in pharmacy; Structure of bacterial cell; Classification of microbes and their taxonomy: Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses; Identification of Microbes: Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc; Microbial genetics and variation; Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods: Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation; Sterilization: different methods, validation of sterilization methods & equipments; Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino acids. Immunology and Immunological Preparations: Principles, antigens and heptans, immune system, cellular/humoral immunity, immunological tolerance, antigen-antibody reactions and their applications. Hypersensitivity, active and passive immunization. Vaccines and sera: their preparation, standardization and storage. Genetic Recombination: Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications. Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as Activase, Humulin, Humatrope, HB etc; Antibiotics: Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for their standardization. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, control of different parameters. Isolation of mutants, factors influencing rate of mutation. Design of fermentation process. Isolation of fermentation products with special reference to penicillins, streptomycins tetracyclines and vitamin B12. Introduction to pharmaceutical jurisprudence & ethics : Pharmaceutical Legislations - A brief review; Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industry - A brief review; Pharmaceutical Education - A brief review;
maintenance of records of retail and wholesale.An elaborate study of the followings: Pharmaceutical Ethics.in . solutions. Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & Rules. etc. Incompatibilities: Physical and chemical incompatibilities. proof spirit. powders. Factories Act 1948. Organization and Structure of hospital pharmacy: www. amino acids. Drugs Price Control Order. alkalis. Therapeutic incompatibilities. liniments. Insecticides Act 1968. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960. emulsions. carbohydrates. nutrition. Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975. source of errors in prescription. role of pharmacist in community health care and education (First aid. Minimum Wages Act 1948. Enlarging and reducing recipes percentage solutions.pharmapublications. legal requirements for establishment. adults and elderly patients. diagnostic aids. inhalations. Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of : Typical prescriptions like mixtures. ophthalmic. AICTE Act 1987. anesthetics. acids. quaternary ammonium compounds. Introduction to dispensing and community pharmacy. Pharmaceutical calculations: Posology. patient counseling. Purine bases. glycosides. suppositories. pastilles. Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945. dyes. non-metals. creams. pyrazolone derivatives. Community Pharmacy: Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug store-types of drug store and design. displacement value etc. alkaloids. care required in dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products. alligation. pills. General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products. A brief study of the various Prescription/Nonprescription Products. Patents Act 1970. appliances available in the market. jellies. calculation of doses for infants. surface active agents. inorganic incompatibilities including incompatibilities of metals and their salts. family planning). A brief study of the following Acts with special reference to the main provisions and the latest amendments: Poisons Act 1919. Prescription: Handling of prescription. paints sprays tablet triturates. Medicinal & Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955. isotonic solutions. alcohol dilution. capsules. organic incompatibilities. pastes. lotions. ointments. lozenges. maintenance and drug store-dispensing of proprietary products. communicable diseases. Pharmacy Act 1948. Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954. States Shops & Establishments Act & Rules. Medical/Surgical accessories. correction of incompatibilities.
Packing of materials prior to sterilization. production control.types of medication errors. Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management: Types of materials for sterilization. purchase procedures. personnel requirements. Retrieval of information. Computerized services (e. Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients. storage conditions. Drug Information Services: Sources' of Information on drugs. Master formula Card. Charging policy. Types of materials stocked. radioisotope committee. treatment schedules. advantages & disadvantages of pharmacoepidemiological studies. Drug distribution Systems in Hospitals: Out-patient dispensing. idiosyncratic cases. demand and costing. labeling. Hospital Formulary: Contents. preparation and revision of hospital formulary. Dispensing of ancillary supplies. Budget preparation and Implementation. manufacturing practice. Supply of sterile materials. drug profile. Drug Store Management and Inventory Control: Organization of drug store. Manufacturing records. Types of drug distribution systems. Purchase and Inventory Control principles. Stoichiometry: www. Pharmacy and therapeutic committee. Pharmacoepidemiology: Definition and scope.g. MEDLINE). Records and Reports: Prescription filling. Manufacture of Sterile and Non-sterile Products: Policy making of manufacturable items.in . methods adopted.. Purchase order. disease.pharmapublications. method to conduct pharmacoepidemiological studies. procurement of information. Dispensing of controlled drugs. application of pharmacoeconomics. Pharmacoeconomics: Introduction to pharmacoeconomics. Importance of unit operations in manufacturing. Medication error. Procurement and stocking. Nuclear Pharmacy: Methods of handling radioisotopes. different methods of pharmacoeconomics. patient medication profile.Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy. sterilization equipments. Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. cases on drug interaction and adverse reactions. Responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist. correction and reporting.
