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Skeat 1888 Etymological Dictionary

Skeat 1888 Etymological Dictionary

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OF THE

BY

AN

ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY
OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE
SKEA
T.

Uonfton

HENRY FROWDE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PKESS WABEHOTISE
AMEN
CORNEfi.

AN

ETYMOLOGICAL
OF THE

DICTIONARY

ENGLISH
REV.

LANGUAGE.
BY THE

WALTER
IN

W.

SKEAT,
///

M.A.

ELR1NGTON AND BOSWORTH PROFESSOR OF ANGLO-SAXON

THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.

'Step after step the ladder

is

ascended."

GKOKGE HKKHKRT, Jncula PruJtnlum.
'

Labour with what
Something
still

zeal

we

will,

remains undone.'

LONGFELLOW,

JiirJs uf Passage.

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS.
M DCCC LXXXVI11.

*

CONTENTS.
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

BRIEF NOTES UPON THE LANGUAGES CITED IN THE DICTIONARY

CANONS FOR ETYMOLOGY
LIST OF BOOKS CONSULTED

SELECTED EXAMPLES, ILLUSTRATING THE FORMATION OF ENGLISH DERIVATIVES

FROM STRONG VERBS

KEY TO THE GENERAL PLAN

DICTIONARY OF ETYMOLOGIES
APPENDIX:
I.

LIST OF PREFIXES

II.

SUFFIXES
LIST OF

........ ....... ... ......... ......... ......... ........ ... ....... .....
.
.
.

PAGE
v
xiii

xv
xxiii

xxv

xxxt
i

3

727

III.

ARYAN ROOTS

BRIEF INDEX TO THE ABOVE ROOTS
IV.

.... ....
.
.

739 729
747

DISTRIBUTION OF

WORDS ACCORDING TO THE LANGUAGES FROM

WHICH THEY ARE DERIVED
V.

SELECT LIST OF EXAMPLES OF SOUND-SHIFTING
LIST OF

VI.
VII.

HOMONYMS

LIST OF DOUBLETS

ERRATA AND ADDENDA

....... ...
.

..... .....
.

747
761

.

.

762

772

775

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
THE
more
subject.
scientific

present work was undertaken with the intention of furnishing students with materials for a study of English etymology than is commonly to be found in previous works upon the

not intended to be always authoritative, nor are the conclusions arrived at to be accepted as final. It is rather intended as a guide to future writers, shewing them in some cases what ought certainly to be accepted, and in other cases, it may be, what to avoid. The idea of it arose
It is

my own wants. I could find no single book containing the facts about a given word which most concerns a student to know, whilst, at the same time, there exist numerous books containing information too important to be omitted. Thus Richardson's Dictionary is an admirable store-house
out of
it

of quotations illustrating such words as are of no great antiquity in the language, and his selected 1 examples are the more valuable from the fact that he in general .adds the exact reference
.

Todd's Johnson likewise contains numerous well-chosen quotations, but perhaps no greater mistake was ever made than that of citing from authors like ' Dryden or Addison at large, without the
' '
'

But in both of these works the etymology is, would probably be difficult to find a worse philologist than Richardson, who adopted many suggestions from Home Tooke without enquiry, and was capable of saying that, hod is 'perhaps hoved, hov'd, hod, past part, of heafan, to heave.' It is
slightest hint as to the

whereabouts of the context.
;

commonly, of the poorest description

and

it

easily ascertained that the

A.

S. for heave

is

hebban, and that, being a strong verb,

its

past participle

did not originally end in -ed.
It

would be tedious to mention the numerous other books which help to throw such
is

light

on

necessary for the right investigation of their etymology. The great is that they do not carry back that history far enough, and are very weak in the highly important Middle-English period. But the publications of the Camden Society, of the Early English Text Society, and of many other printing clubs, have lately materially
the history of words as defect of most of them

advanced our knowledge, and have rendered possible such excellent books of reference as are exemplified in Stratmann's Old English Dictionary and in the still more admirable but (as yet)
incomplete 'Worterbuch' by Eduard Matzner. In particular, the study of phonetics, as applied to Early English pronunciation by Mr. Ellis and Mr. Sweet, and carefully carried out by nearly all students of Early English in Germany, has almost revolutionised the study of etymology as hitherto

pursued

in

England.

We

essential part of the word,

can no longer consent to disregard vowel-sounds as if they formed no which seems to have been the old doctrine indeed, the idea is by no
;

means yet discarded even by those who ought to know better. On the other hand, we have, in Eduard Miiller's Etymologisches Worterbuch der Englischen 2 an excellent collection of etymologies and cognate words, but without any illustrations Sprache
,

1

1 have verified a large
so, I

number of
'
'

these.

Where

I

could not

conveniently do of the reference.

have added

(R.)

in parenthesis at the

end

2 If the It is surprising that this book is not better known. writers of some of the current 'Etymological' Dictionaries had taken

I found, to

my

surprise, that the references to

E. Miiller for their guide, they might have doubled their accuracy

Chaucer are often
misprinted.

utterly wrong,

the numbers being frequenlly

and halved

their labour,

vi

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
any indication of the period when they
first

of the use or history of words, or

came

into use.

We

have also Webster's Dictionary, with the etymologies as revised
;

and comprehensive volume
It is

by Dr. Mahn, a very useful but the plan of the work does not allow of much explanation of a
dictionary was
first

purely philological character.

many

years since a

new and comprehensive
that,

planned by the Philological

Society, and
of this great
will

we have now good hope

under the able editorship of Dr. Murray, some portion

work may ere long see the light. be all-important, and the etymologies will,
chiefly with the

For the
I believe,

illustration of the history of words, this

be

briefly

but sufficiently indicated.

It

was

assisting in this national work, that, many years ago, I began collecting notes upon points relating to etymology. The result of such work, in a making modified form, and with very large additions, is here offered to the reader. object has been to clear the way for the improvement of the etymologies by a previous discussion of all the more

hope of

materials and

My

important words, executed on a plan so far differing from that which will be adopted by Dr. Murray
as not to interfere with his labours, but rather, as far as possible, to assist them.
It will, accordingly,

be found that

I

meaning of words,

have studied brevity by refraining from any detailed account of the changes of The except where absolutely necessary for purely etymological purposes.

numerous very curious and highly interesting examples of words which, especially in later times, took up new meanings will not, in general, be found here; and the definitions of words are only given in a very brief and bald manner, only the more usual senses being indicated. On the other
have sometimes permitted myself to indulge in comments, discussions, and even suggestions and speculations, which would be out of place in a dictionary of the usual character. Some of these, where the results are right, will, I hope, save much future discussion and investigation
hand,
I
;

whilst others,

where the

results

prove to be wrong, can be avoided

and

rejected.

In one respect

I

have attempted considerably more than is usually done by the writers of works upon English etymology. I have endeavoured, where possible, to trace back words to their Aryan roots, by In doing this, I have especially availing myself of the latest works upon comparative philology.

endeavoured to link one word with another, and the reader will find a perfect network of crossreferences enabling him to collect all the forms of any given word of which various forms exist
;

so that

many Aryan languages can be thus traced. Instead of considering English as an isolated language, as is sometimes actually done, I endeavour, in every and as, by this process, considerable light is thrown case, to exhibit its relation to cognate tongues
of the principal words
in

the

;

upon English by Latin and Greek, so also, at the same time, considerable light is thrown upon Latin and Greek by Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic. Thus, whilst under the word bite will be found
a mention of the cognate Latin findere, conversely, under the In both cases, reference is also made to the root to bite.
(no. 240,
It is

word

fissure, is given a cross-reference
;

BHID

and,

by

referring to this root
allied words.

on

p. 738),

some

further account of

it

will

be found, with further examples of

only by thus comparing all the Aryan languages together, and by considering them as one harmonious whole, that we can get a clear conception of the original forms ; a conception which must l precede all theory as to how those forms came to be invented . Another great advantage of the

comparative method

is

equally explicit, as far as

and may and Greek, and to all the more important words in the various Scandinavian and Teutonic tongues. I have Much use of many chiefly been guided throughout by the results of my own experience.
languages
;
'

though the present work is nominally one on English etymology, it is has occasion to deal with them, with regard to the related words in other be taken as a guide to the etymology of many of the leading words in Latin
that,
it

I

refrain

from discussing theories of language

in this

work, contenting myself with providing materials for aiding

in

such

discussion.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
dictionaries has

Vu

the exact points where an enquirer is often baffled, and I have especially addressed myself to the task of solving difficulties and passing beyond obstacles. Not inconsiderable has been the trouble of verifying references. few examples will put this in a clear light.

shewn

me

A

take a single case) to the Romaunt of the Rose. He probably used some edition in which the lines are not numbered; at any rate, he never gives an exact reference to it. The few references to it in Tyrwhitt's Glossary and in Stratmann do not help us very

Richardson has numerous references

(to

greatly.

To

find a particular

word

in this

poem

of 7700 lines

is

often troublesome

;

but, in every case

I can recall several half-hours spent in this I have found and noted it. work. particular Another not very hopeful book in which to find one's place, is the Faerie Queene. References to this are usually given to the book and canto, and of these one or other is (in Richardson) occasionally incorrect in every case, I have added the number of the stanza.

where

I

wanted the quotation,

;

One very remarkable

fact

about Richardson's dictionary

is that,

in

many

cases, references are

given only to obscure and late authors, when all the while the word occurs in Shakespeare. By ' keeping Dr. Schmidt's comprehensive Shakespeare Lexicon always open before me, this fault has

been

easily'

remedied.

pass on to matters more purely etymological. I have constantly been troubled with the vagueness and inaccuracy of words quoted, in various books, as specimens of Old English or foreign languages. The spelling of Anglo-Saxon in some books is often simply outrageous. Accents are
'
'

To

put in or

left
;

out at pleasure

;

impossible combinations of letters are given

;

the number of syllables

is

disregarded and grammatical terminations have to take their chance. Words taken from Ettmuller are spelt with a and a words taken from Bosworth are spelt with a and <z 2 without any hint that the a and <z of the former answer to a and & in the latter. I do not wish to give examples of these
;
,

In many cases, writers things ; they are so abundant that they may easily be found by the curious. of etymological dictionaries do not trouble to learn even the alphabets of the languages cited from,
'
'

or the most elementary grammatical facts. I have met with supposed Welsh words spelt with a v, with Swedish words spelt with <#, with Danish infinitives ending in -a 3 with Icelandic infinitives in
,

-an,

and so on

and German.
mis-spellings

the only languages correctly spelt being Latin and Greek, and commonly French It is clearly assumed, and probably with safety, that most readers will not detect
;

beyond this limited range. But this was not a matter which troubled me long. At a very early stage of my studies, I perceived clearly enough, that the spelling given by some authorities is not necessarily to be taken as the true one and it was then easy to make allowances for possible errors, and to refer to some book
;

with reasonable spellings, such as E. Mtiller, or Mahn's Webster, or Wedgwood. little research revealed far more curious pieces of information than the citing of words in impossible or mistaken
spellings.

A

account for except on the supposition that it must once have been usual to manufacture words for the express purpose of deriving others from them. To take an example, I open Todd's Johnson at random, and find that under bolster is cited 'Gothic bolster,
it is

Statements abound which

difficult to

a heap of hay.'

the fragments of Gothic that have reached us are very precious but very insufficient, and they certainly contain no such word as bolster. Neither is bolster a Gothic spelling. Holster is represented in Gothic by hulistr, so that bolster might, possibly, be bulistr. In any case, as the

Now

word

certainly does not occur,

it

can only be a pure invention, due to some blunder

;

the explanation

1

To

save time, I have seldom verified Dr. Schmidt's references,

believing
*

them

to be, in general, correct.

I have

seldom so trusted

seldom provided for. * Todd's Johnson,

s.v. Soil,

has 'Su. Goth, bulna, Dan. bulner.'
is

any other book.
Sic
;

Here bulna

is

the Swedish infinitive, whilst bulner

the

first

person

printers often

make

ae

do duty

for <.

I suspect that

&

is

of the present tense.

Similar jumbles abound.

viii

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
'

'

a heap of hay

is -a

happy and graphic touch, regarded

in

the light of a fiction, but

is

out of place

in

a work of reference.
mistake of this nature would not greatly matter if such instances were rare but the extraordinary part of the matter is that they are extremely common, owing probably to the trust reposed by former writers in such etymologists as Skinner and Junius, men who did good work in their day, but
;

A

whose statements require careful verification in this nineteenth century. What Skinner was capable of, I have shewn in my introduction to the reprint of Ray's Glossary published for the English Dialect that words cited in etymological dicIt is sufficient to say that the net result is this Society. Not only do we find tionaries (with very few exceptions) cannot be accepted without verification.
;

puzzling misspellings, but we find actual fictions ; words are said to be Anglo-Saxon that are not to be found in the existing texts ; Gothic words are constructed for the mere purpose of etymology Icelandic words have meanings assigned to them which are incredible or misleading and so on of
' ' ' ' '

'

;

;

the

rest.

Thus, Todd's Johnson, we find a derivation of S. strictly Anglo-Saxon, but an Early English form, signifying 'a band,' and is not a past participle at all; the A. S. for 'bound' being gebunden. The error is easily traced; Dr. Bosworth cites 'bond, bound,
is

Another source of trouble

that,

when

real

words are

cited,
'

in

bond from A.

they are wrongly explained. Now bond is not bond, bound.'

ligatus'

from Somner's Dictionary, whence

it

was also copied

into Lye's Dictionary in the form: 'bond,

Where Somner found it, is a mystery indeed, as it is absurd on the face of it. We should take a man to be a very poor German scholar who imagined that band, in German, is a past participle but when the same mistake is made by Somner, we find that it is copied by Lye,
ligatus, obligatus, bottnd.'
;

it as Somner's), copied into Todd's Johnson, amplified by Richardson into the misleading statement that 'bond is the past tense and past participle of the verb to bind,' and has doubtless been copied by numerous other writers who have wished to come at their

copied

by Bosworth (who, however, marks

1

which so disgraces

etymologies with the least trouble to themselves. It is precisely this continual reproduction of errors many English works, and renders investigation so difficult. But when I had grasped the facts that spellings are often false, that words can be invented,
I

and that explanations are often wrong,
is

found that worse remained behind.

The

science of phi-

had no means of ascertaining principles lology that are now well established, and, instead of proceeding by rule, had to go blindly by guesswork, thus sowing crops of errors which have sprung up and multiplied till it requires very careful investigation to enable a modern writer to avoid all the pitfalls prepared for him by the false suggestions which he meets with at every turn. Many derivations that have been long current and are even generally
comparatively modern, so that our earlier writers
accepted will not be found in this volume, for the plain reason that I have found them to be false ; I think I may at any rate believe myself to be profoundly versed in most of the old fables of this character, and I shall only say, briefly, that the reader need not assume me to be ignorant of them

because
whilst

I

do not mention them.

The most

extraordinary fact about comparative philology

is

that,

by numerous students in Germany and America, they are far from being well-known in England, so that it is easy to meet even with classical scholars who have no notion what 'Grimm's law' really means, and who are entirely at a loss to understand why the English care has no connection with the Latin cura, nor the English whole with the Greek oAos, nor
its

principles are well understood

Yet for the understanding of these things nothing more is x<fy"*needed than a knowledge of the relative values of the letters of the English, Latin, and Greek alphabets. knowledge of these alphabets is strangely neglected at our public schools whereas a
the French charitf with the Greek

A

;

1

Bond

is

a form of the fust
'

tense in

Middle English, and indeed the

sb.

bond

is

itself

derived from the A. S. pt.

t.

band

;

but bond

is

certainly not

the past participle.'

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

ix

few hours carefully devoted to each would save scholars from innumerable blunders, and a boy of sixteen who understood them would be far more than a match, in matters of etymology, for a man of
fifty

who

did not.

lology will, in future, turn
will at last

In particular, some knowledge of the vowel-sounds more and more upon phonetics and the truth
;

is

essential.

Modern

phi-

become

general, that the vowel

is

commonly the very

life,

confined to a very few the most essential part of the

now

word, and

that, just as pre-scientific etymologists frequently went wrong because they considered the consonants as being of small consequence and the vowels of none at all, the scientific student of the

present day may hope to go right, the vowels as all-important.

if

he considers the consonants as being of great consequence and

The foregoing remarks are, I think, sufficient to shew my reasons for undertaking the work, and the nature of some of the difficulties which I have endeavoured to encounter or remove. I now
proceed to state explicitly what the reader may expect to find. Each article begins with a word, the etymology of which is to be sought. When there are one or more words with the same spelling, a number is added, for the sake of distinction in the case of future
a great convenience when such words are cited in the List of Aryan Roots and in the various indexes at the end of the volume, besides saving trouble in making cross-references. After the word comes a brief definition, merely as a mark whereby to identify the word.
reference.

This

is

'

'

Next follows an exact statement of the actual (or probable) language whence the word is taken, ' with an account of the channel or channels through which it reached us. Thus the word Canopy is marked '(F., Ital., L., Gk.),' to be read as 'French, from Italian, from Latin, from Greek;' that is to say, the word is ultimately Greek, whence it was borrowed, first by Latin, secondly by
'

Italian (from the Latin), thirdly

by French (from

the Italian), and lastly

The endeavour
and
attention,

to distinguish the exact history of each
to render the

word

in this
I

by English (from French). manner conduces greatly to care
not aware that any attempt of

and does much

etymology

correct.

am

the kind has previously been made, except very partially ; the usual method, of offering a heap of more or less related words in one confused jumble, is much to be deprecated, and is often misleading 1 After the exact statement of the source, follow a few quotations. These are intended to indicate
.

word was borrowed, or else the usual Middle-English forms. When the word not a very old one, I have given one or two of the earliest quotations which I have been able to find, though I have here preferred quotations from well-known authors to somewhat earlier ones from more obscure writers. These quotations are intended to exemplify the history of the form of the
the period at which the
is

word, and are frequently of great chronological utility the period of the word's first use within half a century.
is

;

though

it

is

commonly

sufficient to indicate

By way

of example, I

may

observe that canon
'

not derived from F. canon, but appears in King Alfred, and was taken immediately from the Latin. Bosworth at I give the reference under Canon, to Alfred's translation of Beda, b. iv. c. 24, adding the end. This means that I took the reference from Bosworth's Dictionary, and had not, at the
'

moment, the means of
of Smith's edition, at
1.

verifying the quotation (I
13).

When

quite correct, occurring on p. 598 no indication of the authority for the quotation is given, it comfind
it is

now

monly means

that I have verified

it

myself; except in the case of Shakespeare, where

I

have

usually trusted to Dr. Schmidt. chief feature of the present work, and one which has entailed enormous labour, is that, whenever I cite old forms or foreign words, from which any given English word is derived or with which it

A

is

connected, I have actually verified the spellings and significations of these words

by help

of the

1

sufficiently given,
is

In Webster's dictionary, the etymology of canopy is well and but many articles are very confused. Thus Course

Span, and Port, eurso, Lat. cursus,' &c. Here the Latin form should have followed the French. With the Prov., Ital., Span.,
ar.d

derived fiom'F. cwrs, course, Prov. cars, corsa. Ital. corso, corsa,

Port forms

we have

absolutely nothing to do.

x

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
which a
list is

dictionaries of

given in the

'Key

A.

I

have done

this in order to avoid

two common errors;

to the General Plan' immediately preceding the letter 1 (i) that of misspelling the words cited ,

and

source or edition whence every word is copied is, in every case, precisely indicated, it being understood that, when no author is specified, the word is taken from the book mentioned in the Key.' Thus every statement made may be easily verified,
(a)

that of misinterpreting them.

The exact
'

such investigations that this is no small matter. I have frequently found that some authors manipulate the meanings of words to suit their own convenience, when not tied down in this manner and, not wishing to commit the like mistake, which
I

and

can assure those

who have had no experience
;

in

approaches too nearly to dishonesty to be wittingly indulged in, I have endeavoured by this means to remove the temptation of being led to swerve from the truth in this particular. Yet it may easily be

me astray in places where there is room for some speculation, and I must therefore beg the reader, whenever he has any doubts, to verify the statements for himself (as, in general, he easily may), and he will then see the nature of the premises from which the conclusions
that fancy has sometimes led

have been drawn.
brevity, less fully
far stronger

In

many

instances

it

will

be found that the meanings are given,

for the sake of

than they might have been, and that the arguments for a particular view are often

The
and

than they are represented to be. materials collected by the Philological Society will doubtless decide

many
It

debateable points,
is,

will definitely confirm or refute, in

many

cases, the results here arrived at.

perhaps, proper

French words are more often cited from Cotgrave than in their modern forms. few good words have been borrowed by us from French at a late period, so that modern French Very is not of much use to an English etymologist. In particular, I have intentionally disregarded
to point out that

the modern French accentuation.

To

derive our word recreation from the F. recreation gives a false

impression ; In the

been taken
or whether,

was certainly borrowed from French before the accents were added. case of verbs and substantives (or other mutually related words), considerable pains have to ascertain and to point out whether the verb has been formed from the substantive, This often makes a good deal conversely, the substantive is derived from the verb.
for
it

of difference to the etymology.

he reverses the
of the

fact,

Thus, when Richardson derives the adj. full from the verb to fill, and shews that he was entirely innocent of any knowledge of the relative value
Similar mistakes are

Anglo-Saxon vowels.

common

even in treating of Greek and Latin.

Thus, when Richardson says that the Latin laborare is 'of uncertain etymology,' he must have meant the remark to apply to the sb. labor. The etymology of laborare is obvious, viz. from that
substantive.

The numerous
the
i.e.

cross-references will enable the student, in

many

cases, to trace

back words to
'doublet,'

Aryan

root,

and

will frequently lead to additional information.

Whenever a word has a
;

a varying form, a note is made of the fact at the end of the article appears list of these will be found in the Appendix.
in

and a complete

The Appendix
and Lists of
which

contains a

list

of Prefixes, a general account of Suffixes, a List of

Aryan Roots,
lists

Homonyms

and Doublets.

Besides these,

I

have attempted to give
are far
into classes in a

shewing
stricter

the Distribution of the Sources of English.
I

As

these

lists

more comprehensive than any

have been able to find

in other books,
I

and are subdivided
crave

much
in

manner than has ever yet been attempted,

may

some indulgence

for the errors in them.
it.

From
entailed

the nature of the work,

I

have been unable to obtain much assistance

The

mechanical process of preparing the copy for press, and the subsequent revision of proofs, have upon me no inconsiderable amount of labour and the constant shifting from one language
;

'

With

all this care,

mistakes creep

in

;

see the Errata.

But

1

feel sure that

they are not very numerous.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
to another has required patience

xi

that a few annoying oversights have In again occasionally crept in, due mostly to a brief lack of attention on the part of eye or brain. over the whole work for the purpose of making an epitome of it, I have noticed some of going
attention.
result
is

and

The

given in the Errata. Other errors have been kindly pointed out to me, which are also noted in the Addenda and I beg leave to thank those who have rendered me such good service. I may also remark that letters have reached me which cannot be turned
these errors, and a
list

of

them

is

;

to

any good account, and
I

it

is

sometimes surprising that a few correspondents should be so eager

Such cases are, however, exceptional, anxious to receive, and to make use of, all reasonable suggestions. The experience very D, proved of much service and I believe gained in writing the first part of the book, from that errors are fewer near the end than near the beginning. Whereas I was at first inclined to
to manifest their entire ignorance of all philological principles.

and

am

'

'

A

;

trust too

much

to Brachet's Etymological French Dictionary, I
I

now

believe that Scheler

is

a better

might have consulted Littre even more frequently than I have done. Near the beginning of the work, I had no copy of Littre of my own, nor of Palsgrave, nor of some other but experience soon shewed what books were most necessary to be added to very useful books
guide, and that
;

In the study of English etymology, it often happens that instantaneous reference to some rather unexpected source is almost an absolute necessity, and it is somewhat

my

very limited collection.

make provision for such a call within the space of one small room. This is the real why some references to what may, to some students, be very familiar works, have been taken at second-hand. I have merely made the best use I could of the materials nearest at hand.
difficult to

reason

But

for this, the
ill

work would have been more often

interrupted,

and time would have been wasted
satisfied.

which could

be spared.
proper to state that with

It is also

many

articles I

am

not

Those that presented no

In very difficult cases, difficulty, and took up but little time, are probably the best and most certain. usual rule has been not to spend more than three hours over one word. During that time, I made my the best I could of it, and then let it go. I hope it may be understood that my object in making this

and other similar statements regarding my difficulties is merely to enable the reader to consult the book with the greater safety, and to enable him to form his own opinion as to how far it is to be

My honest opinion is that those whose philological knowledge is but small may safely whilst advanced students will receive the results here given, since they may else do worse accept soon renders habitual. them with that caution which so difficult a study
trusted.
;

One remark
instances.

concerning the printing of the book
printers,

is

throw the blame of errors upon the

and there
its

is

worth making. It is common for writers to in this a certain amount of truth in some
;

portion of blame and it is only just to place the fact on record, that I have frequently received from the press a first rough proof of a sheet of this work, abounding in words taken from a great many languages, in which not a single printer's

But

illegible writing

should also receive

fair

error

occurred of any kind whatever

;

and many others

in

which the errors were very

trivial

and

unimportant, and seldom extended to the actual spelling. Mr. Sweet's I am particularly obliged to those who have kindly given me hints or corrections for the word bless, have been very acceptable, and I much account of the word left, and his correction and other records is regret that his extremely valuable collection of the earliest English vocabularies
;

not yet published, as it will certainly yield valuable information. I am also indebted for some useful hints to Professor Cowell, and to the late Mr. Henry Nicol, whose knowledge of early French was almost unrivalled. Also to Dr. Stratmann, and the Rev. A. L. Mayhew, of Oxford, for

phonology

several corrections

;

to Professor Potwin, of
;

Hudson, Ohio

;

to Dr. J. N. Gronland, of Stockholm, for

some notes upon Swedish

to Dr. Murray, the Rev.

O.

W. Tancock. and

the

Rev.

D

Silvan

pursue the study of language in a spirit of reverence similar to that in which we study what are called the works of nature and by aid of that spirit we may gladly perceive a new meaning in the sublime line of our poet Coleridge. . eldest daughter. as in all other studies. I trust that time. tend to strengthen the belief that. owing to the increased attention which of late years has been given to the study of languages. praises God.xii PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. in fact. and the List of Doublets. cannot take leave of a work which has closely occupied my time during the past four years without expressing the hope that it may prove of service. with her thousand voices. the above-named and to other well-wishers I express my sincere thanks. that by . I am indebted to Miss Mantle. of Girton College and for the lists my College. 29. Cambridge. many of the conclusions at which I have arrived . For the word-lists from from Litharge rest A Literature. The speech of man is. on the whole. examples of English words given in the List of Aryan Roots. The preparation I have done little lists shewing the Distribution of Words was entirely the work of others .. Allsopp. not only to students of comparative phiall To But I lology and of early English. Sept. Whitehead I am indebted for the List of Homonyms. The was prepared by Reduplicate. 1881. true results are only to may. of Trinity who also prepared the numerous To Miss F. Evans. it to the suppression of such guesswork as entirely ignores all rules. and that the laws which regulate the development of language. ' Earth. and to several other correspondents who have kindly taken a practical of the In some portions of the Appendix I have received very acceptable assistance. more than revise them." CAMBRIDGE. at the same be obtained by reasonable inferences from careful observations. and development of the noble language which is the common inheritance of all English-speaking peoples. influenced It is therefore possible to physical laws. . but to all who are interested in the origin. . to A. by the working of divine power. or in other words. often present the most surprising examples of regularity. may require important modification or even entire change but I nevertheless trust that the use of this volume may tend. It is to be expected that. for various notes interest in the work. P. Esq. history. though frequently complicated by the interference of one word with another.

with the same result. L. Triibner and Co. still rapidly is . has been almost entirely rewritten. In a few instances. but has much assisted me by . but to everyone else. very at. rediscover the etymology for myself. whereas the list of Additional I am much obliged to Mr. escrow. Hence the number of points on which we differ is now considerably reduced his in like . Of course this supplement remains incomplete there are literally no bounds to the English language.' I have . Mayhew. For example. way. The number of Additional Words Addenda Words in the first edition more than about two tnindred. the Lat. for there are cases in which he is opposed. and we may Fortunately. I am obliged to Mr.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. E. and for his kindness in closely regarding the accentuation of in the present is little Greek words. in a matter empty. I omitted to state that he was the first person to point out the etymology of wanton unfortunately. Doble for several minute corrections. C. uiduus. who not only sent me a large number of suggestions. and the like. The List of Errata and Addenda. progressive. I have. H. barrator. and I think a further reduction might have been ' made if I think that some of manner. ' the etymologies of which he treats cannot fairly be said to be contested . it like the present undertaking. and especially for sending me some explanations of several I think that some of the best legal terms. such as assart. with regard to the word he could have seen avoid. and have taken from it several useful hints. to adopting views from me. before concluding that he has seen all that I have to say upon any word he may be seeking for. vuide I (or vide). Several errors have been detected by myself. In reconsidering the etyof the words which he treats. as given in the first edition. essoin. everything tends in the direction of closer accuracy and greater certainty. (especially I am where they arose from misprints) have been corrected particularly obliged to Mr. to which would reply that. in the Most of the Errata body of the work and . . . I did not observe his article on the subject. is suggesting several useful additions. G. In particular. wit rather than from of French etymology. in a case wherein they are all agreed and see no difficulty in the matter. Skeat London. 1882. W. W. it can. he would have us derive the F. H. he does not really contest what I have said. commencing at p. and Diez. etymologies in the volume kindly remember may be found in these additional articles. not only to myself. and kind friends have pointed out others. 775.. IN a work which. I also gladly take the opportunity of gratefully acknowledging the assistance of the Rev. New facts are continually being brought to light for the science of philology is. and had to carefully read this book. adopted his views either wholly mologies or in part. hope that the number of doubtful points will steadily diminish. and I hope the reader will to consult this supplement. most scholars are quite content to accept the etymology given by Littr6. Wedgwood for his publication entitled 'Contested Etymologies in the Dictionary of the Rev. at this time. Charles Sweet for fifty. at best be only aimed languages. in some cases. A. perhaps. from O. Scheler. but notices something that I have left unsaid. Thus. covers so difficult to much ground and deals with so many secure complete accuracy .

in some instances. hot. Palmer. and him. with Goth. I also beg leave to thank here the numerous correreading the proof-sheets of the Addenda. founded on the materials collected the Philological Society . thus. under Halter. . in the case of the words adjust. Murray's great and comprehensive English Dictionary. almond. alloy. agnail. CAMBRIDGE. and has. S. The author I is not quite sound as to the quantity of the Anglo-Saxon vowels. spondents have also made some use of the curious book on Folk-Etymology by the Rev. hatis. if any of my results as to the etymology of such words as he has discussed are found not to agree with his.xiv PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. At the same time. so that caution is needful in consulting the book. Eveiy day's experience helps to shew how great and how difficult is the task of presenting results in a form such as modern scientific criticism will accept. of preface without hearty thanks to the many students. admiral. who have kindly corrected individual words. in many parts of the world. which is full of erudition and contains a large number of most useful and exact references. almanack. Every slip is a lesson in humility. think the plan of his book has led him into multithe number of 'corruptions'. hate. December 31. I have already had the benefit of some kindly assistance from as for example. who have cheered me with kindly words and have found my endeavours helpful. allay. attempted to connect words that are really unrelated . by and I suppose it is hardly necessary to add that. plying unduly At the time of writing this. A. I at once submit to his careful induction from better materials and to the results of the assistance his work has received from many scholars. we are anxiously expecting the issue of the first part of In many places I Dr. he connects A. S. I cannot close these few words shewing how much remains to be learnt. hat. 1883.

and. y> * 4 j> / / turn. ' said to be an elder sister to English .'. pitd is all. the dialect depends ' as distinct from borrowing or derivation. Against this. E. E. y. A. of three main dialects. this being the ' crude form under which appears in Benfey. ' English forms belonging to the Middle-English period are marked This period extends. such as father.' words are usually given in the actual forms found in the editions referred to.' and this term has been used there are two reasons. ed. S. The most usual vowel-change syllable. the student must consult Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader and March's Grammar. z'/. Note that d and Modern E. in all probability. Of Old Northern.S.'. E. u. d. one may The symbol + is particularly used to call attention to collateral descent. from about 1200 to 1460. . and originated 1 many derivatives ' . and has so often been made to include M. but of Old Southern. Strong verbs are of great importance. or sc. and Southern . ed. /.BRIEF NOTES UPON THE LANGUAGES CITED IN THE DICTIONARY.' would be read as Old English. ' since the Wessex dialect was distinct from the Northern or Anglian dialect. strictly. o. Midland. used indifferently in the MSS.) is it and c. They can traced back for about a thousand years. ea. have corresponding cognate forms in Sanskrit. not always in the theoretical forms as given by Stratmann. dialect. Greek. For these Only a few brief hints things. . the word elder would be better omitted. y. be taken to mean Old English to use Wessex. or. . 6. g.' as well. less Sometimes Sanskrit Sanskrit has doubtless suffered come 'M. iu . Goth. u. so vaguely. upon the author cited. see note to Th. i. 2) '. Words belonging to English of an earlier date than about 1150 or 1200 are marked A.. DIPHTHONGS BREAKINGS.. S. h. also (in early MSS. The first is. else it is not a particularly happy one. and Anglo-Saxon must. that O. answering to Goth. The former consisted. and form the true basis of the language. ' ' ' : is in the Rushworth gloss to St. of the old dialect of It is therefore proper abundant. but the remains of two of these are very scanty. f. \> or ft. both these dates being arbitrarily Middle-English consisted of three dialects. that it has ceased to be distinctive. for in which Anglian is not necessarily included. change. e. (i) a. represents only the speech of a particular portion of England. Oldest English and Anglo-Saxon are not coextensive. E. as a knowledge of them is required at almost every most often arise from an original (Aryan) i. These forms are collateral. y.' to denote this definite ' Matthew's Gospel . almost the only scrap preserved versions of the Gospels and the glosses in the Durham Ritual ' ' i. in the course of many years. e6. The second and more important reason is that. th is represented by A. ed. philological purposes. e. 6. the remains are fairly A. but even twin sisters are not always precisely alike. . roughly speaking.' chosen. but their true origin is altogether pre-historic and of great antiquity. E. Some have asked why they have not been marked as O. Words commonly be marked (E. z' or x.) are pure English. Thus father ' is no more ' 'derived' from the Sanskrit pild 1 than ' the Skt. x. The vowel a commonly becomes ea when preceded by Similarly e or may become to. au /. i. and has become comparatively useless. Many of them. ( produced by the occurrence This changes the vowels in row (i) below to the that 6. we have little left beyond the Northumbrian of Old Midland. after all. which. Oldest English. etymologically. mother. ENGLISH. : $. 6.e. can be given here. AngloSaxon. The spellings of the ' M. 6. Northern. and English etymology cannot be fairly made out without some notion of the gradations of the Anglo-Saxon vowel-system. is 'derived' from the is Both are descended from a common Aryan type. SHORT VOWELS LONG VOWELS : : a. e6. These two rows should be learnt by heart. and / arise from original u. unfortunately. whilst e6. and these are commonly called Anglo-Saxon. ' Anglo-Saxon cannot be properly understood without some knowledge of its phonology. or when followed by of (which O ften disappeared) in the following corresponding vowels in row (2) below. and Latin. to. these derivatives can be deduced it Given as pitri in the Dictionary. &c. r. to look younger than the other. The term is well-established and may therefore be kept . and the true method of comparison is by placing them side by side. though these are. and that English father. more correct Those who possess Stratmann's Dictionary will do well to consult it.

4. As to the introduction of cant words from Holland. first History tells us that our Flemish mercenary soldiers being employed by the Normans. The introduction into Eng. boren. pp. band. bedd. 'are said to have found a refuge on the banks of the Thames. t. in -ode. to fall. Somner. to bind . p\. dyppan. to bind.ish of Dutch words is somewhat important. band or bond. pt. pp. to give. pt. t. find currency in the Netherlands. during the same I period. Bosworth. Authorities : OLD LOW GERMAN. The audacity with which English has turned the Dutch ui in bruin (brown) into broo-in is an amazing instance of the influence . to set (for sat-ian *). to dip (for dup-ian*). pp. The wool used by relations and other close invention of printing. It is therefore necessary to ascertain all these leading forms. version of Reynard the Fox. pt. of their introduction into English is uncertain.' but have affected our language. pt. call attention to DUTCH. 'where (says old Fabyan.xvi BRIEF NOTES UPON THE LANGUAGES CITED IN THE DICTIONARY. biddan.' the time of Elizabeth. these are weak verbs. they come may have been introduced from Holland. yet seems to have received I attention. in the hope that their early history may receive further elucidation. and it ought to be accepted. Wright's Vocabularies. from the pp. bunden. SKI. relations with the Netherlands have often been rather close. pp. other secondary verbs are formed from substantives. and If not precisely English. to fare. Ettmiiller. to say (for sag-tan*). March. t band. secgan. pp. Examples of the Conjugations are these. they sprad all Englande ouer. a better. are deserving of special attention. geaf. The words which have collected. Scinan. Strong verbs are often attended by secondary or causal verbs . pi. Feallan. see Sweet's oo in boor exactly represents the Handbook of Phonetics. We read of weavers. Caxton spent thirty years in Flanders (where the first English book was printed)./ettlon . Thus we have habban. and pp. Low G. formerly landskip. of the past tense infinitive pi. several Dutch words were introduced into of the ruined England in like . Some of them may yet be found in Anglo-Saxon. It is With a few exceptions. when it was not uncommon for Flemings to come here. 5. bunden. t. Denoted by O. and every one knows that Zutphen saw the death of the beloved Sir Philip Sidney. the cloth-workers of the Low Countries grew on the backs of English sheep . bundon. Lye. between us and our nearly related neighbours grew out of the brewing-trade. from the form of the past tense singular. Gifan. bundon. plural. be noted that the English Dutch oe in doer (the same word).f6ron. with pt. t. Sweet. to have (for haf-ian*}. but little them. gifen. ' All this city.' says Mr. Base Base BUD. Green. manner./edll. Leo. and of Flemish settlements in Wales. 1. pp. the i of this suffix often disappears. budon. beccan. and translated the Low German Antwerp to print his New Testament.' We may recall the alliance between Edward III and the free towns of Flanders . boden. and was strangled at Vilvorde. to thatch (foi fiac-t'an*). Be6dan. Bindan. For the pronunciation of Dutch. pp. to shine 6. and the importation by Edward of Flemish the being the to point this out with sufficient distinctness. pi. pt. Base BAND= \/BHANDH. pi. sellan. and is Englished by sc or sk. am and a take closer attention to this question credit of convinced that the influence of Dutch upon English has been much underrated. and were introduced by the Friesians who came over to England with the Saxons. that during the cannot fourteenth. Many of these ended originally in -tan . the precise origin of which is wrapped in some The chief difficulty about them is that the time obscurity. possibly even in the fourteenth century. very near it. fifteenth. as well as from the Ex bindan.' This is a term which I have employed for want of ' meant to include a not very large class of words. to give . . as in landscape. or of the past participle. 3. t. Grein. 7. to bid . pi. particularly the last. t. I know not with what truth) they remayned a longe whyle.faren. I call them Old Low German and I put them in a class together in order to because they clearly belong to some Old Low German dialect . Base FAL= A/SPAR. sell (for sal-tan*). seitan. ge&fon. in -od. to bear. b&ron. that the Dutch sch is very different from the German sound. pl. scdn. pt. or to some form of Old Dutch or Old Saxon. and it would be curious to enquire whether. scinon. several English words did not. I think I may might throw some light even upon English history./eatten. mood. Base GAB. we have the sb. \~f6r. pt. to pray (for bid-tan*). t. see Beaumont and Fletcher's play entitled ' The Beggar's After Antwerp had been captured by the Duke of Parma. pi. Beran. and sixteenth centuries. pt. Either they belong to Old Friesian. beer. scinen. as being presumably It is to Dutch. Tyndale settled at But there was a still closer contact in Very instructive is Gascoigne's poem on the Fruits of War. : From the pt. Base BAR= -/BHAR. but after. where he describes his experiences in Holland . a third of the merchants and manufacturers Bush. the and the reformation of religion. Also. as tolerably certain. pp. bundle. Faran. causing gemination of the preceding consonant. t. 2. Base FAR=\/PAR. we have the sb.

the A. in the work commonly known as the Bremen Worterbuch. the voiced th (as in E. nd. in the early period of our history. dricka (for dnnka*). This name is given to an excellent vocabulary of a Low German dialect. came over to England in great numbers. *> *. -8r. Ol appears as ou. Very remarkable is the loss of v in -ja . f>. Hence. as in Danish. and on many occasions made good their footing and remained here. settling chiefly in ' ' ' ' than that the Swedish. . are both short and long. ij is used for th The Low German old. The abounds with frequentative verbs in -eren and -elen. . deck is Dutch. in -ad. between two vowels sometimes disappears. and again is less common end some words. The Icelandic and A. of different origin. rd). D (1) 2 a. language a suffix which has been substituted for the obsolete diminutive suffix -ken. 3. -de. for dt. f. Tauchnitz Authorities Infinitives : dictionary. Assimilation occurs in it this peculiarity. Among the consonants are 5. find. Ten Kate.D. Diphthongs A. and as they settled Northumbria and East Anglia. beginning with sc or sk are of Scand. to than in Icelandic.BRIEF NOTES UPON THE LANGUAGES CITED IN THE DICTIONARY. by this ' ' or strictly Danish is but small. LOW language is best represented by Icelandic. -/. II. it may almost be said. is that which is caused by the occurrence of i (expressed or understood) in the following syllable . Qv J> is used where English has qu. English of the English. origin. &c. or -/. with explanations in Latin) . introduced into England by the Danes and Northmen who. The old dialect of Westphalia. English. the same loss occurring in Infinitives -tr. kk. th) is The Old Swedish w (= now v. appears as d. some English words are rather Friesian than Saxon. SCANDINAVIAN. -etje). are weak. Delfortrie . owing to the curious fact that. and the pp. d. dictionary printed by Tauchnitz. The most usual There is no w. kt. GERMAN. or nr . hold. o. ju. whilst thatch is xvii f s. ey. thin). where English has and double i. and closely allied to Old Dutch. -or = A. written in Swedish). D Authorities : Oudemans. d. as d. /> j. Hexham. it is pronounced like E. except is in foreign words. ( ) Assimilation is common. the long vowels being marked with an To the usual vowels are added 6. Icelandic In or 'Old Norse' (as it is also called) has come to be. Ihre (Old Swedish. weak verbs make the pt. Closely allied to . sh.S. the language of the settlers has been preserved with but slight instead of its appearing strange that English words should be borrowed from Icelandic. words nn. parts of England not strictly represented by Anglo-Saxon.S. Kilian. it must be remembered that this name represents. Authorities: Cleasby and Vigfusson. not by d. and 6 come and b. with very few exceptions. Authorities Richthofen also (for modern North Friesic) Outzen (for modern East Friesic) Koolman. and they have been duly noted. for Ir or lp. y. whereas strong verbs have the pp. u. i in wine. which is written both /. au. Authority: Heyne.S. as in gold. as in weer (for weder*). as in Dutch and our language bears some traces of in the word light or taut (Icel. Often driven Their back. I derive Scandinavian words from Swedish. Iceland by the Northmen about in England.S. vowel-change this changes the vowels in row (i) below into the corresponding vowels in row (2) below. modern English. Icelandic. y. A. Vowels. t.jo. e.S. ey. or Norwegian . thus dd stands for 8</. Widegren . the language of those Northmen. some cases. in the word hustings (for husihings). as in _/?*. or for Goth. &\soja.ju. ending in -8. Initial sk should be particularly noticed. w) . also x. of spelling upon speech. w and hw appear as v and hv. for x and at. and the diphthongs au. Anglo-Saxon. -pje. ae.j6. V and z are common. but -te. a wether. a valuable book. ndt. ei. The symbol standard oud. ever since the first colonisation of 874. 2</(=A. as most E. : OLD PBIESIC. b . initial (= replaced by /. houden. wr. but no more is meant who. for nfi. do not occur. Danish. to thus. in -inn. with pp. thou). in -ode. ht.S. Vigfusson's Icelandic Reader. {i. or past participles of strong verbs in -en. strictly was at one time written both for d and 8. became ancestors of some of the very best men amongst us. sc being represented by E. or Norwegian words are the best representatives of the Old Norse The number of words actually borrowed from what (in the modern sense) is strictly Swedish that I could find. goud. as. / initial verbs in -ja. changes. j6. The A. By this name I denote the old Danish. Mobius. at the end of the alphabet. and was formerly written y . Swedish. for nk. accent. Rietz (Swedish dialects. Egilsson. Sewel. they continually returned. and with diminutive substantives in -jt (also -tje. also called Suio-Gothic. 6. end in -a or &c. OLD SAXON. To the usual vowels add a. J>e"flr).(for finda*). Danish. t}>. the voiceless th (as in E. //. -d. as in Anglo-Saxon. nt. g. for philological purposes. in -a. which are placed at the end of the alphabet. to drink.jd.

i. its author used gg and gk (like Englishman ought to do. The Roman think the best. 6). au. and so in other instances. Gk. knib-e. theoretically. liv. being later forms replaced (as in Swedish) by Authority: Ferrall and Repp's Dictionary. but is still less *). u. life. hw for his hv. as is in drikke. and deserving of special attention. au and du. 288 of my Gothic Glossary are corrected. are the same as Goth. is Thus the Icel. to drink. and he is better A if he can find the German equivalent of an English word than by any true account of the same however clearly expressed. knife. Authority GOTHIC. a book. and g. Properly called High-German. to rake. : It is the same as that used by Massmann. } ai Aryan Gothic A e. Yet it is well established. especially for all The Gothic consonant-system also furnishes a convenient standard for other Teutonic Low-German. which kw for his kv. and compare The two latter are also written /. with the addition of f> for th so that he writes qap for kwath (i. tongue. But note that A. to arise from an original I. a slanting stroke drawn through it . of all Teutonic languages.xviii BRIEF NOTES UPON THE LANGUAGES CITED IN THE DICTIONARY. t. gifan. (needless). to nip . grib-e. throughout the active voice. G. though there is a very general popular notion (due to the utter want of philological training so common amongst us) that the contrary is the case. auso. as it is generally sufficient for practical purposes) GERMAN. and iu. by Grimm's law of sound-shiftings. r is dfle to original s. quoth). The symbol se and o. to from an original U. to weep (Lowland Scotch greet) . reb. to Low. into ai and di. as in tuggo. March arranges the comparative value of these vowels and diphthongs according to the following scheme. Gothic alphabet. is the furthest removed from English. finna. b. Closely allied to Danish. common. grxd-e. ) U u au AI ei (Skt. As the alphabet was partly imitated from Greek. Schulze. Stamm. except that I put w for his v. (See the list of authorities : in my own Mceso-Gothic 1 . au. One peculiarity of Gothic must be particularly noted. common a man. yic) to represent simple and it may be observed that this marking of the letters is theoretical. 1 U u ei. p. knowledge of German is ' often the sole idea by which an Englishman regulates his ' derivations of Teutonic words . which I still venture to characters. but these old forms are not in -et or -/. i. which I have used almost throughout. The diphthongs are ai. that the German word. drigkan. d. Mark in .S. is Gothic giban (base GAB). Glossary. in which the errors occurring on p. a rope. always short. I u. viv. the past participles of strong grip or gripe. to bite. Swed. to give. tag-e. the student should consult my edition of the Gospel of St. Authorities Gabelentz and Lobe. Aasen's Dictionary of Norwegian dialects (written in Danish). The primary vowels are a. has been variously transliterated into I have followed the system used in my Mceso-Gothic Dictionary. Also ear. Diefenbach. finna. and the one from which fewest words are directly borrowed. by German editors. not by d. thus turning all his w's into M>'S. as being the best standard with which to particularly the vowel-systems of other Teutonic languages. to distinguish it from the other Teutonic dialects. take . last. thus Qv is used where English has qu. but we may still observe the following very striking differences in the dental consonants. the two former being distinguished. as in Dutch. dialects. shewing that in such words the E. The Gothic vowel-system is clear. e. ged. f mann sometimes become (for Mand a remarkable form. English and German now approach each other more nearly than Grimm's pleased law suggests 1 . initial J> (th) is replaced by /. V is used where English has w. hear. We should particularly verbs properly end in -en. to notice that final k. ei. to drink. 1882 note here that. eye . Oxford. finde in Danish. as every true is not pleasant to the system as Massmann. o ei Hence we may commonly expect arise the Gothic ai. a goat. as in bog. to Infinitives end in -e . and the Gothic iu. as no accents appear in the MSS. To the usual vowels add o with 6 is also written and printed as </>. as in Swedish. o. which belong This. Danish. yy. Massmann. to find. . and Stamm has the same J ng and nk. berry. 6. It agrees very closely with Anglo-Saxon and English. The Assimilation occurs Icelandic and A. au. (Skt. AI di AU. Norwegian. Aryan r> A / a. wife. au. rag-e. but is replaced by kv in Aasen's Norwegian dictionary. Owing to the replacement of the Old High German p by the Mod. and e. Gothlc u- i i ai. than in Swedish. and English consonantal systems are very different.S. and q for kw. Let me Gothic. in some words.German. kniv. y. which are placed at the end of the alphabet. b. but nothing is gained by it. &c. bid-e. chiefly borrowed from Greek. for the pronunciation of Gothic. and v respectively . hausjan. corresponds to the E. /) AU iu. and other changes. always long.

