SERI KULIAH ZAT PEMBANTU TEKSTIL

SEKOLAH TINGGI TEKNOLOGI TEKSTIL (STTT) BANDUNG SEMESTER V, 2003 Oleh : Dr. Isminingsih Gitopadmojo, MSc, STeks.

Auxiliary Chemicals used during Wet Processing

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Desizing, Scouring and Bleaching Mercerizing Dyeing Printing Finishing Phosphates

1. Desizing, Scouring and Bleaching

1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.3. 1.4.

Anionic Detergents Nonionic Detergents Sequestering Agents Stain Removing Agents Kier-boiling assistant

1.1. Anionic Detergents
1. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (alkyl benzene sulphonate)
C13H25(C6H6SO3Na)

2. Fatty alcohol sulphate
- Sulphated ceto - stearyl: C17H35 COOC16H32 (OSO3Na) - Sulphated oleyl alcohol : C17H33-CH2- (OSO3Na)

1.2. Nonionic Detergents
1. Nonilphenol-ethylene oxide
C9H19-C6H6-O-(CH2CH2-O)9- CH2CH2-OH

2. Fatty alcohol -ethylene oxide - Stearyl -ethylene oxide :
C17H35 (CH2CH2-O)9- CH2CH2-OH - Oleyl -ethylene oxide : C17H33 (CH2CH2-O)9- CH2CH2-OH

1.3. Sequestering Agents
1. Ethylene diamine tetra-aceticacid
(EDTA) : (CH2COOH)2-N-C2H2-N-(CH2COOH)2

2. Nitrilotri-aceticacid (NTA)
(CH2COOH)-N- (CH2COOH)2 3.

Diethylenetriaminepenta-aceticacid (DTPA) CH2COOH

| (CH2COOH)2-N-C2H2- N-C2H2- N-(CH2COOH)2

1.4. Stain Removing Agents
(Emulsifier with high HLB)
1. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (alkyl benzene sulphonate)
C13H25(C6H6SO3Na)

2. Nonilphenol-ethylene oxide
C9H19-C6H6-O-(CH2CH2-O)8-19- CH2CH2-OH

1.4. Stain Removing Agents
(Emulsifier with high HLB) These are available as selfemulsifiable clear liquids, which form milky white emulsions when added to water under stirring.

1.5. Kier Boiling Asistents
(Emulsifier with high HLB)
1. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (alkyl benzene sulphonate)
C13H25(C6H6SO3Na)

2. Nonilphenol-ethylene oxide
C9H19-C6H6-O-(CH2CH2-O)8-19- CH2CH2-OH

1.5. Kier Boiling Asistents
(Emulsifier with high HLB) A mixture of pine oil and dipentene containing suitable anionic emulsifiers, is a self emulsifiable kier boiling assistant, used to remove oily and fatty materials from grey cotton fabrics during kier boiling.

2. Mercerizing
In the mercerization of cotton materials, viscous solutions of caustic soda (about 24%) are used, which are difficult to penetrate into the fibre material, especially when grey cloth mercerized. Many wetting agents are available for the purpose, which may be divided into cresylic and non-cresylic wetting agents.

2. Mercerizing
2.1. Cresylic and non-cresylic agents 2.2. After scouring agents

2.1. Cresylic and non-cresylic nonagents
a). Cresylic agents :
p-cresol + 2-naphthol-6-sulphonicacid condensated with formaldehyde, catalyzed by sodium besulphite

b). Non-cresylic agents :
naphthalene-2-sulphonicacid condensated with formaldehyde with about 10 naphthalene unit

2.1. Cresylic and non-cresylic nonagents
a). Cresylic agents : OH OH CH2SO3Na
CH2 CH2 SO3Na SO3Na OH

2.1. Cresylic and non-cresylic nonagents
b). Non-cresylic agents : CH2 CH2 CH2OH

0-4
NaO3S SO3Na SO3Na

2.2. After scouring agents

a). Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (alkyl benzene sulphonate)
C13H25(C6H6SO3Na)

b). Fatty alcohol sulphate (Na) C17H35-CH2-OSO3Na

2.2. After scouring agents

Anionic detergents like dodecylbenzene sulphonate (Na), fatty alcohol sulphate (Na), etc. are efficient for scouring agents

3. Dyeing
3.1. Auxiliaries for dyeing
a). Levellers b). Wetters c). Retarders and Accelerators d). Softeners e). Dispersing Agents f). Cationic dye-fixing agent

3.1. 3.1. Auxiliaries for dyeing
a). Levellers Fatty alcohol-ethylene oxide condensates : 1). Cetyl alcohol ± ethylene oxide C16H32-(CH2-CH2-O)2- CH2-CH2OH 2). Palmytyl alcohol - ethylene oxide C15H31-(CH2-CH2-O)2- CH2-CH2OH

3.1. 3.1. Auxiliaries for dyeing a). Levellers
Certain dyes, especially in the vat series, have a high rate of dyeing and poor migration property. It is very difficult in such cases to obtain a level dyeing, especially when the dyeing is carried out in the package form. Levelling agents are used in such cases to dye the textiles evenly. They act by keeping the reduced vat dyes in the dyebath, and slow down the dyeing rate.