mathematical problems. sieve shakers. Mathematical problems on evaporation. solid-solid. industrial filters including filter press. heat exchangers. boiling liquids. dimensionless equations.in . Filtration and Centrifugation: Theory of filtration. equilibrium state. Mc-Cabe Thiele method for calculations of number of theoretical plates. Reynold's number. mole volume. evaporators. manometers and measurement of flow and pressure. dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and special drying methods. film evaporators. surface coefficients. tie substance. single effect and multiple effect evaporators. edge filter. dimensionless formulae. rotary filter. dimensionless groups. Kirchoff’s law. Distillation: Roult's law. factor affecting evaporation. Evaporation: Basic concept of phase equilibria. condensing vapors. molecular units. classification and types of dryers. laws governing energy and power requirements of a mills including ball mill. gas laws. Size separation: Different techniques of size separation.Unit processes material and energy balances. sieves. Drying: Moisture content and mechanism of drying. hammer mill. mole fraction. continuous and batch filters. www. rate of drying and time of drying calculations. heat interchangers. Concept of boundary layer. valves. steady and unsteady states. primary and secondary quantities. principles of rectification. volatility.pharmapublications. factors affecting size reduction. black body. Size Reduction: Definition. radiation. Azeotropic and extractive distillation. fluid energy mill. solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing equipments. cyclone separators. Factors affecting filtration. simple steam and flash distillations. different types of graphic representation. filter aids. Fluid Flow: Types of flow. Viscosity. phase diagrams. mechanisms of size reduction. filter media. flow meters. basic equations of fluid flow. Mixing: Theory of mixing. etc. Heat transfer: Concept of heat flow. forced and natural convection. applications of Fourier’s law. rate process. sedimentation tank. Stefan Boltzmann equation. bag fillers etc. objectives of size reduction.
corrosion. flow. Accident records etc. Material and heat balances around Swenson Walker Crystallizer.pharmapublications. size. Corrosion: Classification.filtration. Swenson Walker. mechanism of corrosion. resistance. Crystallization: Characteristics of crystals like-purity. geometry. factors affecting. www. Numerical problems on yields. crystal growth. Gas handling-Various types of fans. temperature. optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters. pressure. Principles of centrifugation. elements of automatic process control and introduction to automatic process control systems. agitated batch. Hygrometric chart and measurement of humidity. circulating magma and Krystal Crystallizer. level and vacuum and their measurements. elements of computer aided manufacturing (CAM). Single vacuum. Study of various types of Crystallizers. fire and dust hazards. Solid handling-Bins. Industrial dermatitis. Nucleation mechanisms. Supersaturation. Chemical. Solubility curves and calculation of yields. wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures. equipments for dehumidificat4ion operations. theory and its limitations. Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions: Mechanical. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: Principle and applications of refrigeration and air conditioning. utilities and services. Reactors and fundamentals of reactors design for chemical reactions.in . Automated Process Control Systems: Process variables. Conveyers. Properties and applications of the materials of construction with special reference to stainless steel and glass. shape. Material of Construction : General study of composition. application of humidity measurement in pharmacy. Electrical. prevention and control. habit. Dehumidification and Humidity Control: Basic concepts and definition. Material Handling Systems: Liquid handling . Plant location: Layout. forms size and factors affecting them.Different types of pumps. Bunkers. blowers and compressors. tanks. industrial centrifugal filters. and centrifugal sedimenters. Caking of crystals and its prevention. Air transport.
quality control. hair. Ophthalmic Preparations: Requirements. size of capsules. evaluation and packaging. stability testing and storage of capsule dosage forms. Capsules: Advantages and disadvantages of capsule dosage form. dentifrice and manicure preparations like nail polish. displacement value. General formulation of semisolids. suspending agents. eye lashes. formulation. human fibrinogen.. human thrombin. methods of preparation. evaluation of clear liquids. evaluation. stabilizers. solubilizers. suspensions and emulsions official in pharmacopoeia. Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes: Collection. manufacturing' and packaging methods. labeling. soft gelatin. semisolid bases and their selection. mechanisms of drug penetration. Cosmeticology and Cosmetic Preparations: Fundamentals of cosmetic science. capsule shell and capsule content. bases. for control of blood pressure as per I. human normal immunoglobulin. preparation and packaging of cosmetics for skin. dried human plasma. Suppositories: Ideal requirements. -ideal requirements. dextran etc. foam plasma substitutes. structure and functions of skin and hair. Lipsticks. Formulation. manufacturing procedure. preservatives. emulsifying agents. labeling. types of additives used in formulations. PVP.P. manufacturing packaging.Liquid Dosages Forms: Introduction. tinctures. Semisolid Dosage Forms: Definitions. factors influencing penetration.pharmapublications. material for production of hard gelatin capsules. containers. dry and soft liquid extracts. importance of base absorption and minimum/gm factors in soft capsules. nail polish remover. concentrated human RBCs. processing and storage of whole human blood. types. flavors and others. pharmaceutical applications. clear gels manufacturing procedure. www. propellants. general formulation. packaging and evaluation. vehicles. Pharmaceutical Aerosols: Definition. colors. Extraction and Galenical Products: Principle and method of extraction.in . human fibrin. formulation. preparation of infusion. method of capsule filling. baby care products etc.