E. tag. (I have generally found these sufficient. dorn. dge. to bind. On this account. halberl. another by Benecke. and and even from English and many entirely foreign languages. guard. viz. E. whence E. FRENCH. as history teaches us. and the solution of many others is highly doubtful. trancher. to cut. German There are numerous French words in quite common often very difficult. German. the medial Her. tooth. and one to be siderable number of German words that were words are brawn. German zahn fuss directly The number of words are nearly all borrowed borrowed from German is quite insignificant. but ' popular words in use since the first formation of the language. which is merely a Latin word with a French ending. from the nature of supplemented by the works of Diez. near the middle of the word. Burguy. But there is a good M. reduced to edage by the suppression of the short vowel i. Anglo-Saxon Old Friesic Old Saxon dxg dei dag land tan fot foot -ooet Low German Dutch Icelandic dag dag dag-r land ionn doom. bonte". zahn. xix d / t th. German comparison of these with the other Teutonic forms is not a little instructive. and requires the greatest use. What are called ' learned words. is lost. z(ss) d. thorn. and Zarncke . consonant g. Palsgrave. as may be seen by consulting Brachet's Historical Grammar. from Italian. Authorities Cotgrave. Pick. of which an extraordinary but well known example is the Latin xtaticum. more to the purpose to remember that there are. thankfully acknowledged . These changes are best remembered by help of and the further the words day. in the is suppressed whence F. such as aise. . cautionem. so that it is commonly to cite the Latin nominative. Curtius. and in numberless other instances. and they of late introduction. E. the form of the accusative is usually given. such as mobile. that is. freely from Old Spanish.G. gay. Roquefort. &c. With rare exceptions. but that Authorities : Wackernagel./uss. b 2 . founded on debased Latin . dance. age. lhaurnu-s. and require much attention. hence F. (3) the loss of the medial conso(i) The last two peculiarities tend to disguise the origin. Muller. Examples of such of which would hardly be at once suspected. a con- indirectly. which have is never yet been clearly solved . a certain part of the language is necessarily of Celtic and another part is necessarily Prankish. thorn. when the form of the accusative is absolutely necessary to shew how absurdity the French word arose. Teutonic type DAGA TANTHU t6$ loth FOTU fdt fot THORNA. from Scandinavian (due to the Normans). English. dorn. Thus.BRIEF NOTES UPON THE LANGUAGES CITED IN THE DICTIONARY. Latin ligare. the case. Latin words often undergo the most curious transformations. producing the F. But the method of the derivation of French words from Latin or care. and many more. Scheler. from L. but it must at the same time be remembered that. thorn. Bartsch. foot. the substantives (as in a mere all the Romance languages) are formed from the accusative case of the Latin. through the French. f6t-r Swedish dag dag dag-s tag in English that are It is land land tunthu-s Danish Gothic fot fod fotu-s form. The Low One other peculiarity is too important to be passed over. are distinguished by three peculiarities the continuance of the tonic accent.) The influence of French upon English is too well known to require comment. and again to aage by the loss of the medial consonant d . Littre". It has also clearly borrowed words origin. And again. as in the case of caution. )>orn. especially when quite another matter altogether. &c. Low German dialects. bounty. is Fliigel. standing between two vowels. the : ' ' bonitatem. The fact that we are highly indebted to German writers for their excellent philological work is very true. &c. nevertheless. : in later times. liable. tiorn. (2) the suppression of the short vowel... the short vowel i. Old High German. Diez. It is precisely many in accounting for these Prankish words that German is so useful to the English etymologist. H. Brachet. ease. French may be considered as being a wholly unoriginal language. present no difficulty . Dictionary by Lexer. result is a great tendency to compression. porn. Muller. in the Latin nant.

as comparing is some assistance by all from Teutonic. for which assistance is commonly to be had from Breton. or that it is of a form which. The other Romance languages. The Italian infinitives commonly end in -are. Thus the word bard and again. and Gaelic. but we must take care not to multiply the number of these unduly. appears to be nothing but probably Celtic. It is sufficient to following give the small letters only. the word down t6n. and again. it is necessary to add one or two remarks. Gaelic. much as if it were doubled . but throws a greater stress upon the consonant. it. The chief difficulty lies in the fact that Welsh. A few words in other RUSSIAN. borrowed from tion it Teutonic languages besides English are probably of Celtic origin. CELTIC. The may be treated. The symbol i sonant it . since the common M. Sanskrit.S. languages of Latin origin. as a mute letter. because it may be compared with the A. Spanish infinitives commonly end in -ar. S. as it is one which is I made out my own use of diacritical marks. as in French. we must first shew that the word is borrowed from one of the Celtic languages. Romansch. and. in the ' Key' preceding the letter A. ^ d I.i Russian Letters Letters: 3 e H v y shch ui e ie iu ia ph not the best possible. and is not considered as a double letter. in general. -ir. just as Teutonic and ' ' ' ' ' Romance' are general terms. on the other hand. but there is not much in them that needs special remark. since the Celtic consonants often agree with these. Portuguese. which appears in E. On it appears in Welsh. if at the a only occurs at the beginning of words. with correcorresponding past participles In all the Romance languages. //. to hover. . and occurs in duena. kof. to hover.xx BRIEF NOTES UPON THE LANGUAGES CITED IN THE DICTIONARY. Cornish. but it will suffice to enable any one to verify the words cited in this work them with a Russian dictionary. can be fairly presumed to have existed in the Celtic of an early period. the languages of this class together. Spanish is also remarkable as containing many Arabic (Moorish) words. or Breton. as Irish.. and at the same time some words from Scandinavian. I may here add that. derived to a time from the A. (2). by comparing with Latin. Spanish. e. &c. hov-el. e(e) eHtaniKJiMHonpCTy>xi(Hiu tnfkhtschsh jziiklmnoprs HI . dislikes assimilation. To prove that a word is Celtic. -ire. The Italian and Spanish forms are often useful for comparison with (and consequent restoration of) the crushed and abbreviated Old French Italian is remarkable for assimilation. i. -ido. Again. are Italian. as in ammirare (for admirare) to admire. is /. some of which have found their way into English. but have since found it more convenient to use Reiff (1876). ditto (for dido). probably Celtic. and carefully avoids double consonants sounded as E.1 g i. be made much more sure and certain than We it is meanwhile. n. / followed byji consonant. English contains words borrowed from the first four of these. Proven9al. Spanish. a Celtic d answering to A. and Gaelic have all borrowed English words at various periods. end of a word or syllable. must look forward at when Celtic philology shall a dwelling. I have by comparing It makes given Heym's dictionary as my authority. Irish. r. b -i. -ido. Englished as duenna. transliteration is no difference. the only consonants that can be doubled are c. hofio. them differ history tells us must have been the case. substantives are most commonly in -ado. it is frequently of assistance in comparative philology. S. This language belongs to the Slavonic branch of the Aryan languages. with the object of avoiding the Roman letters which I use to represent Russian Letters: n r Roman Roman This Letters: : a in. Cornish. with the convenience. -ilo. forms. as exhibiting a modern form of language allied to the Old Church Slavonic. with in -alo. Celtic is merely a general term. Some Celtic words have come to us through French. Welsh. hoven. ditto. the W. My principal business here for is to explain the system of translitera- which I have adopted. Irish. or otherwise by necessary. it may be represented by e at the beginning of a word. and in itself means nothing definite. and only when that word or syllable ends in a connot sounded. from the Latin accusative. followed by_y consonant. since cannot then be . -uto. present . ' v 1. -ere. the other hand. I denote It is therefore merely by an apostrophe. for want of definite information on its older forms in a conveniently accessible arrangement. besides which is borrowed several words from Celtic cannot be doubted. a fortified hill. only occurs at the end of a word or syllable. a saying. and and is not very common. e symbol t most commonly occurs /.E. though the words are very few. a rt The the Russian alphabet. OTHER ROMANCE LANGUAGES. That English has whence E. however. This is a particularly slippery subject to deal with. the Lectures on Welsh Philology by Professor Rhys give a clear and satisfactory account of the values of Irish and Welsh letters as compared with other Aryan languages. -er. by the help of these languages. Greek. The Spanish n is sounded as E. Words of Celtic origin are marked '(C. sponding past participles formed. and Wallachian.)'. and Gaelic has certainly also borrowed We gain.

instead of ^. shch are guttural ch. these appear as n and T Thus y. the sound is all one. GK. the characteristic suffix of the infinitive given is -//'. at.( gj gh. i. for which I print n. viz. aspirate. n. not the English . The following The short notes will be found useful. but the combinations ch. French as E. The only letters that cause any difficulty are the four forms of Two of these. f. th. sh. -ote. m. given at p. may There are a few points about the values of the Sanskrit letters too important to be omitted.ph b * ft BH bh A . i. or/. which is rare. n . SANSKRIT. n.ch. shews p. d. instead of ri. 730. that of -che. SANSKRIT. it highly scientific order in which the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet is arranged should be observed. The following scheme. h /. but rich. I do not recommend the scheme for general use. I is. or ui. x. Russ. being very easy in practice. h. au . with letters instead of those which. -He. d. semivowels. d. ARYAN. n. i. 158. is The Russian and same may be philology. gives Lat. . which I retain. are rather clumsy. and the final aspirate. as being easier. Some write c and ch. Ah. d. that it reminds the student that this sibilant is due to an original . dh. but there is one great advantage about The principal change made is that I print Roman the symbol f. I print f. palatals. distinctness since ^ is certainly ch. it may as well be so written. are printed with a dot beneath . Aryan ARK. \. and RIK. h. ph. ie can be written /'/. f. it.l. be compared with the order of letters in the Aryan alphabet. th. -iete. i. bh.jh. said of Lithuanian. b. but only give it as the one which I have used. K K G GH T D k. sibilants. Icelandic ak-a. in Monier Williams' Grammar. th . s It is . labials. e. d. c in can. k. In transliterating Sanskrit words. but as they are perfectly definite and cannot be mistaken. to shine = most useful and common substitutions. hi. H is sented by n. resembles the The combinations ie. seeing that JK has just the sound of the Frenchy. /. a weakened form. is reprerepresented in Benfey by n. -ute. ri. to leave = Aryan answers to Aryan AR. n . p. Aryan G becomes g. chh. ch. . n and i are distinguished by the way in which t. gh. 3y-tiv.yaa. k. o. a. In Lithuanian. Thus rich. slight modifications. j. This is an For ^T. is perfectly distinct Skt. being very rare. becomes gh. It might also be printed as a Roman s . Ah. -v. h form than the Skt. chh. Aryan p becomes Sounds' in Curtius. as in Benfey.h. k. and often of great use in comparative infinitive mood of Russian regular verbs ends in -ate. . ia. ag-ere. The Skt. thus I print ri. abridged from Curtius. ri. r. which is no slight advantage. xxi confused with a. irregular verbs in or -it. sh. M. in Benfey.j. can be written as ph. Greek. the mere appearance to the eye cannot much matter. It is to be particularly noted thaty is to have its French value. n and n (or n). c. gutturals. By kh. which comes very near to as in English. table of 'Regular Substitution of . sometimes objected that the symbols ch. I follow the scheme in Benfey's Dictionary. are to be read with i as English y. to distinguish it from ie e. 2.kh. whilst c gives the notion of E. and Latin rather than with Teutonic. Aryan GH See the Aryan s becomes s and sh. n. pronounced of no consequence. {h. they occur . is aj. e. ri. ee.v. the complete alphabet is represented by t. ory. kh. -uite. An Aryan K becomes ch. u. to distinguish = it from >. ri. g. hi. and (by regular change from g to ) but the Skt. iu. col. The Slavonic consonants agree with Sanskrit. ph . Aryan x becomes /. especially when occurring as chchh . as in easy simplification. to drive. dh.BRIEF NOTES UPON THE LANGUAGES CITED IN THE DICTIONARY. mean the German all the sound of the letter. y x r 8 th d dh DH P B 6 p. n. which causes a slight confusion. The which is a very well preserved language. oui. Gk. are easily provided for. The only trouble is that. Monier Williams' Grammar. Other languages sometimes preserve a better thus the -/ AG.yea.you. dentals. t. and occasions no ambiguity. cerebrals. -iate. and consequently cch instead of chchh but what is gained in appearance is lost in r. Add the nasal symbol m. from kh.

In words derived from Hindi. scheme. k [which I have written as y]. or a reference to some authority. and ? (coll. p. is desired to verify the word cited. grando and gralus. and for ayin I have put the mark '. v. pp. so that. m. grando with Gk. daleth. r. b. I. by the use of a being in italics. has only just been mentioned. kh. gimel. J'under-e. 960-981 j>. is have therefore contented myself with denoting the alphabet beth. pp. Turkish. pp.f. since Gk. unless the contrary is said. The Arabic alphabet is important. z (coll. the reader can easily tell which /. pp. 314-330). ch. 331-370). /. Curtius. which I denote by n. 416-418). In Palmer's Dictionary. sh or s. i. z. the sdghir nun. which helps to form the E. e. The I denote ayin by the put kh for cheth. as in Palmer's Persian Dictionary. n. which is a common phenomenon in all Aryan languages. ch. Malay. 191-207). also h for . t. Palmer (coll. Conversely. but m. I. pp. . 6. kh. p. 981-984 contain !&. ARABIC. to denote that the sound is guttural. A..xxii BRIEF NOTES UPON THE LANGUAGES CITED IN THE DICTIONARY. Curtius omits the Latin /"as the equivalent of Gk. s. gives the complete alphabet in the form a \d. rid of Thus in Richardson's Dictionary. known. x a "*' vi x av vetv> X aM al xt". I have got j one ambiguity by using q (instead of K) for jj . Vanic'ek and Latin Etymology. '. by This gives the same symbol for samech and sin. Hindustani. hiare.] b. or the number of the column in Palmer's Persian Dictionary. i. and the corresponding Hebrew words can. s (coll. k. g. instance. 405-408). not E. as in the well-known example of F. used for Persian. 1660-1700 contain s. xdXafa and x a 'P etv '> - ^ may be added that of / for r. i. allied to Gk. s.y. since we XoAaStr. This might have been avoided. 160. j. Fick. ^= = anstr (for hanser*). pp. x initially. s. z (coll. /. other letters can be readily understood. friare. Richardson's system is as he uses / to represent ca and L (and also the occasional also s to represent v> z for i and k k for jj and d . xp'" Lat. be easily found. in every instance. tau is meant. the above list To of substitutions = : NON-ARYAN LANGUAGES: HEBREW. sin and lau . i^> ( (coll. s (coll. . heluus. pp. 408-416). 548-588 contain ^. 396-405). if it happens to be an initial letter (when it is the most important). It deserves to be added that Turkish has an additional letter. the rest of the word mark '. d. s. &c. ^ u^ and ^ rather vague. z. 232. pp. I Roman s and t for samech and lelh. it can readily be done. Hindustani. or z is meant. and Gk. z. we find r for /. in other cases. The vowels are denoted by a. i. d. fel. xoAafo. have Lat. 349-477 contain contain t. 764-794 contain^. and at vol. lusciniola. x<" is allied may fairly be inserted. '. A (coll. &c. more common. 949-960 contain ^a. w. u. hiems. this is difficulty meant. x on his own showing. q. if in any the spellings given in Richardson's Arabic Malay Dictionary it . k. by observing the number of the page (or column) given and . r. I give the page of the dictionary where word may be found. also (on comparative philology). the number of the page in Richardson or Marsden. and it seemed to be the simplest plan to use and Persian Dictionary (with very slight modifications). 705-712 contain >. gh. allied respectively to Gk. z. Max Muller's Lectures on the Science of Language . h. however. and pp. the same letters are distinguished as/ in the reference to Richardson's or Palmer's Dictionary. h. 121-159). 6. So also with leth avoided by making a note of the few instances in which samech occurs. s (coll. as in Lat. haruspex. X""^ X*-1> It becomes a question whether we ought not also to insert 'initial g' in the same place. pp. Lat. s. i. this it Both in But I think to Lat. Gk. (. h. rossignol and see Peile's Greek Authorities Benfey .y. the comparison of Lat. 6. vtordjanisary. and he denotes ayin by the Arabic character. g. sh. humus. &c. In other cases. nearly Lat. pre-hendere. had the words been more numerous. in order to prevent any mistake. z. 161). or in Marsden's and. h 2 (coll. occurring in the word_ymz'. being also But as the letters are variously transliterated in various works. 477-487 contain <>. 924-948 contain . Is. Chinese. whilst at the same time they I are tolerably well The Hebrew words in English are not very numerous. o. 692-712). in general. pp. 283-287). t (coll. zh. Initial h is. n. i) . to give. &c. 795-868 contain y*. p.

In comparing two words. and think without the slightest attempt at investigation or any knowledge of the history or Italian. the the time its earliest use and sense had been presented itself unasked. ascertain the earliest form and use of the word. E. and 5. oXos with 3.XX111 CANONS FOR ETYMOLOGY. and of Gk. It is useless to offer an explanation of an English word which will not also explain all the cognate forms. In comparing two words. from the German Pfingsten. are commonly to be considered as primary. Mere resemblances of form and apparent connection in sense between languages which have different phonetic laws or no necessary connection are commonly a delusion. ' Yet this primary and all-important rule is continually disregarded. and. in the form of definite statements. care. any infringement of phonetic laws 8. done so. 1. tracing changes of form. without any preconceived ideas about it.. and which many number of those who literally prefer a story about a word to a James born. much less from Finnish or Esthonian or Coptic. remain persuaded that Whitsunday is derived. of Gk. number of syllables. 9. at the same time comparing the vowel-sounds. there must always be when travelling to have borrowed words from one another. to I owing to that utter want of any approach dare say I myself believed in these things for many years which England in general has any philological training.' The more prosaic account of it. A and B. 2. As to the necessity for ascertaining the oldest form and use of a word. there cannot be two opinions. which they expect to be 'obvious' to others because over. they are worth giving. cura with E. that. history is set at defiance . and are nothing new. &c. borrowings are due to actual contact. Observe phonetic laws. an intelligible geographical contact between races that are supposed As to geography. history of a nation generally accounts old editions of Webster's used to be done in the English word is compared with Hebrew or Coptic. of all things. Few delusions are more common than the comparison of L. A and B. whole. charity. and observe chronology. unless we have evidence of contraction 2. It was knighted as makes short work of this Chronology is one of those unscrupulous inventions When an early for the constituent parts of its language. I have tried to observe. It would be easy to cite they were themselves incapable of doing better . belonging to the same language. Truly cognate words ought not to be loo much alike. Before attempting an etymology. 3. especially those which regulate the mutual relation of consonants in the various Aryan languages. ought to be reasonably accounted for . and other similar ones well known to comparative philologists. I. other related forms being taken from them. Strong verbs. They merely 'think it nothing of deriving words which exist in Anglo-Saxon from German first fancy that comes to hand. 6. These principles. and this is particularly true of olden times.' and take up with the a poor argument indeed. which merely express well-known principles. there is a strong probability that one language has borrowed the word from the other. of which A contains the lessei number of syllables. is to be regarded with suspicion. When words in two different languages are more nearly alike than the ordinary phonetic laws would allow.. 4. viz. there is a chance of a mistake. &c. is only too large. was with which English 'etymology' abounds. is The word surloin or sirloin often said to be derived from the fact that the loin people admire because they are 'so clever. by fairly etymology The words was less common. I have been led to adopt the following canons. or other corruption. not a portion only. for . but it is hardly necessary. Still. x <y with E. The whole of a word. and the so-called 'irregular verbs' in Latin. the word being in use long before James I. Where I have not A 1. that I have philological curiosities). and men are found to rush into etymologies of the language. and usually found frequently set out to find the etymology of a word traced. few examples will make the matter clearer. belonging to the same language and consisting of the same the older form can usually be distinguished by observing the sound of the principal vowel. in the Teutonic languages. nor did old English borrow Yet there are people who still from Prussia. as to clear the later editions of all such rubbish. which is some specimens which I have noted (with a view to the possibility of making a small collection of such I will rather relate my experience. in 7. Corrections can only be made by a more strict observance of the above canons. In the course of the work. and are not to be regarded. or (according to Richardson) by statement . and it was a good deed dictionary. ' Sir Loin by Charles II. Observe history and geography. 10. Old French did not borrow words from Portugal. A must be taken to be the more original word.

probably from the A. echiner' from the A. ' ' ' ' we go round and round. e" is a modification of 6 tells us at once thaty#/a.' or 'hale and hearty. oXor. whereas the information to be obtained from vowels is often extremely and few things are more beautifully regular than the occasionally complex. Phonetically. will see matters in a new light. food and that to Aenvzfood from feed is simply impossible. Suppose we take two Latin words such as caritas and carus. but this is a slight ground for the supposed equivalence of words of which the primary. or rive. 172. it is frequently not . It remains that these words both contain the letter r in common. cearu originally a diphthong. is eschiner in Cotgrave's Dictionary. charM is of course due to the L. S. caritatem. Many imagine the law not many years ago. the shorter form is the more original. and that the sb. and this we can tell by a glance at the words.S. as to which see that Grimm made it. But this is not the point at present under consideration. ace. certain . In many . Latin and Anglo-Saxon were thus differentiated in times preceding the earliest record of the latter. into existence. they require especial attention but as long followed. and so on in countless instances. to obey ' ' As to x^P"> the initial letter is x> a guttural sound answering to Lat.' at the outset. meant originally sorrow. whilst it means whole in the sense of entire or total. echine. When we put \apis and cdrus side by side. said to be derived from B. ea. one vowel-sound is educed from another. in L. see eschine. sarva. But the L. 5. just as in the case of cearu and cura. the ch is French. In the same way the vowel e in the verb to set owes its very existence to the vowel a in the past tense of the verb to sit. it is obvious that echiner. divide. which may We and were formation. it never meant. c and the L. as in L. has a stem car-o-. c to A. and it is. the later the apparent exceptions to this law present themselves.xxiv CANONS FOR ETYMOLOGY. to chine. eel-are hel-an. and if they do.S. and the difference might have been observed in the eighth century if any one had had the wits to observe it. and the original sense is 'in sound health. due to a peculiar pronunciation of the Latin c. attention or painstaking. . Ka\6s. when used initially. or break the back of (Cotgrave). gratia. backward. Curtius. answering to an older caru. has h. Span. originally. long been so remarkable. cura. the latter are perfectly confident that the adjective came first very easily turn into car-i-. A. that the vowels are different. This canon. is a little more difficult. cinan. and that. caridad. hdl (which is the old spelling of whole) has for its initial letter an h. care. and all other A. . S. contain the letter r\ Those who is. cdrus. with long a. dictionaries it is utterly neglected. the sole resemblance It is not worth while to pursue the subject further. and the F. The popular notions about 'Grimm's law' are extremely vague. S. and. S. which is the direction in this from F. i. and Latin equivalent words are seen to follow it. Putting eschine and eschiner side by side.' and to break the back of. Old Latin coira. c. to feed. is spelt with a long which cannot answer exactly to an original a. stands for original a. so that oXos answers to Skt. these things are wearisome. As to the Gk. Again. which is not denied. up by supplying new observed . = A S. allied to from L. S. was made out of it by adding a suffix . Old Lat. K. and the Greek alphabets soon shews these notions to be untenable. the back. to chine. answering to Gk. it is only a law in the sense of an observed fact. especially in the Teutonic languages. But in charity. A. do not correspond for where Latin writes c at the beginning of a word. fact. that they both all are confirmed in their prejudices and have no guide but the ear (which they neglect to train). by the very form of them. is a derivative tffdd. eckiner. requiring us to compare vowel-sounds. instead of echine being derived from the verb echiner. But the A. is commonly known as being due to Grimm's law. since which time Latin and Anglo-Saxon have been bound But the word law is then strangely misapprehended. the aspirate (as usual) represents an original s. as the law built When is suffixes at the end .' It may much more reasonably be compared with the Gk. the Latin. we find that the initial letters are different. A. sollus. and did not originally mean the same thing. we cannot consent to establish an exception to the rule in order to compare a single (supposed) pair of words which do not agree in the vowel-sound. yet often decisive manner in The very fact that the which. From the absurdity of deriving the F. whereas is B is its own ' offspring. It is a rule in all Aryan languages that words started from monosyllabic roots or bases. the A. to hide. as Cotgrave certainly meant us to understand . Thus Richardson derives no progress upward and chine from F. S. carilale or carila. cearu. Simple as this canon seems. . but it is extremely important. the A. The result is the consequence being that a word a reasoning in a circle. 4. derived from echine. which is only a secondary meaning of the Latin word. will remain of the same opinion still. senses were different. but some beginners may perhaps take heed. S. it is all in the natural course of things. all. cinan he might have been saved chink. as it is called A is . the greater the number of suffixes. The other canons require no particular comment. When the difference has once been perceived. Yet a very slight (but honest) attempt at understanding the English. by remembering that. S. before r following. but there which we should travel. whence also Ital. The former has a stem car-i-tat- . h. The fact of the equivalence of L. h or g. The E. To all who have acquired any philological knowledge.

Darley. [after 1300. Aldis Wright. [1627. tr. Scholemaster. Morris. Arabic. E.] Beves of Hamtoun. An English Garner. K. or Remorse of Conscience. Morris. Elberfeld. Brende. The Tale of. Etymological French Dictionary. 1350. Larramendi. and English. 2 vols. John. Lye. by H. ed. by the Rev.] Boethius. in AngloAnglo-Saxon Gospels. Chrestomathie Provencale . i.] abbreviation 'E. Berlin.M.. Bremen. A.S. [ab.] Blount's Law Dictionary. N.S. J. [1764-1768. 1858.] Roxburghe Club.. Advancement of Learning. London.975-] yElfnc's jElfric's Grammar. Parisiis.T. J. 5 vols. Oxford and London. [ab. English Imprinted at London by Jhon Day. John. cuence. 1878. Benfey see Sanskrit.T. B. The Gospel of St. Bremen Wbrterbuch . [1502. Romance [ - of. by C. W.S. By J.] Biblia Sacra Vulgatse Editionis. ^Elfric's [ab.] Essays.E. Third Edition.. Seventh English Dictionary. W.. Anturs of Arthur see Robson. T. by F.Viles and Furnivall . J. Lumby. V. ed. 880-900.M. Joseph Stevenson. Alexander. 1872. J. 1 580.] [1606-1616. Lowndes. see Harman's Caveat. 1849. E. ed. Whelock. Edinburgh. Wright.. Republished. a I list of the principal books referred to in the Dictionary.T. Blount. R. Chaucer Society. ed. 1859 Homilies ed. Skeat. 1875. J. Alvearie or Quadruple Dictionary.E. 1871. 1875. Beowulf. Bardsley's Surnames. A 1873. 1829. [ab. n. 975. J. Biblesworth.. T. [ab. Alisaunder.Wright. Cambridge. 1300.) ed.' signifies the Early English Text Society.S. the treatise of.. de. March.. M. R.S. Joseph Bosworth. bridge. 1552.. 1870. Barbour's Bruce. E. Clarendon Press. 1250-1300. 1876. [ab.S. with a statement. Singer. Grein. Andrew. R. pendious Anglo-Saxon and English Dictionary. Blackstone's Commentaries (cited in Richardson. ed. T. Walter Mapes. [ab. Bayerisches Wb'rterbuch. Third Edition.T. W.. d. Skeat. . 836. Earle. in Wright's Vocabularies .XXV BOOKS REFERRED TO THE The The following is IN THE DICTIONARY. Morton. E. Roger Toxophilus. and Todd's Johnson). London. see Old English Miscellany.. Skeat .] Boswell.A. ed ..E. ed.] Ascham. Jas.. Bartsch. 1869. [1340. Barnes. F. G. T. Brand. Series. Carl Horstmann. Skeat. R. Leipzig. Bardsley London. W. with the additions included in the Second. Berners see Froissart. Dictionary of the English Language .] Version of the history of the world by Orosius. Also. century.Thorpe. 1644. London. T. Persian. ed. London. The Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature. 1869. (See also the reprint in Matzner's Altenglische Sprachproben. [1560-1565. 1841. ed. of the editions which [See also the Additional List at p. Glossary of North Country Words. Beryn. Mark. A. 1732. Arber various dates. . 1674..S.. Richardson new edition. ed. Bestiary.] . y Latin. 1870. Also ed. 1868. 1838 (cited byStratmann. pr. R.S.] Bohn's Lowndes. ed. 1380. Smith. Ancren Riwle .E.. First Series. . Stuttgart. in most instances. London. the Debate of the printed in the Latin Poems of . Dr. E. 2 vols..S. .S. Bohn. par J. . Life of Johnson . John. London. see Tyndall. J.. 1864. 1775. ed. 1871.] Ash.35. CamThe Gospel of St. Arranged and revised. 1874. ed. ed. Walter de. Glossary. Alliterative ed. 1360. ed. 1838.T. ed. J.] . 1876. [1791. Lumby. Auctoritate edita. 1827-1837.. Aldis Wright . The Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge. 1838. Basque. 1320-1330?] Authorised Version. ed.T. Ettmiiller. Tumbull. Observations on Popular Antiquities. 1876. tr. E. 1880. Arber. (Record The Gospl of St. [1547. 1874-1876.. Saxon and Northumbrian Versions. [loth . A. see Alfred.D. L. Baret. The Camden Soc. 1851. 1870-1877. [1375. Sweet E. 1855. Morris.. ed. extra series. 1848. W. of Gregory's Pastoral Care. ed. 1691. ed. of Boethius. [1621.E.] Babees Book. 1868. Chaucer's translation of. see Weber's Metrical Romances. 1876. 1857. 1871. BasJ. pr. tr.. [ab.] terbuchs.E. ..] Natural History. Kynge Johan. 1865. R. Second Edition. Johnson. [1545. 880-900. 1230. G. 1848. pp. 1821. by W. tr. ed. ed. Thorpe (jElfric Society).' the English Dialect Society. or Sylva Sylvarum. F. [ab. 1861.] . Alfred. [ab.T. 1866. Arber.S. 1873.. ed. J. by H. with additions. 1551. ed. 1878. and ii.] Ayenbite of Inwyt. and 'E. 1846. London. Nomo-Xef ikon .Life of Henry VII. of Beda's Ecclesiastical History. Newcastle. D. Bavarian. Thorpe. [1570. ed. ed. = Authorised Version see Bible. Kyng. or other work.D.E.] Bailey. S. 1868. of Quintius Curtius. 1870. Aasen .] Blickling Homilies. Four 2 [ab. von Parts.. Abbott's Shakespearian Grammar.] Beda . Universal Edition. date within square brackets at the end of a notice refers to the probable date of composition of a poem have actually used. pr. a Play. . Brockett.] ed. Kemble. Body and Soul. San Sebastian. ed. Bale. Quedlinburg and Leipzig. J. London. Diccionario trillngue Castellano. &c.T. in Wright's Vocabularies. A Dictionary. Loth. herausgegeben von der bremischen deutschen Gesellschaft. 1877-18/9. 1440?] Arabic. 142-174. 17. E.E. Arber. 3 vols.. Fifth Edition. E. W. Furnivall . 1731.. ed. New Edition.] of Beda's Ecclesiastical History. 1639. Fumivall. R. J. W. by John Day . ed. M. Second Edition. a Law-Dictionary. Schmeller. reprinted from the First Edition.S. J. Beaumont and Fletcher. Kitchin. by G. The Be Domes Dasge. post 8vo. Paderborn. Blount. Bosworth. Workes of. King. W. Poems. De Consolatione Philosophiae. 1857. 1878. Breton. 1859. Oxford. W. Cambridge. 1561 (cited by Richardson). Furnivall. vols. Borde. 90-103. [1605. see Wright. John.. S.. . Awdelay's Fraternity of Vagabonds. B. W. Camden Soc. E. Fox.] ComBosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. [ab. J. Smith. ed.E. . London. Vols. The Gospel of St. M. Camden Soc. 1611. in Bohn's Antiquarian Library. A 2 vols. see Norwegian. 1811. by Dan Michel of Northgate. Our English Surnames. Dictionnaire Breton-Fran9ais. Morris. 1875.] Anglo-Saxon. ii. English Reprints. E. Zupitza.F. Lord. by Tho. Leo.T. pp. Works of.] Bacon.) [I3th century. tr. Versuch eines bremish-niedersachsischen Wor- Etymological English Dictionary. London. [l5th cent.] Alexander and Dindimus. E.E. ed. . 1869. Arnold's Chronicle. Croker. Ellis. London. J. Chrestomathie de 1'ancien Fran9ais. Luke. Alliterative aD '43-] reprinted. Vol. tr. Somner. ed. W. W. 1767.. 1864.T. Bible.T.) [ab. ed. Atkinson's Glossary of the Cleveland Dialect.Le Gonidec Angouleme. A. 975. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Lexicon Anglo-Saxonicum . See also Bosworth.S. [ab. F. J.E.T. Arber. E. Glossographia. Brachet. . Matthew. Rev.] Altenglische Legenden. [1597. J. 1853.E.

R. Robert. 1851.] .. 1811. A Large Dictionary. above. 1869-80. pr. Ducangii et aliorum in compendium accuratissime redactum. Anglo-Saxon and Early English Psalter. 1835. Poems. Pocket-Dictionary of the English and Dutch Lan' Leipzig . 3 vols. Shepherd. bp. Kibbenhavn. Cockayne. H. printed with Chaucer's Dream. London. [Died 1631. [1369-1400. Cornish. E. Coles. [1549. a far better edition is that by Hooper.. of English Poets. Lexicon Cornu-Britannicum by R. 1860. Britannia's Pastorals. Aldis Wright. (including Hudibras). R. English Gilds. Burke. Weymouth. S.] Fabyan's Chronicles of England and France. Ellis. W.] Hazlitt. A. [1782-1799. Burguy. Stevenson.S. S.] present work. Mariboe.S. Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language.E. .S. vol. 1810. Willmott. Leechdoms. and Letters. ed. Elyot.] Byron. of Lincoln ed. Piers Plowman. : . Diez. tr. Parts i-v.] Congreve.T. Poems of Michael Drayton : in Chalmers' British Poets. Got- . Lincolnshire Glossary. E. Small. Dampier's Voyages. not by Chaucer. Pegge's Kenticisms. 1872. Alliterative Poems. Peyron. Ancient Mysteries from the Digby MSS.) Pick.. [1516. 1858. 1810.T. J. Wortcunning. Tyrwhitt. 1430?] Select Collection of Old English Plays. Sir T. ed. Havelok.S. [1389-1450. J.T. Lyndesay. : [ab. [1501-1513. extra series. 1852. 1851. (An excellent and cheap compendium in one volume. of Tasso. in the Supplement to Littre's French Dictionary. 1874.E. tingen. Wilkin.. Gawayne. Amsterdam. Fisher.) Practical and Language. d. 1871. ed. F. 1874. 8vo. [1620-1706.. gjennemseet og rettet af W. Robert Series Bell. London. Camden Soc.E. Chaucer. Castle off Loue. Donald. Canterbury Tales (Chaucer Society.D. Third Edition... Diefenbach. Edinburgh. W. Levins. &c. Aenleiding tot de Kennisse van het verhevene Deel der Nederduitsche Sprake. [ab. Worterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen. Old Dutch Dictionary. George. ed. Juliana. 1878. L. Eastwood and W. from Chaucer to Cowper. E. Concise edition. 21 vols. Berlin and Paris. [i 5th cent. with English Cyclopaedia. Shepherd. 3 vols. ed. [isth cent.. E. Partenay. Palladius. (Surtees Society. [1481.E. .S. A New guages. Smith. In tome iii.) Treatise on the Astrolabe . C. Dr. Murray. Public par M. 1872. Daniel. Halliwell.) [1598. 4 vols. See Alfred. as cited in the [1369-1400. 1874.. W. Select Works. 1865.] Coventry Mysteries. Early English Pronunciation. 1754.] late poem. the Globe Edition. this book is A New meant. 1867 . (In the Annotated ed. E. 1866. J. London and Edinburgh. London. W. 1874. 1873. Civil Wars see English Poets. St.] Fairfax. Fourth Edition. of Boethius. [l6th cent. Rotterdam. Payne. (Reprint by F. : Delfortrie Wright. ex glossariis C. A French and English Dictionary.S. no title-page. J. (References to these are marked E. F. Bray. 1681 (cited by Richardson).. Genesis. A Glossary of Old English Bible Words.. 1870. E. 2 vols. Douglas.Moxon.] Burns. i. Vergleichendes (Modernised and [1600. Morris. Dr. 1658. Troybook. of Grammaire de la Langue D'Oil. Complaint of Scotland. 1380. Llandovery and London. J. Chaucer Society and extra series. Skeat. see Icelandic. and Todds Johnson). Greek Etymology . Re-edited by James A.-H. Warne n. Poetical Works. . an.] Engelmann et Dozy. publications of the.XXVI BOOKS REFERRED TO IN THE DICTIONARY. Cotgrave.. 2me edition.D. D. quities. 1565. G. 1874-8. B.] English Poets. 1855. Warne and Co. 1850. ed. Tusser's Husbandry.) [1531. Toulmin Smith. 1561. Gavin.] Cowper. ed. 1843. 1660. [isth cent. conducted by Charles Knight. An Early English Translation of an Old French Poem. n. London.] Chambers's Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. Thesaurus Linguae Romanse et Britannicse. Works of. (Published for the Philological Society. J. and Starcraft of Early England.T. Chaucer's Works. Blickling Homilies. D. Early English Text Society's publications. ed. Chalmers. 1866. Molbech.) A [Hudibras.. Diary of. by H. Paris. C. R. Burguy's Glossaire. extra series.) E. Evelyn. R. Anatomy of Melancholy (cited in Richardson. [1595.] Dryden.. tr. Works of. Will.. Whitby Glossary. = English Dialect Society. (Black-letter Edition . Murray.T. Morris.] Chinese. 2 vols. C. London. J. 1835 (cited by Stratmann). Floriz.] Curtius. Tymms. Richard Morris E. in Pye-corner. ed. Edinburgh. London. 1875. Myrour of Our Lady. . see Anglo-Saxon. W. 1868. Dramas. Utrecht. Devic. the Court of Love (This edition contains the first edition of also the Testament of Love. Eastwood and Wright's Bible Wordbook. (Including Ray's Collections. 1832. London. tr. 410. [i3th century. Williams. Willmott.] Cooper. 1777. ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimse LatinDucange. Hunt. C. 1684.T. Seinte Marharete. 1861. 1867..) . D. ed. R. Ten Kate.] Cowley. &c.] Drayton.] Butler's Poems London. 1663-1678. Tauchnitz. see Gest Hystoriale. Poems.. Paris. by Robert Grosseteste...) [1640-1680. 15 vols.S. [1391. Hexham. Aldis Browne. 1865. By S. publisher) reprints of Chaucer's Minor Poems. Robert.E. Holderness Glossary. London. Etymologisches Worterbuch der Romanischen Sprachen. ed. English and Dutch. Early English Homilies. par G.. 1688. Ferrall og Repps dansk-engelske Ordbog. Fourth Edition.] Bury Wills. English Gilds. reprint by F. John. Coptic. first printed. Second Edition. ed. . Bonn. spoilt in the editing. Destruction of Troy . 1878. 1873. Legends of the Holy Rood. ed. Plays.' alone is . Barbour. d.) ed. (Black-letter Edition. 1876. 7 parts. by W. ed. Hali Meidenhad. H. Joseph. 1869. 1855. Ettmiiller. ed. 1866. J. ed. London. [1613-1616. Songs. Fifth Edition. ed. Egilsson Ellis. By A.) Early English Homilies ed. 1300. Works of.. The Book of Days. Lexicon Linguae Copticae. of Palerne. F. J. Chapman. Par W. ed.T. Court of Love a late poem (not by Chaucer) first printed with Chaucer's Works. &c. tr. (Record Series. E. W. 1841. H. see Flemish. E. Complaynte of Scotlande. 1859. Randle Cotgrave with another in English and French .. A.T. Published by the Society of Antiquaries. 1869.. [1774-1776.. L'Abbe Migne. O. by W. .. origiDodsley. Plays (cited by Richardson). Sir Thomas. A. ed.. ed. Howell. Three Supplements and Index. [ab. .E. 2 vols. T.] Six-text edition. Chambers. &c.) See E. 1874. First Series. S. of Reynard the Fox. Williams.. Digby Mysteries. London. Morte Arthure.] Bruce see Barbour. Be Domes Daege. 1853. Alexander. Lancelot.E. ed.. J. .) [1370?] Caxton. Thorpe. this . by Wm.] [Died 1701. Oudemans. (In Bonn's Standard Library. 3 vols. 1843-1847. Ayenbite..) Dutch. W. Chinese-English Dictionary of the Amoy vernacular. see English Poets. Easy method of Learning the Danish Second Edition. Csedmon. 2 vols.. M.) E. the Poetical Works of.] cited. Dictionnaire Etymologique de tous les mots d'origine Orientate .) [ab. Second Series. Political. Lund.] Browne.] Danish.S. ed.E. L. Frankfurt. Kilian. 22 vols. [1786-1796. tr. 1870.. by J. Sewel. composed by Mr. A. 1868. (Shakespeare Society. 1876. R. Glossaire des mots Espagnols et Portugais tires de 1'Arabe. Shanghai. London. By W. Chaucer. with his notes and glossary to which were added (by the London. Fumivall.Dansk Ordbog. 1871. an English Dictionary. Dictionary of the Bible. Knight de la Tour. O.The Castel of Helthe. (When 'Dan.] The Gouemor. . Maigne D'Arnis.S. Henry Ellis. A Rev.' is cited. by Wilkins and England. MidYorkshire Glossary. By the A book is meant. Carew ginally published by R.] Cursor Mundi ed. by H. A. Lexicon Manuale itatis. 8 vols.S. Old Dutch Dictionary. Myrc.. King Horn. sprachgeschichtlich angeordnet. A Miscellany of Popular Anti2 vols.D. (When only Du. [1633-1667. 1723. A reprint of Tyrwhitt's edition of the Canterbury Tales.S. [ I 598-i634-] Translation of Homer. R. Vergleichendes Worterbuch der Gotischen Sprache.] Early English Psalter.] Works.C. [Died 1729. Arber.. 4 vols. 1873. (In this edition the lines are not numbered . 1460. 1561. R. E. A. Kjobenhavn. 1864. Turin. F. extra series. of Virgil. A.) 1864-1866. English Dialect Society's publications.) [1533. ed. Douglas. A large Netherdutch and English Dictionarie..] Burton.. Amsterdam. [1621.