3.1. 3.1. Auxiliaries for dyeing
b). Wetters
1). Sulphonated Castor Oil (Turkey Red Oil = TRO¶) C7H15-CH-C7H15-COOH SO3Na 2). Sulphated methyl-ricinoleate (Turkey Red Oil = TRO¶¶) C5H11-CH-C5H11-(CH2)3-CH-CO-OCH3 OSO3Na OSO3Na

3.1. 3.1. Auxiliaries for dyeing
b). Wetters
Sulphonated castor oil (also called Turkey Red Oil = TRO¶) is used as a wetting agent (pasting agent) for vat dyes and naphthols before dissolving (by vatting and treating with caustic soda solution respectively). Wetting agent superior to Turkey Ted Oil (TRO¶) are Sulphated esters of fatty acids like methyl or butyl oleate or ricinoleate (TRO¶¶). These have wetting properties which are better than those of Turkey Red Oil.

3.1. 3.1. Auxiliaries for dyeing
c). Retarders and Accelerators Retardants are chemicals applied topically to fabrics to remove impurities, processing oils, excess dyes etc.

3.1. 3.1. Auxiliaries for dyeing
d). Softeners All fibres contain some oily, fatty, or waxy substances in the raw state. The removal of these substances during scouring and bleaching operations, application of certain colouring matter at high concentrations and use of stiffening agents during finishing make the feel of the fabric harsh. These treatments impart an unpleasant hand to the cloth. It is therefore, necessary to apply some softening agents to textiles to impart softness, smoothness and flexibility.

3.1. 3.1. Auxiliaries for dyeing
e). Dispersing Agents CH2 CH2OH CH2

0-4
NaO3S SO3Na SO3Na B-Naphthalene sodium sulphonateformaldehyde condensation pro-duct

3.1. 3.1. Auxiliaries for dyeing

e). Dispersing Agents B-Naphthalene sodium sulphonate-formaldehyde condensation pro-duct, available as powder, is a powerful anionic dispersing agent, for use in vat dyeing by pad-jig, pad-steam and vat acid techniques.

3.1. 3.1. Auxiliaries for dyeing
f). Cationic dye-fixing agent
This product, available in the form of an aqueous solution, is based on dicyandiamide-formaldehyde condensate and forms insoluble complexes with anionic dyes. + -----NH2-CH2-NH-C=N-CH2---- nXn NH-CN

4. Printing
4.1. Thickeners 4.2. Solution agents 4.3. Solvents 4.4. Mild oxidising agents 4.5. Discharging assistants 4.6. Nonionic detergents 4.7. Anionic detergents 4.8. Cationic dyefixing agents 4.9. Emulsifiers 4.10. Binders

4.6. Nonionic detergents
Nonionic detergents based on nonyl phenolethylene oxide condensate or fatty alcoholethylene oxide condensate may be used in the after scouring bath to remove the thickener and the decomposition products from the printed and steamed goods.

4.1. Thickeners
Various thickeners are used to prepare the printing pastes. These include maize starch, dextrins (starch degradation products), vegetable gums like gum arabic, gum tragacanth, guar gum and their modified products (mainly carboxymethylated and hydroxyethylated), sodium alginate (mainly for printing reactive dyes) etc. Kerosene, emulsified in water using suitable emulsifying (mainly ethylene oxide condensates), is the ideal thickener for use in pigment printing.

4.2. Solution agents
A solution aid, based on sodium benzyl sulphanilate, is used to increase the solubility of sparingly soluble vat and solubilised vat dyes, thereby obtaining increased colour value and more uniform appearance of the prints.

4.3. Solvents
Various solvents such as acetone (mixture of mono-, di- and triacetates of glycerine for basic dyes and stabilized azoic compositions), glycol ethers (for vat and azoic colours), thiodiethylene glycol (for vat dyes), diethylene glycol (for vat dyes and phthalogen blue), etc., are used to improve the colour value of the prints.

4.4. Mild oxidising agents
Azo reactive dyes and azo disperse dyes printed on cellulosic and polyester fibre materials , respectively are likely to get reduced during steaming of the prints, thereby lowering the colour value of the prints

4.5. Discharging assistants
These chemicals are used for producing vat discharge effects on vat grounds. Phenyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride or its sulphonated product is used in the printing paste, containing potassium carbonate and sodium sulphoxylate formaldehyde.

4.7. Anionic detergents
Anionic detergents based on alkyl benzene sulphonate or sulphated fatty alcohols, may also be used in the soaping of prints to remove the thickener and the decomposition products from the printed and steamed goods.

4.8. Cationic dye-fixing agents dyeWhen reactive dyes are printed on cellulosic fibre fabrics by the direct style of printing, some amount of the dye gets hydrolysed during steaming. When the steamed fabric is soaped subsequently, the hydrolysed dye is stripped into the soaping bath from where it goes into the soaping bath and then back on the cloth, thereby tinting the white ground.