labeling. absorbents.Micro-encapsulation: Types of microcapsules. equipments for coating. factors influence choice of containers. oxidation. package testing. adhesive tape. Formulation details. racemization. Containers and closures and selection. granulation. microencapsulation by phase separation. official dressings. evaluation of coated tablets. Aseptic Techniques-source of contamination and methods of prevention.in . legal and official requirements for containers. polymerization etc.. and their influence on formulation and stability of products. water for injection. Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals. reduction. equipment for large scale manufacture and evaluation of parenteral products. Designing of dosage forms. Formulation of different types of tablets. absorbable and non-absorbable sutures. coating process.pharmapublications. types. Design of aseptic area. routes of administration. Application of different types of tablets. vials. coacervation. ligatures and catguts. Tablets: Advantages and disadvantages of tablets. filling and closing of ampoules. infusion fluids. dielectric constant. spray drying. Study of pro-drugs in solving problems related to stability. isotonicity and methods of its adjustment. Coating of Tablets: Types of coating. Study of chemical properties of drugs like hydrolysis. polymerization complex emulsion. pyrogenicity. Parenteral Products: Pre-formulation factors. importance of microencapsulation in pharmacy. development and process validation methods for pharmaceutical operations involved www. specifications and methods of evaluation. wetting. lyophilization & preparation of sterile powders. and sterile water for injection. formulation of coating solution. particle size. washing of containers and closures. dissolution and organoleptic properties and their effect on formulation. Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products: Packaging components. spray congealing. film forming materials. Prefilling treatment. technology on large-scale by various techniques. preparation of solution and suspensions. bioavailability and elegancy of formulations. multi-orifice. evaluation of micro capsules. coating pan and other techniques. Design. evaluation of tablets. stability and bioavailability. surgical cotton.. non aqueous vehicles. Laminar flow bench services and maintenance. primary wound dressing. Surgical products: Definition. Pre-formulation studies: Study of physical properties of drug like physical form. different types of tablet compression machinery and the equipments employed. Stability kinetics and quality assurance. density. surgical gauzes etc. protective cellulosic hemostastics. air suspension technique. Packaging equipments. shape. stability aspects of packaging. Solubility. bandages.
plasma protein binding.in the production of pharmaceutical products with special reference to tablets. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after drug administration by intravascular and oral route. ion-pair formation and pinocytosis). Design of single dose bio-equivalence study and relevant statistics. interpretation of dissolution data. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions and their significance in combination therapy. drug administration. Keli and Area Under the Curve (AUC). Clearance concept. development. Quality audit. GMP and quality assurance. Drug distribution in the body. ICH Guidelines for stability testing of formulations. Pharmacokinetics: Significance of plasma drug concentration measurement. biliary excretion.biological. determination of renal clearance. hepatic clearance. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) of drugs. Factors influencing absorption. Non-linear pharmacokinetics with special reference to one compartment model after I. Bioavailability and bioequivalence: Measures of bioavailability.pharmapublications. physiological and pharmaceutical. Clinical Pharmacokinetics: Definition and scope: Dosage adjustment in patients with and without renal and hepatic failure. extra-hepatic circulation. clearance ratio.Zero order and first order absorption rate constant using Wagner-Nelson and residual methods. mechanism of renal clearance.V. tmax. Compartment modelDefinition and Scope. In vivo methods of evaluation and statistical treatment. Design of single dose bioequivalence study and relevant statistics. production and evaluation of controlled/sustained/extended release formulations. Review of regulatory requirements for conducting bioequivalent studies. physico-chemical. suspensions. Stabilization and stability testing protocol for various pharmaceutical products. Extraction ratio. active transport.One compartment and two compartment models. Bioavailability studies and bioavailability testing protocol and procedures. Performance evaluation methods: In-vitro dissolution studies for solid dosage forms methods. Compartment kinetics. Cmax.in . Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption . facilitated diffusion. www. Volume of distribution and distribution coefficient. Design. Biopharmaceutics: Passage of drugs across biological barrier (passive diffusion.