. 1390. E. ed. Nouvelle Edition. A Mcesp-Gothic Glossary.W. ed. Fifth Edition. St. Contemplations on the Old and New Testaments. French. C. A Dictionary of the Hindee Benares. cent..E. see Bartsch.ii^iaiiu (Second Books). J. by Churchill Babington. Heimann. J.E. Ihre . Bate. G. par MM. Outzen. W. 1872.] : [died 1633. . extra series. by F. Viles and F. 1609. in Anglo-Saxon. 18651876. Isumbras. With an Appendix containing a list of words etymologically connected with Icelandic. Friesio. or to Hamilton and Legros. 1869. Oxford. Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. 1864. Auban. Jackson. 1280. (New Shakspere Society). Reprint. of the English Nation. J. Richard Morris.S. 1878. Hindustani and English Dictionary. Robert Forby.] Perry. Vie de Seint [1567. Longer English Poems London. (Cited by Richardson.T. Howell. Hazlitt. Skeat and Sir F. 15 vols. A W. M. [i6th cent] Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum Lipsise. G. Dictionary of the Gaelic Language.). Georgina F.) Vols. by the Rev. Gottingen. George. C. Hebrew.. Poems of. [1340. First Series.S.. 1859. Flower and the Leaf. Koolman.E.iijJiu'ii . ed. Gay.S. 1865. fohns. (When only G.. by Lord Bemers of which I have a black-letter copy. Shropshire Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary. ed.] Halliwell. I5o!8. ed.. a vols. Romance of. of the late R. ed. [ab. 1837. Geo. Panton and D. Feiling.. or most copious and Florio. 1868. ed. A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words. printed in the Thornton Romances. A. 1876. Sir T. and Oxenford. 1865. Richard Rolle de English Prose Treatises.T.] Hamilton . B. Word-book. 1857.E. Forby.. Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden.Furnivall. Complaint and Testament of Creseide Chaucer's Works.. ed. G. G. Vincent. 1869. ed. T... 1868. with Soc.E. Third Edition.. 3 vols. W. S. [1633. J. 1849. Works of. 1660. of Ammianus Marcellinus . M. Queen Anna's New Worlde of Wordes. with a sup- Anglo-Saxon poetry. Mobius. [1597. Horn.) Gesta Romanorum. Fletcher. R. Paris. pr. [1577. Cockayne. 1866.] Herbert. Dictionarius . Vols. Epistoke Ho-Elianie. Rawson Lumby.] Herbert. by Macleod and Dewar.] Gaelic. The Story of.. London. 1866.S. English Works of. Irish. [Died 1732. by W. 1861. 1860. 18221837.J. (Cited by Richardson.E.. Hali Meidenhad. Hafhias. E. Rev. 2 vols. G. Holland. supplement (see Devic) .] J. . 1875. 1868.O. Fifth Edition.T. J. wanting vol. Havelok the Dane. John de. Leo- (When only 'F. . Harrison. Worlde of Wordes. London. . [13* cent. 1879 i s 8i. Meadows ' Edition. Kopenhagen.] . Donaldson. 1 865. Poems Genesis and E. J. 1864 reprinted. of R. Edinburgh. Glasgow. F. 1868. Judges.T. 1340.T. C. by John Longmuir. Skeat. ed.] Icelandic. . Hindustani. von K. ed.T.. in.. . Presburg.W. this Isidore. 3 vols.] .. W. 1665. Hungarian. J. Delfortrie. Grein. an Alliterative Homily of the I2th century. Gascoigne. Brief Biographical Dictionary. Dictionnaire Franco-Normand. ed. J. Fallon. Lumby. by John Awdeley .d. by G. by the late Rev.) Grimm.. Morris . based on the MS. pp. G. A New Edition. 1872. Scheler. J.S. tr. London. Magyricae Linguae Lexicon.) Metivier. Gamelyn.. Dr. 1360. Vigfusson.] ui and i iiiiu ** Description of England \avwmt <uiu Third i/i. Skeat.A. 1874 1876. S. Legros. an alliterative Romance-Poem. [ab. and Blancheflour . Fifteenth Italian and English Dictionary. Cotgrave. Arber. Heliand Glossarium der friesischen Sprache. Sprachschatz der Angelsachsischen Dichter.. or Dictionarie of the Italian and English tongues. . E. J. . London. vols.. Linguarum veterum Septentrionalium Thesaurus. 1865. Hampole. 3. Philadelphia. n. 4 vols. E. Second Edition. Andresen. ed. J.. 1844. Satires in Six Books. . collections An 2 vols.S. 1872. London. Hall. Benares. A. London. Herrtage.E.) Home Tooke .E. with Henrysoun. 1858. Paris. 1866.. Halliwell. London. Flowers of the Field .! (Camden Madden... Gothic Gower's Confessio Amantis. and ii. Rev. 1861. of Pliny's Natural History. (Bp. Pricke of Conscience a Northumbrian! Poem. see Tyndall.' is cited. iii.] S. In 4 parts. E. G.T. C. see Tooke. exact Dictionarie in Italian and English. A Hatton Correspondence (1601 i I 1704) . E. E. 1603. SeeTrevisa. ed. 1865. J. A Dublin. 1561... 1861. tr. B. Works of in Migne's Cursus Patrologicus. Forbes. abridged by John Johnston.. Floriz and Blancheflour. 1859. [First ed. D. W. Altnordisches Glossar. Hexham . the reference is either to Cotgrave.BOOKS REFERRED TO IN THE DICTIONARY. folio..F. von N. Analogies des Langues Flamande par E. 1678. Kyng Horn. Thompson. 1874. 1865. [12501300 ?] German. H. tr.T. 1634. 1869. see French. Scheler.' is cited. J. . 1860. 1857. ten Doorkaat.C. (First Edition. by W. 2 vols. M. Bibliothek der Angelsachsischen Poesie. tingen.). Hamilton Dictionnaire International Fran9ais-Anglais. ts). R. Fisher.T. 1220.) 1878. 2 vols. of Plutarch's Morals. W. 1873. Hindustani Dictionary. (Cited by Richardson. (With a Register (Index) by K. Leipzig. A notice. see Old Saxon. Reinhold Pauli. this book is meant. Cassel and Gottingen. Lexicon Poeticum antique Linguae Septentrionalis. E. London. C.. printed with the Fraternitye of Vacabondes. ed. ed.] Language. C. in Wright's Vocabularies. London. Hales. Phineas. Egilsson. 1872. Froissart. edidit E.. C. London. 1830. by B. Dictionnaire d'e'tymologie Fran9aise. Dictionary.E. 1879-. Dr.S. [1393.] ** *i W.) Guillim. M.) [1523-25. 120 138. Deutsche Grammatik. Gottingen.. ' extra series. les Mayor. 1877. 1879. [isth cent. Oxford. A commonly (Philological Society). R. E.] Golden Booke (cited by Richardson). [isth cent. Burguy. Haydn's Dictionary of Dates . besonders in nordfriesischer Mundart. J. i. London. O'Donovan. 1703 5.. von Basel.A.] . Fliigel . ed. ed. Voiages. . Fourth Edition. 4 vols. ed. (Record Publications.. (Bp.) tr. 1858. (My copy is imperfect.] Exodus. 1857. see Swedish. see Dutch. see German. New edition.. E. extra series. I and 2 are bound together. Poems of. Familiar Letters. [1612-1615. D. London. [i4th cent. Littr6..] Greek. Cleasby . W. Hindi. Gest Hystoriale of the Destruction of Troy an alliterative Romance. et E. by Lord Berners. J. Icelandic-English Dictionary. 1840. 1870..S. John Display of Heraldry. [End 1 3th Poem of the fifteenth century. A. Willmott.S. &c. 1598.) Haldeman. London.T. Memoire sur Allemande.) Florio. London. Hall.] . Dictionnaire de la langue Fran9aise. [When Ital. see Italian. par A. et Anglaise Florio Floriz . John. Dr. printed in company with Chaucer's works. M.. ed.ed. Bruxelles et Londres. by E.T.P. 1839. the Tale of. 1866. Bruxelles.S. 1534.. O'Reilly . Oxford. London. Roquefort.D.] Harman's Caveat . 1863. 1879. von Richthofen Got. with Trevisa's translation. tr. vi.' is cited without further . book is meant. 1753. Altfriesisches Worterbuch.. see English Poets. Hakluyt. A. pr.S. English Version of. Affixes of English Words. Hazlitt.. Printed in Wright's edition of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. 1611. London. S.K. 2 vols. O. 1598. J. O.. 1876 [Died 1535-] Flemish. [ab. London. Travels . Philemon . E. An Irish-English Dictionary.sL. J. The Principal Navigations. of. [ab. (An excellent dictionary for the whole of W. see English Poets. R. This is the Life of Marcus Aurelius. 1869 and 1874. Furnivall. E. . Rawson Lumby. Richard Morris. S. Higden. reprint of Dodsley's Collection of Old Plays. Wackernagel. E. S. Worterbuch der Ostfriesischen Sprache (unfinished). Thirteenth Edition. Job. I833- without a title-page..S. (Contains the Pentateuch. &c. J. Altdeutsches Handworterbuch . See Old Saxon. Joshua.E.] Gawayn and the Green Knight . 4th ed. by Fliigel ed. Heyne. in one. Hickes. E.-J. The Vocabulary of East Anglia.. 1867. Frith A Garlande.i. [ab. Hole. [Died 1577.E. Dankovsky..) Bibliothek der Angelsachsischen Prosa. plement by Italian. pold. Instructions for Forreine Travell (1642) .

(Cited at second-hand. by Sir F. Matzner. R.] Globe Edition.] Legends of the Holy Rood.. B.) Partenay.. Sir D. ed.. London. [1551.T. (Reprint.] . [ I(>44-] Minot. Old Saxon. ed.. Dexter Cleveland. 1725. Etymologische angelsaechsische-englische Grammatik. Hales.E. The Book of Ser Marco Polo. E. Lectures on the English Language. 2 vols. Etymologisches Worterbuch der englischen Sprache.E.. 1860. see Icelandic. 1874.. Dial. . M. Ben. 1873. 1350. von G. [Died 1637. printed as an introduction to the Tale of Beryn. Sprachproben . see Italian and Spanish. Wright (for the Record Commis. 1872 in 1875. J.. Elberfeld. [The Student's Manual of the English Language. 1877. W. Cunningham. poems of. The And see Morte Arthur. Dr. see Danish. Marharete see Seinte. [Died 1674. Warne. Legonidec . J. G. Berlin.S.E.. Malory. Molbech . W. 1875. the Rambler. Loth. E. [ab. Pegge. Madden. ed. n.T. . Myrc's Duties of a Parish Priest. 1846. of the Eng. Heyne.. Norsk Ordbog med Dansk Forklaring. R..S. 1810. B. 1865. 1627. z vols. see Maundeville. 1870. and Brock. White and J. London. [ab. Neckam. Gifford. M.E.) London. Pijnappel. H. London.S.-Col. S. Notes and Queries (published weekly).S. Weimar. A. Malay. (An excellent work. O. [ab.] Lyndesay. Dr. &c. Sir T.) 1847. Joseph of Arimathie. 1871. H. London. 1863 . ed. [ab. H. London.. 3 vols. Rev. A Muller.] Palladius on Husbandrie in English .) North. 1812.] Perry. 1862. Malayalim. Worterbuch. 1827. 1871. 3 parts. 1868. Knt. [Reprint. Amsterdam. H. [1352.. Thos.T. London. London. Levins. Todd. Morte Darthur. ed.. Lt. W. Historical Outlines of English Accidence.T. vol. Berlin. Jonson. 1873. ed. von E. 1866. Reprinted. 2 vols.. Palmer. Lithuanian. Liber Albus . Codex Diplomaticus JEri Saxonici. R. . P. Thomas Hearne. J. C. ReThe First Edition. Lately re-ed. Soc. 1868. 1871. by Dr. The Book of the . edition. 1870. First Series. . Clavigero's History of Mexico. Richard Lord Braybrooke. and Verbal Index by C.T. nebst einem Wb'rterbuche.] And see Boswell. 1843. [izthcent. 1872.I 4 20 -] Mandeville . Juliana. Liddell and Scott see Greek. . by Col.. E. Eighth Edition. A. R. 1866. Lodge.. 1869. ed. R. F. Works of.] Minsheu. [ab. Old and Middle English. of Plutarch. F. Marlowe's Works.. Cothen.) [ab. Smith. 3 vols. . . E. 1868. [Died 1593. H. second. Richard Morris.. pr. 1877. Halliwell in 1866. Romance of.. 1787. 1440. Manipulus Vocabulontm.) London. Orosius Outzen Ovid...S.. see Dutch.. .S. E.T. P. A Comparative Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Language. W.. and in Matzner' s Sprachproben.) [17501752. W. Metivier. 1868 73 fifth. F..xxvni BOOKS REFERRED TO IN THE DICTIONARY.. 1871. E. Seven Sermons before Edward VI. 1867. E. 1865. E. [ab.. 1872. E. E. 96-119. Cassel and Gottingen. and O.] Pardonere and Tapster.. Old English Homilies see Early English Homilies. extra series.] Matzner. W.i867 1869.. F. 1869. [1469. London. [^th century. 1430. by J. Wheatley.S. Lancelot of the Laik.. 1300. E. Leipzig.S. 1338. L. Weise. Halle. White. author. Norwegian. Manning Latinum. 1876.S. London. [Died 1640. Ivar. Low German. in Political Poems and Songs relating to English History. First Series. H. Lydgate. 185661 third. R. Dictionary of the Malayan Language. . by Halliwell and Wright.T. Owl and Nightingale. Jehan Palsgrave. 1866. as illustrated and improve Langtoft. W. Lumby. The Poetical Works of John Milton. a vols. A Glossary to the Works of English Authors. Marsh. 1551 . Dr. Sir T. 3 vols. printed in Series C. Society's publications. De Utensilibus pr. Oxford. 1863. Second Edition. see French. [ab. d. [1579. Cullen. ed. ed. F. Skeat.) Maundeville The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundeville. Paderborn. Old English Miscellany.. Morris. In two parts. [12001250. H. More's Utopia. Works of. 1850 =5. Lesclaircissement de la Langue Francoyse. par Maistre Palsgrave. Peacock.] Latimer. [1570. 1772. Marco Polo.] in his Humour. [14221509. Lt. 186267 fourth. H. Skeat.] tr.E. J. E. ed.E. 1877. 1440.E.. 1859. ed. 1859. London. (Reprint. Nesselmann . . 1865. E.. Gairdner. W. . Paderborn.E. W. Opera Omnia. Cockayne J. 1866.S. ed. E. Arber. with a life of the New edition. E. ed. An Alphabet of Kenticisms . [J549-] Latin-English Dictionary. 1875. . 1872. Arber. see French. 1530. E. . Meadows Mexican.. 1500 3 vols. 1839- 1848. by R. E. B.T.] A Glossary of Words used 18601865. Blunt. Maleisch-Hollandsch Woordenboek. see Lithuanian. . print. London.] Knight of la Tour-Landry. 1520. London. Morte Arthure (an alliterative poem) ed. [ab. pp. ed. see Spanish.] Marsden see Malay. Parker Society Publications. Sir T. Kersey. L.] Every Man 1598. Erster Band.. 1561. Ovidii Nasonis . 1870. Yule. S. 2 vols. K. Johnson. E. . ed. Marsden. E. Lyly.T. London. . And see Malory. Cunningham. A. Mobius .] St. Examen London. M. Leaves from a Word-hunter's Notebook.] . The Guide into the Tongues. F. Bailey..] K. A. 410. Manley and Corringham. from the Italian by C. J. Angelsachsisches Glossar. see Friesic. . A. Koolman .] Kemble. 1715. London. (My knowledge of it is due to the extracts in Morris's Specimens of Early English (First Edition). J. Dial. Layamon's Brut.] the Wapentakes of Peacock. Worterbuch der Littauischen Sprache. E. Paris. see Alfred. ed. 6 [Early isth vols. Aasen. London. Shakespeare and his contemporaries. E. Kb'nigsberg. North. Historische Grammatik der Englischen Sprache. particularly Leo. [ab. F. J. Memoirs of. with diuers Addicions. London. &c.T. The Storie of Thebes .] Massinger. London. printed in 1557. Oxford.T. ed..S. . E.. [1557. 1876. E.. A London. E. F. 1879. cent. See Beryn.] Paston Letters. ed. of Sir T. Skeat . 1740. London. T. Second Edition. Berlin. Lincolnshire. Kilian . 1869. [1659 1669. 1612. March. G.. by the Rev. . S.E. 1852. 1845.] Morris. 2 vols. Stratmann. Ormulum ed. And . 3 vols. W. 1876. More. 1878.T. (The excellent Index has been of much service. Skeat. 1851.T. Christiania.B. E. tr. in Wright's Vocabularies. 1839 [1356. H. Lectures on the Science of Language.S. London. Dictionary of Malayalim and A English. 1872. comprising his Diary. Nesselmann. C. London. - .] Dictionarium Saxonico-et-GothicoLye. mit ausfuhrlichem Kleinere altniederdeutsche Denkmaler Glossar herausgegeben von M. . T.] Koch. J.S. F. 1872... 1867.] .-Col. Berlin. &c. J. ed. Cottayam. Works of. King Horn.] see Riley. Zweiter Band [unfinished].S. [Before 1300. [ aD . B. ed. See Ducange. 2 vols. ed. E. Heliand mit ausfuhrlichem Glossar herausgegeben . H.] W. 1868. Second sion). 1872 1876. Wheatley. Matzner. Brock. Areopagitica ed. C. 1852. see Breton. Englische Grammatik. Wright.E. by Robert of Brunne ed. Heyne. Mahn.. newly translated and ed. ed. Eng.. 1865. Wright.. see Persian. ed. printed at the end of Chaucer's Woorkes. Oliphant. appeared in 1865. 1420.. Euphues 1580.T. Robinson. ed. G. by the Rev. 1868. Fifth Edition. London. English Dictionary. (Cited by Richardson. 1868. 1874 79. or the Holy Grail.E. Nares. T. Lumley. see Friesic. Milton. The Flays of Philip Massinger. [Died 1535. Latin. W. Altenglische Sprachproben.. ed.] Myrour of Our Lady. T. Part III. Oxford. Miiller. ed. See Bremen Low Latin. S. H. ed.] Peter Langtoft's Chronicle. Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language j ed. 1556 . New edition. von M. Palmer. ed. (Society of Antiquaries.E. ' reprinted by J. . Max. Riddle. J. tr.E. Pepys. Arber. Lithe" .E. . 1 200. i. Etymologische Untersuchungen. London.

Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae.. Stratmann. [A Latin Psalter. W.A. English-Russian. J. A. E. by M. E. by Wm. [Died 1768. Way. By W. Pierce the Ploughman's Crede. 1440. by E. 1820.] 1724. 1470. A Dictionary of the English Language. J. Kal. 1875Shakespeare's Plutarch . 1875 76. Edinburgh. 1876. 1632. Ailland. Furnivall..] Seinte Marharete. by R. 1858. in Metrical Romances. T. London. . Schmidt. 1 86 1.] [1689... 2 vols. B. 1871. . C-text (latest version).S. 1847. 5 vols. by W.E. The Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman . W. C. Weimar. The. Meadows. 2 vols. 7 parts. 1579 Fairy Queen. Dictionary in Spanish and English. Handlyng Synne. rins Anglo-Latinus Princeps. revised for the second time. Sanskrit. printed with the C-text of Piers the Plowman. prints. The Seven English Verse. E. 1873. [The chief source of the etymologies in Johnson's Dictionary. New parallel Dictionaries of the Russian. ed. Vullers. resumido do diccionario de Vieyra. Spelman. F. Stow. 1867 68. Arber. der 1866. London. about 1394 A. Glossaire de la Langue Romane. Bart. 469 . by M. Sandys. see French. Abbott. 1867. Third Edition. Romaunt of the Rose. 1876.S. Works of.. W.T. [When book is meant. Wright. 1849. Political Nouveau Dictionnaire . E. D. ed.] London. and Paris. London. Notes to the three texts.. Nenman Spectator. Ritson's Metrical Romances. this book is Dictionary. 1810. Commonly mistaken for Chaucer's. 1862. this Spanish and Richthofen see Friesic. compiled the I2th. St. ed. A.] Provencal. 1872. Poems of. Seoane. (Very valuable. Concise Dictionary of the Persian Language . 1871. Second edition. is cited without further . London. Wrig bright. n. (^Elfric Society). R. 1878. glosses. ed. Third Edition.. B.. [1 Me and be not Wrothe ed. Robert of Brunne .. [When 'Span.S. 1640. Wright. [1582. By J. A-text (earliest version) .T. London. Cambridge and London. [1595. 1842. ed. 1875. Puttenham. Smith. 2 vols. New London. Paris. the Rev. Vieyra. and dicto. originally compiled by and Baretti . A notice. 1879. tr. M. Vol. Pricke of Conscience see Hampole. Selden. Oxford. (Record Publications. I3th. by A. J. meant. Seven Sages.. (In two parts. Richard the Redeles. Works of. Table-talk . : .S. J. ed. W. 1843. Morley. Thos. Arber. 1623. 1843. 2 vols. London. Sanskrit-English Dictionary. A. ed. circa A. J. 1857. Morris and edition. London.. . MCCCCXL. ed. edition. 1870. Richard Coer de Lion see Weber. auctore fratre Galfrido Grammatico Ed. 1842. Specimens of English Literature. Liber Albus The White Book of the city of London . by Dr. B-text (second E. = Promptorium Parvulorum sive Clericorum DictionaPrompt. Furnivall . Dictionary.E. A Dictionary of the Old English Language. Concise Bible Dictionary. W. contains Lybeaus Disconus King Horn . tr. by F.) [1440. 1849. Religious. Zur Geschichte des Indogermamschen Vocalismus. 2 vols. i8oS. 7 vols. 1596. M. 1839. London. Berlin and London. Smith.. St.] Songs and Carols. 1868. . London. 3 vols.. . and English Languages. Third Edition.. Cockayne..] Russian. K. Schmeller . J. see Shakespeare. contains Ywaine and Gawin .' only is cited. B. version).D. 1590 Stanyhnrst. in four parts. 1866. O.. W. 2 vols. London. Re-arranged and edited by W. Richardson. St. Raynouard. see Tottel. being a selection from North's Plutarch. by T. The Select Poetry of Sir Walter Scott. RussianEnglish.] Roquefort. Schmidt. pp. Perceval see Thornton Romances. 4to. Skeat Eng. Sir P. 1867. C. Richardson see Arabic and see Persian. H. Lectures in Welsh Philology. Richardson . 1582.Concordance to the Works of.. London. [ab. and Halliwell. The Arte of English Poesie. Eighth Edition..] 1875- Portuguese. G. by F.] 1869. ed. London. T. Rhys. German. of Virgil's JEneid. Camden Soc.] Skelton's Poetical Works . Fourth Part. ed. ed.) 2 vols. 521. Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum Oxford.] Polish. Bonn. Robinson. H. : Reliquiae Antiqux.) [1394. .E. [i4th cent. and printed with his Works. Indogennanische Chrestomathie. E.. 1868. 1856. Ancient Engleish (sic) Metrical Romancees (sic) . Skeat. Wright. Carlsrnhe. (An early imitation of Piers Plowman. T. [1200 1250?] Salomon and Saturn. S. London. Aldis Wright. Political .] The Seuyn Sages (another copy). French..] Spanish. Clark and W.. 1706. book is London. ed.] Skinner. Wright. Persian. J. Minsheu.. London.] [1711 1298 1393. Songs ed. J. ' Skt. S. T. by an anonymous author. 1879.. H. Novo Diccionario Portatil das linguas Portugueza e Ingleza. ed. Rietz .] A Raynouard see Provencal.] Spenser. Ray. King of Tars Emare Sir Orpheo . An English translation of the French Roman de La Rose. London. Third Prior. Oxford. See Weber. E. A notice. by E. ed. Arber. M. London. Riley's Memorials of London. 1847.] . Sidney. 1300.] Sanskrit Dictionary. i. W. Prior. J. London. Skeat. J. (Percy Society). F. A Relation of a Journey an. Kemble. Thos. in the same volume. Hales. A. Hearne. W. Rev. [1389-1450. Psalterium Davidis Latino-Saxonicum vetus. [Died 1721. W. 1877. 1671. Weimar.-iv. R.] Poems and Lives of Saints. ed. Juliana. [Died 1616. and Love Poems.T. S. Reprinted. F. of the Portuguese Language. John A Collection of English Words not generally used. G. R.. English Gilds. 6 vols. contains Le bone Florence . by Riley. iii. [ab. [When 'Pers. A Grammar Paris. ed. 1869.S. 3 vols. by W. Leipzig. W. Johnson. 1874. Skeat. Survey of London.] Slang Dictionary . J. Morris. L. d. Smith. ii.. Toulmin. A. see Bavarian Dictionary. relating to English History.) Weimar. W. Berlin. New 1714.] Piers Plowman. 1874. ed. London. Paris. 1871 and 1875. Portatif Francais-Polonais et Polo- Leipzig. In Arber's ReLondon.. [ab. London. J. London. Dialect Society. 1873. A Surrey. Lexicon Persico-Latinum. Riley. Schmidt. J. Furnivall (Roxburghe And see Langtoft. 1851 Political. 1871. pp.] Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle. Spanish and English Dictionary. 1862. Specimens of Lyric Poetry written in England in the reign of Edward I . Chronicle of England.D. [1362 1400. Skeat. Cockayne and Brock. London. by A. 1843. 1869. 1880. H.E. London. ed. this Scheler . Petersburg. 1847. Persian. . 1298. F. E. Skeat. nais-Francais par A. 1829. A. Gary.] Percy Folio MS. A.] [Died 1529. 1865. . [ab.E.D.D.] Shakespeare Lexicon . Roy. Apology for Poetrie ed. W. [16741691. 1862. J. ciii cxxiv. Dyce. Printed in vol. Edition. by from writings of F. 1394 1579. Poems and Songs Compendium der vergleichenden Grammatik indo-germanischen Sprachen. H. 1589. London.S. 1420. W. and I5th centuries.. E. Launfal. Robson. [Died 1832. [An A. Somner. Scott. Vol. Arber. new edition. 1868. 1841 1843.] English Dictionary.. 1853. W.. 1855-67. Oxford..S. . 1877. Thorns. Arabic.. A Camden Soc. .. 1610. New edition. 1865. [ I2 64-I327-] Pope.T. ed. Eng. Stratmann. London. by Joseph Ritson.. Three Early English Metrical Romances. The Globe Edition. of Weber's Sages. Schmidt. Dialect Society. Knight of Curtesy. M. Vol. Rede oy. 14th. Anglo-Saxon Dialogues of Salomon and Saturn. 1845. E. ed. ed. Furnivall. Wright . W. 1869. [ab. The New World of Words.BOOKS REFERRED TO IN THE DICTIONARY. Twelfth Edition. 1845.. . Benfey. see Swedish. Schleicher. and English. by the Rev. C. T.] Sterne. Erie of Tolous Squyre of Lowe Degre . Lord . 1864. A. A meant. E. On the Popular Names of British Plants. The Globe Edition. 1861. T. [12001250. 1866.. Hales and F. [1303. by Bohtlingk and Roth.. with memoir by J. 2 vols. Specimens of Early English. [Shep. ed. 1863. Shakespeare. London. See Preface iv. With Supplement.E. ' Palmer. ed. F. The Complete Works of Edmund Spenser.. Sewel . . J. 1836. E. J. London.T. ed. XXIX . written in the year 1598. 1848. nova edi9ao por P. First Part.] Parv. C. [Died 1744. dom. J. G. Glossary of Words used in the neighbourhood ofWhitby. Lexique Roman.T. see English Poets. London (Percy Society). books i. Club). 1802. with A. J. 3 vols. Phillips.' is cited without further . iii. Petersburg. A. 1659. see Dutch. ed.D. i8oa.

3 vols. Oxford. [When Swed. London. 1876. this book is meant. is cited without further notice.] See Higden.. Fourth Edition. of Hickes's Thesaurus. Thwaites. ' Vulgate. 1872. . 1873. 1844. Ancient London. (See Grein.] The Holy Bible. af J. ed. ed. 1460. collated with those of 1573 and 1577. London. A London. Arnold. Trevisa. Skeat. Swinburne. Oxford. see English Poets. iii. Earl of Surrey. Edinburgh. of the Paraphrase of Erasmus vpon the newe Testamente. T. [ab. William 1867. Oxford. [1387. 1866 Series. London. 1869. Turbervile's Turkish. Select English Works of John Wyclif. Vol. Ten Kate see Dutch. 1 769. .. 1873.. C.. A History of English Sounds. E. Wyclif. Liber Job. Latin. Rietz. W. ed. N. tr. [Tyndall died in 1536.] Webster. 1382 Cambridge.] Towneley Mysteries . Second Edition. Vol.] William of Shoreham. H. this book is meant. Lund. Trench. H... J.. The Wallace. et Evangelium Nicodemi. ed. W.D. a vols. the elder. London. Testament of Love. Arber. London. Sweet. ' Leipzig. E. Weber's Metrical Romances. R. London. and Wycliffite Glossary. ed. by London.] Wanley. ed. 1870. Payne and S.. A. 1874. iii. H. 1450.] Udall. Roister Doister (a play). see German. The Complaint. Madden. a poem London.) Young. I. John Home. 1779Tatler. J. [When 'W.) Liverpool. E. in the earliest English Versions made by John Wycliffe and his followers . London. ed. An Anglo-Saxon Reader. H. 2 vols. Poetry. (Contains the romances of Perceval. see Cornish..] Thornton Romances. Collection of A. Thorpe. Welsh. Diversions of Purley ed. (E. A Dictionary of the Welsh Language. 1875.) Ordbok ofver Svenska allmoge. Glossary to the Wycliffite Versions of the Bible (above). Svenskt och Engelskt Lexicon. and Degrevant. O..S. 1850. J. pr. Songs and Sonettes by Henry Howard. [Died 1384. 1561. J. Thos. Vocabularies. An anonymous Prose Treatise in imitation of Chaucer's translation of Boethius. 18691871. contains Seuyn Sages . Heptateuchus. Works of. Lai le Freine. with diuers Addicions Soc. A Select .S.] . [1709 1713. . [1607 1661. 1859. Swedish. Eglamour. Ipomydon Amis and Amiloun. London.S. 1855. London. T.) Liverpool. Webster's unabridged ed. see Biblia. contains King Alisaunder Sir Cleges contains Richard Coer de Lion .] A . Dyce. (E. . H. London.] Laws and Institutes of England. [ab. &c. . C. Porter. Vigfusson see Icelandic. 1360. Sir Thomas Wyatt.] [ab. by W. the . H. Skeat. ed. The Whole Workes of TyndalL W. A. D. af G. Jamieson. Arber. 1875. Vol. 1840. n.. T. 1440. ed. (Cited by Richardson. Analecta Anglo-Saxonica. Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms. Printed in Chaucer's Woorkes. Tauchnitz. [ab. Glossarium Sniogothicum. in Vie de Seint Auban . (Second A . folio. Tottel's Miscellany.) [ab. Rev. Glossary. from various Indian languages. 1400. ii. 1553. (With a Glossary. S. (First Series.] ' Ihre. Octouian Sir Amadas Hunting of the Hare. 1572.) London.. New illustrated edition of Dr. Wilson. Fiue hundred Pointes of Good Husbandrie . ed. Diplomatarium JEvi Saxonici. London. [ab. Fourth Edition. Taylor. Greichisch-Lateinisches Etymologisches WSrterbuch. London. Wright.BOOKS REFERRED TO IN THE DICTIONARY. Tatler and Guardian . Tyndall. .. Words and Places. 'atler. Dictionnaire Turc-Arabe-Persan. [Reprint. 605 to the reign of William the Conqueror. see Swedish. London. Catalogue of A. .) Camden . Upsal. d. 1842.) 1849. N.) London. &c. Widegren. extra series. pr. Leipzig.] Third Edition. 1859. E.) Tooke. 1857. 1877.D. Codex B. .. B. Second EdiWedgwood. MSS. E. by Shakespeare and Fletcher . n. . 1878. of English Etymology. of Higden's Polychronicon printed in the edition of Higden's Polychronicon in the Record Series. 1876. A. Svenskt Dialekt - Lexicon Vanicek. [Died 1594?] Zenker. 1865. English Past and Present. Utopia see More. (Sometimes met with separately. 1878.D. 1325?] Williams . Thorpe. 1810.. Doctor Barnes.] tr. by Henry the Minstrel A White see Widegren . London. see Hickes. or Night Thoughts. Two Noble Kinsmen . London. 1817. London. Pocket-dictionary of the English and Swedish languages. Herrtage.' is cited without further notice. Spurrell. spraket. 1548 1549. 1857. J. 1788. tion. [ab.E. . Wackernagel Wallace. ed. Taylor. C. The Religious Poems of. A Collection of English Charfrom A.. [ab.. Anglo-Saxonice. 2 vols. Dictionary Third Edition. dictionary of all the words in the English language Goodrich and N. W. Tusser/ T. Way see Prompt. d. ed. Atkinson. by John Daye. 3 vols. Parv. .. 1877. J. complete London. 1820. 1836. . 4 -1388. (Percy Society. J.. Forshall and Sir F. Ninth Edition. E. Troy-book see Gest Historiale. i. Poems . ters. D. Carmarthen. Stockholm. Travels through Spain in 1775 and 1776. R.T. Leipzig. . . 1846. Halliwell. 1873. the edition of 1580. Isumbras. [i4th cent. new edition. [First printed in 1557. in vol. ed. 1867.] . Norman French . 1857. John of. 2 vols. Exoniensis. Wright. S. The in one volume. John Frith. 1698. 76.] Webster. [Died 1 765. printed for the Surtees Society. of Palerae. R.] vols.. London.

Nimble. fleet (2). from fros-en *. bund-on. Bait. Band. t. Northumb. most. lor-en. Ledge. pp. Log. sing. xiii. form of lag. A. A. form of dror-en.. t. of the anomalous verb mugan. of for-ledsan. of hle6t-an (hledt. beit). biting bit-en). it is necessary to remember (i) that the formula bindan is (band. Also bight. of The verb to lend^fA. vb. S. sing. from (dredp. fros-t . bar-on. of the same (u to g). pt. pp. cryp-el. drif-on. from the same bor-en (o to Bode. A. an abbreviation theoretical. S. of the same. A. Allied words are mai-d. sing. A. 10 from bottom. Idn (usually lam). from borh. Also bier = A. false . malt- molt-en). Also birth. pt. Idn (a to <). from the pp. for the following: for other verbs. from A. t. Drif-t. A. fror-en). O. trans. S. S. lfo-en). of liogan (lag. A. S. lag *. flot-ian from flat-en. pt. which may be considered as exercises. e) past part. grip-en). ' Cripple. num-en. xiii. a Scand. S. from dreos-an Lode. . pp.. S. lad above (d to a). sing. pp. S. bow. S. from bend.S. all from . t. beit-a. * 6ro-8. A. xiii. Icel. Loss. S. past tense sing. S. from drif-en. word = (bearg. Grope. pp. from bod-en. put for Idh-n * . a course. see Loose. Icel. of bit-an (bat. t. such as bar *. A. from A. to bear. . pp. cwol-en). to travel. A. pt. Also bund-le.S. And see Load. to lose. to obtain by Leasing. lot . S. A. formed from * drys-*. t. to grant. hlut-on. And see Law. A. that derivatives from strong verbs can be deduced from the form of the past tense singular. to which may be added the occasional change (not there noted) of o to y. S. from mealt. or else hlyt is from hledt (ed to y). S. pt. A. Drunlt-ard. lur-on. S. pt. Borough = A. borg-en). drif-en). Bit = A. e. from grap. bog-en).' from crup-on. lih-en). E. Lair. from bar-on. to bite (pt. S. to brew. of biig-an (benh. Scandinavian. of be6d-an (bead. S. A. a child = A. form olfrore (Milton). or-ian. Flit. S. bil-a. A. t. from A. the following selected examples are given below. HS-on. of meltan (mealt. borg. S. Also burd-en. In order to understand bunderi) is these. sb. from drop-en. orig. borg-en (o toy). S. bit-a. The . Hence also bar-tn. put for IdV * . pp. Lot. on *.fle6t-an. crop-en). S. A. t. bit-el. from las-en r form of leas. drup-on. sing. orig. t.S. . to announce. pp. ge-byrd from bor-en. a message . from the same dros-en (o to y). pt. for-lor-en. to be able. to protect. flut-on*. of the same (o to y). pp. A. num-en). . los-ian.S. from drdf. sing. pt. of liSan (MtS. to lie. nim-ol Numb. Milt (i) is allied. Frost. gory . bud-on. Also droop. Leaguer. from A. burg. for dreds-ig. to gripe. of the same. And Broth. drenc-an ( = dranc-ian *) from dranc. of fle6t-an (feat. as well as from the infinitive Many of these derivatives further involve one of the vowel-changes given in the scheme on p. bear-n . Lose = A. orig. hlyt Here hlot is from Mot-en. S. (dreds. pi. to die. A. liin-an from the . Bitter = A. Main(l). from Quail (i). pt. mict-le.' infinitive bindan. of obs. . S. to drip. t. A. drdf. flat-en ). IT has already been said. dredp-an. more. loose or false. band. to melt. of the same. an abbreviation . drjtip-a^A. drunc-en). lihan (bredvi. Bond . bug-on. ' from dros-en *. pp. of the past tense plural. borg-ian. lor-en). t.S. pp. pp. Drench. allied to Icel. By way of illustrating some of the complexities in the vowel-sounds which are thus introduced. molten is still in use. written for leggan ( = lag-ian *) . t. lad. of the same. S. Mot. much. pt. S.' Dross. S. to drive. of orig. 1. of the same. to float. grip-on. bruw-on. causal of Icel. Flutter. lines 5 and 6 from the bottom of the page . from mag. pi. t. byh-t ( = byg-t *) . lagan. sb. ndm-on. lecgan. answering to A. sb. S. Malt. bend-on.S. leg-en). from M5. of bindan (band. S. the lap = A. band. freosan (freds. of The form frosen (not found otherwise) is curiously preserved in the mod. Also drizz-le. t. lad-an from the sb. bundon. a morsel . S.' see ' p. bund-en). bit-on. drunc-en. Flot-sam. bodian. at p. drop-en). pp. sing. t. leg-er. A. A. from the same. S. Also lead. for brow-ft . drup-a. frur-on.. Float. sb. bit-or. A. Also bury. from A. flot- bod. pp. . from burg-on. vb. And see Bread. of grip-an (grdp. bear-m. of leos-an (leas. of ber-an. band. S. falsehood. seize./rown (unless it be a new formation) . of beorg-an Also borrow. also hlyt or hlyt. Also bend = A. S. dryppan *. S. to bid. pi. word. or of the past participle. Beetle (i) = A. sing. pt. orig. S. fleet (3) . sb. of ber-an (beer.. bunden for ' and so on Also (2) that the formula (a to or the like. bod-en). form of pt. drunc-nian( = druncen-ian*)t from the same pp. to drink. drur-on. borg-en. from leas. For the explanation of breaking. drup-on. Bow (3). from brow-en.pl. A.XXXI SELECTED EXAMPLES. (cwal. For-lorn = A. v.S. Fleet (i). lit. sing. cwal-on. by vowel-change of a to Also (3) that a form marked by an asterisk. bog-a from bog-en. formed (with breaking of a to ea) from bar*. from the pt. creeper . Drove. pres. Drop. a biter. y). the pp. pt. len-en. a pledge . a Scand. to A. ILLUSTRATING THE FORMATION OF ENGLISH DERIVATIVES FROM STRONG VERBS. to bite. bar . of cre6pan (credp. The suffix -less also = A. dreor-ig. Dreary. bend. lih-on. burg-on. from bit-en. A. command. A. burA.. sing. from from the same pp. to creep (u to y). to freeze. from Ida. of licgan. pp. Lay. flat-en.S. tnealt .. S. drunc-on. the mSm. hlot-en). mood. pi. dre6p-an Also drip = A. dros. and from hlut-on (u toy). brow-en). to of the same. a band. to fasten a band or string on a bow. mag-en. Drown.. A. S. bund-en. is ' Bairn. . byr-ft-en. from bit-an. orig. A. E. from the same pp. drinc-an (dranc. to drip. dror-en). bor-en). pp. druncen. from nim-an (nam. to bind. drop-a . bog-en (o to y). from leg-en. t. leas. fror-en is the orig. of drif-an (draf. past tense plural bundon. S. pt. crup-on. of bre6w-an Loan. pp. migh-t. pp. S. owelan Qual-m. form of fror-en. grdp-ian . byrg-an. pt. t. ( = band-i *). (luh. S.

soc-on. formed from wrong. S. of sUpan (slap. wraS. lift from loft. formed (by change of d to d) from rds. from A. O to long E. sing. to sit. belt. Also stile. pp. scedf. un-coulh) . rip-en). pt. te/ = Goth. the pt. speed. beech. Shot. from And see feave (i). A. sod-en). brtfSor. frequent. A. deem from doom. S. yldesta (for yldista *). Slipper-y. to rise. has. sac-en). &fu. wag is wag-on. from the same (o to y). geese. s'ig-el. S. to rise. S. Scar (2). stig-on. form. wend-an.S. to long to long Y. Scuffle. . pp. Speech. t. S. ween. S. pit. sendan = Goth. A. S. S. A.S. S. from wriS-on. sing.S. t. pt. S. (there omitted) from o to Y. borrowed from bide. pt. knit.S. scar above. from corn. rip-f. known (cf. Sote. one . wrong. A. S. whole . weg-en). sfo. substituted for the earlier M. as the pi. Soken. sandjan Aesf. twist. E. br&Ser. S. hdlan. twelve. from coss. byldan. rid-en). strong (A. pp. Even . betera = Goth. to wind. seng-an. . strain. fen = A.fyllan Goth. S. . Lat. wag-on. spree-en). A. is from stedr. tell from tale fell from fall And see strength. Bed. scot-en). A. Skittles. E. allied to rip. pt. pp. And see Shuffle. bleak. pt. of louse. dnig. cnyttan. to shine feud (i). lines 5 and 6 from the bottom . to long Y. Spokesman is a late form. gild. pt. build. A. A. itf>. and from foul. Also wend. want! (a to e). pi. sing. A. t<fS. Skittish. pyt = Lat. Score. sprac-on. S. Quell. formed (by breaking of a to ea) from cwal *. SAor/. gyldan.S. a kiss mint(i). scor-en).A. Shove.fyrst.S. from A. sing. climb (d to d). of sacan. Y. foe Aeo/. A. A. prung-on.S. . Throng. nati send. Work. lend. sang from sang. sing. Sty (2). Sloven. is from A. sing. to contend. coquina . word. set-en). . A. from the same pt. A. eld. to carry the infin. rip-on. Wain. iatils.. wring. also scedt sce6t-an (scedt. A. from wand. fulfil). S. cyrnel. penny. A. cyftSe. A. Also sAore (i). Hide (2). And see wish . So also singe. t. A. fani ken. turn about. slip-on. A. Read-y. S. Cf. . Suds.XXX11 SELECTED EXAMPLES. cald. = Goth. Ripe. as the pi. 5/o/i (2). sing. S. . A . molina . cy. winsome. undo #ri. form of cwal. are best observed by comparing the following words with their Gothic forms. have men as the pi. sicn from sac-an (sdc. S. S. S. S. And see Sty (i). reis-a. stypel. Slop (i). A. from knot. is from from proud. S. scof-en). S. orig. S. Rear (i). to shear. Long sted/i. from slip-en. A. Stair. from bide. through. sing. of sitt-au (sat. is cognate with Lat. Observe kitchen. fen or fenn = Goth. cycen have feet. . wrung-en). a steer. meet (2). speken. from A. from scor-en. A. J>r<zrf. Seat is S. be found in the following selected examples. S. S.S. from gold. wyrcan. steep. from the pp./<&8. ris-en). from the same pt. A. t. monasterium . S. Icel. contracted form of wag-n . (cf. of wringan (wrong. A. S. kernel. stdg-er . steed. A. is A. stlgan (stag. space. sung-en). v. Also wrong. A. fa. A. of praw-an (\iredw. mill. which are especially with the addition of the change xiii. t. catillus. fit. from scof-en. t. A. Ayrf. rod. kiss. A. = Lat. A. t. A. . orig. from an. the pi. S. rid-on. teeth. of windan (wand. sb.S. A. t. lang. A. pt. ges. Se-seech = he-seek. wdg-e from the pt. S. strong). pyrlian. sb. A. weorc. of Icel. A. of brother. ( sing. pt. S. to speak. of cow. And see stint. of singan (sang. frequent. S. Raid is the Scand. wand-rian. A. S. Brethren. scar-on. crowd. king). A. of sciifan (scedf.S. from rets. cwealtn. slip-or. hdlan. is the superlative change being caused by the occurrence of i in the following syllable. A. S. sing. from the pt. S. list (4). to writhe. from the same cwal * (a to e). A. Long = kannian*) kettle. p. of sprecan (sprac. form. . A. A. S. to push. Long as the blood. S. S.. Song. prung-en). And see Shut. A. S. puteus. mynster = Lat. English from Frenc-isc) length. of old. kith. stig-en).S. pt. SCOT. sing. batiza . A. Long ciitis.S. ctiS. t. A. S. = Goth. spoken. moneta. of Sheet. bed = Goth. A. a dwelling first.A. S. sat-on. A. A. mys. t. S. weep. rad-e . sing. pt. t. A. sing. from long. S. S. pt. . from A. from Aa7. bold. S. S. to Y. A. of Sake = A. Inch. S. S. from A. EA also dive in the Supplement. from the slip-en). U . A. prdw-en). t. quell. scof-ian. A. wund-en). cnot . Cases in which the vowel e is due to an original a. wrung-on. from lust. cu. pt. Sheaf. sac-u. Slope = A. from the pt. trim. to Y. E. sung-on. t. cyssan. t. A. S. say. from stig-en. to press. pt. Compare bleed from And see breed from brood. sud-on. Wrangle. scear-u (by breaking of a to <o) from scar *. sing. form of the pt. latjan. hot A EA EO . Icel. Allied to form sprac-e . SAirt. to long JE. A. to S. from sdc. twelf^ Goth. put for ras-an*. of wegan (wag. from A. better. of blican. from scedf. scut-on. net. wretch. t. weigh. See also Wrench and Wrinkle. of risan (rds. S. Steeple. A. A. . . scete. to sing. from stag. . S. heat. = Lat. A. . of scuf-on. to ride. the Eldest. "Wander.. Raise is the Scand. from the same. ripan (rap. we tease. Further illustrations of VOWEL-CHANGE will chosen to illustrate the changes given on to y. t. S. S. purh. goose. sing. S. A. in mod. badi . sec-an . scyte. S. We of foot. is . the same. A. to seethe. Also wey. kine. A. due to a new M. from slap. feed horn food. from the same sdc (6 to e). harvest . sang (a to e). cyn = Goth. A. of the same. And see wright. t. from fore . S. Scuttle (i) and (2). hat. wring. A. A. scyttan ( = scot-ian*). let (2). /ys. blend. glede (2). vb. Long EO Slirk. Jean = Goth. Itts. same rdd (d to a). /ryte. S. green. Set.S. = Lat. A. A. A. Shoot. t. S. to E. of rf dan (rad. . scot-en. earlier from sprac-on. t. yldo. rdd from . Next observe We find lice. is from work. is mns fyl$. t. sud-on. A. S. sing. from full (cf. . ful mice. or pp. kenna Any. gds. Road. S. t. A. A. pi.S. wrdS. Sod And see Wrest. myn< = Lat.S. de-file) . Seek. S. to reap. A. Thread. slap * = form of a Scand. to raise. pi. pt. pp.S. S. of the same. of man . wriS-en). S. A. E. t. A. minster. Wroth. prang from prang. S. tooth. pt. Also wreath. from wrd$. . rar-an. sat-ian *) . of wrlSan (wrd$. modi. S. of se6tS-an (sea'S. from Frank sell from sale . vixen horn fox. pt. A. wed. adj. put for prdw-d " from the infin. to throw. ris-a. of pringan (prang. orig. And see Shore (i). S. to twist. t. a heavy weight.. ynce U to Y. mouse. kuni (cf. O mylen hen. SWrt. A. A. from scedt. lystan. Filth. A. S. v. from ltannjan( / = Goth. S. A. . twalif. from sat * (a to e). S. S. sod-en. slyric. preow-on. A. . ris-on. to slip. Angle French (A. pp. S. pride. A. fdt. S. of sceran (sc#r. of which preserved in the mod. thrill. cwell-an ( =cwal-ian *). settan sat. kin. A. the same (o to a). pi. wed. S. pp. to shoot.S. .fulljan. wund-on. S. = AgainfilI. S.