4.9. Emulsifiers
Emulsion thickeners are used in pigment printing. For this purpose, kerosene emulsion in water is prepared with the help of non-ionic emulsifiers, usually fatty acid-ethylene oxide condensates, using a high-speed stirrer.

4.10. Binders
Emulsion co-polymers, made from among the various ethylenic monomers like butyl acrylate, styrene, methyl methacrylate, acrylamide, vinyl chloride, butadiene etc., are used as binders in pigment printing.

5.FINISHING
5.1. Cationic softeners 5.2. Anionic softeners 5.3. Nonionic softeners 5.4. Reactive softeners 5.5. Polyethylene emulsion 5.6. Wax emulsion 5.7. Water repellents 5.8. Silicone emulsions 5.9. Stiffening agent 5.10. Glaze paste 5.11. Resin precondensates and crosslingking agents

5.1. 5.1. Cationic softeners
Cationic softeners based on fatty aciddiethanolamine condensate, fatty aciddiethylene triamine condensate and available in the form of water-dipersible pastes. They impart soft, silky and supple handle to polyamide, acrylic, acetate and cellulosic fibre fabrics and their blends.

5.2. Anionic softeners
These softening agents, available in the form of off-white thick pastes, creamish viscose pastes etc., can be diluted with hot water to give opalescent solutions. They are mainly based on fatty alcohol sulphate (Na) and triethanolamine soaps.

5.3. Non-ionic softeners NonThese softeners, based on high melting fatty ester of polyglycol or fatty acid-ethylene oxide condensates and available in the form of cream coloured pastes, are miscible with water.

5.5. Polyethylene emulsion
This nonionic softener, based on emulsifiable polyethylene, is used to impart a soft, and supple handle, especially on white goods.

5.6. Wax emulsion
These are emulsions of paraffin wax or beeswax prepared in the presence of suitable emulsifiers like sodium stearate.

5.4. Reactive softeners
Methylol stearamide-based reactive softeners, available as off-white pastes and readily miscible with water, can react with cellulosic fibre materials under acid catalysis (diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, magnesium chloride etc.,) at elevated temperatures.

5.7. Water repellents
Stabilized cationic paraffin wax emulsions, containing hydrolysable aluminium salts like aluminium acetate or formate, are available for producing water repellency on cotton, wool, rayon etc.

5.7. Water repellents
Stabilized cationic paraffin wax emulsions, containing hydrolysable aluminium salts like aluminium acetate or formate, are available for producing water repellency on cotton, wool, rayon etc.

5.8. Silicone emulsions
Milky white emulsions, based on poly (dimethyl siloxane) and / or poly (methyl hydrogen siloxane) emulsified in water in the presence of non-ionic, surfactant like nonyl phenolethylene oxide condensate, are available for applying on textile materials.

5.9. Stiffening agent
A synthetic stiffening based on polyvinyl acetate, may be used to obtain stiff finish rayon fabrics.

5.10. Glaze paste
A shiny, soft and lustrous handle can be imparted to cotton fabrics by using glaze pastes which is based on emulsified stearic acid prepared in the presence of borax.

5.11. Resin precondensates and crosscross-linking agents
Difunctional monomers, which can polymerise to form homopolymers and/or crosslink with cellulosic hydroxyls are available in the form of aqueous solutions. They impart crease resistance, wrinkle resistance, wash and wear properties and durable press characteristics to cellulosic and polyester/cellulosic blend fabrics.

5.11. Resin precondensates and crosscross-linking agents
These include the following: a) Dimethylol ethylene urea (DMEU) b).Dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU) c).Dimethylol ethyl triazone (triazone crosslinking agent) d).Dimethylol propylene urea (DMPU).

5.11. Resin precondensates and crosscross-linking agents
These include the following: a).Dimethylol ethylene urea (DMEU)
This is a crosslinking agent used to impart dimensional stability, wash-and wear, and easy-care properties to fabrics of cellulosic fibre and polyester/cellulosic blend fibres.

b).Dimethylol ethyl triazone (triazone crosslinking agent)
This crosslinking agent is used to obtain dimensional stability, wash-and-wear, easy-care durable press characteristics to cellulosic and polyester cellulosic blend fabrics.

5.11. Resin precondensates and crosscross-linking agents
These include the following: c).Dimethylol ethyl triazone (triazone crosslinking agent)
This is used to obtain dimensional stability, wash-andwear and easy-care properties, free from the defect of chlorine retention, in cellulosic and polyester/ cellulosic blend fabrics

d).Dimethylol propylene urea (DMPU).
This crosslinking agent is used to impart dimensional stability, wash-and-wear and easy-care properties to cellulosic and polyester/cellulosic blend fabrics.

6. PHOSPHATES
6.1. Buffers 6.2. Builders for scouring, Builders serve to overcome water hardness and improve 6.5. Surfactants, and 6.6. Flame retardant finishes
6.3. surfactant performance by building complexes with mineral ions (especially Ca2+ and Mg2+), which weaken the performance of surfactants 6.4. Water conditioners

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