Electrolytes used for replacement therapy. buffered isotonic solutions. Acids. Protectives and Adsorbents. Cationic and anionic components of inorganic drugs useful for systemic effects. An outline of methods of preparation. arsenic. Astringents and Anti-infectives. Colorants. Antacids. Cathartics. buffers in pharmaceutical systems. tests for purity and identity. Suspending agents. uses. Inorganic poisons and antidotes. including limit tests for iron.pharmapublications. sources of impurities. sulphate and special tests if any. Iron and haematinics. lead. chloride. calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity. Filter aids. Expectorants. Emetics. Adsorbents. Diluents. measurements of tonicity. acid-base balance and combination therapy. of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals included in Indian Pharmacopoeia: Gastrointestinal Agents: Acidifying agents. Topical Agents: Protectives. mineral supplements. Preservatives. heavy metals. Essential and Trace Elements: Transition elements and their compounds of pharmaceutical importance. stability.PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY Importance of inorganic compounds in pharmacy and medicine. Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy. Anesthetics (inorganic) and Respiratory stimulants. Gases and Vapors: Oxygen. Water.and Extra-cellular Electrolytes: Physiological ions. Inorganic Radiopharmaceuticals: www. Pharmaceutical Aids Used in Pharmaceutical Industry: Anti-oxidants.in . Major Intra. Dental Products: Dentifrices. preparation. Miscellaneous Agents: Sclerosing agents. Bases and Buffers: Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general. Anti-caries agents. Excipients.
pharmapublications. viscosity. Solutions: Ideal and real solutions. Acids and bases. Methods of obtaining their standards and units of activity. Intermolecular forces. isotherms. Photochemistry: Consequences of light absorption. radiopharmaceuticals. Structure and physical properties. www. measurement of activity. the Schrodinger wave equation. Phase rule. Debye Huckel theory. dosage. Molecular orbital theory. Thermodynamics: First. Langmuir’s theory of adsorption. Thermochemical equations. characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. refractive index. Bonding and Anti-bonding orbitals. Bond dissociation energy. operators in quantum mechanics. Adsorption: Freudlich and Gibbs adsorption. parachor. clinical applications.in . Quantum Mechanics : Postulates of quantum mechanics. Concept of free energy. Structure and Properties: Atomic structure. Covalent bond. The Liquid State: Physical properties (surface tension. half-life. Quantum efficiency. Chemical Kinetics: Zero. solutions of gases in liquids. Molecular orbitals. absolute temperature scale. First and Second order reactions.Nuclear reaction. complex reactions. partition coefficient. Importance of fundamentals of organic chemistry in pharmaceutical sciences. dipole moment). Hybrid orbitals. Nomenclature. Behaviour of Gases: Kinetic theory of gases. theories of reaction kinetics. enthalpy and entropy. Importance of basic fundamentals of physical chemistry in pharmacy. Jabolenski diagram. radioisotopes. Polarity of bonds. Intramolecular forces. deviation from ideal behavior and explanation. Atomic orbitals. acid base and enzyme catalysis. hazards and precautions. Zeroth law. colligative properties. Second and Third laws. Polarity of molecules. conductance and its measurement. wave equation.
fermentation and their regulation. Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis. 4.carbocations.from equilibrium constant and reduction potential.ß-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Carboxylic acids. Carbohydrate Metabolism: Conversion of polysaccharides to glucose-1phosphate. Reactive intermediates. properties and reactions of 3. Alkyl halides. chirality. carbenes and nitrenes. Cyclic analogs. isomerism. enzyme kinetics and their mechanism of action. mechanism of inhibition. The Citric Acid Cycle: Significance. Co-enzymes: Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance. Enzymes: Nomenclature. Elimination reactions. Conservation of Orbital Symmetry and Rules: Electrocyclic. Ethers. 5. conformations. Chemistry of lipids. production of ATP and its biological significance. stereoisomerism. Alcohols. Benzene. Hoffman. The concept of free energy: Determination of change in free energy . reactions and energetics of the cycle. Polynuclear aromatic compounds. optical activity. Benzilic acid. 6 & 7-membered heterocycles with one or two heteroatoms like 0. Carbohydrates and Proteins. a. Catalysis by transition metal complexes. Glycolysis.pharmapublications. Nucleophilic and Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Reactivity and orientation. bioenergetics. Phenols. Aldehydes and ketones. carbanions. preparation. conformational and configurational isomerism. Amines. Preparation and Reactions of: Alkanes. Alkenes. Metals as cofactors and their significance. Neighboring group effects. S. Cycloaddition and Sigmatropic reactions. Alkynes.Stereochemistry: Nomenclature. pinacole-pinacolone and Beyer-Villiger). and Pentose phosphate pathway. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Lipids Metabolism : www. enzymes and iso-enzymes in clinical diagnosis.in . Dienes. Arenes. Epoxides. Biochemistry in pharmaceutical sciences. Reactions involving stereoisomers. Nomenclature. Amphibolic role of the cycle. Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Addition Reactions. Functional derivatives of' carboxylic acids. N. Metabolism of galactose and galactosemia. specification of configuration. Structure. Stereoselective and stereospecific reactions. Heterocyclic Compounds: Nomenclature. Rearrangements (Beckman. and Glyoxalic acid cycle.
biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. cholesterol. geometrical) aspects of drug molecules and biological action. Metabolism of ammonia and nitrogen containing monomers: Nitrogen balance. cycle.pharmapublications. enzymes and co-enzymes involved in oxidation reduction & its control. Drug-receptor interactions including transduction mechanisms. Biosynthesis of eicosanoids. Biological Oxidation: Redox-potential. ß-oxidation & energetics. Principles of Drug Design (Theoretical Aspects): www. androgens.Oxidation of fatty acids. estrogens corticosteroids and bile acids. Basic Principles of Medicinal Chemistry: Physico-chemical and stereoisomeric (Optical. Biosynthesis of amino acids. Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids: Brief introduction of genetic organization of the mammalian genome. phospholipids. Components of protein synthesis and Inhibition of protein synthesis. metabolic disorders of urea cycle. Catabolism of amino acids. Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis: Genetic code. Conversion of amino acids to specialized products. Purine biosynthesis: Purine nucleotide inter-conversions. its role in energy capture and its control. thromboxanes and leukotrienes). The respiratory chain. Assimilation of ammonia. Metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids. alteration and rearrangements of genetic material. and sphingolipids. Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids (prostaglandins.in . progesterone. Biosynthesis of DNA and its replications. Mutation: Physical & chemical Biosynthesis of RNA. Inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Drug metabolism and Concept of Prodrugs. Urea. DNA repair mechanism. energetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Pyrimidine biosynthesis: and formation of deoxyribounucleotides. Control of lipid metabolism. mutagenesis/carcinogenesis. Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization. Bioisosterism.
Hypnotics and Sedatives. Microbial Transformations: Introduction. biotransformation process and its improvements with special reference to steroids. Adrenergic drugs. Diuretics.in . Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD) and molecular modeling. selection of organisms. Immunosuppressives and immunostimulants.Traditional analog and mechanism based approaches. Anticoagulants and Anti-platelet drugs. Chemotherapeutic Agents used in bacterial. types of reactions mediated by micro-organisms. Androgens and anabolic agents. Antihyperlipedemic agents. Antispasmodic and antiulcer drugs. Enzyme Immobilization: www. Anti-neoplastic agents. steroidal) agents. Anti-tussives. viral. tetracyclines. Local Anesthetics. Estrogens and Progestational agents. Thyroid and Anti thyroid drugs. Oral contraceptives. Opioid analgesics. Antibiotics: ß-Lactam. Psychopharmacological agents (Neuroleptics. anti-anginal agents. protozoal. Anxiolytics). Anti-depressants. fluoroquinolones. design of biotransformation processes. polypeptide antibiotics. Anti-arrythmic agents. Drugs acting on the central nervous system: General Anesthetics. Synthetic Procedures. Diagnostic agents. aminoglycosides. Anti-Parkinsonian drugs. fungal. Anti-inflammatory (non- Steroidal Drugs: Steroidal nomenclature (IUPAC) and stereochemistry. QSAR approaches. macrolides. Cardiotonics. Anti-metabolites (including sulfonamides). Neuromuscular blocking agents. Cardiovascular drugs: Anti-hypertensives. Analgesic-antipyretics. Pharmaceutical Aids. parasitic and other infections. Mode of Action. Structure Activity Relationships including Physicochemical Properties of the Following Classes of Drugs: Drugs acting at synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites: Cholinergics. Anticonvulsants. anticholinergics and cholinesterase inhibitors.pharmapublications. Adrenocorticoids. Applications of quantum mechanics. Autacoids: Antihistamines. Anti-viral agents (including anti– HIV). CNS stimulants. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Eicosanoids. Uses.