(as well as to curb myself from citing words of value. And. Cognate forms are frequently introduced by way of further illustration.= Latin. Celtic. owing to imperfect information or knowledge. and.)' signifies a word introduced into English from French. no part of the direct history of the etymology. or. The Language. Symbols and Etymological References. if a native word. or additional. the account of it begins with the symbol-. F. A The language to which each word belongs is distinctly marked in every case. by the well-arranged work known as Chambers's Etymological few unusual words have been included Dictionary of the English Language. when their derivatives are included. Cornish. which is. The words selected. arranged in a uniform order. The History. beginners are accustomed to cite German words in particular (probably as being the only continental-Teutonic idiom with which they are acquainted) in order to account for English words . often at the expenditure of much time and trouble.' The symbol has. as it is common to cite foreign words at random. a habit which leads to false spellings and even to gross blunders. Arab. in very many instances. that an attempt has nevertheless been made to indicate the date within (at least) a century . i. 2.KEY TO THE GENERAL PLAN OF THE ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY. For a complete list of authorities. Qk. The order is Cognate Forms. dinavian. as they cannot be ' symbol (R.= Celtic. that in some cases I may have failed to do this.' Thus the remark '(F. Swedish. shewing (approximately) the time 4. ! ' ' derived from. e. This symbol is. though But they frequently throw so much they form. &c. = German.)' Some from Todd's Johnson. sufficient is said. without the slightest Dictionary. in every case. or Scandinavian origin. Irish. omitting the stanza. 8. ager. E. It is remarkable that many whereas it is (like the Lat.R. in every case.' wherever it occurs. but I have given. plus. or the Icelandic akr). see 7 below.. the English one for the very original of it many people will quote the German word acker as if it accounted for. a Zcw-German dialect as disIn order tinguished from that High-German one to which the specific name German' is commonly applied.-L. Similarly. G. The Word-list contains all the primary words of most frequent occurrence in modern literature .' Many from Stratmann's Old English Dictionary. ' .=English.. to guard the learner from this error of confusing cognate words with such as are immediately concerned with the etymology.' The letters used are to 3.= Gaelic. C. MiddleEnglish forms. so as to clear the way for a correct notion of its origin. to be read as not dation. though no error is more common than to misFor example. of its introduction into the language . in the main. For other abbreviations. strictly speaking. The References. E. which is always to be read as directly derived from. These are given in the briefest possible form. he cites the Fairy Queen merely by the look and canto. given exact references. = This is an important feature of the work. see the Preface.' does not mean merely Italian. Except in a few cases where the etymology is verbally described. Welsh. in fact. = Arabic. supplies a tolerably complete vocabulary of the lanI have been chiefly guided in this matter guage. letters within means of ' be read as follows. from old to still older forms. In the case of words derived from French.' or borrowed from. Inexact quotations are comparatively valueless. Scand. in hint as to where they may be found order that the student may the more easily verify these words. the exact number of the line. large number of the references are from Richardson's Dictionary. the fact being that no Teutonic language has contributed so little to our own tongue. on account of their occurrence in familiar passages of standard authors. THE general contents of each article are. L. The symbol '-'signifies 'derived from.=French. ScanWelsh. i. The Etymology. but that the word has actually been verified by myself (and may be verified by any one else) as occurring in Meadows's Italian This is an important point. Danish. Thus the symbol Ital. 6. the symbol + is used to distinguish such words. Many others are due to my own reading. used as a general term for P. German. I must premise that I often cite Shakespeare in preference to a slightly earlier writer whose writings are less familiar . The Definitions. or allied to. its usual algebraical and indicates additional information to be obtained from the comparison of cognate forms. take a word that is merely cognate with. to establish the earlier uses of each word. 7. chiefly for the purpose of identifying the word and shewing the part of speech. with dates. A succession of these symbols occurs whenever the etymology is traced back through another graverified. Next follows a brief account of the history of the word. the French word itself being of Latin origin. In were. by marks of parenthesis immediately following the definition.e. these are all M. merely a parallel form. but cognate with. 5.G. the Middle-English form or forms of it. Thus Richardson cites The Romaunt of the Rose ' at large. in almost every case. and (I believe) to some extent a new one. an exact reference to some authority. sometimes ' ' and may be false. or is the original of the English acre. edited by James Donald. denoted by the references. or Lat. or the still better (but unfinished) work by Matzner . B * 1 . and the following scheme will explain the nature of the information to be found in this work. a note is (in general) also made as to whether the French word is of Latin. In general. Breton. The symbols used are such as to furnish. as it A ' cited merely as Todd. &c. light upon the word that it has always been usual to cite them . used as a general term for Icelandic.S. with a few quotations W.' i. I have. as far as seemed advisable. = Greek. to date each word. in a very brief space. and lastly. and attempting thus. ' ' always upward.

ed.. ed. as in Liddell and Scott's Lexicon. ed. Buss. Vergleichendes Worterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen. Gael. 1856. 5 above. or Lat. Prov.nto. may be added it similar work.e. as in Cleasby and Vigfusson's Icelandic Dictionary. see M. 1839. G. Russian. 5th ed. Cf. that further details are to be found in the work referred to . A. ed. ed. The references are to Grein. Greek. Goth. Anglo-Saxon. M. E. as in Legonidec's Dictionary. as in Williams's Dictionary. c. (= Old French) occurs. as in Palmer's Persian Dictionary. Heb. 1861.=sub verbo. . H. Authorised Version of the Bible ( 1 6 1 1 ). Low Latin. 1864.= confer. Swed. 1865. ed. or to a meant. as in Macleod and Dewar's Dictionary. Diet. It are mostly introduced to save repetition of an explanation. ed. 1857. Gottingen. Middle English. Curtius. In some cases. The reference ' Cot. it being unadvisable to hazard many guesses. These frequently afford additional information. above. with their exact significations. when special allusion is made to Brachet's Etymological Dictionary. E. H. Icel.e. s. or Irish. as in Heym's Diet. Persian. 1866. Skt. Middle-English see the line following E. or native English in its earliest form. Spanish. Cornish. Hebrew. 1870. The root is denoted by the symbol V. Moeso-Gothic . Danish. ed. 1660. as in Wackernagel's Wfirterbuch. Ital. ed. tr. ed. as in Vieyra's Dictionary. have been rejected as valueless. as in Skeat's Moeso-Gothic Glossary. work. unless the contrary be expressly stated. . which see. 1500. This has 9. ed. 1849. 1821. Bret. V.. ed. 1875.e.=quod vide. Welsh. Latin. v. W. 1861. Bosworth. t. as in White and Riddle's Dictionary. as in the Lexicon Manuale. The above includes only such as have been used too frequently to admit of special reference to them by name. Principles of Greek Etymology. Gk. that. the The symbol ' Der. and the like.= translation. Such abbreviations as adj. Pick. Porter.' i. pp. l.' is to Cotgrave's French DicThe reference 'Brachet' is to the English translation of Brachet's French Etym. Middle High German. Provenal. Ir. Lat.=past participle. as in Ferrall and Repp's Dictionary. for the purpose of comparative philology. Dan. only been attempted. 1861. ed. See English from about A. in the tionary. 1866. Du. see the Preface. is . P. will be readily understood. 1872. Pers. or. as in the Diet. 1876. G. S. as in O'Reilly's Dictionary. and that it will commonly appear that there is a special reason for the reference. ed. The Boots. F. ed. the words have been traced back to their original Aryan roots. 1874. Derivatives. s.' adjective. Wherever O. of Russian. and to A. ' = = = = = ' third edition. Span. Modern English see Webster's English Dictionary. in the present state of our knowledge. Port. ed. or such as came most The readily to hand. ed. O. 10.=book. in general. Goodrich and . (Cotgrave) or to Roquefort. is used to introduce forms derived from the pri- mary word. or Lye. following is a list of these symbols. Derivatives. as cited. as in Spurrell's Dictionary. G. n. i. compare.. Corn. i. see Morris's Historical Outlines of English Accidence. S. pt. 1868.'=plural. Old High German chiefly from Wackernagel . by Maigne d'Arnis. Portuguese. and French. ed. or translated. as in Fliigel's Dictionary. Sanskrit. O. under the word in question. German. For an account of the various suffixes.=past tense. to be read as root. (or ch. Compendium der Indogermanischen Sprachen. 1844. Swedish . Breton . in cases where the subject scarcely admits of a doubt . 'pl. I may particularly mention the following. H. Q. Cross-references. For a complete list of authorities.) chapter. for the most part. sometimes=ca.e.e. the reference is to Burguy's Glossaire.=line. as in Benfey's Dictionary. or cap. i. Clarendon Press Series. contrary is said. as in Meadows's Dictionary. Dutch as in the Tauchnitz stereotyped edition.D. ed. 1861. and Haldemann's Affixes to English Words . All these words are authorised. by Hamilton and Legros. 1876. ed. translated by Wilkins and England. st. as in the Tauchnitz stereotyped edition. Low M. L. German.D. 1200 to about A. b. French. P. as in Burguy's Glossaire. as in Raynouard's Lexique Roman (so called). A. . M.2 KEY TO THE GENERAL PLAN OF THE ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY. above. Italian. and 12. i. as in Meadows's Dictionary. as in Leopold's small Hebrew Dictionary. stanza. unless the as cited or to some A. 1874. except where I refer by name to such excellent books as Rietz's Svenskt Dialekt-Lexicon. or from consult Schleicher's same source. section. The absurd forms in Somner's Dictionary. Gaelic. ed. Other abbreviations. ed. 1857. Old French. Icelandic. . in which case it is (in general) to Cot. Irish. q. ed. v. E. unusual occurrence) I have expressly preferred to use common and cheap dictionaries.' I have here most often referred to G. cited ad nauseam by our Dictionary-makers.

. E. 6. abbonare. ab. Alisaunder.S. abbod. . abbed. ^f It is extremely probable that some confusion has taken place between this word and to abash . A. A. for in plainly equivalent to Lat.' Gower.furbish. t ABDICATE. . abasen as equivalent to abash. and getius (Brachet). ex. See Glossary to the Bruce and cf.) M. to express astonishment.) M. . e. abbaisser. Alisaunder. abatre. at liberty. to confuse with shame. has at least thirteen different values in English. -baft is M. In French. abates! alle tyranne.' ' to shorten. Lat. abaisser. a. xvii. verbs in creatiis. abase-ment. where other MSS. languish. French Grammar. (7) F. .(2) see A-. which is contracted from bi-aft. beginning at p. for a pace. to . corresponding to these forms.Jinish.. 3. abaysed.) Lat. discussed in Brachet. to cf. (13) avast. abaischen and abaissen. diminish. such as fioresco.Lat. Advantage. of Glouc. a feudal term (also spelt bannum) signifying an order. in -issa from abbot-. fern. behind Grein.) Fabyan has abreuyatyd in the ' sense of abridged Henry III. Low Lat. abbatt-oir. abs.) was no doubt due O. Romans. amender. by. E. . and F. abbreviat-ion. abbattere see Brachet. All that was necessary was to This habit plainly began with words like advocate. Der. 42. See On and Back. Der. ' ' the indef.S.V. issa. biaften is from A. Rob. houd.' or 'at liberty. and Aft. 'by proclamation. out) and bahir. . ' . on (the) by aft. ^[ The final -sh is to be thus accounted for. p.fi or biqften. (E.' and (2) 'under control. (F. abayst. abassare. F. ' grave. &c. Eng. F. ed. E. c. .) Elyot has an abbreviate. M. article see An. for exmendare . O. 2 i. 7499. as in astringent but the source is the same. (a) French. 1570 . (9) abyss.-L. Diet. abate Bartsch's Chrestomathie. also have examples like 8. v. (n) aware. ad. See Abbot. to beat. F. See also each of the ' above-mentioned representative words in its proper place in this Dictionary.S. and those which (like fleurir) add -iss to the root. (12) apace. b. permission. on-. to shorten. Dunstan. i. to lower. From the prefix a. .' Palsabaissen. one. F. abaten. F.. iv. Ancren Riwle. K.Lat. Homilies. same Errata and Addenda. i. a chef. as in Sir Thopas Chaucer. A. corrupted from Lat. ' inchoative verbs. ^f It is probable that the word to abash has been to some extent confused with to abase. low. A. 24 (R. or are further illustrated in the Errata and Addenda. abbatp. backwards.or av. of Glouc. prefix. see Of. 26 (R. Ital. Weber. . A A. 370. (6) Lat.D. amaze. and ceftan. decree see Ban. (2) on fool. admonish. -esc.e. See Base. (lo)ado. ab-. p. the source being Lat. a. . helas. . it becomes a. avocation : . y. whence (theoplaces. an. ABASE.' Will. Poems. 41. stem of abbas. S. ^f The restoration of the t (corrupted to a knowledge of the Latin form . B 2 . give up.E. E. (3) A. 32-43. Mk. 'Bot thai. pp. abaltlte as in 'And worthy to be put abaltlte Gower. was used as a verb by the very common English habit whereby substantives are so freely used as verbs. (8) F.Jiourish. e. (10) for at do. demolish. ' Thou . abbellare. Parv. all eslablish.e. 39. which would similarly have. to beat down. those which (like venir) follow the Latin inflexions. v. A. begins with the words Lat.-O. E.E. Parv. abandon-ed. airo Goth. an-. as in avert. to lower. Representative words are (i)adown. ab. which is thus conjugated to a great degree as if its infinitive were fleurhsir instead of fleurir. d in A. the fuller form is Ua. Abridge. (F. ABBOT. S. 3377. A. one pace. given will. -ale in English is Middle English we find abaist. and ABAFT. in which the termination is due to analogy these are discussed in their proper In the present case we have O. ge-. 314.) M. F. as ' in the wynd and the sea obeyschen to hym . an abbot. 10. betcftan. abolish.seen in lation. abbatia. short form a . Allit. habben abandun. ' called of the Grekes and Latines epitoma . i. Cf. viii. ad. prefix a (6) really has two values . F. were. . ex-. bassare. C. .) M. embellish. Doublet. 15. hold fast. 148 as in He let biaften the more del = he left behind the greater part Genesis and Exodus. -or. F. abaesse. xx. as abdicate. We ab. bandon is lit. Low Lat. &c. These prefixes are discussed at greater length in my article On the Prefix A . iii. .) eyes so low. ' ' . ed. to . (F. 53. Dutch houd vast. Lat.. Wyclif. Der. abbaye. Lat. curious . . the prefix has its number gpassigned in accordance with the above scheme. 1 89. F. T. fern. 'I abasclte. (n) for M. in that which lies towards the after part. i. by aft. In Levins. A. evidently from French sources. 1141. An excellent example is seen in dbeir.' Syriac abba. as in abate . baft. (4) arise. prefix. Ecclus. Lat. and Cotgrave. iv. an onomatopoetic word formed from the interjection bah ! of astonishment. Wyclif. a religious house. and appears in many parts of the French verb. ABBREVIATE. . (L. p. father see retical) ABATE.. humble Low Lat. .) o. where necessary. abbesse . (F. that gave themselves up to death Barbour's Bruce. by initiate mere analogy with others. andlang. (4) Mceso-Gothic urreisan. garnish. Thei weren abaischt with greet stoneyinge ' . abaschen. auertere. 2. abbas. (2) afoot. abbad. M. G. i. abbassare. ^f Prefix 0(5) really has two values (a) French. behind. Such verbs in -ate can be formed directly from Lat. aftvaaos. ABBEY. to lower. O. to do. a good example ABASH. ABANDON. ed. C. 1. giving M. abbeye. v.S. esbahir.) -are. punish.' Prompt. has 'abase our 'So to abesse his roialte.The formation of verbs in is create . He was ' (6) avert.. abbatem. a bandon. AB-. the father (or head) of an abbey. abaysyd. See Brief. iv. away. replenish. p. (5) achieve. (F. to imwhere the prefix is prove. (7) amend.E. (L. secondarily. 1. and-. E. which was originally a past participle used as a noun. from and Der. Low Lat. cbahir. abandoune. lit. (L.. abase. . abbod. Thus the prefix is a. 642. cherish. Hence numerous compounds. batere. verbazen. liberty. to beat down. For on bath. ad. emendare. O. abeie. up . abridge. creare . Grandg.E. ^f The F.) Lat. to astonish. to embellish." and thus has the double sense (l) 'by license. Kitchin's transThis -iss is imitated from the Lat. H. abbesse. ' . such a habit of formation. plainly ad. found in Ve. See numerous examples under abasen in Matzner's Worterbuch. A-. See Abbot. 1 1 1 . in the Hardrough on bak ful faste leian MS. 775. Etym. . where he is interjectional . Lat. The Governor. O. . and. (12) apace . viz. ywar. abbatia' [misprinted abbacia]. abate. to debase. as in avalanche (b) Latin. of abbot. and breuis. from French verbs in -ir. Walloon bam. to astonish (see note below) mod. A. abet. Lat. C. and lit. Similarly. Low Lat. to give up. Prefix es. (13) avast. of. for abuertere. stem of abbas. .see Abate.. 131. compounded of be. abate-ment. for avQvaaos . E. S.) M.(2). Low Lat. See Abase. Galat. an. i. or am amased of any thynge . abandonner. 224.. he-. i. abasched and agast . to regard with open mouth . VI. ABDICATE. see abbe'esse in Roquefort. (F. ABACK. French verbs in -ir are of two forms. 15 . father. for us-reisan . E. ^f Here would at once become abbreuiare cf.-Low i. bandum. and bandon. abbreuiare (pp. Morris. sometimes extended to . (5) verb from F.Syriac. See By. (i) A. . of. us-. Cognate with Skt. of Paleme. . (3)along. E. .. ace. Skeat. Shak. Dn.) abbot. 295. 1. from Gk. abbreuiatus). where a is for A. apa. Rob. onb<cc Matt. ad. Hen. p. but the obsolete form obeysche. popular form of batuere. abaischen. Thus abaft is for -baft. prep. gewcer. ' ' . (6) Latin.) M. not to abase. abasen. p. F. of abbas. Prompt. polish.in English.-L. short. Mk. ' JE\Mc jElfric's homily on the Old Test. as it a secondary form Abeissir . ' Abbeye.-Low Lat. To abate the bost of that breme duke.-L. and. 'Abbot.F. but it does not follow that create was necessarily formed from the pp. S. a. to obey. adbreuiare . ad-. The full form of these values may be represented by of-. Weber. esbahir. ofdiine. ed. at-. ' . (9) Gk. an. cf. Easier examples appear in E. abstract. y. &c. ' . vol. Cf. to bring low.furnish. nourish. ' . II. ABBESS. 447. ^f Often contracted to bate. [t] on the aft. te. with the sense of abashed or dismayed. to renounce. He regards the M.Articles to Articles to which the mark [*] is suffixed are considerably altered or modified in the is which the mark [+] suffixed are but slightly altered. This may be illustrated by means of the examples given.(Lat. to forsake. abbat-.' in the Journal of Philology. Spelt abbei in the Metrical Life of St. In words discussed below.' K. to and Low Lat. (Lat. Spelt abbod. have abak.' to have at one's O. ad caput . that can thame abandoune Till ded' = but they. banish. abandtm-ment. (E. See Brachet's Hist. 201 7.S. (8) alas. an abbot. F. Group B. basstis. A. esbahissir. we have in English not only to obey.' The latter is obsolete in modem English but occurs frequently in M. abbod.

it. that gests that -domen may be connected with Skt. Lat. and bidan. ' to cast. ABHOR. is is form was ymbutan. It makes no ultimate difference. abil-i-ty ABLUTION".-L. 19. I. ii. usSee Bide. Com.) Shak.. to lead away. to to consecrate. 363 . out. abeter no doubt had the sense of instigate. ablutionem. abnegat-ion. L. p. 2 (R. abomin-able. ^DA. Chaucer. [A ingly find also the form onbiitan. S. abdomen. ace. See Curtius. easy to handle. to wash. M. dbycgan. abonder. viz. the M. abundare. olere Gk. It was formerly used also as a verb. and is extremely common in Middle English see examples in Matzner and Stratmann. Dream. abort-ive. 19. Not old. outward. to swear. on (that which is) by (the) outside. O. 6. abiurare. abdicat-ion. law. The M. De Tolerate. frecf. b. Goth. Lat. . C. ab. that he was the inventor of the term ablative in Latin. (from Lat.. i. We find in Shak. Grammatical. Troilus. it is almost impossible to say whether they were derived from Lat. in his Contemplations. i. prefix. itself a comresolved into hardly be separated from Gk. c. est bien betez ' ' : Low The spelling hable is More. [f] (L. Used by Knox and Sir E. 230. Mr. used as active supine of fero. (E. 13751). . ad. Shak. (F. Der. ii. to shrink quently. Gk. ABOARD. form is r\t]Tot. sb. also found. nor is the sense of beter clearly made out ' by Roquefort . Benfey refers both oXXvvai and iipwvai (as well as Lat. abluere. xix.) Shakespeare has abed.) Shak. around. to annul. y'AR.) Used by Shak. i.'] P. from O. abductus. see note to Abbreviate. (L. on ABODE. Here the prefix a. i. see Cowel's Law Diet. a portent. Ill. \ovfiv. .) lest thou abide it dear. has it several times.) 317 (R. ABED. 'Gif friman wiS fries mannes wif geligeS. to bear. to forswear. (for the ending -sh see The etymology of remarks on Abash. y Hence Skt. to lead. a form not fort). Prol.) Cotgrave has 'abjurer. . abiectus. ita cf. Its pt. to = destroy. Der. abolir . iii. A. ace. right. Comment. in bed. and lucre. quant il . to bind. to buy. (F. 967. i. (E.T. Older form abad. but consistent with the F. . and ducere. to turn away from a i. The latter is correct the verb in the phrase to abide a mere corruption. Vulg. to deceive (Burguy) abel. pres. the A. verb beer (mod. dbiitan . 31. passing into a. ^f Fick suga rope. grow. E. p. and errare. to endure. ' ' to make to bite . abeter is not well explained in Burguy. c. Lat. deceit . Lat. it' being p. Eng. 47) compares it with Gk. 15. lit. upvvfu. ii. Thus the word ymb. ABOMINATE. and elsewhere. Dialogue concerning Heresies. L. (R. Fick. abet is a sb. 06. having power. It occurs in from with terror. E. able. cf. pp. Lat. Der. da. a. to abjure. iii. habile. From the + + same en. Richard Coer de Lion. to open the mouth. oiaorj/ia. 104.) ' baroun and knight To help king Richard for to fyght . IKS. lit. abid-ing. from . and we accordcommoner A. + . pt. a. 41. Der. and beter. See ' leam from a fragment of Csesar's work.) Lat. Again utan. thole. thing that is of ill omen (for the ending -ate. to bait cf. c. S. to hunt. abl-y. beita. (L. ung ours. abund-ant-ly.-L. 175 where the first quarto has aby. 886. . ed.172. see Chaucer. (2). thus making Lat. ' . able. Group (1). As You Like It. Laws of King ^Ethelbirht. ABERRATION. and jagen. meaning 'instigation. just as abominate was also once written abkominate. objects (pi. away and oriri. and Todd's Johnson. C. preserve 'lest e. to cast away. and is short for of-. tollere. Der.) ii.) Lat. from . root. thou thou have to buy it off dearly. deny. abett-or. a fillet. Der.is short for ABOUT.) A Lat. 'Almighty God objected Saul. i.' a right in abeyance. . The ABLATIVE. daman. expectation. to pay for. ab. concerning. Lat. of aberratio. T. ABOUND. to rise. i. 2543 . prefix a-. Dicare is from the same root as dicere. More common is the derivative abduction. 106. iii. forswear. and latum. ' See Negation. to wander. Nt. ri. found. (L. from abortio.) For on blaze. (E. abhorr-ent.] O. abood almost always has a dwelling. ABLE. ^T The Lat. by. Lat.no6.) In Blount's Gloss. abol-it-ion-ist. to bristle (with fear). 12. E. ab . Thu restest the The prefix a. S. probably cognate with the Goth. i. ab. and iacere. ABDUCE. S. ' ' . See Err. bayer. say see Diction. Der. Titus. Exod. 63). 584. cast away. to expect. abortionem. abhorr-ence. ^/LU. 432 . used by Isidore of Seville see Brachet. J6" In several words of this kind. to throw. 59. 372. 28. grow. Mu'ller. Wedgwood suggests that abolescere means to grow old. from r\a(tv.' Sir T. to deny. long o March. Errors. 1073. ii. to a bear. By. reigne ouer Israel. abortus. on-be-utan.' as in English. D. and omen. a word of obscure origin. i. as in That thou shall with this launcegay Abyen it ful soure. abode. and utan. C.) rowed from Lat. to annul. (E. Scand. oefiv. abiden. Modern . (E. 2011 (1. 1 1 8 (Sth edit. a. on commonly has the sense of in. and beiance.Lat. to expect anxiously. Der. (L. The words abaft and above have been simiOn. S. corresponding to Ger.. F. b. 16 . Horrid.. in Weber. off) ABJECT. ad and badare. i. as in ' tibiitan bone munt' = around later. ABNEGATE. deny with an Lat. urn. oAXwai. Cf. ace.. habere. i. to wait for. (L. from the See Fick. variation of the root-vowel. p. ii. ii. 743 Pick.' thou have to fay dearly for it. ^f Analogia. (Vedic) Lat. aberrare. More has abiure. to join Benfey. in a reversed form. to hurt. Lat. F. pr. beita. 2 Cor. See and Out. Lat. Lat. away abducere. vol. The corresponding Gk. and in Blackstone's Commentaries. from. are from the same root see Yacht. Lat. iv. to have. ab.) lation of Boethius. Max ABLAZE.) M.(unless the prefix is a-. Roquefort. F. form ar in Fick. to wander 1674. to bind. 4 p. 204. ii. horret. . b. of Errors. a-. to be plentiful.) . from habilitas). i.757. to overflow. to hold. Arber. ' . form is abyen. ab. Henry VIII. Gk. to dislike lit. 121. ablatiuus. Coradicate words are tolerate and the Middle Eng. Lectures. immediately. ace. e. mean lit. 12. of obs. fl" With Lat. F. from. For on board. from the pp. Ascham. abiggen. S. E. ix. S. Der. A. The Govemour. abettum. and we still See ABIDE . Der. about. (F. i. &c. Lat. to bite. iacere. or which is suspended (RoqueF. cast away. from . The verb is in Levins. Lat. instead of the corresponding Icel. gaping. ab. from the root al. 10. in the phrase droit en abeiance. which answers to the mod. have adduce.) ' ' ' the sense of delay or abiding . 1.) Lat. 357. See Abed.' Chaucer. ^f The sense of O. borthe lower part of the belly. Barbour's Bruce.). the mountain. A. oTruXXwai. Lat. ab . a washing. b. abeiance. abouten. to overflow. beant. let him pay for it with his wergeld . tense is aboughte. b. formed by usbeidan. i. ad) . pp. leaf 19 (ed. abject-ness. c. F. iv. We word never occurs before ' . equivalent to G. in a blaze. Fick (ii. The Schoolmaster. from.( = Lat. The A. abnten. used by Littleton. away . or through the French. and undo. and Gk. ABOUT. . to endure. A. ab. abolere. will's ABORTION. Met. 10. A. Lucrece. F. expectation. See Duke. as in Chaucer's transO. abol-it-ion. I fail.' Chaucer. . has Lord Surrey's translation of Virgil.). Works. Sir T. See Abide (i). ABIDE ' . See Omen. .stands for on. The word bittan pound of be. and negare. ii.) From Lat. L. but here the prefix is different. The M. Lat. abdicare (see note to Abbreviate). E. lauare. proclaim. C. Fick. to bait. which binds. is an adverb formed from the prep. for which see Fick. Der. S. iii. to wash. but from a different root. also habilitie. A.4 used by Bishop ABDOMEN. R.) Used by Bp. tulere. of abiicere. quick. abdomin-al. 203. S. away to wash. in Thorpe's Ancient Laws of England. Der. 'quanquam animus meminisse to shrink from. p. ii. Skt.' Fick suggests that the G. Gram. active. to perish. Blackstone. (and mod. Burguy wrongly refers the etym.) and dicare. s. and a common law-term. Sandys Lat. $ . outward. and A. p.E.. by Browne. (L. Taylor (R. 4084 .. c. for \ofetv. abhorrere. to deny. ABJURE. Gower. to bide. a wandering. This verb abyen is also spelt abuggen and Group B. excitement. us. E. an Apology. ed. instigation.) Sir T. can lest . Lat. yos. to grow. Hall. Abortion occurs in Hakeuntimely birth. oath. as. habilitatem. to law term. on fire. and it is easier to consider them as from the Latin. abund-ant. jah. has abortive. p. to destroy. Lat. gen. abject-ly.. skilful.) M. endured. 1. 499. b. 2. who has the unnecessary spelling abholisii. Used to lead away. set dogs on . L. Lat.) Shak.-i42.' it ii . S. Lat. that he shulde no more Lat. and horrere. (L. olere and ort'ri) to the same root See the various roots of the as Skt.e. and iitrare. er-. J[ abolere is not clear. See Buy. and once the subst. A. poetic . (L. abund See Undulate. to arise. causal verb from bita. from the root yti. outside. Lat. cf. led. ABEYANCE. abduct-or. 1 6 . S. prefix a. to deny. used by Lat. habilis. to hate. aberrationem. Lat. F. abotnin-at-ion. his wergelde dbicge' = If a free man lie with a freeman's wife. Lat. of which Roquefort gives the forms Lat. Used by Hall. 2i4b (R.) E. ii. A. an-. 2. L. = when he is well baited .) Wyclif. to + Gk.e. E. [Earlier. away from. dbidan. ABDOMEN. Ormulum.) an. 223. I raise myself. See Bait . able.. beetan. 12. name of a case. 1570. Skt. Aen. abeter. aboute. objects.g. ab. abel.) wash away. 1570. to go. ance. ab. M. Romances. (F. of aboriri. put for of-. (E. to Lat. to gape. sect. and in common use. The word badare is probably onomato. rindmi. taking away. i. Der. ' And stode on horde board. from. to gape. ii. the abjur-al-ion. Goth. Grein. and Blaze. Mid. F. F. suspension. unless the evidence is clearly against it . ' ABOLISH. iuris. ian-rdi-. abominari.) Wyclif has abomynable. 4 (R. instigation. excite (root op). Latum is from an older form tlatum.) where some edd. y. Rich. pr. on btedde = thou restest thee abed Layamon. in Sir Thomas b. Chaucer. to arise. Also spelt habimdm. I excite (root ar). . to wash. see Abash. abject-ion. to suffer for a thing. (E. according to Curtius. the older form (as well as a later form) of on . 4. to incite. Genesis. (L. abound(F. and not usual. to bind . in the abide it dear' signifies 'lest modem to buy off. ABET. *. ii. O. T.Lat. bycgan. from. and . a wave. chase with dogs.' Mids. bayer). (L..' Lat. 6. to A. spelt abhominable. 8. to lift cf. Elyot. and see Bet. abduct-ion. abnegare. v.

temperate. ' ABUSE. Lat ad and boter. E. abs. academ-ic-ian. Skt. temulentus. (L. Der. Mid. to choke. brood is the mod. 3. abs. to push. which appears also in Gk.-L. See Cede.] Burton says affliction is a school F. . no. but this does not affect the etymology. 3 1 (R. A.' P. abregen. of Boethius. from ABSCOND. See On. By. and rogare. Curtius. abstemious-ness. (Gk. to hasten (for Hall. abyssimns. absolut-ory.) . .. to choke Fick. abscindere. to come. absent-er. is see Is. fraining a word only preserved in its derivatives temetum. 136. V. [t] . to hasten.. of absolnere. iv. form of on . over. (L. Gk. to suck up. ABRADE. a spit. able. yield. ac. V. to sup up. and soluere. ' 1. Curtius.) In early use. abforb-ent to refrain from. 316. . t. Above. 2670 (R. he is. abusen.) Lat. ' ' . contrary to reason. access-or-y 'To accelerate or spede his to hasten. SET.) 30. 9. also.) M. which is Lat. /lotyitiv. (L. Lat. to stretch. to draw away. a summary. abrigier (Roquefort). absence. Lat. Der. accedere. draw away from. In Shak. F.. absence.) Shak. L. ii. Lat. impel . from an-bi-uppa . abrege HamL. See Tenable. indistinct. IV. est. to set free. abbreviate. L.'] Lat. from the pp. as a verb.) spelt abwysit. 21.. which occurs in Chaucer. abs. b. . setlen abrache. gah. uf. Skt. gymnasium near Athens where Plato taught. side by side. Gk. abuppa (above). 237. C. of abrmnpere. and cedere. con. access-ible. . VI. withdrawn. also spelt adcedere pp. 63. to dig this and compares it with Skt. to hide. assent to . Ber. asti. to hide from. See Rupture. T. abstract-ion. iii. pp. on and O. See Essence. up. F. (L. absence. to converge to. off. a point. . absolnere. abusion. Der. and Cf. abslens-us.F. chhid. to broach. Der. iv. Lat. ABSCIND. ab. trudere is cognate with Goth. Lat. originally. Prol. aueaSruttta. R. deep. Lat. access-ary. (F. to use amiss. threaten. O. to cut vol. ii. French. . short. off. to break. More has absorpt as a Lat. a gathering of humours into one mass. Lat. 717 (Todd's Johnson). thrust. be close upon. p. (O suck up.) . mis-use. being and even with our E. I73i. sc. 441 The abrod. i. Pricke of Conscience. full ious-ly. acacia. 1715. originally. 8780. quick. p. access. to Hen. ABUNDANCE. accessus.. C. -Lat. of which an older form would be abater arrive at. 346. complete.. abruptus. broad. or on brad. and form be-ufan actually occurs in the Laws of upward ^ithelstan. Act v. Cf. thrust aside. ^KAL. F. descr. Der. occurs in the Scottish romance of Lancelot of the Laik. academia. the S. 13 7. . abus-we. to put. to come 1. or academy. ABSTRUSE. to scrape off. a sore.) iorney Lat. Cf. being. ABSTAIN. on. broche.) ABSOLVE. iv. Lat. away and sorbere. (E. 4571 . the Ancren Riv. an end. v. and trudere. 542. abstenir.) In Shak.ABOVE. an. L. a society. . off. so named from the hero Academus. Lat. is not directly from the Latin. and. ii. S. ^DHA. to draw. abbregier. I. 2. (L. E. to cleave. Works. ufan. Der. being. [The mod.) Lat. abscondere.= cum. ABSURD. 55. OVTOS. L. . E. absorbere. Lat. Lat.-le. aboveit. For on brood. abs. . Group F. This is a French use of the word. . F. of ahtrudere. absent. in Ben Jonson. . iv. and abuta (about). and is an extended or adverbial form from the Goth. abscedere.. harass. but. jf Fick. F. ABSCESS. G.' From E. to hold. ABOVE. speaks of England and France as being ' ' (F. bottomless. F. to pierce. See Acute. absolute. 89. abrasus. spigot. abut-ment. to cut off. [)] a school. abstruse-ness. The word ufan is exactly equivalent to the cognate G. ens is short for sens. . i. P. abus-ive-ness. cf. L. i. absolutus whence absolut-ion. bawme thurghe his brayn all on brad ran ' Destruction of Troy. See Base. O. pp. inharmonious. borrowed from Gk. and -dere. absteynen Wyclif.) Fick. Blackstone. scription which applies to the gum-arabic trees of Egypt. abused. Der. cf.) formed on a F. /ce'Aijt. F. abundantia. Taylor has the derivative ab13. a bottomless gulf. absorptus. separated. abrogat-ion. model. to use amiss. T. It is Lat. away. Lat. (F. The Lat. L.E. ab. Skt. Sermons.) M. (L. abed. Chaucer has Palsgrave. abruptoff. to arrive at. abuser. abfdss-ion. See Broach. . Skt. See Use. L. to abuse. Lat. 1090. the sb. ['(*] The verb is not in to come to terms. . dus. pp. Cynthia's Revels. 39. iv.) In Kersey. i. . G. The sb. The verb occurs in Johnson's Rambler. I. iv. ed. Der. (E. L. tarn. abstractus. harsh-sounding . pres. to sup up. abstem. oben. depth from 0a9in. from above. sb. The pp. Lat. Der. S. larly resolved into on-by-aft and on-by-ove(r). thriutan.) ' Lat. and cedere. 21. Lat. drunken. (L. M. . and Milton. axis. abime. .. M. C. towards. where abefta is deducible from an-bi-efta . set. Der. +Gk. to vex. yielding a white transparent gum Lat. ix. + ^SARBH. [t] put. . vol. . out of the way. I ness abrupt. c. Ed. deaf. ment. evidently rests its meaning on the F. to set free. he is. abscissas. absurd-ity. to go away . E. the pp. go into hiding. ^AS. O. Gk. . lut. i. in Wilkins. 1. abridgier. ab. to threaten . For setten on broche . v. A. abyssus. 17. rough. akin to /3v9os and 0d8os. See Abound. to bathe. and abutting fronts The perilous narrow ocean parts asunder. from Lat. P. Der.) In Bailey. access-ion. 244. deep. 5. Troilus. Luke. a bottomless gulf. IV. ACADEMY. from the pp. abrogare. The M. a academic. - Lat. taken from the O. E. see note on A bbreviate. Shak. a fever-fit as in Lydgate's Complaint of the Black Knight. borrowed from Gk. abstinence occurs in the Ancren Riwle. . (L. iv. ridiculous. and Gk. abrupt-ly. I abuse or misse order a thing . Thus Lat. (L. depth. to scrape. absent-ee. ABREAST. which is a better division of the word than abs-ens cf. a tone. ACCENT. ABSOLUTE. absorpt-ive. from and temum. TO ABROAD. away . of Apheleia abras-ion. Wyclif. abstener (Roquefort) cf. to hide. ACCENT. b. to be whence Lat. accelerat-ive. sens. (L. in the sense of harsh-sounding. ii. to project towards. Der. Lat.y'TAM. ACCELERATE. from and tenere. Der. accelerat-ion. &c. to cut. absorbalso absorpt-ion. form of the verb was assoile. 2. Du. of abuti. 962. transl. an-bi-uta. 6.] O. to drive. abstin-ere and abstens-ion. See Surd. abs. -Lat. a mere intensive of surdus. 1 24. Rob. go. Chaucer. O. M. the ending -ate see note on Abbreviate. prefix =. agree to. is cognate with Skt. Fick. (F. See Abaft. prat-sens. appears to have been first in use. ab.S. Lat. to repeal a law . acctntus. gambhan. and with Skt. I Tim.) Shak. See Broad. mod. concealed. lart. difficult. See Curtius.) . pp. and Up. abstracted is in Milton. and Milton speaks of the olive pi. broken off. 340. academ-ic. ' ' ACCEDE. to ask. present. 13. Chron. (F. he is. i-j. is Low traced by Brachet. i. away go. Philip.L. to condere. ab Hen. Plato's retirement. In Shak. p. to loosen. E. Lat. an. difficult. to 40. to repeal. Lat. F. to See . a superlative form. (L. i. abrevier (Burguy) . P. 15. has academes. consequently. grove of Academe. abouter. d-. imbibe. viii. . abstinere. off. above. &c. pp.) Bp. Shak.-Lat. also spelt abrever. to drive. s. brod. Hen. of abstrahere. abradere. all from the pp.) i. Lat. 90. ab. [The sb. a support but see Buttress. 527 . ABROGATE. abstract. E. of Melancholy. Lat. (L. fodere. L. . bout. v. Kn. tend to orig. y'TAN. M. <TX<"'. i. away and surabsurdus. accesses. The sb. plenty. two mighty monarchies Whose high. absurd-ness. 3. borrowed from Gk.( = ad) and celerthe ending -ate. from the pp. This Lat. ed. are.) Shak. In Shak.*) Lat. to set free. The Lat. absentem. haven. O. access is common in Shak. now/an. aboutir. to cut. (Hybrid . . thorn. from the pp. Lat. Der. 798.) Wyclif. ABSORB. off. Tract. to be away. abandonee. and F. J Similar forms are found in Old Friesic. 3. an. E. \ Hen.) Sir T. aBvaaof. Cede. See Rogation. abroad. abs. iv. lal. Der. 06. See Solve. Doublet. to shorten. away. ' 1. See Entity. See About. abscessus. to thrust. ABSTEMIOUS. upreared. Ta. case of absens. buttress. celer. F.io. abstruse-ly. 3001. to dip oneselve. to lay up. L.. a race-horse. has the sb. 409. Perhaps absurdus was. to break off. xsi. place. abstract-ed. past participle. E. tan. ace. L. abstin-ent. and iui. together. . sant. 463. by.' Anat. Lat. but the sb. denoting the lowest depth. . pp. connects 0a6vs with Lat. to suck up. strong drink. to conceal. See Absolve. Scindere (pt.) In Shak. pp. abstin-ence. and Lat. . The sb. abisme from a . ABSTRACT. E. to use. In Milton. but Curtius rejects i. Temp. L. A. . which is that which bears the thrust of an arch cf. 53. and scindere. soo^A see Sooth. (L. (E. ' to set on fire. Gower. p. Skt. Chaucer. See Trace. 368. but through F. 3.) Described by Dioscorides as a a deuseful astringent thorn. Com(L. pr. ii. 1 83. with E. Der. Der. Lat. and rumpere. ACACIA. which is connected with E. accelerare. The temperate. pt. abouter (Roquemod. 303 . q. negative prefix and fivaoot. to shorten. [This form is more directly from the Latin. abbreuiare. P. to propose a law. . (F. (L. ab. p. to fort). to be breathless. Gk. and radere. a.. abusus. sens is short for essens. suffix -otis is i 5 abufen. asleep. M. as in Milton. E. abys-mal. 1 79. to . . s. absentia.Gk. iv.-Gk) Frequent in Milton. . a kind of tree. refrom strong drink. ABYSS. ab.) M.) pole. to thrust towards. in Hall. ^AK. and A. . Gk.) Lat. p. (L. 688. i. ad. Lat. ist. See But.. abstrusus. of Glouc. ABUT. Lat. 381. scission. . M. The prefix is for an. . ]n-edtian. to stretch. (for Earlier. from (here amiss) . away. be. Lat. to scrape off.) Lat. cf. Chaucer has absounrestrained. spread out. Lat. to separate. we have accesse in the sense of a sudden accession of fever or ague. abscessus. 50. abstemius. being. absolutus. strong drink. L. Der. iv. Henry VIII. seidi) is a nasalised form of SKID. to abstain. also abregge. Gk. away. Eng. 2475. VI. of abase. 1. depth. L. broken . pp. academ-ic-al. abys-m. (L. See Threaten. 3. anemia. Hen. absolution is in . ABROACH. and sens. 1 206. from and trahere.an. haboundanse. abridge-ment. F. (L. being The etymology of abysm jf from O. gabhiras. ABRUPT. 24. abrase. E. uiv. the thorny Egyptian acacia. Fick. 6438 later. a going away. ABSENT. iii. ABRIDGE. All's Well. i. Gk. Ormulum. to vex. A.

an increase. ACCUMULATE. 'acerbitie.) In Chaucer. O. to grow. and cadere. a or Lat. to enlarge. Castor seems to have been further corrupted into custer. acerbili. 334. ACCREDIT. ace. O. The Lat.-L. . sharp. all in the F. to ache. ace. for the ending -ate see note to Abbreviate. oak] . ACCOUNT. to grow. See also Declivity. according-ly. as. Group B. accordare. or join side to side . but it . Commodious Used by Bishop Taylor. 517. i. ' Ye shule . 4 acclaiming is used by Bp. to. Lat. accept -at-ion. O. coustome. axos. cece. I Hen. Hall. acorder. accord-ant. agree Chaucer.) [The word is formed on a French model (cf. to receive. concordare. a suit at law. Lat. to equip. ACHIEVE. accur-acy. 237. [t] to amass. hen. ac. of Glouc. 9. accussubject governed by a trans- to complete . ACCIDENT. Chaucer. one . iv. and turned into a verb. 148. ii. from nom. oke. to Lat. See Complex. at-ive. sloping ground . The pi. accounts. Der. an ake. accomplishable. ' increased or gathered.\Tj. com. q. a pain . and compter and comer. and complere. Lat. Lat.) Lat. See Claim. or akynge.) Shak. custom.) M. sloping. from ate. (L. to grant. ok. confederCot. accreu. It is not easy to say receive. F. form custrix. to accomplish. An extension (by prefixing either F. (R. (F.' 1. ' or ache. 520. E. acclamare. to associate with. C. terness. ACCLIVITY. said to be the Tarentine pronunciation of Gk. and O.( = aa*). to ACCORD. (F. acompaignier. cantus. cumpagner. concord. The spelling ache is a falsified one. accliuitatem. E. forming its past tense as ook. ii. accurate-ly . Works. ad. like maistre from magister In this view. F. accrediter. coustume. Per. ["t*] sing. a custom. accept-once. Cses. On Amend- costare. acddent-al also accidence (French . tudinetn. Lat. 6. Cot. a heap. [t] to accomplish. ing the Laws. c.) M. which see in Ducange. account-able. O. ' ' . iii. from nom. accidere. Lat. but not cognate with E. has accoutred.) In Milton four times. accepten. cognate aAos. E.) Spenser. ace. ACCESSARY.. . Der.) The spelling with a double wrong. p. an. ac. Lat. Group B. accoustrer.) Used by Bacon. or compter. Contemplations. ' to render familiar. acceplare. accuser. enlarge . cuftos. (L. accumulare. properly. and Lat. 404. Lat. Latin name for the sacristan of F. F. b. to and crescere. whence the notion of dressing may have arisen.= ad . of Lat. an ace. and capere. Lat. ad . Gk. Lat. an upward slope. Nightingale. rhymes with surmounteth. ao". and cursian.. the head. increase. L. ocin a poem of the ijth century. T. the same. to increase. of Langtoft.) M. ege. which In old authors it is spelt ate. as pointed out both in P'ick and Curtius.-L.) M.) M. 298.. ac. acer. VII. to grow. See Complete. to agree. at-ion. cura. we may further suppose the O. studied .) M. See See Cure. acorsien. an associate. (E. . F. Browne. Der. F. accus-at-ory. Lat. Lat. E. 18.. and Incline. at-ive (the name itive verb).' [f] ^f The most deck. accord-ing. acclam-at-ion. of acerbitas. acorsy. One of the was to have charge of the sacred vestments. an. a coustre. See Acrid.) Shak. ad and O. now Lat. oken. See Cumulate. Wyclif. pp. L. th. See Head. a singing. See Credit. accident-id). accumulat-ion.) Hall has accumulated. Parv.-L. amplified . accommod-at-ing. and accrewed. and cumulare. See Coast. to fit.. Artificial (L. acursien. to heap up. word must have been borrowed from this. accumul- ACCOMMODATE. F. account-ant. 135 0. achner. C. nKiveiv. (F. which ' see. acad. ac= ad) of the older form complice. (L. model : the suffix -ty answers to F. See Hen. is only remotely related to it. to accredit formed from the sb. a church. Hall. a cause. enlarged. Letter 43 (R. 2322).( = ad). F. pp. trim. to attend. i. p. 256. privative.) Lat. o-. together and plicare.(=od). accoster. achiever. Low Lat.(for cum). Lat. an ^ st 'U earlier. 1 6 (R. Der. 542 (R. as. Der. ACCLAIM. one. accommod- Lat. Lat. A. to receive. ACCOMPLISH.6 an accent. 1 701 er- Rob. accommodare. companion in a lewd action nom. VI. F. accord-ant-ly . F. 13 (R. sb. (F. C. claimer). ACHIEVE. For the root of axos and awe see Anguish. to criminate. ' ACERBITY. ACCESS. ACCOUTRE. O. Prompt. 1. acursi alle Owl and Der. Count. 'Ake. accipere.. Apr. see note on Abbreviate. S. as. from its pleasing sound.. which are doublets. to associate with.' tr. (F. x. head. but only as The word a sb. Marked by Brachet origin unknown. of which accreu (accru) is the pp. P. 6. to fall. and cord-. pron. accent-u-at-ion. sourenesse . Lat. Nt.] curs O. Lat. coustrer would mean to act as sacristan. a chance event. compaignie. ed. See accrescere. E. (L.-L. ACCURATE.L. F. pt. but from the Latin. . to lay to one's charge. complex. see note to Abash. Fick. esp. accident-. dolor . . heave (Curtius) or with E. i. whence also Lat. to reckon. account-able-ness. is not after all very certain . and clamare. to agree. of Glouc. as a prefix. to compute. a slope. [The sb.) Sir.. to See Lean.) 19 Todd. ACCEPT.' ' likely guess is that which connects it with the O. awe. accusyng. in Rob. b. ' augmented. custom. and the right corresponding word to axos is the Goth. to also E. and explains accoustrer by to cloath. and commodore. accent-n-al. from pp. Lat. accept-able-ness. That the word is truly English is best seen from the fact that the M. to amass. Chaucer has 'acheued and performed. accretus. A. which was the Med. lit. from Lat. ac. Hen.-L. in accordance with Cotgrave's explanation. stem of cor. coustetir or coustre to be a corruption of Lat. to fit. ooke. F. without a head. to take care. i. to sound. Creed. complice. i. 4 (Bosworth). ii. the 'one' of cards or dice. Gk. cumpanie. a word which does not occur except in compounds. viz. accroistre (Cotgrave). a = Lat. -te.. of Brunne. slope . decreased.) In Sir T. the sacred vestments. commodious. inclinare. accompani-ment. so that accostare means to join side costa.) O. discord. iv. we find accompteth written. ' ACCUSTOM. 25. accretionem. F. and Mode. Formed from the 1. accounten. Der. to count. See Crescent. Lat. us-. Lat. ac. Lat. to accoast. Boethius. and hence. O. increased.for ad. T. attire. Jul. -totem.) and in K. curse. . intens. lay to one's charge. iv. 4. campaigner. pr. also accord-ion. (F. computare. ac. (F. P. (L.) ' ' . cousleur. with E. pp. c is cursed. C. was a ' She strong verb. to take. care. Lat accrescere. from Lat. The E. a unit. accept-able. p.' sacristan's duties the sexton or sacristan of a church (Roquefort). a complice. i. pres. to lean. to complete.. growne. to cry out at. accretio. ad . a frequentative form. e. iii. Lat. F. used in much the same way as Lat. in crime.) Modem. which would give the form this also accounts for G.) Shak. to . Heart.. mod. above. [t] to shout at. Lat. d-. [f] see Accede. accliuitas. F. 1.acomplir. called Chaucer's Dream. sb.= ad and in the Acta Sanctorum. E. costume. array. prefix = Lat. complicem. 4. accoutrer. 14579. 3. . accomplish-ed. agis. kiister. and E. Lat. F. O. Wright. From custorem was formed the O.. in agreement with . Rom. x is an E. ACCUSE. to incline.-L. Der. accountes. C. (F. claim from O. bitterness. wicked. Thauh alle my fyngres oken . ACEPHALOUS. to address. and similarly formed.) a. See cotiter. credit. of accuLat. Vulgar Errors. F.ad. to come to in the way of increase. of Boethius. a. acCot. 3. association. and due to the frequency of the use of ac.( whether cape re is cognate with E. prefix a = Lat. count. p. See Curse. accrue. and crescere. to fold. b. the heart. ii. 523 (Brachet). i. dress. Weber. See fit. ' saide her hede oke [better spelt ook. F. commodus. a steepness . 2. apparell. lean. ace.-L.) Lat. I. whence Lat. a rib to side. F. PlowTour.) He was euer ac' customed . -Gk. E. . for the Gk. accurate-ness.-L. Lat. b.. occurs in Rob.-L. Der. to be accustomed to a thing. aconter (Burguy) and acompter (Roquefort) the double forms being still preserved in F. ' man. and Kdpa.) ' Lat. P. see his tr. cused. credit. . accustomaunce. and curare. T. Custos seems to have been corrupted into castor. have (Fick). ac-=ad. = ad) and ( Der. happening. (L. E.) Used by Ray. Company. Wyat has it in his Complaint of the Absence of his Love' (R. 81. iv. ^KLI. to sacristan.-L. On the Creation (R. In Gower. 8483. accept-er. 6. ^KAN. Lat. 5. 296. acclamare. Lat. bitsharpnesse. also ACCURSED.) Lat. 2. to adapt. accret-ive and see . g.] ac. a hill. (for the ending -ish. M. = ad) . Cf. ' ' coutre. which occurs Lat. ac- ACCEPT. V. Handsomeness. and accusours. Lat. cantus. as shewn by the existence of the fern.-L. to take pains with. See Cause. L accord-once.-L. due to the attempt to connect it more closely with the Gk. accomplisen. acerbitatem. consueSee Custom. eal Jjset sir and se tece ' onwseg ala&Jed WEES = all the sore and the ake were taken away Beda. whence acclivity is formed in imitation of a F. accusare. If this be right.. cumulus. adapt . ' fijtinge . F. . iii. 1 59.. to give credit to. ACHE. to. (F. v. 52. Q. bitter. F.) Not in early use. of causa. prefix = G. accompten.-Gk.. to happen. Tw. acheuen = acheven. cliuus. ACCOMPANY. E. A. axos. lean. has both decrewed. (F. (Gk. of the case expressing the accus-able.?) -Shak. c. to grow to. See Chance. a severe pain. . R.= Lat. canere. Hen. and -cliuitas. to fulfil. Der. . interwoven. acrid. (F. account. pr. Lat. to agree. A. (F. of consuetude. keep . The Knight of La 8. ACCOMPLICE. exclaim. pi. 105. Cot.= ad. accuratus. e. ac. =Goth. answering (nearly) to Lat. Der. compaignier. tr. accoutre-ment. accorden. F. 5. (F. to invest. T. ed. xx. S. cor is cognate with E. S. in Chaucer's Tale oi Melibeus (Six-text. Alisaunder. E. ac ( = ad) . 235. Chaucer has acsame passage . as. for the ending -ate. In Cowper. 309 (R. Cotgrave gives both forms. ACCOST. . cousteitr. to cry out. accomplish-ment. 2137 . ace. p. F. estre acostumt. exact. accroitre. ACE. 397. Der. accus-er. 455 . ^f The connection with the Gk. obvious as it looks. alien. stem of accidens. F. pp. complete. accuratio. suit. 4544. ACCRUE. Lear. ac. ACCRETION. accus-at-ion. p. Awe. v. value. accent-u-ate. rare. coustre. (E. (L. . an accomplice. oJttQGk. vol. to . acerbus.) F. (F. company.

acute-ness. (L. a follower. acqjtire-ment . as above . akointen. axpo-s. Gk. xxvii. analogy. in any case.) From the stem ac-u-. Lat. quietus. Skt. aker is derived from akr.) and O-TI'X""'. [f] monk's hood. i. a point . acguitt-ance. actes. 50. ' ACID. quiescere. own the knowledge of. acre-age. to drive. Hist. This aknowen is the A. ac-u-men. acquiesc-ent. ' . acolythus. + Lat. to come to an end (Brachet). A. + Gk. an oak. So in German. (F. lines spell a word. colourless. (Hybrid. acri-moni-ous. 7 ACHROMATIC. fruit. ii. Fries. (L. See Knowledge. aconitum. the highest point. ' . xp<"'. Swed. on steep sharp rocks to and Scott). of <rri'xoi. akran.-Gk. from eiche. acttiarius) . a field. 3 . (Gk. and^STIGH. ^AK. Curtius. 7. Gk. cognate with E. a plant like monk's-hood . tart. from ager. . acqueynten. (E. verb. sc. i. ad caput venire. To mee wold shee neuer aknow That any man for any meede Neighed her body. T. a road. See Chief. act-ual-ily .) Borrowed from Gk. to settle a claim see Brachet. of two principall kinds. a hybrid form.) Bacon speaks of a cold and acide juyce Nat. not from eik. to perceive. to p. 9 Legend of St. If it be remembered that acre should rather be spelt acer or alter (the latter is common in Mid. E. See .. 20. Langtoft. 186. Hen. to come to the end or arrive at one's object. The pi. Lat. = ad. and many others. i. Curtius. accar. ACUMEN. (F.is due to the curious fact that there was a M. + + + Dan. a verb formed from Lat. New . Gk. suggests the KAR. akointed mid ou' = well acquainted with you. prefix ^f The : becoming ac- Lat. cross-wise. achievement. known. the upper city. ACUTE. . iii. pp. oncndwan. acer. Hence the prefixed a. pointed. indeed this has been so is related to akker. also first line. sharpness. 115. acutus. quies. ag-ere. 6.) Cotgrave has 'Acolyte. (K. ^AK. At. edge. 3. acid-ily. (L. is immediately derived from 8. Liturgy. Thus the original sense of airs. G. noiifico . xliii. to. But the See Cross. order. to pervade ' AD.Of. keenness of perception. an acom. on. &c. b. suffix -ie O. S. 819. a/tarn. + a it field. Fick. Lat. pi. a citadel. in his Complaint of Undoubtedly formed from the form of A. ['Y] knowen with the same sense ex.' Absence. to seek. to drive . Gk. + + -VAG. charged. ujcovtiv. dimin. See Act. act-ion-able. Parv. also (from the pp. large number of other words. from F. advise. i. Fick. Ache that ministers to the priest while he sacrifices or saies mass. met. acquisit-ive. knowleche. . the A.. Fick. privative.-VAK. 639 (R. whence Gk. L. acid-ify. fruitless. a field. an oak. like 06^0* for on bed. 142. Curtius. has 'armes (R. Probably borrowed. ' ACQUIRE. to and cognitare * (not used). or to make knowleche. AT)-. See Quiet. lit. acrobat-ic. an acom. to get. to pierce .) ' ' ' ' ACOUSTIC. Know. an etymology which is. ag. put in action). find the full form on-cross. . Uorto acwiten his fere = aqiiyten. Eng. which Curtius.' Low Lat. the comp. M.ACHROMATIC. Der. properly pp. . . 3 (R. Ancren Riwle. (L.-f Goth. S. E. to perceive. the root is. and aypios. neut. pi. a point. aj. ax6\ov0os. whence the verb ac-u-ere. sour. Borrowed from Lat. tumbler. as e. ' .) M.) Lat. S. earlier acointen. 3.) Occurs in Ben Jonson. Gk. react.before /. of cognoscere. The pi. bk. acwilen.-L. Hist. with and gnoscere (commonly spelt noscere). akres occurs in Rob. actes occurs in Chaucer's Freres Tale. to settle a claim. acjuitt-al. of pp. see Curtius. Lat. Brunne's tr. and very common prefix a (short for an. Formed with See Inn. axpoffarris. highest. to sharpen. hardly accepts. and ' .. from Lat. d-. ACQUAINT. acquir-able. See Egg. i. Gk. neither to oak nor to corn. See corresponding to Lat.) across*. ' ' + Icel. acrobate. 1/K. repose in. is connected with the root var. (Gk. and the word was probably formed by word is a hybrid. Der. (L. cf. perform a promise. to cover cf. or mediately through the French. O. + Skt. Fick. Gk.) It occurs in Selden's Table -Talk. al. Low. or Latin. from acquisilns. a city. cf. of axpos. ACQUIT. i. VAK. 901 in Percy Folio MS. Skt. rest. Sansk. &c. formed from cognitus. This O. tamos. to do. i. d/t/xiiroXis. thirteenth century. pointed. For iroAis. j-G. Lat. tecirn . 43. Sejanus. i. agere. Sax. ^SKU. dxpw/rros. whence also E. Der. colour. borrowed from Gk. See Acre. sharp. axpos. also acquisit-ion. . the fruit ' . The verb knowlechen is common. so that ax6\ov$os meant originally 'a travelling companion. acute-ly. from SKRU cf. Gk. version of Gen. c. of the oak. i. ' ACME. also act-ual (Lat. and that acorn should rather be acern or altern. 2. See Acrid and Stirrup. relating to hearing. viz. d-. g. Heame. actualis). ^ acquainl-ance. The Danish is clearest of all. sharp.) . to rest. the chase). sharp sharp. it will be seen that akern is derived from alter much in the same way as silvern from silver. acerbity. Acanitum. Der. places Gk. an oak plainly felt that the word now used for acom in Dutch is generally eikel. the same. verb. of acquirere.) M. (E. acker. march. and quietare. pointed. verb a- ACKNOWLEDGE.. 67. Libbards-bane and Wolf-bane Cot. 7068 (misprinted 2068 in Richardson). Lat. VAG.+ Dan. whence act-ing . of P. 4. The Du. ad. acumin-ated. . 161. . Prompt. co. cognate with E. acirnu.before /. (Gk. and a perform. (E. knowlechen. The cognate languages help here. art. viz. ac. ACROPOLIS. Lat. . a Modem. still current. see Acrid. p. ad often changes its last letter by assimilabefore c. p. from a notion that <ecern meant an oat-corn. sharpness. Curtius. See Shew. acquainl-ance-ship. in Wyclif he knowelechide and denyede not. 8.stands for A. Fick.).) first ACROBAT. djcovffrifcos. ' pierce. Gk. S. af. acid-ul-ate. to perceive. act-r-ess .) Nat. i. to make known see Brachet. a form which has probably lost an initial s. relating to sound. colourless. H. achar.) Used by Ben Jonson. akarn from wood. of Glouc. has never been overlooked. adcognitare. thing done. O. afra. which occurs in the A.) Lat. acidus. or wooden 1. to acquaint with.] Aconit. and he knowlechide for I am not Christ It appears early in the St. 179. characters by Ben Jonson. sa-. not tautological. acquietare.tecer. L. akrana-laus.) Common in Shakespeare. Lat. and qiuerere. to perceive. colour. ad. E. F. to acknowledge. Co-radicate words are add. an acorn. For axpos. a field. acquisit-ive-ness.+ Du. pointed and Paris. oKpoarix^ov. Gk. i. . E. a citadel. Zend akv. done. Lat. axpo-v. sour. the verb. Act. Low Lat. which is cognate with E. S. 4. Der. sharp i. aj. 8. p. and Head. Lat. to climb.) M. on). Lat. neut. actus) act-ion. y. i. poison. Lat.-L. a whetstone. acrimonia. E. Fick. akr. pointed. which is the stem of Lat. 'Wei 'Acqtieynlyn. e. actus. directly from the Gk. with (akin to Skt. pi.= cum. fruit. (Gk.+ Icel.. a most venemous herb. John. Act iv. Gk. (L. and Come. cecirnu or cecernu was simply fruits of the field. A. to run . act-ive. Bacon has acrimony. a path. phrase venir a chef or venir a chief. to graze the hide. Lat. under the form skravd. in Hali Meidenhad. colite. Lat. verb <rTf<x". p. The Icel.' ' Whether ' it meant ' originally a pasture. uKfaj. sour. an acrostic. to know.-L. to rest. ^f Fick. instance. to confess.F. such as acre. aker. indeed. a field. neut. Fick. ACQUIESCE. It will now be seen that Chaucer's expression acornes of okes is correct.) Used by Hall. to release his companion. 5. afpa. Scriptomm Catalogus. a field. . G. headed a servitor. Aker. shroud. Discoveries. to obtain. . (Gk. to march in order. a row. way. 815. See Curtius. acquirere. with F. a deed. 1 35 2 Formed directly from the sb. to pierce. added u. to set at rest. to egg on. V bably) a chase or hunting-ground (cf. 265. sharpness. 161. to rest satisfied. acoinlier. to drive. i. 1. acoinler.=ad. 450. with Der. acknowledg-ment. from Gk. ac(R. of a field. to drive. Gk. shew. ACRID. we have eichel. Der. form is cognate with Gk. of okes tr. See Agent. actum.) Modern and scientific. y'AK. Lat. airs. S.) M. wild. callis. a field. to drive . outovij. Katharine. Lat. oxdvnov.before g. iii. set free. actuare. o. 5. Gk. ' Icel. see Police. Ke\(v$os is cognate with Lat.' The Gk. to drive. Thus the prefix is English. p. Connected with xpws. sam. and appears clearly in the O. + O. aquiter. Der. forming agern. . a field. a needle. a-ypus. know. iii. obtain. Xpatif IP. Nat. and xpw/ia. e. but the word eclter is related to acker.) [It may have been borrowed F. cf. head. to drive.. 1 24 whan it aquyted be = when it shall be repaid Rob. upper and ir6\ts. come. agern. acquiescere. which is the pp. &yp6s. Der. to pierce. 1 1 where the exact meaning is not clear. . not to eik. dxpo-s. caput is cognate with E. suffix. and stands for acker. with) and Ke\tv9os. act. ACRE. which has been made (apparently in imitation of acid) by adding the suffix -id to the stem acr-. 209 Not in early use. from the stem acumin-. Shak. acrid-ness .' or (more pro- written in Gk. act-or. the fruit of the oak or beech . Low Lat. p. akran. sect. ' derstanding field in the sense of wild open country . S.=ad.) Chaucer speaks of acornes A. i. and sc. ekker. which to sharpen. in lit. ' . Der. L. though it is applied to some kind of fruit. C. y'AK. ' ^AK. the later I do not cross so that across is for on-cross. acguiesc-ence. aka. S. + Du. See Query. ACOLYTE. ed. etymologically. ac.' Merline. a short poem in which the letters beginning the From Gk. acern. See Acrid. It is remarkable that acorn is related. an acre. The prefixed a. to pierce. 644 (R. acid-ul-ous. an acom. 07(11'. an acom. Surrey. to render known. a field. ^f The suffix -ern has been changed to -orn. also act-u-ale (from From the same root are exact. acri-mony. acrus. from at. i. ajra in all of which languages means ager. x/x**. Hist. to pierce. (Gk. ACT. Cf. verbal adj. 251. lit. (F. just as Skt. 37 (R. E. That the Goth. an act. . O. af. (Liddell ACONITE. akker. now spelt knowledge. . pointed.' unalter. ^f Pliny ' says it is so called because it grew iv cacovats.Gk. ACROSS. + Goth. an. Ancren Riwle. ' . of Boethius. ' ' . eclter. acumen. acid-ul-at-ed. to walk. to act-vary (Lat. ager. the country. Der. Modern and scientific.) Lat. Egg. Der. 218. also act-iv-ity. See Acuman. ACROSTIC. to know. See Quit. tion . Skt.) There is no good authority for the form acrid. the skin. to hear. of fraivtiv.) Altogether a Greek word. to pierce. of verb acnere. ac-u-s. Pliny. -fGk. acer. ACORN. hone. p. disfree. . Der. to set free.-Gk. act. . E. VIII. Con- nected by Curtius and Liddell with the verb noeiv. one who walks on tip-toe. . E. (L. sect.

[It first occurs The in the phrase Hali Meidenhad. Plowman. Lat. . iii. to assist.) O. ii (R. (L. Pairing-time Anticipated. the commander of a fleet. Der. Der.) In Addison's translation of Ovid's story of Aglauros. a diamond.More's Works. 9 (R. ^[ The root is not clear. p. 28. commonly called the philosopher's stone. adjute. Chaucer. of add-endus. administrare. spin. administrat-ive. ADDLED. It occurs in Kale's to.) adherents. amiral without the suffix. place . Luke. See Duke. to decide. address. Lat. . Regin-ald. dd.) See above. Der. i. [#] Muller. cognate with E. F. ad. cognate with E. and Sir T. to Cf. The form adle. Lat. farewell. Der. 325.y'GHAIS. bold ' ' amirail means no more than prince. air-rdv. and dresser. adamauntz. disease Grein.) M. initial n in English. and adductive adduc-ible . to arrange. additus. pp. 481. to direct oneself to. Hammer derives admiral from Arabic amir-al-bdhr. and apisci.a. a viper. Curtius. sum up. a very hard metal. O. to settle. a.before n. Eng. afflos. ^YU. adiacentem. see note in Errala. G. by the verb i}/*i. ADHERE. assign. addit-ion-al. and jornee. dies. to join. so that the original sense may have been thread. is also and occurs in Cowper. to. an. to 40 b (R. E. to decide with respect to. The suffix is just the same as in rib-aid. to swear to.] Lat. q. therupon him hath address. adjoindre. col. man-el at:' the reason Max . VII. is both diamond and magnet.) of Wisdom.yoke. ADDUCE. Chaucer. E. 202. addere. to keep back Fick. (L. Of the Real Presence. Ezek. to say.8 ADAGE. J (R. Pers.Lat. Lat. of adiutans. adiunctus. See Jet. an. ' ' ' . but omitted in Dr. 1561. 195. add-enditm. i. adjourn-ment.-L.) M. Rob. O. ed. to lead to. yMDH.) Fuller has adjecting. See Jet. ajuger. ad deum. 310. poison. which appears also in the Gk.) M. ' Pick.) See Trench's Select Glossary. ^f The original signification of ddl was inflammation. M.-L. as-. to lie. who sons of art. (E. King's Entertainment at \Velbeck. from Low Lat. testus. near to. Shak.'] Gk. and in the Skt. -wald. fit. a burning. glow.F. (L. 264. cite. to minister to. arrange. adiectus. Lat. (F. amiral or bald. ajuster. 294. also adduct-ion. ad. (L. xix. &c. as in the case of auger. has that horrible Lat. of P. A. ad. Lat. . F. (F. L. occurs in the Ormulum. C. the vb. and aptare. Lat. aequus. of Brunne's tr. also ar-. to stick. which occurs also in Lithuanian. Lat. -aid. xxi. to adjudge. 360 back. a glowing heat. or better aitigen ( = ajiigen) . II. Chronicles. the obtaining (L.) It occurs in Lydgate's Siege of Thebes. from pp. . 409. to lead. 9 pi. admirald rhymes with Kitchin's translation. adapt-able. summer Gk.) M. at-. to conquer. to. 37. Kick. edha. aiornen (ajornen). . to assist.. adiutare) adjut-or. A. bind. to . we find in persone of an addere. F. i. to assist Lat. Lectures. commander of As to the sea. note (8th edition). assistant. to fit to. See Tame. ad. (F. to. Lat. O. to sect. from pp. See jour in Brachet. of Boethius. O. adressen.. to and iuuare. to throw. Of Julius Caesar. ADJOURN. M. ad. . i. an adage. [The derivative adjective is common as a grammatical term. c. . 539> ' (L. Der. Gk. . See for this supposition. jugcr is from the juger. i. H. ndor. and in numerous passages in Middle English. no. F. Hen. The word addere is identical with naddere. De swering of adiuration and coniuration.F. ad . ' . ad .F. Wyclif has to put together.before p. C. near. General Worthies. a funeral pile. iii. O. ad. to put side by side. lit. adiunctus. 0. administer. ' . ' Adepts. iugum. Grafton. adinngere. 489. Lat.-L. Lat.-L. ag-gregate. 1 6. to put side by side. (F. to bum.-L. adamantines stan O. also addit-ion. Der. F. + + + + ADJUDICATE.) are said to have found out the grand elixir. to attain. H. O. an-nex. . and adjuting in Ben Jonson. adagium. 381. 24. ad- also adhes-ive. adhaerere. 4.. Der. = adiugen ( adjugen). p. of adiacens. and the two forms are used interchangeably in Middle English. (F. Lat. (I commit you) to God. [#] 37. . Arabic amir. headed Lectio. also option. ' ' ' adject-ive. which see . to heat. Wholly unconnected with A. -aldus. (F. adage. 4801.S. ADEQUATE. pres. astas. 576. adiutantem. Shak. 119. Lat. (L. a proficient. adiurare. to lay or put near. Unusual. ADJURE. proverb. ajosler. and iu-n-gere. pt. 'to wonder.) Written a F. a funeral pile. IV. n. put. to lie near. ad. of French Etym. properly pp. E. 222. See Equal.) Addicted occurs in Grafton's Lat. ii. G. Hen. addere. a dieu. adher-ence. witty saying Cot. yu. (F. lit. snathe. : : ADJECT. -and) from a shorter form amirtevs. p. . adducere. Der.' Der. i. ajurner. to and -dere. ADAPT. Ex. See Dress. ajousler (mod. privative conquerable. adjunct. Lat. and iacere. Lat. ADJUTANT. Hen. . have a naddere and a neddere.) 1 1. Lat.. Here addle is a corruption of addled. to make equal to. seize.= Lat. v. to stick. to guard cf. Gk. to dawn.-L. ADMIRE. has adhere Lat. an. daily. administrare. old-said saw. jour. equal. Lat. ii. xviii.) Chaucer has added. sense in Mid. aSaftavTivos.L. ad. from indk. p. VAGI!. adjudication. . adaplare. From the . naedre. an 'emir. Chaucer has aiuged. pp. There is a Low Lat.4. Works. to bring forward. O.) 145. amirail. of Glouc. adductus. fol.S. pp. adjur- ADDICT. ac-cord. neut. ADEPT. naora. adder. ii. giorno. . Occurs in Sir T. adresser. to say. 6. adjoining or joining to. adamant. Rob. Taylor has adduction Lat. F. Du. to . see Richardson. and (from Skt. adjutanc-y same root is aid. dlor. pp. (L. pass. bk. a. Lat. 2. to .' cord. Goth. see Chaucer's Works. dress.' the word addle being properly a substantive. See Adjoin.L. adequacy. to attain. adhes-ion. ajoitter). to join. Lat. edhas. which shews that the term was often applied to the leading vessel in a fleet. pp. (F. proverb. 501. gen. ad. haesus.) Used by Hall.. ammiral P. at-test. (L. H. adapt-at-ion. [There are several similar instances of the loss of A. sufficient. pr. I say (with long a) in Gk. More has her-ent adetjuale-ly. E. aiusten (=ajusten) in the old editions of Chaucer's Boethius. Journal. Lat. 295. Sec. to minister to. adaequaius. ^f From the same root is apt. a saying. F. to make equal. a viper. of Lat. to C. B. to See Minister. S. of adiutare. See Diction. whence aha. that which is unand Sauddv. assign. jar. See Fick. 1 2 1 2 . orange. to kindle. admirald. equal from Lat. Der. (L. ad. natra. morbid. No. sect. ddapas.. which occurs in Blackstone's Commentaries.' But this is only an abbreviated expression. E. p. to add.' adjust-nble. a saying.' Gower. ad. Der. 251. i. fut. a very hard stone or metal. adhaesus. T. or Adeptists. near . a. Fabyan. i. one who has attained proficiency . a burning Skt. (L. -al) from A. '. (F. see Abscond. altar. c. made equal to. ad. Troilus. a thread. adiicere. iii. Der. adjunct-ive to postpone till another day.) .' where other MSS. to stick to. I say and in Sanskrit by the root ah. Contemplation . natter. which ' ' egg . pres. ad. Diet. ad. Lat. C.) Adamaunt in Wyclif. And (F. b. adject-ton. to reach. aSduavros. of adamas. . iudicare. jur. ' i. to and iungere.E. has an addle diseased. Gower. c. admiral-ty. by and iuxta. = In Ben Jonson's Discoveries. addere . and again. Tale. spin. F. al-lude. to join whence also Lat. p. . obtain. a prince. to kindle . F. ADJUDGE. ajorner.. Der. see Brachet's Diet. pp. Lat. adl. originally jorn = Ital. adiuxtare. . i. to adjudge. represented in Latin by the verb dio. he said.) Shak. adjust-meni. and ministrare. (E. adamantines. dp. and ducere. In King Horn. to say. called in North's Plutarch the Thus Milton speaks of the mast Of some great admiral-galley. make right. . has admir'd disorder.) . and the modern use is correct. admirer. admire. at-ion.Arabic. M. to . to and aequare. reach to. ap-isci is from^AP. wood for fuel. 1992. pi. addictus. 309. ed. proclaim. ace. supposing that the final word bahr has been dropped. p. 275. . a fire Lat. O. '/. a day. addicere. S. ii. administral-ion. .Gk. G. J Sam. dieu. . to judge. a disease. 21. and dicere.. 17. ADMINISTER. a morning cf. snake Grein. tr. 352 .' Old Irish. See Join. ap-pear . Plowman.) It occurs in the Bible of ' Ira.' Kersey's Diet. an. assisting. See Apt.) Richardson cites a passage from Shaw's translation of Bacon. and administration in the same.) pp. this word has its doublet in adjudicate. . cf. both from pp. tion. to adjoin. Lat. possibly from y'NA. nadrs. adden. ii.-L. a day. . (L. ap. i. to fit. Low Lat. to sew. 89. to charge on oath. pt. a secondary form of adiuuare. F. to fix a day. G. ^f But see Errata. Lat. (L. ad. from Lat. 14.. ' ADDER. nere. as in ar-rest. 9 (R. amirail. admirail (Layamon. Fick. has amyrayl. See Join. tutus. O. to tie. Langtoft. part. F. and in Johnson's Rambler. ' ' and See Abjure. Der. aWav. 1715. adjacenc-y. 1. in use. to throw. of adipThe form Lat.' Lat. A ADMIRE. F. 393.' or chief. iurare. See Curtius. ii. and iacere. Parnassus. to. ministral-or . 4 (R.) lie next to. ' ' ADJACENT. Testament of Love. ad. also found as amire. ^YUG. eiten. of adiacere. to stick fast to. to join to. Prol. sb. Adjutors occurs in Drayton's Barons' Wars. and See Judge. near. ADAMANT. Iacere is formed from iacere. all ADMIRAL. to attain. ADD. Der.T. as-sist. Der. cf. ' ' .' Macb. lit.. % Lat. tame.t. and see Journey. or more often anu'ral. answering to Low G. admiral. an. 1. 103). adapt-abil-ity.L. addict-ed-ness. adduct-ive. 51. to wonder at. Morris's edi- ADJUST.=Lat. bk.) ADAGE. Der. ace. ADIEU. and haerere. pt. E. tame. i. make suitable. ADJUNCT. in P. form amiraldus. Bp. Lat. F. [#] lit.. to adressed. ADDRESS. properly to draw near to day. umpire. adamanla.] Icel. diurnus. Addled means affected with disease. to swear. . ace. formed by suffix -aldus (O. af-fect. add-enda. isci. Der. d-. AD JOIN. to give oneself up to. sb. addide. to." and the word was formed by suffix -/ (for -el. Curtius. to add to.) Lat.) bk. of adaequare. adamant-ine . ^f Since the F. p. . P. to put.' see Palmer's Pers. to direct. 1.) Administer occurs in The i. an adder. adeptus. a proverb. C. A. to and -aginm.. M.

flattery. Lat. Cotgrave. M. ^A. has adventure as a verb. L. monish is ' ' . and it-i-ous. Hence also the F. iii. lit. adulter-ess and (from Lat. avancen. i. advert-ent. dexterous. flattery. to nourish . missits. pp. ^ WAL a part of speech. Der. O. The sb. an auntre at p. F. See Ante-. ad. Lat. I. occurs in the Ancren Riwle. pp. Lat. admonistare. taken from the O. to roll). lit.-L. adorn-ment. Chaucer has invariably without the d. Swedish. iii. E. Fick. Aduersite. 28. p.) Used by Evelyn. justice (in late Latin).-L. [The M. Lat. ad. Lat. v. Tale O. to go before. . s. to Miscellany. See Option. (F. to send. before (Brachet). avauncen. of JEa. Lat. to inform. right. aduenturus. i. also (from Lat. all tion. at Mirari is for an older sniirari. xi. More. and identifies the -/in advlari with Gk. adolescence . ashore for on shore.~] 'Avantage. O.- CurLat. advertise. See ADVANTAGE. formerly adi-ertisse-ment. to. 174. avertiste-ment. lit. and optare. adverb-ial. rightly from a. of Glouc. (L. from O. av erse). amonesten.' Curtius. to advise. b. admonitus have othere thinges at do. the mouth. move to and fro. The inserted d came in about A. regard. ADULTERATE. See Smile. adversity. uoluere.' id. Taylor writes adulterated. smile at .447. 'This figure amonesteth thee 'He amonesteth [advises] pees. 8 . to turn. to cover over. profit. droit is from Lat. cognate with E. Der. so that ada corruption of the older form amonest. hill. 'That es at say.) M. lutoaftv. Lat. 4. Der. 58. to send to. admysLat. O. . cherish. (L. See Afloat. Fick. E. F. p. fl' -ise is not the Gk. to is produce. hence to fawn. (F. Seuyn Sages. a debaser of money. of which the fern. 2735 very A. a'sya.6i e. S. ii. advers.) Adopt occurs in Hall.) See Levins. ad. to cast shadow over. adulat-or-y. ad. asus.' that is to say. More. ^f The prep. of Glouc. see note at the end of the ysed. Engl. an. smi. ADOPT. from and see A-. 14. Hist. of Boethius. and regarded as a ' substantive. pp. vti). and again.) Spelt adulte in Sir T. Chaucer. 194. to permit to enter. (L. trans. about to happen. Low. to grow. to advise. act. E. 770. adulter. Lat. Works. . is in the Ancren Riwle. . ii.. of adolescens. to be. at is found thus prefixed to other infinitives. by Kitchin. 150. A. 1. to. being understood). has adulterate as a past participle but Bp. adverse to. to corrupt. turned towards.) Chaucer ous-ness. 7. book iii. F.~] Lat. 10. cf.~] ADVANCE. admittere. which Curtius connects with the WAL. xxi. F. Prompt. neut. Lat.) In Ben Jonson. The Govemour. adulter-ine. E. ADVERSE. advertis-er. Cotgrave. 5. ante.D. ready or quick about . and it is common.. and orare. . Cotgrave has 'Adverlir. however... val. . but a development from the mode of conjugating the verb avertir. On the Real Presence. ADOBE. 213. occurrence. but the sb. choose. vb. The sb. from pp. p. -DO. F. ed. Works. admonitus. And the */ Lat. Skt. Morris. admir-er. advers-al-ive. opposed to pp. avertiss-ant. ' that the probable signification of AS. and Goth. See Direct. grown to full age. to grow up. Eng. opposed to. adumbrant [Root unknown. (F. p. as at ga. handsome. adverse-ness. . Der. was originally to Der.' Towneley Mysteries. avancer p. aduerse. Fick. . ' 9 Lat. Parv. and adolescency occurs in Sir T. to wish.) Properly a state of forwardness or advance. an adventure. tr. p. b. nvant. . (res. ornare is to be connected with Skt. vert. 181. mod. to turn towards. and represents the Lat. and mod. the inserted d is due to the odd mistake of supposing that. shewing oris. written about A. . as Cotgrave has 'Adulte.-L. come. ADVERTISE. adulation. (L. admir-able. Lat. ' ' . For on drift as afloat for on float. vama. ^ breathe. I. cognate with E. which has the pres. wheem. Lat. emolument um . approach. Troilus. article. p. ador-er. a verb. advertir. formed from the Lat. Lat. 101 104. to.' Wyclif. Der. on . 700.. advertis-ing also adverthe-ment.) F. A We (from pres. of Melibeus.i. off.' C. from Howell. See Advert. to deck. 215. A.e. See Der. .) M. to turn. aduertere. adventure. to come. to wonder. i. adumbrans). F. ADVERB. . adCot. to pray. (L. pt. so that Lat. who has aduauncement. Der. . Hen. ala. . ADULATION. Hist. Lat. Prompt. 146. Grammar. an adulterer.L.' advert to. ace. ii. to. p. advenl-u-al. advert-ence. 1057. aduentus. ad. to wonder mir-at ion. Der. directum. 237. adumbrare. enterprise. p. ndrer.] Sir T. to wish. an adversary. tr. ment. advise. to. Der.-L. 1500./ WART. and E.. and is of Scandinavian origin.' tr. Rich. 1261. admittance. flattery. 2. See ADRIFT. pp.) In Shak. ^ ^AL Der. 83.) M. the mouth . Low Lat. to wag. fawn. and mod. See Matzner. (mod. [1*] ADORN. 636 h. the prefix is a-. to . Halliwell's Diet. E.-L. 13610. ADVERTISE. aduentura was used as a sb. Lat. 'Ado. to grow up. . See Adolescent. admonitare. to inform. and see below. F. 409. a shadow. come. quotes adolescence growing up. of adolescere. and mittere. was probably Lat. Elyot. probably a development of Govemour. towards and droit. [The d is a mere wrong insertion. Lat. 1. advance-ment . c. Parv. adventurCome. to worship. aduenturus. seen in Lat. c.) [The modem spelling is not good . Lat. 25.' &c. i. adulter-er. bk. Down . P. to smile. right. (F. (E. See Missile. [Thus advertise is really a doublet of arfDer. prefix. to wonder at. admonester). as is evident from the fact that the sign of the infinitive is at in Icelandic. ' ' b. 1. to cast a shadow. F. T. 70. O. of. avertiss-ais French Gram. S.) M. Lat. nourish. in the old form avance. to come. and is represented in Italian by the form awentura. to turn towards. i. has to auenture at p. to choose or take to Hen. to and uenire. an accident. to shadow forth. i Cor. ad. 340. 77. This idiom was properly peculiar to Northern English. adultus. adune. sb. ab. part. pt. p. to and uertSee Towards. smiling. See below. See Monifrom the pp. ad. to warn. to nourish. Ayenbite of Inwyt. ere. adopt-ion. adventur-ous. ao". p. before. adulationem. umbra. 'adulation. adroit-ness. of aduertere. (Brachet). ^AP. 'With that prynce . The older spelling is M. VII. Manip. before.. ii. Lat. twist about. 1.) to corrupt. Gower has 'Whan he fortune fint [finds] aduerse. amonester (F. aventure. ADROIT. . whence E. 832. and mirari. to. More. a/an. Rob. ad. Elyot's Lat. adroit. smirk and smile Curtius. C. also admiss-ion. lit. before. 'auaunced and forthered. 64. pies. sb. . up . Must we have at do. afterwards corrupted to frequentative of admonere. happen fut.having been afterwards replaced by the corresponding Lat. ab ante.) of Love. ' profectus. c. p. admir-ing-ly. 469.) In Milton. 271. admirari. 1500.E. avancer). sion. to and uenire. generally avers aduersarie. . form is avantage or avauntage. The State of France (R. warn.Lat. Lat. Skt. and ornare.: 'e-ment. nor even the F. Gram. pr. that the prefix is av.. and occurs in Rob. points back to an older <J to surround. to smile. certifie. advenl- ADVENT. Per. warn. at do. to deck.-L. adouren in The Legends of the Holy Rood. (L. oriri . Used to qualify a verb and formed from Lat. ^[ The supposed original meaning of adulari is to wag the tail as a dog does. The AR. of-dune. grown up. -iser. L. approach. Eng. of adolescere. prefix a. a coming to. In course of time the phrase at do was shortened to ado. [Perhaps through the French.~] In this case the ending advertisement. one grown up. admonish. os. to come to. F. to . falsify. iv. a tail . ^ WAR downwards. to turn towards. E. trouble. prefix ao*-. p. Vocabulorum. (F. . F. at. aduenire. E. avertir. Der. see Brachet. adorare. aduent. which see in Cotgrave. 1 369. Havelok. a thing. p.] Der. Hampole has avanO. Der. also written abante. ADUMBRATE. smera.) Fabyan has aduertFor the ending -ise. Advance. adulter) adulter-ous. admiss-ible. ii. Lat. from . adroil-ly. a droit. . to do. Der. ii. . . 3017 . adulterare. advers-ary.' cer.ADMIT. nimble. (L. see above. floating at random. see Abortion.) Sir T. auenture. advert-enc-y. c. Lat. a word. to wag. Skt. to commit adultery. e. advantage-ous. i. .) Fabyan has admytted. a Sir T. Curtius. 131. takes a different view of the matter. ad. in one word. formed by suffix -age from prep. 7. iv. advers-ity. (E. part. F. to grow. coSee Ornalour. tius has no hesitation in stating that here the initial o stands for va (or wa).c. (L. . Lat.Lat. (F. and the imperf. See Oral. of Boethius. p. sect. (L. or grete busynesse. p. odor-able. WAR. fawning. pp. to deck. contrary. off the down or hill. adverb-ial-ly. adourer.D. ador-at-ion. oipa.) letter 9 . The Governour. to arise. to nourish. has adorneth. 4. 163. [Of the last word I can find no satisfactory etymology. Chaucer has i. met. at. See Come. Aduert occurs in The Court to turn to. ADVERT. to grow which again is formed from alere. ab. Henry V. Ill. (L.. to . 1 7. of Glouc. whence also Icel. Lat. and tage. admitt-able . cognate with Gk. (L. adveiitur-er. and see adult. Lat. roll (cf. the F. towards. sollicitudo . Elyot. The F. Romans. ADOWJST. aduertere. 1012 . direct. and Drift. ad. Lat.] . . Pricke of Conscience. - word ADOLESCENT. over and umbrare. aduenire. to-do. and olescere. F. the inceptive form of the shorter olere. p. a down. avant. ador-ing-ly.. and uerbum. advantage-ous-ness. to pray to. aduentus. ador-able-ness. admonit-ive. or F. ace. The truth is. v. admissus. adumbrat-ion. (F. ad. ADVENTURE. or Chauwarae. aduersus. admiss-ibil-ity. &c. adolescentem. amonestement is in an Old. adulatus. O. common. (F. in the The oneself.'] Lat. of adulatio. (F. which is from (Skt. 116. (E. avantage. to come to. and represents the Lat. ADMONISH. Der. The old form aventure is often cut down to auntre. as in advance (see and the M. adulterium) the words adulter-y.. to flatter. pp. vital breath . adulterat-ion. and manere. ADMIT. -. ch. See Verb. Rob. I amoneste. oldirectus. adorn-ing. 7. ad. and dun. an. to go forward. Der. admonit-ory. 463 also in Aacren Riwle.) [The older spelling is aventvre. adored is in Surrey's Virgil. adornare.) Adumbrations occurs in . F. and Van. to adopt. admonit-ion. p. to go. above). b. generally cut down to aourer. -l(av. and is found in the Works of Sir T. adopcioun is in Wyclif. . Lat. adoptare. adopt-ive. F. ADULT. adulari. The is common. rightfully. p.