Non-aqueous titrations: Acidic and basic drugs. Co-precipitation. Theory of indicators. potassium bromate. penicillinase. Mohr’s method. Rules for retaining significant digits. Measurement of electrode potential. Choice of indicators. factors affecting enzyme kinetics. Postprecipitation. Immobilization of bacteria and plant cells. Titrations involving cerric ammonium sulphate. Volhard's method and Fajan's method). Effect of acids. Precision and accuracy. Mean deviation. Filtration. Redox reactions. Ionization. Strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents. amylases and proteases.6-dichlorophenolindophenol. Solvents used. Law of mass action. Polyamine and amino acid systems. Statistical treatment of small data sets. Theory of redox titrations. Amino acid titrations. calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate. Mixed indicators. stannous chloride and Sodium 2. Ionic product of water. Organic precipitants. Argentometric titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate. Supersaturation. Cell representations. Methods of end point determination (GayLussac method. Selection of sample. Digestion. Role of solvents. washing of the precipitate. indicators. The colloidal state.in . Henderson-Hasselbach equation. Relative strengths of acids and bases. Preliminaries and definitions: Significant figures. potassium iodate. potassium permanganate.pharmapublications. Thermogravimetric curves. Precipitation Titrations: Precipitation reactions. temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate. www. and barium sulphate. Specific examples like barium sulphate. Different techniques of pharmaceutical analysis. Redox indicators.Techniques of immobilization. aluminium as aluminium oxide. Buffer solutions. Oxidationreduction curves. Iodimetry and Iodometry. pH. Common ion effect. Neutralization curves. Indicators. Oxidation Reduction Titrations: Concepts of oxidation and reduction. Hydrolysis of salts. primary and secondary standards: Acid Base Titrations: Acid base concepts. mercuric nitrate. Standard deviation. titanous chloride. Ignition. Types of errors. Fundamentals of volumetric analysis: methods of expressing concentration. Gravimetric Analysis: Precipitation techniques. Solubility product. Polyprotic systems. Study of enzymes such as hyaluronidase. Filter papers and crucibles. streptokinase. Acid-base indicators.
Oxygen flask combustion method.pharmapublications. Ilkovic equation. Indicators. van Deemter equation. The following chromatographic techniques (including instrumentation) with relevant examples of Pharmacopoeial products: TLC. GLC. Validation.Complexometric titrations. Gasometry. potentiometric titrations. Masking and demasking. Mass Spectrometry (EI & CI only). Dropping mercury electrode. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. ISO 9000. Infrared spectrophotometry. Quality assurance: GLP. Quality Review and Quality documentation. Conductometry: Specific and equivalent conductance. Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis: Diazotization titrations. Half-cell potential.in . Cathodic/anodic polarography. quality www. HPLC. regulatory drug analysis. Standard and indicating electrodes. plate theory. Karl-Fischer aquametry. Kjeldahl method of nitrogen estimation. Factors affecting resolution. Amperometric titrations. Nernst equation. Coulometry: Coulomb’s law. X-ray Diffraction Analysis. Chromatography: Theory of chromatography. TQM. Basic Instrumentation. Fluorimetry. The Theoretical Aspects. interpretation of analytical data. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Extraction procedures including separation of drugs from excipients. Half-wave potential. Regulatory control. HPTLC. Paper Chromatography and Column Chromatography. Polarography: Decomposition potential. and Applications (quantitative and qualitative) of the Following Analytical Techniques: Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry. Elements of Interpretation of Spectra. conductometric titrations. Radioimmunoassay. Diffision/migration/migration current. Graphite electrode. Flame Photometry. Amperometry: Rotating platinum electrode. Organic polarography. Complexing agents used as titrants. Coulometric titrations at fixed potential/current. Potentiometry: Standard redox potential.
validation of equipment. validation of analytical procedures.audit: quality of equipment.pharmapublications.in . www.
Sympathomimetics. tuberculosis. General Anesthetics. Parasympatholytics. Pharmacogenetics. acute and chronic renal failure. antigen presenting cells. angina. Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System: Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and somatic). rheumatoid arthritis. AIDS. Fundamentals of general pharmacology: Dosage forms and routes of administration. Adverse Drug Reactions. absorption. urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Ganglion stimulants and blocking agents. depression. Basic Mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair: Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation. pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions. ulcerative colitis. Bioassay of Drugs and Biological Standardization. www. Sedatives.in . Wherever applicable the molecular basis should be discussed. Discovery and development of new drugs.N. Amyloidosis. anemias. Metabolism and Excretion of drugs. Pathophysiology of Common Diseases: Asthma. peptic ulcer. factors modifying drug action. Pharmacology of Central Nervous System: Neurohumoral transmission in the C. chemical mediators of inflammation. Immunopathophysiology: T and B cells. pathogenesis of chronic inflammation.S. Principles of Basic and Clinical pharmacokinetics. Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics). autoimmune diseases. psychosis.. combined effect of drugs. diabetes. Parasympathomimetics. tolerance and dependence. Distribution. mania. Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptations: Causes of Cellular injury. hypertension. Adrenergic receptor and neuron blocking agents. congestive heart failure. atherosclerosis. brief outline of the process of repair. MHC proteins. immune tolerance. Local anesthetic Agents.pharmapublications. gout. congestive heart failure. Alcohols and disulfiram. Bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. Anti-epileptics drugs. Hypnotics. hepatic disorders.PHARMACOLOGY Pathophysiology of common diseases. myocardial infarction. Neuromuscular blocking Agents. epilepsy. neoplasia. Antidepressants. Anti-anxiety agents and Centrally acting muscle relaxants. Anti-Parkinsonian drugs. pathogenesis. mechanism of action. morphology of cell injury. anti-maniacs and hallucinogens. adaptations and cell death.