87. Eccl. 501. an axe or hatchet. i. favour. a sailer or sailor in the air.=ad. an eagle's nest 'And like an eagle o'er his aery towers K. affabil-ity (F. also written 445. art. . oriri. F. 20. of P. C. (F. high. of. (F. ad. sb. advis-ed-ness. E. to hear. perceptive. Discoveries. F. 61. headed Periodi. affier. auys (i. Der. neuter of uidere. But in M. 3. also gives ^ BHIDH. and common in Chaucer. so that hence was formed the expression de ban aire. whereas F. an oath. apparently in imitation of ethereal (P. Lat. alaSrjTm6s. 39. door. ii. (L. and to be misinterpreted accordingly.. I. is aduocatio (see Blount). Langtoft. mark. Hence aero-lilt. or air as in the E. See Air Der. relating to perception. also spelt adwouson . Lat. (Gk. afforare. 161. F. really a compounded word. vii. an assigning a son to. &c. L. Lat.' Blount. is from O. and explained to mean to advise. akwisi.Jidare. John. . it means to love. affiance. affere. Der. p. also spelt afier . S. adese. 314 onferrum. the air.' is feminine. being fiier orfeur. t. The verb seems to be ' . Swed. to pledge. aro. curteous. advise (O. are Q. area. and facere. 13 Edw. lit. in which case adze is merely a doublet of axe.. to Curtius. aire is nothing but the Lat. i. af. xliv. aer-ify. 648. opinion. asleep. advowson. the usual form is without the d.) Milton has affable. saying. aloOavoiuu. to trust. iv. for which see below. i. an axe. which is from the same Low Lat. aduocationem. I suspect Glossary. advocac-y (F. c. to speak Fick. see Adwouson d'eglise in Roquefort. which see in Burguy and Roquefort. to resound. avisede occurs in Rob. opvit. an opinion . i. according to and uisum. i. abed. HisLde la Langue Franjaise.. to speak. i.) ' in that heye place .' given by Ducange. 47 . a form which. stock. 'Aues rapaces exspectant se inuicem aliquando prope nidum suum consuetum. of Glouc. Der.) Lat. ' or meaning ^ BHIDH. i. Both affye and 1. marriage-contract. pledge. impossible derivation from F.) Sir T. from Gk.' He thinks that its meaning was further extended to imply dwelling. seen in Lat. [f] tasteful. Beda. 3. Borrowed from Gk. area. affeurer. advis-able. affabilite = Lat. supposed to mean a flat place on the surface of a rock. also advowee. of Ver. F. which is from a. aar. or or are (O. Thus both are reduced to Lat. i. foras. adse . ' . see Blount's Law Dictionary. p. L. whence the Gk. that which has seemed best. (F. affect-ion- these.' Law Lat. ey. Commonest in Northern English . au-d-ire. a form given by Cotgrave. . See Axe.' Low Lat. uocalus. Titus Andron. ' mien. F. to persuade. also written (by mistake) afferator. of Glouc. The pt. a brood of eagles or hawks. Of occurs in Ben Jonson. C. ace. Grein. opinion. afere.E. ' Be myn adudcat one called on to plead. In Shak. Der. Lat.] in Rob. Lat. P. afer. 640). Lat. ^[ The cognate Gk. that is. iv. of V BHANDH. both of which are used synonymously in Low Latin ' ' in the sense of price the O. an. aire. andjier. pp. From the same Lat.-L. perhaps bind. earn. The classical Latin is forum. affiliationem. 'There is an aery of young children. ad). I. Lat. confide. see Ado. to have an O. 247 cf. (formerly affeccioun) is in much earlier use. the pi. + Gk. sentence. lit. (E. heed. to notice. and is to be identified with Goth. F. as if the word meant an egg-ery . affter. Nun's Ta. 149. AFFABLE. used as a substantive. and See Filial. where an eagle builds its nest. ADVOCATE.. af. appearing in English as aero-. H. area is quite a distinct word from the classical Lat. adesa or adese is nothing but a corruption of an older acesa (with hard c) or acwesa. effer. to take pleasure in. (F. ^ BHA BH .. and forum. advice) in the same. of Shrew. F. and fart. 3 . o to E. AFFECT. 5 .) Modern. ' called to the bar. business. Antony. Hist. in words.' and is also (rarely) written ^f If forum be connected. Seeto pledgeSo oblige a weakened form Fick Bind. O. formed from Low Lat. p. G. of which the stem isjldant-. cf. affianc-ed. is exI perceive panded from the older Ha. assignment of a child to its father. Der. expression to give oneself airs. affable. for which see Static . of a friendly conversation. also. now spelt avowee or advowee in English. afferes is in P. an air-stone. . Gawain. H. ed. to do. fl' that A. (F. 354. standing for 144. 1. aero-naut. Homilies. AFFIDAVIT. The sb. Lat. gentle. verb . G. See Door. there is generally no d. aer. though advised occurs in Gower. aereal. bauf). ate. adses occurs in Palladius on Husbandrie. C. . a pledge. lofty. i. Teut. p. ' ADVpWSON. 442 . See below. 325. F. affiance occur 1. which etymology seems to me the O. word is a-qp. which the Latin interpreter expresseth by taxare. AFAR. 548. i. afeurer. ADZE. L. an eagle).) M. dfiyi] . (F. afear to others . O. p. or AN. Cotgrave has 'Advis. that the F. O. [f] a cooper's axe. oferrum. L. a nest of a bird of prey of which we find an example in Ducange. and (2) to betroth . The sense is patronage. as I suppose. opinion. perf. affect-ed. ^ . affection P. these terms of the chase are mostly Teutonic hence Brachet derives this F. 4. Either expression would become o far. .(Lat. 7. ee is clearly The Lat. Chaucer.-L. probably from y'AR. advouson. rived from Lat. treat. It is sufficiently clear that the Low Lat.Jidantia. gracious 41 . AFFILIATION. equivalent of affeerer is afforator. counsel!. we have aer-ale. 3 p. it is from the same root as E. and advowee is de' . The sb. F. ^Elfric's Isaiah. i. See Bide. the pi. affabilitatem. nauis) a ship &c. i. because the patron was called aduocatus. aduocatus. merely the phrase afaire. or an adopting. affect-at-ion. 152. . A. has advisedly.' Low Lat. consider of.yfdVire. in the ordinary sense of floor. F. affiliate . and Skt.-L. ft. easy to be addressed. the former is more likely to have been the true original Stratmann gives of fear.. F.. 144. to . ' adviser. Works. advocat-ie. verb . to make oath. and then a-far and both are found but. . F. .' &c. one aduocatus. (Migne adds that the O.. Milton has aerial. ^AW. Wyclif. to know. qui a quibusdam area dicitur Fredericus The word aire is marked as masculine in CotII. F. avis. business.= ad . F. (F. advis-er. in his Law ' Dictionary. P. See Par. which is compounded of a. advocate-ship . More. to trust. whence ntiroiSa.) Properly the Low Lat. to trust in.) Very rare. aire from the M. to fix the price of things officially (Burguy). jrelffetv. 34.. beef. which see in Cotgrave) . with forts and forus. ascia (put for acsia) and Gk. (Lat. (F. out of doors (see Fick. But in Middle English. See Wit. bovem.) Gent. mod. Hen. Merely borrowed from O. a son. L. v. affect-ing.) M. Lodge. nauta) a sailor./oVf. 558. A. ' . 483). iii. trust. 2. Cot. Gk. see below. G. s. Sec. . He would even further extend the sense so as to include that of manner.) For on far or of far. and O. (F. willingly giving ' Lat. ace. avis. aerius. 25 . to. this word affeurer. facere .=ad. act. explained by Cotgrave as 'adoption. See Voice. pp. the word was ingeniously connected with M. see above. or as it seems to me . See Advocate.(Lat.. but assigns to Der. F. from Gk. ' a vis. buef (mod. fidans. adese. a stone . AESTHETIC.' Hamlet. sect. advocate. or in O. security . E.) [The verb affy It means (i) to trust. F. 430. Rob. advis-able-ness. to fix the price of a thing . Minot. pp. aro. like ado in English for at do . F. affiliation. E. AFFILIATION". &c. adesa. ADVICE. See Fact. to aim at. of aduocatio. and seems to connect with E. fS~ The change from Lat. Goth. adviser) . Lat. to apply oneself to frequentative form of afficere. H. i. Hence advowson is avoue. Cognate with Icel. to iv. Group G. be pleased with. p. an egg. ' ' meaning a market-place.' it bide. It must be admitted. 8. and is a mere corruption of a term of the chase. affect-ion. 46. formed from Low Lat. 3. counsel. m. [t] the right of presentation to a benefice. F. Cotgrave has 'Aire. which appears in the E. the idea of 'await. . does not appear to be in early use. easily spoken to..-L. testhetic-al. to See above. WID. . ^[ When fairly imported into English. 5. fidare. 1161 . (L.) Occurs in the Statute of Westminster. family. though the corresponding terms in French and Latin may long have been in use in the law courts. to counsel. orn. affabilis. faire = Lat. II a. Ill. of uocare.10 ADVICE. The verb is from O. called. ace. according to my opinion. L. and Low Lat.) later than the sb. Tarn. though he does not give the verb affiliare. 70. all in the same sense. as Curtius shews (vol. I find in the Customary of Normandy. filius. cognate with Lat. derived from Lat. I trust. by analogy. affect-ed-ness. to settle and moderate the fines of such as have com- AFFEER. Fabyan has aduyce.' &c. an airie or nest of hawkes. and the sb. testhetic-s. explains Affeerers as those that are appointed in courtleets upon oath. AERY. viii. cap. to raise oneself. E. opvwtu. and Littre maintarns the contrary opinion. ' Now Blount first suggests an mitted faults arbitrarily punishable. easy to be spoken to. area. (L. which aero-static. p. at a distance. Formed. I. or fonts. afeire (and prospelt effer perly so written with one/). Gk. expect. A. ad. affectation affecl-ion-ate-ly. which would correspond to a Lat. S. confirm. as in O. but afterwards adds the right ' one. . best. airy. AFFIANCE.-L. debonair. area. vavrrjs (Lat. of affidare. fidere. ad) and fiance. . av. to do. 2. aviser. Plowman. cognate with Lat. a bird . form is afforer. trust. F. ' affable. vii. O. Sec. but it occurs in 'the title is affeer'd. Gower.) The form advise is from O.' also an assize. Macbeth. Lat. i. G. dwelling in the air. 71. 0. Ducange. hi Barbour's Bruce. has auys. ?) from Gk. affabl-y. . iii.). hence it came to be spelt eyrie or eyry. O. 13. \i8os. however. 155.. F. F. p. and the corresponding term in Law Lat. pres. Lat. judgment.) AERIAL. to call. af. 82 . advocate.' ft. e. ara. P. relative to air. from Lat.-L. ofaffiliatio.=ad. form ad uisum. y. a late form from Lat. affectare. bk. it trust. affidavit = he made oath. = ad . See Fable. vavi (Lat. race. Gk. a late form homjidere. also aery. prefix afpo-. 775. (E. pt. to set the price of a thing. ADVISE. of Brunne's tr. to see. a common forensic term for a pleader. 156. E. S. aire. 68. I hear. &c. grave. that the word is one of great difficulty . Fick. advise. an. A. to like to act upon. vii. afaire. de Venatu. 25.' See Littre. is perhaps obsolete. ofiance. 1575 . 49. form of the sb. . an eagle. of affabilitas). and the sb. advis-ed. AFFAIR.

may suffice]. ' which is a shorter form. Lat. aftar. still say to go on foot. Morris. Midsummer Nt. afflit (fern. aftuma is into af and -tuma (see explanation of aft). ka-tara. on fresh or offresh. in HalliAnd therewell's Dictionary (where the word is misinterpreted). ed. 200. p. and mesurable ' B. 142. where off. whence Hence both Lat.. (F. to assert strongly. 327. afyrhtan. AFFINITY. And yaf hem mete as he myghte aforth [i. frigidus. 1674. to afright. to dash down. behind aptr. E. afftrm-at-ive-ly. occurrent form. after. Ormulum. i. p. 79.L. i. (E. prep. the fore. art. and the only form found in most other 2. and -tuma is the same as the Lat.L. Langtoft.is put for adf. (E. ad. fright. last. to chill. ei-ther. A. also aftuma. A = intensive force .is a corruption of the A. but the word is not Latin. by analogy with anew. Low iat. c. ace. ^f The word has been assimilated to the Lat. S. fiictus. Thorpe. + O.e. tr. and prep.) The / was originally a single one. affinitas. O. 344. prep. er-. to strike to the ground. Grein. See effrayer in Brachet. In this word. AFRESH. affrounti foully insulted me P. xviii. lit. after-crop. in his translation of P. &c. but I do not find that A. aftan). shewing that aftum-ists is formed ^f The division of by the use of the suffix -ists (E. E. Wyclif has afficchede (printed O. Flagellate and (in the sense of stroke. fulness. backwards aftr. +O. though this simple form See Fright. AFTERWARDS. affichen. Icel. strike. aforn. has the verb. i. S. given by Cotgrave as a French word (from Lat. Chron. perhaps it is rather Scandinavian than English. the spelling being afterwards accommodated to the Latin. Romeo. Der. afflux. of. and see beyond The positive form af. in Rob. behind. afermer.1. of Brunne's O. (E. Allit. Ayenbite of Inwyt.) M. which when Ex. ad. firm. directly. to promote. ' And here and there. the front . in for on float. H. of- of bordering upon. 191 . but comparative philology shews at once that this is merely an English view. .) ' As it is afore seid. v. to fix to. p. ed. id. O. C. an&fluere. C. . Grein. F.). M. Thus after stands for of-ter. aff- at-ion. secure. of afflire. Lat. affynite. head. by jElfric (Bosworth). Lat. + Goth.in Latin. ' see footnote on p. 14793. (F. a. bleuen. Goth. further. as in huyre [hire] . affliction occurs early. suffix) was added at a later time. L2O4. provincially furder. aptr (pronounced aftr). (F. v.. Furnivall." Book of Quinte Essence. thenne he iseye thet he ne mahte na mare yeforthian he saw that he could afford no more Old Eng. and adv. ii. to frighten. i. and iforlh easily passed into aforth. affrayed. ii. . Besides this. 58. as the true original. affluent (from Lat. wealth. behind. to. eek thiuke I translate it' Occleve. 31 iforthien' =Ao thine alms of that which thou mayest afford. consideration. A. the regular superl. C. for$. affray lit. prefix (of slight value) . ^f ThisV is but a weakened form of i/ to strike. pp. affirm-able. i. and may not accomplish it . The sb. p. of. S. Morris.. with the sense of 'again. Rob. 75. the prefix being the F. 24.).F. the same collection. no doubt.e.) tr. right-ed-ly. pt. produce. fyrhto. Works. as in Chaucer. afflictus. ge-forSian (where the ge. Gk. op-tumus. (E. to crush. against . The pp. Homilies. it should be aforth. The prefix is A. afflnis. M E.) [Not from Lat. i. A. (F. afrounten. y. The prefix Low Lat. f-rtpos. after-noon. afloat See Front. prefix. terror. S. affinite. prep. spelling./?. been from the very first a feeling that after was formed from aft . forward. Der. ed. plenty. Gower has Ther wol thei al her love ' AFFIX. in comDan. which shews a fuller form. t. prefix ge-. jlag-ellum. of af=of. eftemeste. where af is the Goth.) 11 Fabyan has See frigidare. 359. .-L.) Sir T. also as an adv. afflite). as in o-ther. [The pp. after. affluentem. (E. v. promote. tfftemest. and fligere. F. f AFFRIGHT. afloat. and adv. now murder. to terrify. double . affitchede). sb. to stand front to front. affrontare.. regularly to frighten. further away. adv. F. hindmost. used like aft in nautical language (Cleasby and InM. of Brunne's tr. S. prep. Dream. p. to make firm: from firmus. a= Lat. forth. 'affinity. and see Frigid. Skeat. A. double superl. Proven9al effraier.-L. aflyght occurs in Octovian. Low Lat. afford. vi. ' . frigid. ed. a boundary. is not used. aforthen. AFOOT. ed. off.' and Vigfusson). afore-time. Lat.' The inf.. generally eft. profusion. in front for on fore. avurtpai. 703. ed. affluxus. E. . aftra. affluence. The old pp. Lat. and the Skt. to harass. the last. after-most i. adj. (F.e. (q. O. to insult. . for on foot. and forSian. Der. L. Cot. of Langtoft. to further. these are from O. 4 Kings. used the last. 'Hwilc man swa haued behaten to faren to Rome. nearness. cold. root tar (cp.AFFINITY. [#] adjective. as that my litille wit Aforthe suffice. not to be divided as aft-er. p. 219. u-ter. no. Works. We ' AFORE. ' The way-ferande frekez on fate and on (E. AFFORD. allyance. provide. F.figicare* (an unauthenticated form) developed from Lat. transitive verb in Shak. Der. to insult. . ' AFRAID. q. S. adj. sing. 401. S. achter. Der. &c. through). ceftemyst. qffirm-at-ive. pp. q. corrections in Errata. afflict-ive. aflighte in Gower. tefterweard. a. to cross over. E. have been added in the French. oppose face to face. afronten. Rightly. AFTERWARD.) It occurs in WotParallel and in his Life of Buckingham in Also in Blount's Gloss. Poems. form atforan.) M. adr. va-rtpos. exfrigidare. was in so common use that it became a mere See. See Fix. 23. E. afore-hand. A. S. A . tcftan. . though the simple form frifidare occurs. 1. xxiii. to dash. which is the older word of the two. . p. and the prefix is not ad-. -. -ttimus in O. Nun's Priest's Tale.) hors' = the wayfaring men. andfrontem. (E. p. = ad. <p\i0eiv. 169. whe-ther. Fick.= Lat. 675. ed. It is a comparative form.' Lat. of affluere) . ad. Early ' gefofftod. 19. It kindred. before. 13900. ton's Reliquiae. Rose. aforn.corresponds to Skt. to afflict. A. 33. AFFLUENCE. see Affray. 6\ifi(iv. deserves more languages. abundance ' . a nonesfreidar. AFFLICT. to supply. and \ja!i. i. of Brunne. and a mistake. Cf. af. 1 6. The word after. aftumists. ' AFLOAT. in the Gk. to the ground .or i-. More has afflicteth. an. p. See Firm. but A. E. 211. Rom. flowing. ex) may ( ' ' AFFRAY. and of terrify. case of frons. p. -Lat. ge-. AFFRONT. This word should have The double f is due to a supposed analogy with words but one /. to flow to.is a mere prefix that is often 37. termination answering to the comparative -tara. prep. Shakespeare has both forms. to flow. to fix. Langtoft. and adv. forward. abundance.' Morris.] M. subsequently. Blow Harbour's Bruce. pres. Sec. cause to come forth. and Swed. (L. and fyrhtan. later interpolation pa waes geforSad }>in = then was accomplished thy fair work (Grein) ' hsefde fsegere weorc . Cf. again. and the pt. more off. Der. as utmost is a double superlative ending. A. 229. Goth. from pp. performed that which he promised his lord . after-piece. afore-said. t. 5.L. and put hem to worke. 133. Plowman. accomplish. 106 .) a. go ' Morris. that begin with off. back. . 1 74. after. af. P. E. . Skt. also BHLIGH BHLAGH. a-. o/and off. 2351. 3951. + + + + + further . pp. G. aptan (pron. to fix. affix./BHLIGH. 'do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht Morris. S. connection. adj. ace. F. orforSian. to fix. behind. S. in the 1 2th century was written ye. Icel. Accidence. aftr. and due to a mistake. See Forth. affirm- has affermed. cf. Der. Du. A. Langtoft. abound. cf.] affiche. afronter. . nearness. More. apa. iii. p. prep. position. diro. . O.) Sir T. after-wards (q. Plowman. A. sb. but from the French. That afrontede me foule = ' * .) As a nautical term. aptan. efter. i. afterward. aware. owing to the atonic nature of the syllable. p. soon contracted to affrayd or afraid. ab-aft (q. of in Rob. AFRAID. J>aet he his frean gehet ' = had Eng. to strike against. (E. however. i.= ad. F.. Rob. Der. A. B. nevertheless. firmare. afflict-ion (Lat. a scourge. It occurs early. af-tem-ost. Cot. Lat. 17). there has. join on to. has it affraied and ther-of had many the Sarazins = it frightened the Saracens = thereof many had terror.= ad . p. sLat. Lat. to confront. afterwards is much earlier than his time. M. of was Piers proude. See Aft. after-ward. after. 61. aft. onforan. ace. andjicher. afflictionem. and adv. Grein. A. S. af. afterwards (very common). Perhaps the latter. ^[ In English. T. p.Goth. and front. pp. murther. to strike. See Fluent. S. So also on/lot. in fact. trans.) ' The suffix -most in such words AFTERMOST. a-. but was not taken immediately from the Latin. - There is also an A. best. F. off. F. See Fore. and adv. behind. By Sanskrit grammarians the origin of it is said to be found in the Skt. Thus aftermost is for aftemot. aficher. AFTER. Lat. could afford or provide]. Low Lat. E. affluence. ' . e. xiv. an abbreviation or development from after. Outlines of Eng.. after. nearness of kin. ace.) The double / is modem. and G. afoot and on horse. hit) are related words. backwards. the pronunciation has been changed at the end. Either for affluencia.. provide. ' . behind. afflictus) . anew. ist series. O. Final AFFIRM. F. Gk. and in English is generally written -ther. but is. AFTERWARD. esfreer. to freeze with terror . The adverbial suffix -s (originally a gen.). See Of. 1 2 . -tama. of P. S. . G. and_/fm's. S. affligere. further (Fick.. affluere. riming with riche . [f] Lat. is not affrighted. frightened. 202. of affluent. Outlines of English Accidence. near. and not the word most . qffermm Chaucer occurs earlier. Grein. E. -est). ab. again. so who that a front answers to Lat. S. Gk. al-ter. may [i. E. of Brunne's Now er alle on/o/e' = now are all of P. The -ter is the suffix which appears in Lat. affront. ' v. effreier. store. 5. af. adv. in front. M. us-. 1. io8og. Homilies. and he ne ' muge hit forSian = whatever man has promised [vowed] to go to Rome. Hence we find the forms yeforthian and iforthien in the 1 2th century. behind. where affray is a sb. produce. but as af-ter. near. Grein. Lat. e. occurs in the Ayenbite of Inwyt. afore. behind (very rare) after. to. to fasten. The word aft is. the prefix a.. of affluere). v. to afford. Persian apalaram. . but the Ik has changed as in other words .A. ' dropped). efter-ward. adv. 316. C. ad fronlem cf.ii. B. affinitatem. eft. v. AFT. ' (F. to frighten.) Shak.. (E. a.

in. ^J It will now. of P. 2343. p.D. toft. ayens.) agitation.Gk. b. A. (L. to arrange.) Agglutinated occurs in Sir T. assault.K. S. q. .F. prep. which is purely Latin. Juliana. troublid and agast. pp. to mass together. jet. aggredior. Sax. . again. to make afraid. ayenbite = again-biting. red-tern. borrowed from Gk. which appears in the compounds us-gaisjan. 337. Used by Thomson. ayett. [The Mid. = Thorpe. Altenglische Sprachproben (Wo'rterbuch). onyain. to drive. and adv. age. F. . The remoter history of the word is obscure it appears to be related either to the sb. O. aggress-ive. whence agreued. . hence. 774. grandis. 41. engegene (mod. i. again. and grandir. agilite (Cotgrave) from Lat. I. as in 'adspectu conterritus heesit. See Grave. amongs-l. grauis. Aen. to go. i. ongedn seems thus to mean 'in opposition to. Plowman. formed by -tas to the stem <eui. Shak. see Agile. Also in the forms ayaines. towards. answering to] behind. Goth. 245. ii. from the same root. ii. prep.) No doubt for on gape . discussed by Curtius. AGAIN. c. The Governour. has agile once Romeo. Lectures. Icel. 'uox faucibus hcesit. .before g) . He was abasched and agast . Der.or red. 10. Browne. than A. Nearly all these compounds are obsolete. singular. of Eng. Der. from A.' Lat. Thorpe. life. Lat. Lat. spelt agalhe in Cotgrave. agased AGILE. again. a. us-gaisjan and usgeisnan. fasten .) wele in age. onyanes. E. as he rightly below. agttAgitate is used by Cotgrave to translate F. aj. also (from Lat. agate. to drive. Lat. iii. L. and represents O. The final t is properly excrescent. f agglutinare. which is like the F. Morris. ii. p. on.) aggrauale as a past participle Hen. formed . hterere. aggress-ion. G. lesten. primary notion of this gais- is to fix. Also.12 AGAIN. Lat.' See Abed. + + + devil shall yet terrify them Ancren Riwle. dxarijs. Lat. chief remaining one is M. ^J Nearly a doublet of aggrieve. of agens. Langtoft. A. a period. E. if it be spelt agased. has the : + + + + form aggreggen. aggrandiss-. 1. 8th ed. by the way. just as in our hes-t. agglomeratus.] has gasted for 'frightened in Lear.' &c. which. igien. gets. onytenes I doubt if this suffix is much older is in the Ormulum.is very common in Mid. a kind of stone. to increase. to terrify. tortured God's champions with spear and flame . 482. i. but the ending -aticum is very common for the changes. . agere. to root to the spot with terror . ingagene. was so called because first found near the river Achates in Sicily. gegn. 55. Skt. must have been agrandir. xviii. All the whole army stood agazed on him . ii... Autumn. F. 1009).is the same as in E. to with glue. Also amb-ig- AGE. age. B. S. a word which is often now 1. Lat. to overwhelm (see Burguy. conduct. S.before g) . ogaines.' evidently with the notion that it is connected with gaze . p. stem of glomus. to wind into a ball. Goth. a thick bush. actus) act. S. Also. ad before . E. on the gape.) Not in early use. y'GHAIS. 1 200. a flock. 7 . And see Gape. (See Max Miiller. AGGRIEVE. though the word td-gegnes or togenes is common A. 220. . . agil-ity. the prefix is plainly the A. a going. a way. (L. pp. 4/AG. Grein. 12 The final -es in ayaines if it is much older than A. they were utterly agast. of agitare. injure. just as in whilst from the older form whiles. Sir T. celaticum. drive. a aage. to make great. to terrify. grex (stem greg-). or in the provincial Eng.. The behes-t. which appears not only . The deouel schal 3et agesten ham ' = the ' ' ' . from the same root. AGGLUTINATE. wunst for once and in belwix-t. ongedn. together (which becomes ng. 'he him gedn ]>ingode' he cf. against. i. agency. pres. ^J Hence enlgegen. be perceived that the word agazed. heavy. tr. of agglomerare. from the same root. &c. ingegene. ag-itator. aggregat-ion. II. M. agile. agglttlinat-ive. xxiv. adv. agilitatem. O. but in the Lithuanian gaisz-tu. enlarge. (F. Lat. tr. delay. and several others. P. conduct . b. to conduct. S. Eng. ii. has i. i. is really a good Nor one.-L. At a later period.) Aggregate occurs in b. [? Spelt agazed in Shak. form ayeines occurs in Old Eng. pp. ii. Dido. Grein. S. The simple form gasten also occurs. a command. to do. and very common both as an adverb and preposition. aggress-ive-ness. 1350. &c. i. aka. torment . lit. ii. 43. later gasten. glue. in . 529. g&s-. The older form of the verl AGGRANDISE. Probably Shakespeare did not write this line. and examples of the latter are very numerous. ag-itate. to glue together. 17 . to (for Lat. period. 323. cf. of alas. aunder. Lat. In Wyclif s Bible. gluten g) (stem glulin-). ' . See Act. (L.) Shak. ^[ The prefix again. now shortened to gain-say. or sb. which see in Brachet . 7. E. at an early period. i. Lat. igen.L. ongeen. and weard. agregier. P'.. O. . ag-ed. and gagate in Halliwell. I walk.( to frighten by torture. L. i. 53. Hence the root is an A. of Good Worn. in the way from which phrase the alteration to ongdn is not violent. p. ii. E. a step. Lat. ag-ony. . 190. age fuller form. and in Lat. an excrescent t (common after s) was added. 2 (ed. iii. A. See Grand. VI. agreuen . again. p. agilis. grams. I assail. generally used in the sense of in. in opposition to (E.) Shak. Gregarious. The simple form gedn occurs in Caedmon. Eng. i. 22. Grein. gastan. L. (L. E. ad. i. Icestan. Macb. Also. (E. which Cotgrave explains by nimble. AGGLOMERATE. aggressus. an agate. a mass closely related to Lat. &c. agentem. active. What may it be That me agasteth in my dreme ?' Leg.. Weber.' ' ' where one MS. see Agony. Elyot. ball. i. 597. glomer-.) one who performs or does. the root being either way the same. and corresponds to an older form without an inserted /. active. iii. to add to a load.' moveable. See Grade. conduct. Gk.O. agaslen. of aggrauare. according to Pliny. c. from F. 14. Macb. uous. perhaps. . Lat. hie gibston godes cempan gare . re. 6. against. is just parallel to that in A. Lat. or to the verb . aggresser. (F. with one g the double g is due to analogy with Latin words beginning with agg-. and often misinterpreted.) Modern. a factor. ad (ag. See After and Towards. Grein.] Lat. -f. E. 212. Lat. 41 79 Rob. V. a clue of thread (for winding). to tarry. a. L. to drive. globus. and lige ' = they + + + mod. to weigh down. AGITATE. see age in Brachet. I Hen. Der. conaddressed him again. is A. agglutinat-ion. Aen. atus. Rightly spelt agast. of Brunne. of agere.) Shak. aggregate.) a second time. ed. Cotgrave ' Lat. sect. tetatem. aggress-or. again. agile. agreger (which see in Brachet). S. G.. . grauare. Morris and Skeat. 274. gdn or gangan. ha-s. T. to agitate which is the frequentative of agert. F. course. . hence. p. (L. from F. of LangO. v. AGATE. aye. ii. 85. See Agitate. ag-ile.) M. to drive. we have Thei. nimble. I. fasten Der. generally written with 3 for y. AGGREGATE. in Middle English . 359. and enters into numerous compounds in which it frequently answers to Lat. aggravat-ion. ace. i. ace. or from the stem of aggressor. re-morse ayenbuye . ' AGENT. cling. E. K. to collect into a flock. adv. to bear heavily AGGRESS.. Lat. Alis' So sore agast was Emelye . to stir violently. (F. 576. - Spec. the prefix us. intensive = G. E. 2.' trary to. Der. ad (ag. L&t. set on. Der. grauare. see Jet. or in return A. Dan. gradior. In Beowulf. and occurs in Chaucer's Melibeus but this aggreggen is really distinct from agreger. p. F. see = buy The AGAPE. actus. to terrify. of Brunne. 8. S. age which is a contraction from an older form teuitas. c. O. 344. 236. (E. ed. Lat.e.. form gagate. where the t appears to be merely excrescent). agrever.' Verg. iv. The vowel-change in A. eva. sufiixing alum (for alptav). ad) . to stick fast. to aggravate. F.. C. See Matzner. agglomeration. of which the pp.before g) Lat. gegen. and us-geisnan.ex. achales. to form into a mass. 30. of agilitas. 249 . (F. Shak. C. 224.. Rich. go. Chaucer. ' C. E. For the M. Der. Grave. easily driven about. grandire. to be amazed where. but see the Note ' AGHAST. last. y. of gives Aggresser. (L. See Globe. S. a . stick.D. is it the only instance for we find another in ' the were so sore = they were so sorely terrified Chester Plays. Hi. ag-itation. grauari. form which is not found. 129. grief). Often confused with gagate or gagales. Lat. AGITATE. to glue together. a globe. E. . aggrauatus.before g) . L. edage (nth century).' Chaucer. i. time. has the verb. to fix to the spot. cf. gesten. ed. augment. and grever. 130).' i.) Young has a ggrandNight Thoughts. and glomerare. E. (becoming ag- glutinare. to burden. iii. ant-ag-onist . and occurs in Blackstone's Commentaries. heavy.' Aen. 3772. pp. pp. See aggravate. to burden. Gk. AGAINST. 1. 57 . 'to greaten. ^f Aggrieve is thus nearly a doublet of back. which Cotgrave explains b. to attack. Lat. Lat. a-ydv. 1. See Agent. S. from eeuum. T. against. gcestan. See Fick. to assail. a period. vii. Either from F. by suffix -His from agere. G. has agasted. Ayenst occurs in Maundeville's I doubt Travels. Skt. to load. Der. Luke. . 374. 171.. ' ' . 766. answering to Goth. to drive. with its derivatives Fick. 'A gode clerk period of time. v. aggregare. Der. behind. h<er-ere. H. to . to collect a flock. ' See Glue. Homilies. maturity of life. to wind into a ball. M.) Misspelt. 'Attonitis htesere animis. O. A. er-. e. gradus. L. 62. angegin. pp. gang. i. Gaste crowen from his corn = to frighten crows from his corn. 37. I. (F. to gang. ed. to increase. originally marking a gen. orig. as adj. to stick fast. 2. to collect together. aggregate-ly . ' on the broad grin. to burden. gegn. us-) and A. Nt. The the adverbial suffix -es. iii. an agate (see Gower. Goth. 126. struck with horror. act-ion. Swed. agencer. prefix a. (F.' Rob. 114. See Go. generally written with 3 for y. Low Lat. L. . Icel. See gregare. ed. -ward. 37. aims. ayein. ize. pp. . e. to. agiter. Lat. ad. both agasad and agast . aggrandise-ment. 2. to.or gats-.v. after. is misspelt ghosted. make heavy. Icel. upon. s. ayein-seien. to make Hall has heavy. ^AG. p. we have the phase on gange. lit.e. Lat. a stem which occurs in the conjugation of aggrandir. AGGRAVATE. to do. ace. . agglutinatus. 1. Lat. and mod. and ayeynest in Chaucer's Boethius. ad (ag. and adv. great. a-gasl. ag-ility . Vulgar Errors. pp. P. pt.

agonia. determine. from O. Goth. also F. act. Gr. from Gr. O. F. G. The fuller form is angnail. according to the same authority. ' ' to help. Palsgrave has agnayle upon one's too . hangnails. JEn. Med..means to keep on vexing or to distress conThe stem ag. + Lithuanian d.. d. to accord. 1 60. and gre. greit.' 90. ^AG. distress.) a. agu. 'I ayme. 4. 3. quinsy. The final e in ague is due to the//?m. though there is little reason for connecting them with Lat. xx. &c. F. This is the pp. according to one's desire en avoir a gogo. Browne.. I should connect these with Lat. Fick. d. int. p. to trouble. orig. we find it to be the turns on the definition. (Scand. a verb made up from the phrase a gre. eimm. to terrify . i.' also called angonages. Cf. we should note Low Lat.' A. to choke . agonia. 1782. F. distress.-Gk. past. suffix. adjutant. L. agreer. whence mod. aigu. . who speaks of febris acuta. Lat.). directly (Cotgrave). ' . ' Brenning agues. in Kersey. to feel pain . Levit. be called an agnail because caused by irritation or And from the same root must also come the first syllable pressure.S.) M.) NotinA. . of the verb agon. E. i. 29 Rob. to drive. F. acuta as the equivalent of M. . in eagerness hence. Ye wolde somtyme freshly on me Chaucer. Reliquiae Antiquae. gives Lat. altogether wrong as far as the prefix is concerned. (F. rightly explained by Halliwell to be small pieces of partially separated skin about the roots of the finger-nails but this is really quite a different word. to intend. Ormulum. 25. 74) shews that the word was not derived directly from the Gk. . ulcer. composed of prep. 202. a-fx&vr).) For on ground. 20. S.) Sometimes explained a miswritten form of ygo. if See Fick. estimate. Der.-L. v. . 25. Q. remarks in the Errata. as is gone away. Acuta observe that the Prompt. (F. sekenes. and the notion of inflamed is often expressed Hence I should suppose the original notion in the by 'angry. agri. ag-is. aglus. sb. Cotgrave has 'angonailles. . 8. See Acute. of go. T. viz. to drive. Acre and Culture.' P. according to this theory. awe. ' A AGO. pp. Icel. a carbuncle. O. S. exceedingly. O. AGONY. botches.) Spenser has Sir T. troubleGoth. See Der. dd. 1081. E.. to go away. ago. The ' . iii. to help.' whence that of swelling' would at once follow. Der. terms are of Scand. + Gr. whence agonis-ing. bk. agon.corresponds to mod. Levit. pleasing (neuter gratum). S. More has aglet. Goth. ed. Gogsignifies eagerness. . now probably obsolete. L. Afoot. 675 h. estimo. favour." i. ams. abed. tribulation anguish From a stem ag-. a needle. to guess ' ' . gogo. 4767.. the number. ii. fut. In the 1 2th century we find a wah or a wey. pockie bumps. pi. dywv. terms. ang-neegl. ' . blasmer.. or on tiptoe (of expectation) Cleasby and Vigfusson's Icel. Coer de Lion. intention. Thus we find J>is worldes wele al ' ' tional addition. AGRICULTURE. Weber. 'all agog. amen. Agonisles. &c. Prompt. Parv. p. From the same root.vi. Cf. 81. a gre. anguen. F. Errors. agvje. to be much perplexed agonise. [*] great pain. ATT. and seems to have been especially ' used of a com on the foot. p. 26. to synne. any citation or authority.-L.) ' M. vivre thing.) M. e. i. cf. to pierce. or levell at to make an ' esme. . afterwards shortened to aitare. (F. xxvii. agree-able-ness. to have in full abundance. Like many seainterj. culture. 18. and by Dryden. a fever-fit. Vulg. a corn on the foot. emerald from O. only in the comp. agree-able (F. Ha ! AHEAD.) Well known as occurring in Cowper's John Gilpin. 206. form of O. Both F. suffix -ette. S. 1596. T. agoon. 5. Parv. gtegjaik. + Icel. T. redness. struggle. ammell (i. I see Todd's Johnson. H.' also or levell taken also. used in hailing a boat. eg-esa. dimin. adiutare. agreen. S. to receive favourably.AGLET. ed. both on the earth and in heaven Piers Plowman. acuta. to aid. Tale. p. also gagjur. from Lat. it is Dutch. aiguillette. 34. eg-sian. agriculttira (Cicero). From the same root come ' ' anger. + O. a hybrid compound. see both angnail and agnail. 'That se And thanne agreen that I AGREE. gret. 222. asleep. eglan. i. agricultur-al. a-f\tiv. agonis-ing-ly . fol. See Adjutant. Lat. interjection.e. (L. which may. Cf. as common in Mid. int. intend . C. also spelt from Lat. + . phantom for phantasm. A. Dictionary. yAK. egle.' Chaucer. a tag of a lace a spangle. Fick. p. for on head.. It means 'a com' in Rider's different. m endeavour after. int. ' . 43. of the A. 1640 (Webster). lead. Gk.C. but from the French. 8.' Wycl. Cf. . aesmer. a field Ager is cognate with E. F. lit. y'AGH. I mente or gesse to hyt a thynge. 1. to go.. pass by. ail-ment. a~t<uvia-rris. ' ' . to go forth. See Agent. Sir T. agu. a champion. to pass away (not uncommon) Grein. the old pp. S.' Will.. agony orig. neuter gratum. to feel distress. F. Gessyn or amyn. terror. agitat-ion. ' . eager. Grein. i. agony. Lat. aimen. Der. 214. . . to stand agog. able. iituare. See Abed. Rather. to grieve extreamly. lit. of Lat. i. ergehen. See Head.. S. agljan. Cf. to bend eagerly forward and peep. " yAG. The Italian has likewise the double form anguinaglia and anguinaja. Much In Ash's Dictionary. F. angonaille. agreeably. of ager. meant something f3. aestimationem] of the grave. hut. Line. compress. to have all one can wish. er-. a carbuncle . (3) a contest. Leechruption doms. according to one's pleasure. i. S. angere. F. of Boethius. do a weary out. arbitror Parv. xxii. wrestle. and on lofte. to assist. AGROUND. dgdn) Goth. Lat. s. bk. AID. 481. acre. A. 190. ' What eileth the?' Chaucer.. ii. to aid. but given in Lye's Dictionary without a citation). gratus. colere. This is formed by combining a with ha! Matzner remarks that a ha! in Mid. 2. 'A fever terciane Or an agu. (Dutch.) Used by ' Chaucer. acucula. AIM. ah woe See Old Eng.' a violent fever. 1.) Du. gen. disease called a willow (sic) but in Todd's Johnson it is a disease without of the nails a whitlow an inflammation round the nails . it. a throttling. to assent. dis-agree-ment. with F. (E. acutus. inguen. desire. to live in clover. us-gaggan. ^YU. AGOG. E. a. and cultura is from Lat. to trouble some. aglitha. . . to choke. He bleynte and cryed a! As that he stongen were to the herte. 16445. Cotgrave has esmer. interjection. . turning to Ducange. eilen. sharp.c. acute. dgdn. Wyclif has Prompt. anghio and anguen to be that of 'inflammation. L. en-amel) from O. pleasure See Grateful. + Skt. ' B. agilat-or. a ha! as in Towneley Myst. Spelt 5/n. sharp.' drive. Spelt agu in Rich.. L.) Used by Lat. to . agoth = this world's wealth all passes . . xxvii. E. Lat. ' . 3045. .(G. origin. Lat. F. offer to strike. v. to purpose.T. unless it be a corof A. with the same sense and anghio. See Acute. (F. 8 may ben he tr. with a suffixed I. 33. 3819. fern. mod.) The use of the word by Gower (C. F. F. ah. G. determination. ant-agon-ism. Awe. pain. Also ant-agon-ist. and is plainly made up of hang and nail. ant-agon-islic. and appears in tinually. See in front. p. F. v. O. ax-o. eymeth. C. rarely ailen. (F. to guard cf. fright. ' AGUE. aide-de-camp. wrestling. was thinking of the the art of cultivating fields. Works. also in Gk. We also find M. L. (2) an arena for combatants. agio. and explained to mean a corn on the toe (Halliwell). (E. F. iii. ad. E. finer The ' latter definition proves that the de- provincial Eng. borrowed from Gk. AH ' ! ! ! . com would.) M. Gk. one who aids in the field. Gr. after all. Plowman. A. us-agljan. anguinalia. at. i. by no means uncommon. ANGH. a.' Low Lat. who has to the aiding Pers. . of Paleme. of aiguille. to drive. away . e. L. to frighten also in Goth. used in other parts of the verb. <e.' i. to distress. Luke. 300 is a receipt ' for agnayls one [on] mans fete or womans (Halliwell). yu. Homilies. 43. AGONE. a purpose. int. C. and is so used by Beaumont and Fletcher: have put me into such a gog of going. asserted by Grose to be a Cumberland word. dfeiv. English. . acute. esmeralde. iutus. all eager.a. O. agonie (Cotgrave). (F. af-ag-jan. aider.E. It is used by Milton. and E. to make one eager or anxious to . us-) and gdn. and in MS. aygulet. interj. Diet. awe. dimin. esmer. querquera . 8. (E. to aim?. AHOY. obsolete. I would not stay for all you the world Wit Without Money. a needle formed by adding the dimin. i. ai. . F. To set agog is to put in eagerness. E. [#] ' . speaks of swearing). on the Doctrine of Divorce. xviii. A.A. and used by Chaucer. agoniser. acuta. ii. E. English denotes satisfaction or irony. a swelling or a corn.. aid. i. an obligation. fern. a sore by the nail (occurring in A. according to (Lat. Morris. an interjection. ad). and cultura. ' ' ' . to be all agog. but these are generally explained to mean the groin. to give pain. angina. or sores. This explanation It is the M. favourably. ' 1 Chaucer also has agreablely. to No mon vpon mold might ayme to estimate. Low Lat.. see Brachet. 3. 88 the B-text reads agrounde and ' . &c. The prefixed a.' Pals' After the mesure and eymyng [Lat. an aime. to 13 E. . See part. ague. angn&gl. where the Vulgate has factus in Lat. pronounced very nearly like hoy. a contest. (i) an assembly. Troilus. to come to pass (which is one meaning of A. A. from strangling or to choke. Der.is here a mere interjecint. esrnail (translated by Cotgrave ammell or en- AIM. to and Adiutare is the frequent.. VAGH explanation is found in Ducange. used in calling to a person. afflict. De Ira (where he and helping of thin euen-Christen ' . only used in the phrase standa d gcefrjum. Der. cultur-ist. 1080. . where on signifies in. hostile. of Glouc. AGLET. aloft. AGNAIL. S. graciously. 3875. See Go. (E. to give the word more force. (F. . yAK. often used to give a frequentative ' ' ' force so that agl. to keep back . dis-agree. Skt. agu. and strictly signifies 'to drive about often. D. in later Latin aiutare.' aytuvla. The old word agnail. form oladiuuare. Wyclif employs agonye in ' the translation of Luke. e. aground and aloft. difficult. to till. agree-ment also dis-agree.' Chaucer. fern. pain. from F.) Prob. (F. See Agent. a point (Cotgrave). A. be the true source of The word is one of some difficulty . ague. culturus. F. Agvte.' The s was dropped in English before m just as in blame. hard. By analogy with afoot. O. anxious. agri' On grounde on the ground. 7.

according to Curtius. is not used to denote sharp in such a context. ALBATROSS. Lat. stone kind of soft marble. in fact. It is more probably a corruption of ah lord ALACK. interjection. 227. air-y. album. 500. alacer. lak. Plowman. the stem being af(p-. (F. Pass. bowe. 8. which was applied by the early navigators of that nation to cormorants and other sea-birds. y' GAR. also aXa^apTiTrjt. . (Lat. language. yvp6s. without either prefix. ALB. air. and in O. albus. bonte. but this must be a mistake. a wing sometimes s is a meaningless insertion. turning. ah and las! wretched (that I am)! Cf. camag. i.. more properly . schot-wyndo onschet a litill on char. -Lat. to blow. Douglas. which abounds in words of this character. a little ajar. of arma. and bar. xxiii.. 2. aer. about. alabastrum. Gk. F. a wing.' 'curved. Gr. Goth. yvpos. pi.] nom. C. e. on the turn from M. eir. cammock. he compares Gk. The O.) Sir T. aXa^affrpov. L. Lat. ^[ Alarm is a doublet of alarum. (F. L. 3674. who assigns a different sense. we may feel tolerably certain that the right word. char. A. cyrran. being modem. tr. sing. This we know because the O. air. F. 481. of kin. bontet. cestimare.. air-less. Ducange. alacritas. to . air. Fick. 1838 (1. whilst the Ital. P.) M. Perhaps from VAL. neuter of See Alb. to estimate. Cf. arme is feminine.Ital. 1 86. which see in CotLat. v. wind. This is quite a habit of the E. in place of kene. Thus Derwentwater means white water water. p. AISLE. and thus Ital. according to Curtius. See Axis. ed. miserable.. &c. axilla. 364. a word borrowed by us from that language. of Langtoft. i...D. (L. adaestimare. Der. ii. q. (F..' 1. elbiz. aim. ' ' ' ! ! I a large sea-bird. (Max Muller quotes the passage from Cicero see his Lectures. But the It is no Lat. i. ed. weil I knew . yet they may have been confused. . 1207. AIR. Group G. L. a\a^aaTins. the atmosphere. Dryden uses kimbo as an adj. (C. a\<t> 6s. mention is made of a loude alarom ' in Allit. God in the gospel grymly repre' ueth Alle that lakken any lyf. air. Tale). i. the form alacrite. albe. . Der. ' Hawkesworth's Voyages. alarme. More commonly album out. grave. 1878. zeal. . grimly reproves anybody.) Occurs in Rob. . ALBUMEN. E. and E. G. Gk. white. the E. a white rash O. and only repeats the sense of the second one. Homilies. but merely expresses want. aile. 408 it is not an uncommon word see seven examples in Stratmann. Weber. v. ' ' ' . Arab. ALCHEMY. signifying ' misfortune. a tablet.) M. cestimare. F. Der. the second member las being often used as an interjection in O. ' ' ! ! ALACRITY. Eng. &c. (Lat. It is a diminutive of Lat.) A contraction of ey-ot. 163. which is alas. Spelt air in Mandeville's Travels. 478. alarm-ist. but it is remarkable that the Lat.-Gk.' [Jamieson quotes this. .. albumin-otis. . O. perhaps a circle. 1773 (Todd's Johnson). bow was a necessary consequence of the W. 8. 36. of Glouc.' G. AKIMBO. Ital. Gk. because kene in M. defect. is the M. 37. The form.Lat. 11. AJAR. expressing sorrow. briskness. A. on cyrre.) M. F. . [t] AKIN. ! ' ' 4 See Late. Angle's island island. cam not being well understood. alacritatem. &c. xiv. Cotgrave gives 'Alarme. alba. i. Hist. Portuguese alcatraz. E forms of the word are alkenamye and 1204. x. axis. but due to the strong trilling of the preceding r. the long a being due to contraction. 153. to drive. L. a alabaster. borrowed from the Vulgate word alabastrum. lit. (E. 92. in the sense of 'bent. Gk. x 399-] The M. ad illas armas. however. ALARM. 309. cheren. [t] a bent position. 262. Morris. Cf. the word arm is twice written arum. P. p. .) A corruption of a-char. period. as the O. 319.) Very common in Shakespeare Temp. It is a well-known Northern peculiarity. the termination being determined by analogy with such words as bounty (from O. doubt contracted from axla or axula.) Spelt aisle in Gray's Elegy and by Addison see Richardson. Rob. alabaster. is not French. Nat. ^f and E. 2408. a call to arms.) Merely borrowed from Latin albumen out. to turn. albus. See Fick. + 73 .G. (F. of which a is a shortened form (through the intermediate form an). Lat. round. S. time. 767 (Can. 116. arma. 75 b. 33. In modern English ' lack seldom has this sense. . ah ! a loss to-day ! It is almost always used to express failure. albumen. 45. as auks into vaks. 750. whitenessX See Alb. of Lat. E. alt arme. 3 1 2 . From Lat. i. on the turn where cyrre is the dat. v. Said to be derived from Alabastron. 37. a loud sound. Lat. Skt. vd.) Chaucer has alkamistre. [t] albus. 8th ed. E. and explains it rightly. Grein. 36. 151. the wing of a church. Thus alack would mean ah failure' or ah ' a loss .' briskness. Persauyt the morning bla. 483. achsel. 161. ii. a bent stick Scot. esm-=Lat. of the feminine gender. O. lit. hi a bend bend. ed. Parv. albe. F. . There was also an intermediate form eesmer. and may very well have become generally known at the time of the crusades. . which again stands for on char. [t] Cf. Plowman. In the Tale of The host set his Beryn. an alb. The last syllable is. a twist or winding. oddly spelt in kenebowe bond in kenebowe . not now used in the singular. Wyclif has a boxe of alabastre in Lat. brisk. [t] interjection. E. L. Morris. a white priestly vestment. where alle stands for a le. F. Said in some dictionaries to be a corruption of alas ! which would be an unusual phonetic or ' ah change. who ' remarks that av changes into va. and alackaday would stand for ' ah ! lack on (the) day. to call men to arms. F. but wrongly adds another example in which on char means 'in a chariot. The addition of the E. dimin. C. lats.. cam or kam. &c. allegro is likewise from the Lat. cherren (G. lord Christ 1 ' loss. a swan. alas. q. C. Fick. Gael. The o is no real part of the word. grow.) Otherwise. F. ' Quharby the day was dawyn. Oral. pp. I I ALAS. e. of Virgil Prol. formed with interj. Ital. to arms a contracted form of alle arme. S. Yeom. aim-less. 180.. . pp. ' - A . T. Also in is here a translation of the older form on.' P. root df ^AVf. spelt aisle. .' luke-warm means ' warm warm.) Lat. 1105 in Urry). i. (F. H. to drive. and alabaster. as in the reduplicated phrase kim-kam. ! ALARUM. ' ' ' .. AIR. to. a small island. is a corruption. ata>. as it occurs in the Glossary to Bartsch's Crestomathie. See Estimate. Eel. More has alacritie. i. to blow. q. and corn is written koren. JEn. ' to the. Der. . p. it may be referred to M. an alchemist. alarom . case of cyrr. ah wretched (that I am) Lat.) For of kin near of kin and ' near akin A. anything curved. 488: and in Havelok. albatros. kehren). and lassus. in . &c. ace. a call to arms. but O. T.. used interjectionally. he in place of the interj. rarely used. form was alaigrete. written a\af3aaTos . E. and lakkes ban hem-selue = God ' all that blame and have faults themselves . 3.) The word occurs A. i. alarme. wax. E. ^f The Ital. M. used by Holland to all awry. alias. an alb. however. a ' Prompt. has only helas. L. especially in place-names. a wing.e. and we actually find as armes in It was obviously merely borrowed Alisaunder. ala. notes a Low Lat. The usual M. crooked) which is sometimes attenuated to kim. F. fern. an interjection. i\avvfit>. See Arras. ah ! interj. ALBUM. It means I undid a shot-window. which contains no piece later than the ifth century.' Hence akimbo stands for on-kimbow. in the sense to turn . ' Alarme ! Alarme ! quath that lord. all' arme answers to Low Lat. whence the dimin.14 ammell'). 1. . al-jan. lit.) [f] AIT.) 'Alabaster. See examples in Bartsch's Chrestomathie Franchise. (F. 394.F.for of occurs also in Adown. ' ' . ALCHEMY. 10. verb.] -O. Poems. aesmer = ' Lat. Mark. a.' the latter being an allusion to the relation between Gk. a\a&affTpos. and compares it with Goth. Group G. The proper meaning of axula is rather 'shoulder-blade' or 'shoulder'. 22 . which see above. E. From the same root. Low Lat. the white of an egg. See Fick. (E. late. cf. from Italian. failure. album. in ' . Pilgrim. of Brunne's tr. 3. Again. i. Furnivall. superfluous. a call to arms . [*] a white book. For Air (2). the name of a town in Egypt see Pliny. sb. cf. on the turn only used of a door or window. . F. where he supposes lassus to stand for lad-tus. 125. [The mod. a sea-fowl. Gk. (E. ahi lasso (or fossa). a curve camlorgain. an alarum. pi. E. 1982. lit. form was as armes . wan. See Eyot.Ital. to Book vii. arma is neuter. O.-Port. and it is obvious that it must even have come to England before the close of the I4th century. harm is written harum. &c. of ey. Gk. and that signify again for on-kam-bow. white.. Thus alarom is really the word alarm. air. cirran. iXativ. a turn. a bandy leg. Angles-ey. (E.. fl" been supposed that the prefix al is the Arabic article. air-gun. white (whence albu-men.' i. bonitatem). B. as in the Ancren Riwle. a. L. ed. E. white of eggs. arif. alack the day! Shak. in a sharp curve. F. F. 'the Latin being bijugis. an &c. cerran. fatigued. the science of transmutation of metals. (Lat.' Brachet says that the word alarme was first introduced into French in the i6tk century. (F. Cf. The corresponding Latin words would be ad Ma arma. and that the word was originally Arabic. [The word must have been borrowed directly from the Latin.' and arme is the pi. The name albatross is a word apparently corrupted by Dampier [died i? 1 ^] from the Portuguese alcatraz.) M.' It has Eng. cam. p. a bent stick Irish camog. char was earlier spelt cherre.' 'The kimbo handles seem ' with bears-foot carved o. alacer. . to breathe . a weapon. 156.H. Works." y. 69. as Cotgrave notices. and Axle. see Cicero. (F. avfftv arifl the E. mist. of Celtic origin (W. It is clear that in keneVirgil. ii. Cf. eyre in Chaucer. ace. perhaps with the prefix ad. G.' and so on. Cyclopaedia. are equivalent expressions. Similarly in Havelok the Dane. a turn. see Errata. to turn. See Curtius. ALABASTER. F. E. air. .

and Slavonic forms.' Prompt. [This suffix is due to a combination of the Aryan suffixes -man and -ta. A.) Lat. ALERT. similis . alnus. ii. c. in Notes and Queries. a passages in the Northumbrian glosses prince. ii . corrupted to almug in police-officer. being found in Sanskrit as valgvka. p. of Brnnne. alder . ad-vlt. See Fick.] Der. 30. el. Brachet (s. 8th ed. . Plowman..F. i. another (stem ali-. ' extension of meaning from fine powder to rectified spirit is not Arabic. O.. 467. to .S. ii. Nomina 71 . Group G. lit.] light (i. Church-Slavonic olu. . no. or as in alderalder-first. on-. alerte. an alder-tree. on the and erta. a man. onlike . ' alle tha horsmen i than wude alihten they caused all the horse(i) to ALIGHT. ALDERMAN. alan. a vessel formerly used for distilling. A. first of all . F. i. elzen-boom. and man. 7. 89. alienFick. the Ionic form of dpfiaiv. article. p. Gower. to burn. ALGEBRA. Latin alibi. ' aller.Arabic. a stranger (Roquefort). origin. ' ' . e. col.' Wright's Vocabularies. to burst. fundere. late Greek given by Suidas (eleventh century)..The prefix is therefore a. v. algebra. ali-enus is formed). L. short for an.) M. 'aliment. See Chemist. elder-man. aljabr wa'lmukdbalah. algebra-ist. 604. (2) to light upon. cf. L. Diet. erla . as we know. euynlyke. Palmer's Pers. ale-house. but that is a Gk.' from Cf. the definite article.+Swed. eile. ALCOVE. and (2) for on-. of His Own Time. 348 A. alderman. to be strong. K. down. ali-us. alere. Gospels. Lectures. at. alus. . a kind of beer. 36.. Dictionary. or as adj. p. iii. else. chemistry. Elder. apfhi. St. goblet. ii. See ^f Ihre's notion of connecting alder with a word al.S. Lithuanian. West-Saxon leoht. is. Ayenbite of Inwyt.) (Span. 319. tr. Cot. in another for the suffix. the name of a tree. Old Irish aile. 25 also an alien womman. Gk. formerly allerte. algebra-ic-al. e. and gives alu as the original form of the stem. other. (E. ^f See Fick.Ital. erila. 1688 F. Arab. Gk. prep. 244. al-ter-c-at-ion. elm ^AR. oi. a kind of beer.) 'The Ladies ' stood within the alcove Burnet. leht. of erectus.' i. an alcove. ALQTJAZIL. on the ale-stake ALEMBIC. Alisaunder. i. 2. alalderman dermon. P. lieutenant. This valguka. alien-at-ion . i. Gbthe's erl-king. E. used to explain centurio in Mark. alienus. Arabic al-klmid . 3919. from the same root as E. a limbeck. beer. art. 1173. Span. alconomy. 501 ALIEN. an officer in a town. e. ALIMENT.) 1. (Lat. . Rob.' Boyle (in Todd's Johnson). ed. Palmer's Pers. or an impalpable powder. prov. 67. a vault. article. and anbik is bique. ann!eiko.) Law Latin . It Arab. strangers. swell out (Curtius). A. ALIMENT. 1. .~\ 1 3th century. to consolidate. ALIKE. y. at least in one passage of the Old Testament. collyrium. ' a still. and corresponding to A. Layamon. Princeps. See Old. another. allien.) Alertness. ' ' ' ALCOHOL. (F. 61. alis. Hemukdbil.or o-. 2024. ii. sone fond our heritage to winne O. ^Elfric's Glossary. Hist. to alight ed. alchemic.. a late form of x v f f ' a a mingling. + + + + + to alight in the wood . qubbah. Parv. col. in Freytag. 88 1 2th Northumbrian aldormon. (E. Not to be confused (as is usual) with the English factory. a ALGUM. See Richardson's Diet. Lat. Swed. Gk. otherwise . drink. alcohol-ic. to nourish. and kahdl or kohl. ate. used to paint the eyebrows with. Spelt aidermon in Layamon. the Spanish form being of Arabic Arab. of allerne . (Lat. and wazir. alcove. a p. S. E. see (Al is the Arabic def. and Prof. and adv. i. Diet. (E. The p. see Curtius. xvii. cites a Latin poem of the 1 3th century in which ' computation ' is oddly called ' Indus ' ' .' &c. alcohol-ize. Gk. comparing . Freytag. Lat. Ital.. G. to Northumbrian liht. often used Hence the older form is liefest. xi. Also M. but the adj. to light upon . but simply composed of the Arabic def. Span. we find Arabicjair. and man. onlic.. Span. watch. 23. elri. C. elira. ii. the adverbial form retains the final e. upon and lie. (F. Spectator. Grammar. ALIAS. a stillatory . 8. there. setting a bone reducing fractions to in Arithmetic . v. Du. Gaelic and Irish bride-ale . . Icel. at the. cf. as in Shak. . alihten alighted here upon earth . finding his rutters [knights] alert. [The for oiler-first. a kind of ' Ta. ALCORAN. 27. else. alnus . E. erect. T. Late Gk. unfortunately. reduced into alcohol. and the ambiguous dlihtan (apparently of-lihtan). F. P. Curtius. 157. to get men . the particles and intercepted spaces will be extremely lessened. 468.-Ital. ' . impalpable which If the same salt shall be powder. The adj. The two senses of the word shew that the prefix a.ALCOHOL.' Nat.." See Turner's Hist. . on which see SchleiGoth. A some Aryan ' word (Kin. alcovo. F. timbo. 165. 'Aliens suld Rob. Arab.) a recess.) M. Der. form anlik is also written anlich. i. fern. . another. eller. Graco-Lat. with suffix -mentum from alere. to pour out. who alsna as the original to rise. A. SktVNABH. 232. Parv. 591. 252 Pick. alike. Grein. a. ' . ' comparison. eald. tear. who gives the Lith. 9. TCIm cf.) Rabelais a ferte. whose explanation is quite satisDiet. (E. similar. p. oXAos. as in thet is him anlich' = that is like him . ii. (E. T. Palmer's Pers. restoration. which he supposes to exist in some Teutonic dialects. particularly used of getting off a horse. alihten. Icel. Matt. M. alambique. [t] on the watch. clear instances of these are wanting. alias. G. [t] European. ^AL. . al. merely excrescent. S. nourishment . i. the boss of a shield. a word which is from no Arabic root. strange. 59. In Beaum. alder-king. alembykes. ' Reliquiae Antiquse. xi. The root is rather al. trie . 10.' + alder-tree. !>n<t>a\i>s. + + + Church-Slavonic elicha. The prince. Law . of the Anglo-Saxons. Der. a stranger. on. Matt. al-ter-nate.' . elrir. adj. 177. and Slavonic forms. algebre) terms algebra a medieval scientific Latin form . dome . however. an. M. power. otherwise. alias. col. x'""' Xrintia. compounded of al. alert-ness. 484. n-bi. Milton has alimental.e. i. the putting-together-of-parts and the equation. prep. p. 87 (R. old. and borrowed from source. forms alike. = ' . a vaulted space or tent. S. ' as in ' ur louerd an erthe alighte her = our Lord alighten.e. to alight from. Ituhl. Lat. v. Macb. used by Dioscorides to mean the cap of a still. recess.) We find an aliene knyght Weber. alkahal or alkohl. C. a form. elzen. (Heb. alcoba. Layamon. water.' Ecclus. iii. an alder-tree = Lat. Grein. letter d Phenician and Jewish sailors into algum. i. 585. E. calculation by symbols. than al. exactly as in p. as the Italians say. De Quarta Conj. cher. 60. i. ' descend from . strange ed. alimentnm. See Else. It stands (i) for of-. See Erect. H. F. and Arab.. the same word as the (Brachet). Gen. whence stranger. with ' . accus. accus. ' . sustenance. The A. on the watch originally a military term. 367 a word related to Gk. Lat. +Icel..' I" Palmer's Pers. are short for anlike. ALIBI. another place. and occurring in many other West-Saxon ealdor-man. 2. 774Span. i. see arquemie in Roquefort. Wright's Vocabularies. VAMBH . Goth.) Borrowed from F. 61. 2923 Aldyr-tre or oryelle tre. and qobbah. xi. S. Curate. (Chaucer). A. is properly without it. Grein. ad. and On. of Langtoft. This phrase is a corruption of aljabr via al mokdbalah. tree. alia (for a la). 424 .) Arab. to pour (root . and erectam.+Dan. 8. the (very fine) powder of antimony. bk. an alder-tree i. Prompt. lit.. Fletcher. and there chiefly on the coast of Malabar . only has the simple form lihlan or gelihtan. Mukdbalah is lit. another.or on-.' adapted from the Greek. Dan. Morris. a cup.' p. blr. . Lat. See Light. 140. i. (F. viii. G. and Exodus. olcha. Sir Roger Williams. De Morgan. The simple form (from horseback). xv. borrowed from Italian in the i6th century (Brachet). E. also written anlic. Span. 5T The fullest form appears in the Gothic See Like. + + . which points back to a more original form valgu [for the syllable -ka is a suffix] might easily have been corrupted by i x. of adj. opposite.\") . 67. eqtialis alyke. a. Lat. Chaucer has the pi. to nourish. i. food formed food. alnus. alferta.) . (F.) Chaucer has alder. + + + . brew gdbbar. 75 b. (Low Lat. adj. alien. iv. to nourish. is wholly inadequate to account for the wide-spread use of the word..] like. gives the Lith. occurs in the Death of Byrhtnoth. 1. i.. 500. onlihten. alamArabic al-anbik where al is the definite article. officer. erect. ' ' . of Glouc. an elder. on. ol. erle . . i.+ O. 12. to which the nearest equivalent English phrase is ' restoration and reduction. 3 S. is not quite clear. an arbour. G. Aryan. [The radical sense of lihtan is to render light.has not the same force in both cases. a police-officer. the original signification of ' is a fine. in ^Elfric's lihtan. arquetnie. arch. violence . brid-al. (F. See Else. 7. aldem . an alder. but. 2063). sect. els. e. nnheavy) . fern. Russian oleltha. P.S. al. ix. see Curtius.. as the chymists speak. xw . See above. i-U. 39. i. Also limbeck.. oflihlen. like. century. [The nature of the connection with ale. ala. y.' Cot.-L. used by Shakespeare for aller-liefest. 1 in another place. iii. contracted form. ' Alyke or or lyke yn lykenes. adv.Arabic_/afeara. e. of ille. to nourish. See Vizier. a word introduced in the i6th century from Italian (R.S. Lat. i. ealu. he. KORAN. where. air. in like manner. Lithuanian elksznis (with excrescent i). jelucha.) Ital. a#i#i. ' remove a burden from. erto. H. still further corrupted. -Lat.) occurs in a quotation from Swift in Todd's Johnson. see in the sense of un-heavy. formerly spelt alcohol (see Brachet). y. and in Montaigne and 1618.S. ALDER. fern. properly in the 15 be on one's guard.. % foreign word in Hebrew. the foot of a goblet. def.' Max Miiller. The Also alike. ale-wife. ealdor. algebra-ic. food. iii. ^GHU. def. ^T The phrase on the alert' contains a reduplication it means on-the-at-the-erect. SI. the. M. See Aliment.) Bacon has 'medicine and aliment. alien-able. elsewhere. 566. sandal-wood. . integers to bind together. prefixed to the e <". A.. col. Hist. sandal-wood. Act of the Low Countries. A. phrase stare alferta. Kings. alcool. into almug. a vizier. p. to grow .' Der. Arabic. C. From European stem ALIA. Coupet de aunne. article al. cove. ' cf. algebra almucgrabalceqve. 186. connected From the same root we have old. another. cognate with.. and gives form of the stem. 1. Lat. ' Heo letten alighten. Sandal-wood is found indigenous in India only. Grein. alike. 445. (F. pure spirit. A. Ital. ALE. al-ter. alyke. Wyclif has alienys.) Called algum in 2 Chron. Der. 388 a See Alcova in Diez. illam. Arborum. alguacil. a recess in a room . 10.

. Old Irish altram. qali is derived from the Ar. E. it was formerly spelt with only one /. D. aliment-al. twain. to alleviate. The plural alle is very common. alkali-fy. borrowed the O. todelen. dearest of all. such as tobresten. allegare.( = F. a walk. 207. Chaucer has al a. [I do not find an example in early French. F. 633. 750. Hence al-mighty.'] Lat. also Hallowmass. [#] to lighten. which from stem ~j )- ali-. Latimer. i. There was a large number of similar verbs. to go. properly to bathe cf. and thence to aler. together. Lat. W. the Ital. Cot. formerly Panormas . producing a form ail-to. as in beggar. alle. which is a variant of the obsolete M. halelii jdh. al was used before other prefixes be' ' sides to. E. verb tobreken is common. and others. . Curtius. of A. to come. f assumed change. F orphelin from Low Lat. S. to cleave in to divide in twain. Lat. allegoric. would be al tobralt. Gk. aleger (mod.) some. ALLEVIATE. Gk. whole. liege . nourishment. allegor-ist. curry. and Fick. to rise up. French. aXXos. Alle the surgyens of Saleme so sone ne couthen Haue your . 1033.allay. (E. all saints. Will. ed. Rotissillon. e. T. Goth. ' 1. p. alls. As to O. of Palerne. also. See further under Alleviate. elUger). Lat. see Stratmann's O. E. orphaninus (cf. where al is an adverb. not softened as in the O.' Chaucer. A in life. is from Lat. See the article on all to in Eastwood and Wright's Bible Wordbook. light. a Redeles. C. see Errata. and leuare. ^f When all is used as a prefix. 1. to lighten (Brachet). v. appoint. ^f By some. See Benfey. to swim. to send. ATilVJi. Hence Shakespeare's alderliefest is for allerliefest. of which an older form must have been leguis. llologne. E. allege thair saules of payne To ' ' = with respect to pain ' Hampole. to lay down . (Ital. f =fo. al. but The word itself and its sense is requires correction . contraction of the M. mention. aleger. S. Der. of the plant itself. to affirm. alley. p. et 1'oudenr ' = all See Light. i. Northumbrian al-. alder. alleuare. we may now proceed. but the mod. xi. F. The older form 'is with one /. ' . alle. and quot. also to bring forward. signifying citations from a written authority. This prefix is now written all in later In all-hallows. un-heavy)..) Fabyan has allegeannce. all. tocleouen. a verb formed by prefixing the A. Alone. Lat. Of Germanic origin . Lat. brisk. all bad laws. E. especially to come by water. orphanittits. article. assuage. A. 1146) Palmer's Pers. transitively. T. whilst the various senses of the French word became familiar. O. anare. article. and alle (disylthe mod. ' ' . More's Works. p. al-so. tinued ever since. Withal Almighty. 9. However. ALLEGORY. The modem form of the word should have been allege. aliquot. 1 1 ' viz. from a still older ^AR. The sight allayed your langours . ALL. pi. of alacer. due to confusion with an older English word now obsolete. purely French. ace. Parv.-L. there is an ambiguity. (Lat. (F. al-together. English. a verb formed from dyopa. a participial substantive. So long about (F. to come. from Lat. 2 Hen. Rem. Ruscinonem p. C. allege . with the result that the English form prevailed. and (2) the rarity of O. soften. which from Lat. Lat. ad-) to the word legeaunce.e. Palermo. and sometimes alder. always.) In Milton's V Allegro. Der.. ali-us. ille. but its form is English. brew. to Eng. Pricke of Conscience. def. 30. and qali is the name given to the ashes of the plant glass. p. life. (E. to fry (Rich.-Lat. an allegory . a. See As. which was used as an intensive ' prefix to verbs. dlecgan. in the phrase ' al a companye. to Leviticus. 3. the true sense of A. GAR ic-al-ly. O. alegier. 88. . which signifies praise ' in the Pial voice . The confusion of form appears so early as in Gower's Confessio Amantis. Icel. 7. and legare. allegor-ic. a fricassee. to lay down. from Lat. a place of assembly. of Glouc. and a doublet of alleviate.' and Others make qali the name 'qaliyah. er-. Although. Group G. q. T. al-most. Diet. aleggen. 8 10. Heb.' C. which again is from dydpfiv. wholly.e. and afterwards account for its <r [To change ofform. allegances. ALLEGRO. Grein. i. See Alacrity. of the Rose. merly spelt. C. The A. to bathe. so that the to was often joined to al (misspelt all). mod. ij-fopfiv.' Chaucer. see note on Abbreviate. Will. alltali-ne. A. and Hue or of lyf. al. see Liege. .-G.] ALLAY. the whole of. oiler. elder. Du. every. The ySNA. (HeBetter hallelujah. sa. S. is the latter. adnare.' i. to come.. to and nare. and life is dat. The prefix d.) ' ALLELUIA. i. of Low Lat. ' ' to alleadge. form of the prefix is eal-. allegor-ic-al. 996 also at al. ii. a shortened form of Jehovah. see further under Alloy. where on ' . 2. (F. allr. F. Bononia. &c.) several ALIQUOT. arrive on the change from anare to aner. (E. assuage. allial-oid. Si nfalegeoient ALLEY. leg stem of lex. grow alleviate. Der. follows the Northumb.' Here.) [The history of this word as given in the first edition of this work is here repeated. ALLEGIANCE. a\\description of one thing under the image of another. to wash. alleuiare. but the word was surely in use. Also. plural. S. and Sir T. xiv. Aliquot nearly corresponds. despatch . borrowed from the O. dlecgan having passed out of mind. pp. to Lat. . al-ways. 9. y. (Arabic. aliment-ary.) M. aleggen. other instances occur of the Fick. ' ' . pp. aner. and E. lige. [The compound aligance does not appear in O. VI. and M. ali- ma douleur. Diet. 2759. see Brachet cf. to nourish. aley. Which may his sory thurst alaye. c. Aleggyn. &c. Formed by Spelt alegeawns in Wyntown. form alle. 397. 273. praise ye Jehovah. all.. Skt. whilst overpowered as to form by the A. But about A. signifying utterly. double I is correct. ' P. i. 500. (F. E.16 to nourish. -antia). S. or produce reasons . Der. Borrowed from Lat.) Chaucer has alkaly. alacrum. 56. alleuiare. oil. Again. alive. to break in pieces so that al lobrak means utterly brake in pieces. i. i. See Fick. alkal-escent. orphan) . See On and Life. on life. viz. to lay. stem of another and dyopfiiav. adj. Heb. Group C. to shine. the formations. ' to allay their souls p. a gloss to omnes in Icel. to urge. 8. pi. pi. sustenance. Gothic a/a-. alee. Prompt. 53. a-. Swed. i. Balm of Gilead. this again al ii'weped for wo . ALKALI. us-). I. and be ail-to dirtied . in later English written oiler. cf. Mark. O. It is now easy to see how the confusion arose. allegro.) Used by Bp. to and. A.' O. all. oiler. I first trace the sense of the word and its origin. S.wort (Salicornia). monium. aleggen.= ad. s. . with suffixes -man and a H . to alleviate .appears to answer to Skt. ^AL. ligance. 14. every one. T. C. F. and ' 8. aner. cap. alkali. leuis.) The pi. in the singular. Hall.' [#] to affirm. see Allege. from Lat. to alleviate. bathe. 9. light. ALLEY. a word in which the gg is hard. lighten.) M. only and the saviour Alegged much of my langour. Lat. instead of alegge. to lighten.. where the original has Le voir sans plus. old.( = G. . alleg-at-ion. See Allay. brisk.' col. to speak. It so happened that this pure old English aleggen was sometimes used in the sense of to put to mitigate. (Lat. Almost. uile. borrowed from Greek. F. p. 3894. with the loss of final labic) in the plural e. lively. ' ' The i. al. I. as in we be fallen into the dirt. i. make the confusion still worse. sing. whole. and has conlecgan.' and tobralt the 3 p. an expression of praise.] a. to put down down. allevio. with an inserted excrescent d. God. Yf he haue wyt and Seven Sages. 1041 a. Stem LAGHU. but it has nothing to do with the word now so spelt . &c. E. alegen. in general force. and -ydpav implies a root see Fick. - Gk. i. The gen. Cf. Diet. which abounds in soda. to-brake. F. lyve) is the dat. as he was al awondred . 1500. Arabic al qali where al is the def. e. allegoria. alter. also alimony (from Lat. ace. ' ' The! wol aleggen Alleggyn awtours. aXAo-. Judges.' Prompt. case of Hf. 444. lyue (live. alleguer. lan- the surgeons of Salerno could not so soon have goures allegget ' 4. 1 84 where on is the preposition. (\ax\is. gives qali. allegories occurs in Tyndal's Prol. to speak so as to imply something else. light (i. how many. he has written alaie. as all-powerful. allegor-ise. cognate with Gk. or relese peyne.. al. ALLELTTJAH. Der. snd. T. ' . F. p. dlecgan. Lat.-L. 422. F. which passed into the occasional form alleuiare in late times Ducange. proportionate. and 1. allir. he. support. ts~ In the phrase all The proper spelling. Rob. ALIQUOT. from halal. where we ' find If I thy peines mighte alaie.the Vulgate version of Galat. 91. therefore. 501. verb qalay.. to send. eal. M. a. Richard the Cf. pi.e. orphelin. ' Al is tobroten thilke regioun. Gk. to lift up. Cot. truly French in spirit. a kind of parable. . Irish and Gael. Allay (properly allege) is the M. E. chief difficulties are (i) the transition from n to /. ix. small. Lat. The word is. 73. C. in earlier English.' Rom. Putting aside alloy and allege. i. of Palerne. iii. and by the gospel preuen . as far as I can O. life. idiom became misunderstood. a gallery. aler. 661. just as English grammar prevailed over French grammar. to lighten. as in ' to allegge alle luther lawes. Low Lat. E. 6625 .] -ance ( = Lat. case ' his on lyue if he has wit. allai. iv. F. aleger (with soft g) = to alleviate. a salt. every one of. al-. or to softe. y. ad. signifies in. From the same root a!- we have also ad-ult. 10198. the direct descendant of A.F. eal was ealra. al-though. to burst in twain. 8. Goth. homage.. in . . sing. Always. 828. H. to alleviate. iii. S. Low Lat. as denoting the plural. soften. ALLEGE. . to make to grow. ' Of alegeaunce now lerneth a lesson other tweyne . prefixing a. halelii. Dan. Parv. the duty of a subject to his lord. aleide = alleged. The Ital. aliment-at-ion . .=ad. id. Formed as if from alleuiattis. al-one.' is alive . S. F. ' . Group G. the word now spelt alloy was forbut we need not here do more than note the fact . already possessing a word aleggen (with hard gg) = to put down. other. law. 474. and Roquefort gives the deriv. cf. G. Palerme.) the aleys is he goon. allegor. al. We . to the common verb The confusion first appears in Gower. e. al. 502. of the verb tobreten. andjdh. E. 872 . a habit still preserved in a few words. F. 28. Plowman. alleviat-ion. with suffix find. somewhat. The forms and senses of these verbs ran into each other. alle. p. i. B. brisk. id. See Legal. mitigate. pt. in life. yet written apart from them. e. F. + + + + + + + + ' . ealle. lighten. a\\rftopla. 499. B. 24. and is really no more than a (French) doublet of (the Latin) alleviate.E. phrase on live. to assemble. al-gales. ^f Observe another passage in Gower. t. Wright. praise ye.

. ^[ This Gk. verb alliterare. xi. I. to bind together. as being similarly generalised from the sense of 'coming by water' to that of ' ALMANACK.. according to the Thus the word is a mere modern invention. or cayman. ed. prognostication . More. the pp. Loquacious. allies . . ALLIGATION. v. andare a nasalised Pathos. and lacerta. This sb.) Used by Sir T. p. iii. and is from Icel. assigns it to you. like well of j Lat. Wheler (R. Brachet (s. " Then = to everlasting possession. Lat. i. F. in Male's Origin of Mankind (1667). allus-ive. di-luv-ial. a lizard. highly approve of. 1. 334. ' formerly alouer. and of much earlier use than the former. Works.'] form of Lat. a due proportion in mixing metals. sb. an almanack. ally. pi. to place. to. (Lat. b. used in the 3rd century by Eusebius for an almanac . (F. prop. grant as a portion or allowance. . and iraSos. in the phrase "at passage. a phrase used with reference to ' the mixing of metals in coinage. ace. ALLUSIVE. Der. Chaucer has the pi. alligator is borrowed from English.) . 199. to play. ALLY. alIt is spelt alliaunce in Gower. Hie. an address.' but is to be accounted for in a different its nearest equivalent in English is the nearly obsolete word eld. ace. allure-ment. 16. of Glouc. in his Law Diet. the same word ley means both law and ' alloy . S. to bind to. = Lat. ad legem. of letters. and the words whence allodium was composed signifying old age are really the Icel. Gk. v. p.' [It is likely that the F. to praise. Shakespeare has both verbs. allodialis. (L. See Lizard. ' See Law. ALLIANCE. Cotgrave gives Allotir. ad. a homestead. alodium. A." ALLOCATE. The stem alliterat. a lei. to asalay suage. Comment. as in Blackstone. aditare. to place. alleu). See Locus. then the estate becomes his allodial property. and Shakespeare is one of the earliest authorities for it. This O. allow- abl-y. pears as alleu in French. .L. by confusion with the This suggests. Der. (Lat. old age (E. alod alloy. alluuionem.' [*] hint at. v. ad literam. 1 29 . dare. 305. who compares Gk. locus. suffering. From the same root. of allocare. and oTiraXAeii'. iii. to laugh at. a lot. ALMANACK. alli-ance. see Fick. in addition . d toda ley means according to rule . aldr. Allocate is a doublet of allow.' Cot. See Allude. aliance. -Lat. ' ' .] Low Lat. From the to wash. eftel. is the neuter of the adj. alaudium. uses allocate in the sense of to set aside. Lat. F. cherish. Lat. to appoint or set down a proportion for expence. e. Lat. allow-able-ness. given to the American cro' In Hawkins's Voyage. 89. ad (becomto the English word lot. (i). allodium. Worthies of Northamptonshire. T. same root. al- ALLIGATOR. F. alouer. Works. or laying out. ALLOT. ' Low The man's own land. 4. a speaking. ALLOT. to wash. and ligare. from pp. 302. where -id is to be explained homestead. ado/. allopath-ic. See further on this B. aUaudare. y. oner or miner is clearly the same as Ital. Lat.) 1. xv. another. ' 5F In ' ' Spanish. [On the suffix -ale. Diez finds a few clear traces of it . and lucre. gives allocation as a term used in the exchequer to signify ' an allowance made upon an of the accusative case. disposition. an adj. alloyed.) M. though common in early authors. [Blount. O. eld). uodal. In older works the sb. of the >Eneid.. viz. (Lat. [t] (i). which (according to the above theory) is for Lat. allocat-ion. shews that it occurs gate. b. almanachus. cited by Brachet. to the alewre. form allodialis. Feudal. suffix -/ion = Lat. lure or bait a word of Germanic origin. allot-ment. p. 65. 12760 [marked 1274]. Formed from Gk. expend. 2.' &c. This is apparent from the following note in the 'Addenda' to 8.) Burke. allocare. ' from O. naa\nv. anare or adnare. adjectival form in -alis. and means a free inheritance. i. alodum. later . old. "til sefinlegrar " = for everlasting possession and allodial tenure. with F. ALLIES. a!-=ad. ii.does not completely. as opposed to homoeopathy. to . . allocate. ' ' mean way 6dal. al. The prefix al. to tempt by a bait. a property of ages or held for " ok ef ages or generations. . 9043. iii. to tend. H. A ALLOW ' ' . This verb is not in early use.' which is the common sense in old writers . answering to the Lat. alluvial. ii. of Ven. 7. dra\6t. [Brachet instances arrive. though wholly unconnected with the verb allay. 729. see Ducange. to let out to hire. Alied to the emperor Rob. (Lat. L. alda 68H 88. letter. ALLUDE. (F. to . allow-ance. ad. which. see (Lat. tender. a name esp. to go. Der.' by way of maintenance for children. e.. Lat. alluvion. The sing. Der. suffix -/ion. heritance or patrimony. Law Lat. alligare. and in three other quotations in Richardson. suffix -tionem ing al. cleanse. 14. q. case Lat. More has (Hybrid. aldr and subject s. a^&ele. The sb. allig-ation. Comment. eigi er " = and leyst innan briggja vetra. which Brachet derives p. full.) The wellaid occurs in Churchill's Prophecy of Famine. a grant for the owner's life-time only. have been invented to match the sb. advocate] to approve. alay is in P.. i. id. alludere. early use . . not only has allot. Ital. F. iii. to assign. Comowing any rent or service to any superior ' ment. a leurre. Lat. p.' ' or ' . 86o.-Gk. See Lave. o<W = A. O.. of which the gth line is E dune orar cum el anned' = and then as He came to pray. el. a washing up of earth. alayed. moreover. Plowman. alluuius.. F. lave. a. Fick. coming. a. alof alluvia. The Icel. to allot also ' Attotement. 7. but even allotlery. . JEtMing. the name of alagartoes Wedgwood. See Allow Sometimes (2). a sb. to wash. H. 48. unto every man his part. a parting. 777. to bind. Having thus arrived at Icel. as distinguished from ' . fl" repetition ALLITERATION.. adal (G. allotl-ery. almanack. and 66al. alien. a calendar. which he possesses merely in his own right.. ad. alodis. C. [*] an employment of medicines to produce an effect different to those produced by disease . 77 . of a Lat. one Lat. mere corruption from the Spanish. connected with the sb.) From F. Der. o la ley ' ' means neatly . The transition from would at once furnish a Low Lat. noble. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et ' fiat ad legem undecim denariorum . and Lat. alier. i. ' to assign.) ALLOCUTION.] M.a. . B. see Abbreviate. of lojui. dial as the primary words. expiate. ' to allow. word was borrowed from the English in this case. in Lord Surrey's translation of the 2nd bk. v. a Low Latin form . 17 The remoter adel). according to rule. 1. ALLUSION. (Gk. el lagarto. to bind. and ligare. F. ' ' ALLOW Doublet. [The F.' see his De Praeparatione Evangelica. c.) Properly it merely means 'the lizard. however. ludere. On the Popery Laws. pp. ending -tionem. The word (see Graff).) 1. Lat. alliterat-ive. ' ' V* . p. 22 almanack by Fuller. to admit a thing as proved. Not in washed down . Diplomatarium Norvagicum. C. did not exist. (F. to . ALLOPATHY. y. and an adj. b. and the senses run into one another so that it is not always easy to distinguish between them in every case. youthi. (F.' Cot. to suffer. to bind together. origin of the word is not clear. a rule in arithmetic. the lizard. applied to soil. aAAo-." i. that the Lat.) Spelt almanac by Blackstone.) confused with the preceding now nearly obsolete.] Der. See Allocate. andare. Lat. a place. and that the sb. an address. Chaucer rimes I aloue the = I praise thee. he speaks of these under codile. ' . See Luke. L. and Her. an alluvial formation. and in Bartsch's Chrestomathie Franjaise. clumsy hybrid compound The verb alli- Rich.) formed by prefixing the Lat.] Shak. to place or set aside. Sir T. occurs at p. native quality. (Hybrid See Ally. verb. Not to be confused with allow in the sense of ' to approve of. not held of a superior Englished from allodium. adlocutio. Lat. line ' known For apt ' alliteration's artful A account. allouer. pp. 48. an ancient allodial inheritance . ii. alouen. it appears in a very old poem on the Passion of ' Christ. see Ducange. to bind. delicate. and locutio.' to praise. to praise. see Luke. xi. Gaisford. c. [The sb. allow-able. and A E. See Letter. This verb is put together as if from Lat. v. ^LU. as short for uodil. with one /. noble (whence for ever. v. now used in connection with it is alluvium. crude form of oAAot. ab-lu-tion. is hardly in use.' In Shak. and locare.] Der. to assign a portion or lot to. allodialis is really older than the sb. it remains to trace them further back. closely connected with A. See q. ALLUVIAL. bound. allocalns.before t) divide or part. The word allodium is Merovingian Latin It is also spelt alaudum. adj. d\u(faxa. to alliterate. with the sb. 79. ad. to . is in O. The Icel. an allotting. Der. he (whence Ital. pp.is formed as if from the pp. See the whole ald'ddal to allodal or alodal is easy. L. Ducange. 323. to bind together.) [The verb to alloy is made from the substantive.+ Gk. a farm. See Ligament. to applaud. ' Perhaps a good instance is in the Merch. and O. See Ligament. a prince). a homestead. allocutio. Span. eignar ok alda dials herited land ' j = Icel. to use. ALLODIAL. 342 . xviii. F. or piece of in- apG. 10988. P. G. E. Romeo. to Another theory makes the approach. without Blackstone. allus-ive-ly ALLURE. and lauSee Laud. a crocodile. See Lot. consume . (Span. 'In the Old Norse there is a compound alda-ddal. the law allows it.O. was formed from the adjective. adlaudare.= ad. aldr = E. ' beneficium. L. or Low Lat.) the sb. alay. from mOiiy. 2. said to mean full ownership . allude to. S. 43. which is frequently spelt or allay. i. (Lat. advow [i. and allotted occurs much earlier. See Ludicrous. E. pp. \oiifiv. or ddhil. e. . liance. As You Like It. T. youth . sb. Cleasby and Vigfusson's Icelandic Dictionary. I. used of land. ' ALMANAC. Spelt adlomtion by Sir G. is formed from this verb by the F. lusus. allofath-ist. locutus. from the 2. this phrase became metaphorical. and alear is ' to ' allouer. ad. q.. or for any other employment. to speak . to allot. ba verSr su J6r8 honum at alda ddali if it be not released within three years. alayes. Cot. Plowman. iv. the) Lat. C. c. i. to.ALLIANCE. allusus. one's native inadj. and e. E. Scand. nature.] Span.) Borrowed from Latin . il. writers on this subject define allodium to be every ' . dividing . C. eld (Shakespeare and Spenser). see Old. (F.) Modern. and not vice versa. according to law or rule. attus-ion. See Lure.. Lat. M.