Insulin. Quinolones. Anti-anginal and Vasodilator drugs. Respiratory stimulants. progesterone and oral contraceptives. Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System: Drugs used in the management of congestive cardiac failure. Narcotic analgesics and antagonists. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-gout agents. Anti-tussives and expectorants. adsorbents. leprosy. Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System: Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators. oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin analogs. parathormone. Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System: Hematinics. Drugs acting on the uterus. fungal diseases. Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse. astringents. Drugs used in the therapy of shock. Laxatives and anti-diarrhoeal drugs. Bradykinin and Substance P and other vasoactive peptides. Androgens and anabolic steroids. Chemotherapy: General Principles of Chemotherapy. Drugs acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract: Antacids. enzymes and mucolytics. including calcium channel blockers and beta adrenergic antagonists. urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted www. Thyroid hormones and anti thyroid drugs. viral diseases.its agonists and antagonists. Vitamin K and hemostatic agents. Macrolides. stimulants. Blood and plasma volume expanders. Drugs acting on urinary system: Fluid and electrolyte balance. Antibiotics. Tetracyclines.S. Anti-secretory and Anti-ulcer drugs. protectives. Autacoids: Histamine. Miscellaneous: Carminatives. demulcents. fluoroquinolones and Miscellaneous antibiotics. ACTH and corticosteroids. Diuretics. Anti-arrhythmic drugs. Anti-hyperlipedemic drugs.Analgesics. Fibrinolytic and antiplatelet drugs. Bacterial resistance. Cephalosporins. Antihypertensive drugs. Appetite Stimulants and Suppressants. Anticoagulants. digestants. C. Angiotensin. Chloramphenicol.pharmapublications. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis. Prostaglandins. incretins. Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole.in . calcitonin and Vitamin D. Pharmacology of Endocrine System: Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones.Penicillins. Antipyretics.N. Antihistaminic drugs. thromboxanes and leukotrienes. HIV and AIDS. Estrogens. glucagons. 5-HT. Aminoglycosides. Emetics and anti-emetics.
Drugs used during infancy and in the elderly persons (Pediatrics & Geriatrics). Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy: Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug therapy. Common clinical laboratory tests and their interpretation. Important Disorders of Organs. Cardiac arrhythmias. Infectious DiseasesTuberculosis. Cirrhosis. general principles of treatment of poisoning with particular reference to barbiturates. Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists.Hypertension. CNS Disorders: Epilepsy. Ulcerative colitis. malaria. The basics of drug interactions. Neoplastic DiseasesAcute Leukaemias. Parkinsonism. opioids. General principles of clinical toxicology. Angina. Congestive heart failure.diseases. Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive agents. Drug delivery systems and their Biopharmaceutic & Therapeutic considerations. amoebiasis and other protozoal infections and Anthelmentics. organophosphorous and atropine poisoning. Gastrointestinal DisordersPeptic ulcer. Acute myocardial infarction.Anemias.pharmapublications. Endocrine DisordersDiabetes mellitus and Thyroid disorders. Gout and Hyperuricemia. Concept of Essential Drugs and Rational Drug use. Urinary tract infections. Enteric infections. Principles of Toxicology: Definition of poison. Depression Respiratory diseaseAsthma. Drugs used during pregnancy. Joint and Connective tissue disordersRheumatic diseases. Hodgkin's disease. Schizophrenia. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Hematopoietic Disorders. Drug induced diseases. Upper respiratory infections. www. Hepatitis. Systems and their Management: Cardio-vascular disorders.in .
Polyploidy. sterculia and Tragacanth. RESINS: Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combinations like Colophony. Hydnocarpus oil. Liliaceae. Castor oil. classification and properties. Pest management and natural pest control agents. guar gum acacia. Kokum butter. Cruciferae. microscopic. chemical and biological methods and properties. Rice. Leguminosae. Collection. cannabis. physical. taxonomical. Systematic pharmacognostic study of the followings: CARBOHYDRATES and derived products: agar.pharmapublications.in . Shark liver oil and Wool fat. capsicum. Lard. turmeric. Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs: Their isolation. asafoetida. Solanaceae. podophyllum. Processing and Storage of Crude Drugs: Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants. myrrh. black catechu. Isabagol. benzoin. Graminae. balsam of Peru. Plant hormones and their applications. Honey. Linseed oil. Classification of Drugs: Morphological. ginger. Lipids: Bees wax. Rutacease. Umbelliferae. Codliver oil. mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs. chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs. Labiatae. jalap. Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Papaveraceae. Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to: Apocynacae. TANNINS: Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambier. Cocoa butter. Rubiaceae. Starch. balsam of Tolu. www.PHARMACOGNOSY Sources of Drugs: Biological. Cultivation. Quality Control of Crude Drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic. gall and myrobalan. pectin. Bran oil. marine. mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.
substitutes. quassia. Spearmint. opium. Fennel. Lemon peel. rauwolfia. silk. Study of volatile oils of Mentha. Screening of alkaloids. Steroidal: Veratrum and kurchi. dioscorea.in . cardenolides and bufadienolides. ALKALOID CONTAINING DRUGS: Pyridine-piperidine: Tobacco. Gaultheria. Anthraquinone cathartics: Aloe. catharanthus. polyester and asbestos. Indole: Ergot. areca and lobelia. saffron. gentian. flavonoids and leucoanthocyanidins. glass-wool. saponins. Nutmeg. nux-vomica and physostigma. amino acids in plant extracts. www. Palmarosa. Others: Psoralea. Ammi visnaga. rhubarb and cascara. wool.pharmapublications. Ammi majus. duboisia. Cardamom. Alkaloidal Amine: Ephedra and colchicum. Eucalyptus. chirata. Caraway. Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis. Clove. hyoscyamus. uses. strophanthus and thevetia. and senega. Valerian. sarsaparilla. senna. squill. chemical constituents. nylon. Sandal wood. tannins and polyphenols. Chenopodium. datura. Coriander. commercial varieties. Study of the biological sources. collection. coca and withania. Tropane: Belladonna. Lemon grass. Cassia. cultivation. Quinoline and Isoquinoline: Cinchona. Cinnamon. ginseng. adulterants. ipecac. Dill.VOLATILE OILS: General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants. Citronella. anthraquinones. Orange peel. cynogenetic glycosides. Imidazole: Pilocarpus. FIBERS: Study of fibers used in pharmacy such as cotton. diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs: GLYCOSIDE CONTAINING DRUGS: Saponins : Liquorice. Phytochemical Screening: Preparation of extracts. Musk.
Lignans. Methi. sennosides. papain. Brahmi. preparation. Papaverine. identification tests and uses of the following enzymes: Diastase. taxol (Taxus sps) digitalis. Papain. Ginseng. podophyllotoxin. Ergot and Vinca alkaloids. Tailas. Shankhapushpi. Satavari. Tylophora. Nagarmotha and Neem. Adusa. Asvas. hecogenin. chemical nature of chief constituents. Chitrack. Guggal. Ephedrine. Ashoka. Plant Tissue Culture: www. vitamin A. tropane alkaloid containing plants. Carotenoids: a-carotenoids. World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference to diosgenin (disocorea). General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies and Basic Metabolic Pathways/Biogenesis: Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. pepsin. The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine. Terpenes: monoterpenes. pharmacology. calcium sennosides. ß-carotenes. Chumas. pancreatin. Apamarg. lemon grass oil. botanical sources. diterpenes. and triterpenoids. geranium oil and eucalyptus oil. quassanoids and flavonoids. Glycosides: Digitoxin. Aloe. Utilization of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference to sandalwood oil. diosgenin. solasodine. categories and common uses and marketed formulations of following indigenous drugs: Amla. digoxin. Punamava. Biological sources. diosgenin and sarasapogenin. Valerian. Atjuna. Alkaloids: Atropine and related compounds. Morphine. Gokhru. Rauwolfia and plants containing laxatives. Role of plant-based drugs on National economy: A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic plants in India. Bach. morphology. Bhilawa. Gutikas. Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Arishtas. Xanthophylls of medicinal importance. vetiver oil. Palash. Purines: Coffee. Rasna. sesquiterpenes. Plant bitters and sweeteners. Lahsun. Kantkari. Studies of Traditional Drugs: Common vernacular names. Kalijiri.pharmapublications. Gymnema. Reserpine. Liquorice. tea and cola.Glycoalkaloid: Solanum. Utilization and production of phytoconstituents such as quinine. and tropane alkaloids. cinchona. trypsin. mentha oil. Ipecac.in . Shilajit. Quinine. Lehyas and Bhasmas.
Standardization and quality control of herbal drugs. Natural allergens and photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Herbs as health foods. growth and their maintenance.pharmapublications. www. WHO guidelines for the standardization of herbal drugs. nutritional requirements. Marine pharmacognosy: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources. types of cultures.in . Herbal cosmetics.Historical development of plant tissue culture.
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