4. with gen. the e representing A. along. 211. letter. [t] . 39. allerFor the spelmeisi. close to . i. in Chaucer. Lat. E. alp-ine. Poems. loef. lopt. Goth. ealra mast. with gen. shewing himself alone. to keep . iv. OVVTJ. 9274. In use. iii. ^f Thus Eng. possibly owing to confusion with M. it may still be true that (O'Reilly). [The / is an inserted or dat. to keep to the windward. Rob. 769 .E. almest . Chaucer. xv. G. Morris. E. The prefix a. ^f The word one was formerly pronounced own. 31. 628. when preceding its substantive. E. Wyclif has almes. + We Lat. the loudly.' &c. The old pronunciation is retained in present. S. ondlinga. c.' Holland's Pliny. Fries. forms ttlmasse and almesse. cognate with O. has almesse. akdlim. Used by the letters of a language. almdst earm* lice forfor = the fleet for the most part (or nearly all of it) miserably A. lift. S. prefix.) very early see Answer. 'sed h:e tabulre vocantur Almanack M. to . 'andlang J>aes westenes = along the waste. on was said that the Arabic word manalth occurs in Pedro de Alcala (it is not dissyllabic (pron. iii. to which it answers). xxvii. Borrowed the Peruvian sheep. asleep. It is therefore a different sort of word from the G. -pt . ljud. compassion. Layamon. see examples of ana in the sense expressly said in what sense. 401. to get to windward of one. Holland's Pliny. and it is connected with 'Arab. borrowed from Greek has been reduced from six syllables to one. On lofte signifies ' in the air. and in John. cap. sense is. maud. The Icel. -a in the word ana. spelt alpus in the Sabine form. almonds. almosne. p. L.-Gk. (E. Der. lengthalmendra. . albus.' wise. lyft. prefix and-.al. ' word looks like Arabic. sb. and had originally the same sense as the equivalent Du. e. Prov. cf. oe. manay. S. See Loft. bk. loude. really the gen. (E. aloe-wood .S. ALOUD. More furnishes a good example. i. hlyd. too. 'quite the greatest part. amynda amandola. so that the ship cannot easily Similar phrases occur in Swedish . ALOFT. 41. Low Lat. + Swed. which is really the same air. almoner. afoot. Plowman. over against. laitt. The A. aloft. used by Plutarch. as in F. F. i\f tiv. by analogy with a large number of other words. The sense is ' over against in length. 22. accordingly. Eccles. sloop from Du. sea-houseleeke. 39. a din. ALONG. 2. entlang. &c.' the luff or weather-gage . 3. so that the term return to it.) M.' with a great din Layamon. Will. we have the A. 330. we have seo scipfyrde . Verg. it became alms. of Paleme. ALMONER. c. fate . an almond. white. He is speaking of a ship which has drifted to leeward of too farre its anchorage. G.as the a.' e. a high mountain. prep. where the / was but slightly sounded. a sound. Allit. id. Icel. tributer of alms . id. Cotgrave has 'Amande. T. Ex. any gross lump or chaos alpa. almosnier. ante. a/. 1.' he was left alone. .e. pi. Cf.' Milton merely borrowed from Latin. closely related to adj.-L. Wyclif has 16. (Gk. al-one.' ^f The tendency of the ship being to drift on to the leeward vessel or object. xix. O. endilangr. In Webster's Dictionary it is principio mundi usque in finem. 88. later almes. a sound. all . origin. -ft. Alpes. ' . C. formed from a sing. E. and-. Even granting it to be Celtic. the most.] Gk. (E. and F.. 90. A. Dan. [Thus almas-se first became almes-se. [#] a distributer of alms. Luke. from which it follows that loud is a substantive. but in the same poem. ALOE. an. F. ' ' to crye aloude . Lat. but Dozy decides otherwise .lone see Lone. to take the luff from one. S.. the name of a plant. (E.. Skt. ii. Lift.) [The prefix here is very unusual. long. Fick. Gk. &c. 1. the bitter juyce thereof congealed.' M. anti. anda. Layamon. . ALMOST. alphabetum. 2591. on high. p. 2. amygdalum.in this case arose from the A.Heb. Skt. Acts. almendro.] The ments of the heavenly bodies. ed. alms. 0X01. a. the Alps. sb. have luven. d/ivy&iAij. where lude is the dative case of a substantive signifying 'din. See vel Tallignum. [f] ner. Samson.' riming with bone . see his Glossaire T M. v. a form in which the s was soon dropped. eal. almesse. mdndh. they are a genitive. reggis = along the back (Richtofen).even with a word intervening between them. loef houden (Dan. . a word of three syllables. then.' ' like manner we still speak of bitter aloes . Cotgrave has 'Aloes. pitiful. aguru. amende. and-. being sounded like the E. ii. 36. see All. Latin eleemosyna. relief given to the poor.) M. This is not satisfactory. almaesse is a corruption of the result being that eccles. adj. 3. or not to approach. luid. we may the more readily accept this. said to be of Celtic Gallorum lingua alti monies Alpes uocantur. [t] the (Scand. . the air Gothic luftus. and quite by oneself. 3. and borrowed from the Gk. to have the weather-gage tage luven fra en. on-ly. ' ' ' . still preserved in prov. (Gk. E. viz. Wedg. an almond. anything definite in time and man. B. completely. al is mod. E. an.' 2. appeared as almes. ALOOF. ' + . Also nearly. It is remarkable that the excrescent / appears likewise in the Span. pi. The word agallochum is of Eastern origin . 7. d/urfSa\or. suffix -ier of the agent. ealmast. Gael. prep. al-one. to define. xix. on frequently means in and is here used to translate the Icel. It stands. p. an almond-tree. andlang. Still earlier. For on lofte. ' wood B. 1993. almaundis. + + + + ' ' . A. alms. 364. . or ALMUG. E. long. Grein. O. (Lat.) we find ' ' . where the Vulgate has aloes. 759g. on lude. See Might. a secondary form from A. al one. viii. and is pronounced like the Du. aloe-wood . Der. tiS" Alone is further connected with lonely and time. So. 1. Der. to windward. so that louf at once suggests Du. the reading is on grounde and on lofte. P. de loef afwinnen. 5 (where the Vulgate has amygdalus).' See Long. see A-. i. O. agrounde and aloft A. 4. . ' ' ' ' .] M. alms-house. 387 (later text). a sound. fUjra. Troilus. The M. Servius. the air whence M. luft. E.. count . By analogy with abed. ii. written apart. the Alps p. Chron. (E.] formerly also amende (Brachet) . ant. S.) Chiefly in the phrase 'to cry aloud. ALONE. See further under Luff. almihtig. We generally say 'the Alps. Mr.) desMots Espagnols derives de 1'Arabe. 1 1 almaunder.. a sound. forms involving the sequence of letters -aim-. S. in quibus sunt omnes motus ccelorum certificati a All and One.stands for on. . most of all. Hence to hold aloof came to signify. dropping the final syllable (-). e. C. bk. v. a Span. i.' and sense. holde luven). tone. keep the luff or the wind . but it came to us from is of Scandinavian as well as of Dutch use Dutch more immediately. almighti-ness. the name of a tree see Algum. iii. . i. to pity. hi/id. S. and used by Bums in his Winter Night. the prefix must be on. an almond-tree. the name of the plant. OpusTertium. . T. A.S. (Dutch. endelong. ' ' ' . A. . 154. one . of the nature of nuts. 364. S. the herb aloes. [The al is also frequently that the name was given to a collection of tables shewing the moveomitted.' i. ad. see All. Lat. Fries. ^f may French amande. E. . mandyd. with a great loud. Icel. so that the said place of anchorage lies aloufe. S. Arab.' This suggests a nautical 2. ALMS. and A. in In P. ALP. and all-powerful. a sound. case as in ' ondlinga thes G. Cf.pothe word and hence.. Alpes and Gael. ii.) The rey's Virgil.) Milton has alp. fate. Gk. strictly. and was frequently spelt oon. aground so that aloof is for on loof. ' latter says But surely this anker lyeth too farre aloufe fro thys shyppe. Cf. the steersman can only hold aloof (i. ' . an almond. masc. s/o/. p. the first two letters of the Gk. measure. the air. ALPHABET. of aloes. and used in purgatives. altruist thus in the A. alp. and signifies lit. amygdala.e.' in a more general use nearly all. Chaucer has almost. Our phrase to hold aloof is equivalent to the Du. prep. 'left was he one. loud. ' He is almest ' dead . aumone from O. bk. The phrase is. i\tT. case of the Lat. also Heb. Joshua. (F. the tenor of a thing.) Spelt O. The quotation from Sir T.) 'As for almonds. hlj6o. word.Gk. in the air (the Icel. Georg. prep. 1091. 2nd ed. F. because one kind (the Aquilaria secundaria) yields a bitter secretion. fKetjiuov.) 'Aloe is an hearbe which hath the resemblance of the sea-onion. See Prescott. 244 . See Curtius. Danish holds linen. xi.. (F. 3316. More. Gk. such as abed. ^f The perished. 57. E. ' al himself one wood cites a passage from Roger Bacon.) Shak. (Span. S. keep or remain so) by keeping the head of the ship away. for E. amy'dla. in two syllables still later. and hath neuer a cable to fasten her to it. Gen. adj. to give as a of 'alone' in Grein. H. to gain the luff. Conquest of Peru. ALMIGHTY. aloe-wood. ' . Works. manaha. and mast. ^f Der. F. Spelt aloofe in Suraway. to assign. origin for the phrase.. xii. Ex. S.' or in other words ' Hence it came to mean ' nearly. 235 h. S. Cf. the air. and as many nautical terms are borrowed from that language. but apparently in that of almanac) . Titus And. of Glouc.. too much to windward . almosne. with reference to the snowy tops of such mountains. 1. prefix . governing a kind of fruit. d lopt. i. G. ' . lyd. Gk. with the Lat.18 ALMIGHTY. 474 cited by Curtius. ALPHABET. 1. almost. On the spelling with one /. al' loud sound i.' later text mid mochelere cf. whence the adv. at a distance. determine. mihiig. generally. alotife in Sir T. From the same root. p. alms. whence (as traced by Brachet) the forms amygd'la. The word alms is properly singular hence the expression asked fl' . S. eal-. John. is the only one of these languages which no longer uses loud as a substantive. asleep. rendering of the Peruvian name. afoot. alpaca. alp are connected with Lat. the agallochum.A. a\<pa. Scandinavian. the names of o and ft (a and 6). later amande. The diphthong o signifies the ou in soup. the latter is especially common. Heb. .) by us from Span. Compare also loef houden. (Gk. See Loud. and. E. 27. 32. 620. a disalmoyners by Sir T. ALPACA. before d). eleemosyna see Alms.' lengthwise of. A. along. earlier anlong. not an adjective. G^. a high mountain Irish ailp. and then. More's Works. an almond . . but the spelling with one / is correct. i. mid muchelen lude.' i. own-y).(G. Peruvian. sea-aigreen In also. maniyat. which answers to A. ent-). a name given to a totally different plant. ling with one /. and Wyclif has aloes. Du. amyndla (with excrescent n and next O. dvrl. S. phrase te loef. q. used by Pliny. pi. to keep away from. P. an alms ' . aloe. ALMOND. also compare Icel. E. i. xliii. The A. 44.

alternates. verb. has at for redy [badly spelt all ready in Richardson] as separate words. See ' ALTER. Gk. Group G. 28. separately . afia. E. This is. vary . infatuated. to pile. of massa. 1 a messenger. [So al dene = quite entirely. The usual A. madere. tlisputer. i. of Brunne. another from the notion of speaking alternately. such as murder.. d-. 771. alter-at-ive. amateur. p. us. Mids. alterque.' is common in Mid. c. O. 95. See On. of altercatio. to . where alne is an accus.. We ALTITUDE. AMARANTH. altercari. . altercation. Lat.G. to heap up. ^MAD. Lat. alphabet-ic-al. and Together. vii. F. [t] together. we find alne way.) Works.. [f] ' is shewn by the Skt. pp. Kaaativ. Der. 314. ed. Formed by prefixing M. 2264. P. Morris. for ever.L. uaoativ. ' ' embassadour .] The spelling with one I is correct enough . sect. phrase 'with. to knead. and alter. macerate. an old comparative ending answering to E. Eng. but it is as well to divide the word as a-m. d. p. T. see Already. we find alles way. i. pp. ambassadeiir. altiludo.) M. ed. Altered occurs in Frith's otherwise. (E.T. Chaucer has amkassatrye. exalt. a barley-cake lit. alum. one who writes to dictation. a compound of mercury with another metal. 182. Grein. change. . . to be. Amazon-ian. ALSO. The full form of the word Works. i. also a poultice.. Gk. soft. 3. because the m is. F. ' ALTERCATION. 172. to astound. It occurs frequently near the end of height. -ther. 17. i. have a great many derivatives. and All A. ALTERNATE. alternat-ion. unfading or. ealswd. 79. with suffix -ter (as in u-ler. i. alter-able. p. al thagh.' as in castrensis. Prol. Lat. AMASS. Lat. sing. alum. i. a female warrior. On the spelling with one /. D. AMBASSADOR. This occasional use of weis. aXXot. . fta\ax6i. alterare. The prefix can here = = hardly be other than the intensive A. amat-ive. . shews that Udal (on Luke. as sb. Fick. 288. T. C. ALTOGETHER. amalorius. . xvii. AMAZE. 413 Fick. More.] to die. the prefix is the A. macerare.' that afterwards it came to mean 'a pasty mixture. 1060. [f ] in like manner. i. L. O. case of the sb. to make ^MAR. have produced the second form always. alter. S.S. the stem of alnmen. I die. to love. a dispute. autel). L. after all.' C. plaster. and the verb alterquer. a/adpayTos. (F. sooner than expected. a lover (whence the F. ahimin-. AMAIN. a scribe who writes to dictation. and see below. ii. ed. case masc. . Prol. i) uses 'alreadie looked modern sense . from the O. Curtius. amarantus.) Formerly written nmnse. . (E. has amba^admir. 284. + properly meant 'an emollient. loving. e. . however.. cf. of the same source with alias. but from Lat. was in use in French at an early period. also the name of the second of the same. given by Cotgrave. formed from as-mi by assimilation after which the final -mi was dropped. which ' Cotgrave explains by a mixture. F.] Gk. Scand. (Lat. and explained by to alter. altar e an altar.. Beyond doubt. ^f There seems no good reason for the modern spelling with final -th Milton's forms are From the root mar we right. al. origin. aiter-at-ion. 18. and Mar. Poems. to do by turns. Milton has amatorious. Lat. heap. (F. 222). form is ealne weft. F. outer (mod. The E. Lat. (Gk. altercation. See Altitude.'] Chaucer has amalgaming. alternus. See So. eal swd. AMATORY. suffix -es as an adverbial suffix.) Frequently written so spelt in Wyclif. altercationetn. 118. or-iri. a camp. Allit. or incorporation of quicksilver with other metals. see All. er. gather Cot.' &c. with suffix -na (Schleicher. outer in Mid. eom. -Tfpot. E. See Alter. in the aliere. Cot. . . signifying in or The usual A. u/iaAus. Mandeville's Travels. ii. O. the first pers. 270.T. See Ambrosial. . 217. (E. Letter from Tyndall. A. the correct view. ALWAY. Poems. Al as an adverb. . See Altar. afoot. p. sing. ' find al used alone with the sense although. a kneaded lump. 657 .-Gk. has allswa. to pound. See above. one of a warlike nation of women in Scythi. 352 and amarantine. Lat. fmarot. a dispute. Gk. E. S. Lat. Ormulum. an everlasting flower. 275. . . 99 Chaucer. Lat. alternate." p. on Eccles. alum Roquefort. Gk. another. A s is a conwhere the later Hatton MS. alternat-ive . Rob. Answer to loving. ALWAYS. however. ace. asm/. amare. Lat. English . 148. T. a masse. p. a place for sacrifices. is found in Old Irish. B. amator. see All And see Ready. to alternate (Levins). all strength is. 2. and massam. i.' occurs three times in the Ancren Riwle. a high place. for which I can find no early authority. 407 .. (F. Gk. . . 404 . Gk. in the sense of ' even and though. aiM^uiv. See Manual. ' ' mass ' . This form became successively alne 2. 4653. a house.) Udal. -ly. Worterbuch. Der. of the verb to be. altus. Poems.' as in 'Al telle I nat as now his observances. and taken directly from the Greek. am. hence. amasser.' Lat.) Used by Surrey.L. .. Lat. 655.fa.. belonging to the camp. signifying me. latest a. made of amaranth. alter. I. to change . brawling. -tara. In Hali Meidenhad. ambassade. strength.) As in other words. pres. given by Cotgrave. amaz-ing-ly. Allit. of unknown Der. Gk. . al though Mandeville's Travels. moreover.' to See All. Morris. ' ' . whilst the E. Bramhall (died 1 663) in a work against Hobbes (Todd). . on Math. Shak.Gk. altercand occurs in Rob. C2 . amanuensis. where both words are in the ace.. amat-ive-ness. alumen. phabet. sb. with Grein. aground. xi. (E. and Scand. brabis. jioAa-y/ia. to raise. alter. Der. sing. of Brunne. to knead Curtius. p. French miter Acts. i. quite in the and beth. to be wet Der.) Eikon Basilike amatory is used by Bp. now used in English). Lat. Dem. also the vb. AMATiGAM. Zend areta. as distinct from A. Ducange.. ALTAR. 326) that the Latin ss in the middle of a word answers to Gk. The word amased. where al is an adverb. I am. used by Suetonius. Matt. a mixture. (Lat. Gen. amaraunz is in Allit. ad. TIVOS. p. Skt. high(Fick. am thus retains the a of the VAS. c. To an Absent Friend (R. (F. The pi. p. but with at least equal probability taken directly from the Low Latin. and Main. by hand with suffix -ensis. alum (mod. always. 877. another. Misc. adv. pi. Borrowed from Lat. P. and even coins altern. al way. privative and ftafut. F. F.T. high. Fick. but Roquefort gives altercas. has Amazon. S. morior. d-. p. (E. mortal. F. amaranth. Lat. to wither. It is remarkable that the same form. 183. to the Reader. a maim. 12741. p. Fick. We AMAZON.) O. sing. to make otherwise.' also find the compound form On the rest of the word. (L. Eng. y.Goth. to dispute.' Chaucer. adj. by turns. 21). Skt.-O. L. to dispute. And see Though. (F. alumin-a. ' ' . a dispute altercateur. Amatory is a doublet of Amorous. malagma. a mass. Curtius. S. other. B. just so. Morris. Lat.fo.) [The restriction in sense to a mixture conit is probable that the word taining mercury is perhaps unoriginal = asmi. [t] Alien. but Gower. [Curtius remarks concerning this word (ii.) Chaucer has alway. alternare. Gk. and the common habit of using the gen. [Perhaps through the F. 70. 1 035 alom. and the pronoun ml. C. and explained by . 1. privative and uapaivciv. Gk. . /. alterquie. ' " ^ . an ox. part. v. such as abed. ate. the latter syllable is probably Scandinavian. ^AR. . Rob.-L. completely. dfiafovft. neu-ter). 405. also the name of the of the' Hebrew alphabet ready . F. not on mtegene. Lat. Der. from castra. A. ftaaofiv. also Gk. Der. al thah. other. directly. xxi. first letter 19 Heb. 78.. see Matzner's Altengl. ^f The prefix is English. [Cf. to translate Lat. ereta. L. but ealle maegene. with full power. amatus of the same Lat. compounded of the ^AS. the breast. meaning bewildered. and Amazonian.) Formerly frequently written al so. [#] ii. Either a corruption or an alchemist's anagram of Lat.) Chaucer's Treatise on the Astrolabe. later an. with suffix -tor denoting the agent. Der.) ' ALREADY. signifying ' belonging to. P. Northumbrian am. the breast . 6607.) M. strictly. 1. tracted form of a/so see As. amalgame. to drip cf. (Lat. 270. 19.) Used by Turberville. and alway. C. C. height. Lat. an Gk. sing. Hence also Lat. G.) Used by Chaucer. ealne. 57. mardmi. amalgam- amalgam-at-ion. dleph. 9349. Gk. p. IMemollient. F. ii. alter.' prefixed to the dat. see Maze bimased. 27. i. F. sometimes written al way. Both forms are thus accounted for. amaz-ed-ness. amaz-ed. . to a so that amasser is to put into a mass. . P. so that there is a high It probability that the sb. adverb. II. (Lat. Ancren Riwle. a mollifying poultice or plaster. See All. (E. from pp. ling.) Milton has amarant. . 1827.-Low Lat. altitudo. 20. alphabet-ic.) Qi4b. likewise. used by Vitruvius and others. to soften (put for uaXax-yeiv'). an embassy. to C. on which Schleicher remarks that the form am stands for am-mi.thus to amase is to confound utterly. pres. wholly. Cor. Gk. altus. [t] Milton has alternate. (F. of Glouc. AMANUENSIS. 266. cf. the unfading flower. meaning 'entirely. viii. F. or any soft material.i. L. ii. 180. ' alterer. Der. amaze-ment. amaz-ing. or Rich. high. Of this word Brachet says: 'not found in French before the I4th century. to rise up. reciprocal. letter AMBASSADOR. not the Latin. asleep.) Lat. In O. ^MAK. S. alun).S. See further under Are.) They were said to cut off the right breast in order to use the bow more efficiently. of Melancholy. Lat.) In Burton's Anat. even From al. Gk. ALTHOUGH. . ' .' and at last 'a mixture of a metal with mercury. has the spelling And it occurs much earlier. alttmin-ous t alumin-ium all directly from Lat. 23. c. fiafa. whence E.ALREADY. from the O. an embassy. (Lat. the word was borrowed from the French. ed. AM. due to the final -mi. a mineral salt. 'wholly.. ed. and Way. . q. . and used by Morris. but the spelling has been altered to make it look more like the Latin.vGk. C. 1470 in which case it is not from the Gk. al-. Used by Sir T. ^[ Perhaps fabulous. (E. of v. where both words are in the gen. on. . ^MAR. iii. N. Thus a-m = a(m)m(i) = ammi . p. Also written tmbassatlor. cf. I am. (E. amaranth-ine. ace. tender. Lat.] Low Lat. and the m of the first personal pronoun. Lat. the gen. &c. pa. ALUM. a. and Chaucer has the phrase 'al redy was his answer. A. 30. 348. with the sense of quite.

' The corruption from e to a was due to Spanish influence see above.. to make better Ducange. B. thicket. ad make better. tr. Errors. (Arabic.. which properly represents the F. H. Lat. equally ready to deal with spiritual and temporal business. 208. of ire. viz. a/upi. imboscare. 480.~\ This word is derived from Low Lat. See Amble. mod. H. to go see Ambient. amptii. On am&i-. . Of the adj. b. the word means the fossil amber. firm. b.. s. c. which is really quite a different 1. ii. so be it from adj. verily.) of Inwyt. in AMENABLE. on both sides O. + + + ^MAR. v. I. per-ambulate. The word is (3. 1 5 ambicion by Lydgate. found. Icel. gris is a word of German origin. as used in the p. .) o. 154. support.-L. used to denote a repository for arms. of Brunne. ambulatio. a bookcase. one from Bp. We AMBLE. ambidexter. ambiguitas. See Meliorate. little press any hole. and note 93 on ' the the Goth. mod. they must refer to ambergris. Der. ameliorat-ion. iii. Vulg. suffix -ya) of a/i/Jporos. spelt ambuscado . to go. Arabic. plainly the original sense. a servant. Eng. . Prol. apt. AMBUSH. substantive. a hiding in a wood. abhi (for ambhi).. but the commoner form is emboscada. F. to busshement. Span. y. Rob. to C. G.'] Lat. ambactia has given rise to E. &c. T. ant. AMBIENT. ace. The verb ire is from . a servant . wel ambling. of ambitio. older form GA. Every Man in his Humour. F. and looked upon as convertible with almonry. aman.413. Heb. boscus.-Span section . (Lat. which has -ee for -ade). Scand. pace. -Low Lat. (F.' i. to set in ambush. 4. improve see Cotgrave. When Pliny. a lengthened form (with ambaxaia and ambassiata. going. also the pp. a repository for. and ire. aorist tffijv. embassy. embuissier. Browne. 16. has 'ambidexterous. Browne. cf. imboscare. d/i/3/wffios. the word by Caesar. 8265 and'it goth annumUe'=it goes at an said of a horse. . walking about. enbttssed. it was popularly connected with alms instead of arms. ambl-er. Gk. 3461. C.172. F. Fick. ' . F. Lat. ambiguous-ly also see Ambidextrous. to and Low Lat. 471. The word in the sense of cupboard has a different origin.. A. a perfume . ambul-ance. to divide. Lat. as the ambry in a church was sometimes used as . F. . 640." prefix answers to O. is The word Ar. so be it. Ambicion also occurs in the Ayenbite Story of Thebes. using both hands equally . box contrived in. and bu-lare contains the root ba. is still preserved in G. AMBUSCADE. arma. anda-. given by Cotgrave. and shews that the word is compounded of also to denote the beverage of the gods.. See Embassy. Elyot has ambiguous.. Taylor's Great Exemplar. i. on Dexterous. where d. iii. an ambuscade . See Ambulation. p. nom. Gk. ambassadr-ess. Lat. a movable hospital.-L. v. prefix ana"-. ace.. early use. 210. of ambulare). doubt. and the note. c. and even to E. . but really directly from pt.. and see Gower. formed from ambactia. Palmer's Pers. .G. Furaivall. Cotgrave gives both these forms. G. Low Lat. Elyot. 'amber. Lat. p.' He also uses ambidexters as a plural sb. embuscher. A. signifying ' gra y-' 1 Milton. Der. [The adj. H. dc-. which is so conspicuous in Gk. both sides. which was originally a verb. P. pre-amble. R. b. un. ymb-. a bush.before b) and Low Lat. which is See Arms. -Lat. dp&poaios. Also F. ambuscado. to set in AMBULATIpN. a ambaxiare. pre-amble. [t] a fossil resin . Skt. hoary. (Lat. Goth. The Der. ad. tain. ol ambulare. . about. ambeht. S. ' find fat palfray amblant. amreeta. of adj. pp. 3. used i. ed. S. as applied to one who is Lat. to go round. 2. comp.. ambrie. both. marks that ambry is a corruption of almonry.) Used by Milton. . Der. gris. 13. ambush. ed.' as is clear from the allied Skt. . see his Curse of Kehama. with addition of F. signifying to set in ambush. verily. embe-. 4 The sb. Bhakta is the pp. see Ambush. ^ . q. (F. ambulatory five examples. ambdtt. vi. ' ' only appears in Gothic in composition. vi. Clearly a corruption of O. ii. bhakta. immortal. greis. see Ambidextrous. Rich. mortal. above. ambitio and ambitus retain the short i of the supine ttum of the simple verb. . (F. which come at last to be believed in. a. or against. a going round . to go. wood. meliorare. of emboscar. now obsolete. gris. AMENABLE. ambler. Der. -MS merely .-Lat. esp.. bos. Curtius (ii. (F. to go at a pace between a walk and a trot. amb. AMBROSIA. Beaumont and Fletcher use the word amber 'd in the sense of ' scented' (Custom of the Country. This word is really of Scandinavian See Bush. ambrosi-an. 1 38 1 5 and he calls a lady's horse easy pace. an ambler. and agere.. sonorous. in his tr. C. 2.in A.) In Shakespeare. AMEN. T. armoire . negative prefix. ambLat. of the verb bhaj. fix. and dexter. ambactiare [to relate. 1. the prefix. iv. [Note that Lat. esp. a servant. immortal. Skt. worship. um. or right-handed on Vulg. arms (Burguy). ambient-. emstands for sh. a wall. andbahts. c. to go .(later enl-). In Holland's substance. 14. (L.. ed. This Lat. announce].-Heb. generally shortened to amb. 344. to walk. G. On the y' BA. bois. 1. 74) seems right in taking ambulare as short for amb-bu-lare. [t] AMBIDEXTROUS. adv. ambergris. and Lat. A. gives Formed with F. umbi. except provincially it is spelt aumbrie by Tusser. it is called gris amber. stem of Lat. xxxvii. AMBER. seeking for preferment. The sb. Gk. a'm'rie.S. ante. Gower has embtiisshed. AMELIORATE. ambulal-ory (from ambulatus. and a derivative from observed that the O.) Used in the Vulgate version of Matt. is fully accounted for. and resolved into the prefix which appears as It may be and. Lat. over against. G. cognate and 0poT6t. 187. ambulationem. Gk. and Gothic. for Meas. as in Rob. 4. pp. amb-. ambi. see Ambidextrous. pius. From the same root. to go doubtful. . The F. but this remark only applies to a particular street in Westminster so called. ambiguitalem. ambaxada.' mortal: but Curtius (i. pp. an ambush. 5. Der. food of the gods. S. ambi-. attached.) At first. going about. service. signifying to die. to better. 2. T. F. Span. Skt. 260. embassy.) go. The prefix ambi. cf. which easily passed into arm'rie.. . Popular etymology often effects connections of this sort. a servant. The verb ire is from cf. 'pPpoTus being a corruption of the oldest form ^oprds.is the same negative prefix with loss of v. ambition. used of the canvassing for votes at Rome. 6). Nares reanft'. ambitionem. using both hands. 2. about . e. ambrosi-al. See ^f Thus this curious word Benfey. L. to .oi. armarie became later armaire. ombiht. a/tfipoToi has its exact counterpart in Skt. a chest or cupboard. as well bussement. L. by a misprint. On the prefix fla-o'ifav. or drink of immortality. P. used of the hair . 57 and shewn to be foreign by its ending -ade (unknown Fr. meaning a mission. andufipoTos is the full form of the word which was afterwards ambaclus. 1573. Der. Dryden has ambuscade. 1. sonorus. bahts. amen. to set set in ambush. whence E. esp. iii. lit. 16. F. batits ^BHAG. pt. around. . see ambush in Meadows. and meF. ambiti-oits.' &c.(which becomes ap. A corruption of an older embush or enbush. has enbussemtnt. . And see Agent. iii. see ambi-.before following (3) ' very common term in the Salic Law. It is clearly related to Lat. O. pp. also given . supine ambitum. b. -osus. 698 . is formed with the suffix -ous. doubtpious. Fick. and the sb. ambuscado. with the usual excrescent 6 after TO. emb-. amen. and Answer. i. where amiis the usual shortened form of ami/.= ambi-. placed in ambush. . ambahti. to susto better. col. origin. a walking about. 3.Scand. Sec.) Spelt ambition by Sir T. ameliorer. but uncommon. avri. 5 (Halliwell). a word he frequently uses the adj. in (which becomes im. (F. 1. The O. in-. but is also frequently used to express the Lat.F. iii. AUMBRY. iii (R.to drive. See ambi-. [Ducange only gives the forms gods fern. and appears also in Along. p. Der. with the derivative bhakli. i. ace. O. c. ^f Ambergris is the same word. 17. 506. and seems to have been borrowed directly.H. C. . 187.20 AMBER. 413) rather divides the word as a-ppporos. ed. about and iens. On AMBIGUOUS.) In Milton. . Gk. Lat. handmaid.41. ^f The The fullest form Gk. 242 In all these cases. go round ful. ambling King Alisaunder. ambulare. a servant. the food of the related to the Low Lat. It comes from Span. ambrosial. in Pa-oa.= Lat. (Lat. arms. pres. of yEneid. 1 3. ambigere. Low Lat. ambire.' still preserved in Ital. i. and Zend i.) 10. Base. apppoala. amble.' C. -eux. Southey spells this word amreeta . and thence into ambry. see Curtius. AMBITION. of Gloucester.. from Lat. 0/1171'. not used in classical Latin. ambigu-il-y. 1. ambiguite (printed anbiguite) occurs in the Tale of Beryn. ambaht. to go at an easy Lat. Grein. armita. both sides. usually spelt emboscado. around A. Hence ambry is a doublet of armory and both are to be referred to Low Lat. ^f It is remarkable that.-Gk. from Lat. Another form is armarium. ss as the simple form bussed on the same page. 2. of P. . devotion. Chaucer has Weber. [#] SirT. especially one who is sent on a message used once spelt 0por6s . Lat. Low Lat. .) Spelt amesnable by Spen- . 2. AMBRY. solicit. service. to go. On the prefix. to suffix -ate on which see Abbreviate. canto xxiv. 433. from O. see Ben Jonson. Meas. see Ambidextrous. i. vi. Lat. set in ambush. ambush-menl and see above. I. p. a cupboard.is cognate with Gk. armarie. suffix -tion. Five Hundred Points. armaria. . Gk. iii. to walk. faithful from vb. O. Langtoft. from the^BHAG. imboscare. abhitas. prefix. the right hand. but it meant devoted. pt. (Lat.) The resin is named from its resemblance to ambergris. G. f).) Not in Formed with liorer. 4 . going about. and explains them by a cupboord. in a bush. L. G. appears in the Gothic. both. to walk about. Wheatley. Low Lat. ampaht. ambergris. The Govemour.] Lat. in the corrupted form amt. ad and melior. bk. . driving about. a with E. Richardson. prefix by Cotgrave. 2577. about. (F. (shortened form of ambi-). [t] easy to lead. around. now adopted into English. ambiens. (Span. p. a bondwoman. 23. de Bello Gallico. yet also called amber in early writers. true.y' I. ymbe-. a place of deposit for alms. 1. vi. The Governour. and only given by Ducange with a metaphorical sense. better. Lat. lit. a going. ambiguus. Errors. Latin. pick. to divide.. whence O. P. from nom. devoted.-L. to drive about. attributes the word to Spenser. H. ambiti-ous-ly. gray. c. See Both.) Used by Sir T.) Sir T. 0aiv-(iv. ii. ' . Lat. ambaxiata. iii. Diet. ' . (Gk. ambulatvs. Lat.

O. ' cede contingit. he uses amicableness in the same work. ' And thowgh ye mowe amercy hem.) M. 98. as well the herb as the stone of that name. Boyle. minere. not drunken. 349. word with which mercia can be connected . Lat. Chaucer. Tuscul. The root appears in the Lat. Der. amethystine. 'Amercyn in a corte or lete. to lead from place to Lat. ofamicire. amoenitas. to drive. e.'A/^oii'. to take in error. projections .before a following m.) M. it is prob. adv. to conduct. AMIABLE. In Levins. occurs in Lancelot of the Laik. in the middle of. Vulg. F. vi. a-.F. The error was due to the fact that ' an error in early times. correct. F. to fix a fine . Libyan. AMMUNITION. 316. to late [let] fine. . observe the citation of amercio above. see Ambidextrous for the Lat. 560. an . amicable-ness. to expel. 2.' Shak. In later authors awkwardly used as a sb. The M.e to the name. friendship. amicus. [The corresponding Low Lat. vol. amistied = Span. Pers. pi. p. case of merced. also. However. miscount themselves. minor. amener. to pay in thanks . the form amatiste. though it is used in (3) pity more senses. . Span. and was fanrides. to throw round one. Gk. A. 427. from its supposed virtue in that way. amabilis). p. ii. . (Lat. to diminish. ametlsyst-ine. Mn. pleasantness. compassion. pity. 1. amoenus. from Lat. G. amictus. T. Miscellany. but the usual sense is to thank. E. q. Morris. Cot. merciare. acquit. ' Erinted common F. Gk. also. amiable-ness. Eng. vulgar form. Roquefort. and mendum. merci Latinised. ft.'] For the prefix ambi-. pleasant. contraction of sal ammoniac. and are deceived Holland. from the Old French. amicitatem.) modem word. see Brachet's Hist. who have supposed the F. It is said that sal ammoniac was first obtained near the temple of Jupiter Ammon. P. mid. ed. d/^euwds. 113. 3. cifully likened to the . Low Lat. ad) and F. ama-re.) Amidst is common in Milton. a-midde were formed by the usual loss of final n. 1 1 Low Latin form is amerciare. .Low.' ' to mende my misse. amoenitatem. AMISS.' mulct. amicabilis." other Lat. 3. (2) a fine. A midst is not found in earlier English. Cot. immanitatis in anima. Lat. 999 . F. cognate with Lat. 87. as in whilst. as in abed. in middes. mime. verb. Ducange. ' ' . amend-able. missa. De Ira. See Miss. used. afoot.-O. case of midde. of amicitas. and iacere. with suffix friendly. . to be drunken. by the sacrifice of their people. Taylor. prefix (Lat. meant P. also used of reward in the sense of merces. amend-ment . with the sense of and middan is the dat. amendement. v. 42. with the horns of a ram. v. and ' fre Rom. tr. ' Cicero. loving.' as noted by Ducange.' ' Even in sense of mercy. (Gk. vii. sect. friendship. E. Sec. out. ' aimiable Formed. T. A ' . and the final t is merely excrescent (as often after s).) o. amende. wrongly. v. AMIDST. mercit corresponds to Ital. forms are amiddes. but commonly used to form adverbs. also has the forms amicte and amis (Burguy) the latter of which comes nearest to the English. y.] The O. a dissyllabic word. E. ' according to Roquefort. to y the Cot. as in That he ne doth or saith somtym amis. to free from fault. but formed by analogy with amitie (R. Lat. See Middle. mulct. R. on misse. 798. Schleicher. prop. and conO. 532. amista ship. See Minor. S... Burguy gives the O. friendship. O. F.' and passes into the form a-. but Curtius. col. drive out. 37. Also misse is the dat. amendis. amictus. arnica-re.) [Formed with F. amid.' i. but bor- . Here on is the prep. Virgil's use of people. strong drink. Tale. [t] ^[ The etymology has together. amercen. . . to conduct. around . Errors. 711. . form being ametiste in Cotgrave. misse hence acquired the sense of guilt. AMMONITE. i. mercy be P. L. i. a penalty by way of recompense. Lat. less. lit.) by adding the suffix -i'. cost. e = ex. Amiss stands for M. Lat.) . friendly. 82 . 1570. Formed a kind of fossil shell. pleasantness . cf. ' ' good Latin. (F. and in the Theatrum Chemicum we often meet with sal armeniacum. vii. F. better. formed by analogy with amicability. and the Lat. Lat. p. the F. to fine (Ducange) . . thanks. friendly. sometimes ' to pay. without a-. ed. (E. S. however. E. anfiaviaicov. adopted as a mendicitas from mendicus. 622. Der. 513. cf. part of a massing priest's habit . a-. mercede. afoot. (F. i. is The only merx. Will. sb. privative. Amic-bills.' very nearly. Group G. 9.] Lat.' to repair my error . C. F. repair. E. case. amethystits. xiii. Peacemaker (R. amenitt. s. Lat. s. amistad. and iacere. : Gk. Gk. from e.. -Lat. [t] an alkali.) F. from the F. aimiable. ability and amiability are doublets. to fine. 40. to . See Amiable. place . AMID. amen. Of these. ambi-. . 148. Used by friendly. see Brachet. mis-taka. (Gk. emendare. eiicere. ed. also amends. ' ' AMERCE.] . as in Icel. -1. amender). as will appear. 418 . it acquired also the passing into the sense of fine.. F. d/iieua*. a friend Lat. hire. non sine magna mer. Low Lat. She was so worthy of love. merci). or amice .) 'Came forth. and Scand. a precious stone. amercier. L. P. amiste. Ancren Riwle. 824. also has both forms. mener. amender (mod. to love. amerce-ment. said to be an Egyptian word Herodotus. The form amiddes change of on to a.may become am. Plowman. B. of Plutarch's Morals. E. mead. midde. adj. also loveable. Parv. AMETHYST. Amend. on). ad. to love. 21 View of the State of Ireland (R.' Chaucer. s. recompence. but borrowed from the Icel. Der. Eng. to free from faults. (F. whence on-midde. satisfaction. in error. ' F. suffix -lion. antiquitas from antiquns. Lat. whence E. because it much resembles a closely twisted ram's horn. 6.-L. Ducange. F. abed. ii. fault. with F. From the project. Lat. wrap about. explained by Cotgrave to mean amity. i. merci to be connected with Lat. amongst. i. pains . p. Old. C. L. Will. The fossil is sometimes called by the Lat. Homilies. uses the adj. and so easily In late times. Gower. On the prefix ex. superfluous I. de-mean. amicable.' at the expense of their See..' as in ' . [Formed with suffix -ble as if from French. sal ammoniac. and the 8. aimiable. in his Law Dictionary. trouble. Plowman. malten amendes. The M. minuere. iv. minda. Browne has amenity. a (for amistate). of offence. Armenian salt. b. been confused by Blount. the hom of Ammon. to cast out. amare. spelt amene in a quotation from Lydgate in Halliwell. 143 . Lat. and ntBvuv. misse. O. from the adj. of O. c. by confusion with aimable (Lat. B. on midden . ama-re. Lat. Lat. C. ace. . in A. F. ^f It is of course impossible to derive the old Romance forms from Lat. 151.-L. see Mend. 10510. d-. E. v. Fick. a garment thrown about one. F. Hence O. v. Lat. (mod.) The adj. amiabl-y. misericordia (with which it has no connection whatever). Rose. suffix -able. ' on) has the usual sense of in. . viz. ' amenity. i. spellings as bring or lead unto . AMMONIA. Der. menda has its counterpart in the Skt. AMENDS. threats.) Used by Bacon. it approaches' the sense of fine. pp. 1.] 1. Pricke of Conscience. see Ex-. F. amiable tonge is the tree of life. L. p. rock-salt Dioscoor confusion. 11092. in amice gray.. merchi (mod. amict. Works. Sonn. misse. . pardon. sb. amisted.. away from . to threaten. . 373. middle. friendO. pp. reward. AMICABLE. ser.. ' . Skeat.4mmon. amendes. to fine . to St. . a. to Eminent used in forming adjectives from verbs.] a remedy against drunkenness. 3919. The prefix is the O. Ayenbite of Inwyt. amen-abl-y. sal ammoniacitm. [Note directly from the Latin. perhaps in sense (i) it is so connected but senses (2) and (3) must go See further under Mercy. See Amorous. Lat. minare. and still more so in treatises on alchemy. S. and by other writers. to make friendly. amidde. amercien. AMITY. properly the sign of a gen. is found in the I3th century. mistake. asleep. would seem to be due to corruption Gk. rePalerne. Marke. p. 1226. See same root. thus 'urge not ray amiss. 28.AMEND. a loss also used with the notion of 'error' in composition. iacere. they that think that both the one and the other is (sic) so called because they withstand drunkenness. \ii6v. as in so many other cases . was produced by adding the adverbial suffix -s. minari. Merces. Villiers (R. aniBva-ros. . common in the phr. The O. mercit. not recorded by Ducange. 1 2 : nam istuc nihil dolere. Shak. (Lat. from nom. Comp. Amorous. with suffix -Ha. 'an pilgrim steps. amercia-ment the latter being a Latinised form. a. asleep. 6.) friendly . . to love with suffix -ka. mercedem. as often elsewhere. adj. See Amiable. out out. ' ' .. rock-salt common in old chemical treatises. [For the unusual change from e to a. but really taken directly from Latin. mercier. ' The and Menace. Gk. Grammar. AMICE. ii.-L. and Udal. as a man horns of Jupiter Ammon. 2. a personal defect The remoter origin is unknown . pity. to M. (F. Lat. has (F. to make amends . chase away . e. amenden. amicabl-y. (F. See paration. mercia means (i) traffic.theLibyan Zeus-Ammon. from the older forms whiles. wine cognate with E. &c. to cast. C. And better. and cf. 171. medins. ace. 2938 of Inwyt. P. Ital. Amerciament. See AM KNIT Amorous. (F. not used as or sb.) reparation. stuporis in corpore. p. amercio . friendly whence the O. (E. where on (from A. 420. on midden. taxour . amicus. or sect. ace. [Chaucer speaks of sal armoniac. p. L. reward. ' a robe for pilgrims. amener and amenier. F. amicitia. to amend. AMEND. the middle formed in . amiabil-i-ty. F. Der. (Gk. But properly an adverb. [t] Modern. short for amb-. pleasantness.' Milton. but is merely the F. 231.' &c. e. 791 &c. See above. on middan.) 'As for the amethyst.) . Pref. pleasant. as ad. word should rather have been spelt ammerciare with double m. [Cf. the correct type is the earliest. used by Pliny. Lat.) but the s is ameanable in the Globe edition. The Prompt. ' ' Paleme. He also uses amid. amicabilis. g. Gk. and who have strained their definitions and explanations accordingly. Y. amonges. Thus amicable and amiable are doublets. Lat. Sir T. T." stantly does so in Italian. This. The menda.) Bp. wages punishment also of detriment. case from nom. Der.F.' Chaucer. see Jet. Advice to store for defence. Ayenbite y. friendly. q. connected with Lat. a blemish. mercede suorum. in the middle see examples in Grein. Sir who was represented AMMUNITION. amitie. am-. See Mead. A. name of cornu Ammonis. an amethyst. thanks. Lat. the classical form. F.

e. Walpole Anecd. but this form is probably due to the fact that / is constantly mistaken for c in MSS. c. Browne has amputation. Errors. used by Chaucer. stem of amor. esp. ampins.-L. 204 .' where the later text has 'A prest was in londe. large.) SirT. F. and Lat.' being the very word from which mod. ' ' . ' . Ambidextrous) trees. to Gk. borrowed from Gk. See On. shape. of Glouc. Otaojuu. lit.. Eccl. liamala. p. iv. dvaxpovtopus. d-. ' AN. from the older forms whiles. the last of the three being commonest. article .) Fox and Udal use the obsolete derivative ampliate. (Lat. the commonest form is among. See Mount. 314. to mount up to. on. dv-. (Gk. b. scratch marks allied to E. p.. full on both sides. 4w A AN-. [The adv. such as is often added after s. also to lop or prune . amiddes. . similar Latin). muse. full of love Duamoros. amputat-ion. 216. 158. in prosody. F. rowed from late Latin. mengan. Skt. living a double life. amorosus. . (Gk. See Amphi-. to amount to. case of mons. A. prefix (Lat. un-. I see. round about (on which see AMPUTATE. walls. Der. a-. ' to put to amuse. originally See Grave. and uvdo/mt. F. and that Lat. 31) and gemang (Mark.) Used by Hooker. d^i<l>lfipaxvs. 581. AN. S. which Cotampliation grave explains by full. up. diupi. Gk. ^f Examples gramm-at-ic-al. Gk. Palmer's Pers. around. lit. putare. cf. and Gk. amorem. upon. full of See . prep. . see 'amplifier and amplification in Cotgrave. 30 . (Gk. like a simpleton. Mountain. VIII. 10422 .) o. Diet. A whose great name Is UNIO in the anagram. amphi-theatre. (E. 349. Arab.' Arab. (F. ad montem.) See And. Plowman.' cf. and fipaxvs. which is also used in a diftribntive sense and ypanna. the indef. ^MAPn. ' . an angel. Richardson explains it as a shoulder sword- AMULET. 41. id. which Cotgrave ' explains by forgetfulness of things past. am-are is cognate with Skt. amour. pure. also common. full of love. . i. Gk. i. ampli-tude ampli-fy (F. i. (Gk. amount. [*] Used ~ Explained by Corssen (i. See above. short for amb-. . Cognate with the Skt. to defend with a wall . to love and Lat. F. ambi-. short cognate with Lat. Amonges is formed by adding the usual adverbial suffix -es. and is cognate with E. e. on. Gk.-L. full. in his Masque of Hymen. see Abbreviate. ample. wards ANAESTHETIC. Galenas. q. and Biarpov.) name given. vol. namire. to a mountain where joining a with mont. possibly meaning ' to bind . Lat. ed. Browne. anagramm-at-ic-al-ly. fortification. place for seeing shows. 31. Amongist occurs in Torrent of Portugal.. 3899.. and connected with Lat. prefixes. where pulus=para. O. carried cf. [Ducange gives amnescia. to baptist. a countercharm Cot. amor with Skt. ANAGRAM. Amor ^KAM. iii. pufus. . a talisman. cf. ' i. E. ana-baptist. 403. admunitionem. kamra.\un\<nos. Low Lat. often up . among. Der. himdyil. d/uj>t. See One. 4989. of which the full form is dva. a theatre with seats all round the arena. Polity. Der.) Modern. to engage. a written character. Arsinoe. to grasp. whence E. (F. Gk. amuse-ment . of wrong. beautiful. and Arab. i. ii. A. to stare. amus-ing. am-. Of Arabic origin cf. and suggests y'MU. Miscellany. hence. as in P. Gk. Levit. divert. S. anato cut. used in Thomson's Seasons. love. an amnesty. an-onymous. d/wi/orta. in reckoning. i. Arabic. on both sides. membered. on both sides. on. 345. C. 368. */ <S>kf. an-archy. g. a-. Formed by prefixing the Gk. perception. Lat. v. a mant. assembly. b. Vulg. From Gk. a-symplote.[Properly neuter Irom seeing all round. 497. towards or to a mountain. in the Lat. Chaucer. amb-. Possibly from the kind of tumour. a-sylum.. F. it also occurs in Holland's Plutarch.) if. to a large heap. ad-. ^f Curtius connects this with Gk. atiagramm-at-ist. and the full form onmang.' Pers. see examples in Grein. 28. d^. word. is A. at . 381. (F. 1.) Used by of Painting. cange. an-ecdote. to and mitItalian. Lat. . Hen. L. Cot. in Old Eng. p. amphi-bious. an. article./Esthetics. fortifications. literal sense is . Like most prepositions. formless. Gk. dfivveiv. L. O. AMUSE. and Baptist.. The usual form . up. like j AMNESTY. i. Gk. S. around . dv-. . . iv. to love. transposed to lov "Upas. in the sense of uphill. clean . 10 properly a dative form. see above. from a stem mad. kdma. ascends. esp. 'Apaivorj. belt. like amidst. Gk. P. amor-.e. amputare. to refer to a wrong time. anagram. and Buraet has from Lat. Galen. 8. uiuidus the prefix Amphi-. brief.' Lat. -fpcufxtv. . . suffix -ostis from the stem amor-. stare at Curtius. 203. is occasionally preA. amuser. again. form. Formed by prefixing the Gk. Diet. from Lat. E. Lat.. to stay. ample. sb. as in ana-logy. . Group B. or delay from going forward by discourse. perceptive. both on land and water. charming Benfey.] -Gk.occurs in several words in English. mod. ' AMPHIBRACH. defence. come up to.] Lat. an-. Otherwise Fick. a mountain. kam.22 AMNESTY. e. 5. . C. 'in to love . From Gk. viz. an-omaly. . F. pp. (Gk. (ge)mang. or any other amusements . a-. p. c. See Curtius. p. 296. whilst. amuletum. but properly having the sense of ' one. v. v. Gk. to cut off round about. used as a preposition. dva. nilio. Thus Lat. the forms on gemang (John. 1 29 amonge is also common. Fick. and is the rule in Lat. love (now used in Eng. hand. short. an-odyne. on both sides also. also amus-ive.n Btmyan. 'a thing carried. an-eroid. Zend ana-. forgotten. Der. ampliare. (F. I remember. . (F. 623 . From Gk.in an-eurism. C. ii. c.) Gower has amorous. esp. an oval theatre. a-maranth. I remember. O. ample-ness. S. amare. i. And see Pihan. carus. Browne's Vulg. G. wide. a burthen .) Milton has amus'd. Lat. E. a-. part 3. cf. and O. who transposed his name to Nit hony in a B I [-f] . Der.and Full. word has lost an original ^f initial k. g. 89 it also occurs in the Romaunt of the Rose. where other cognate forms are strict AMPHI-. O. to fortify. T. 83. a substance used to render persons insensible Modem. an anachronism. d/upifiios. full. (Gk. 38. ii. to look. amidst. a pardon of offenders lit. amphi-brach. transposed to angelus. dpitfiSiarpos.) J. cognate with Skt. vol.and Chronic. a porter.) Gk. a forgetting of offences. which is a secondary form from an older cf.' and is formed by Lat. serm. Diet. i. . and amonge by adding the adverbial suffix -e. amplificare) Also ampli-fic-at-ion . see Ambidextrous. in-.in Latin words is not uncommon. ' . Errors. an amulet. See Un-. a-tom. to keep off. A. Earlier. ampl-y. see Vivid. a sword-belt a small Koran suspended round the neck as an amulet Palmer's ' Pers. The usual form is amonges. 62. 169. Der.' F.. me-min-i. 2 1 26 but I suppose it does not occur earlier than near the end of the fourteenth century. Gk. questions. (Gk. F. Gk. anagramme (CotLat. v. i. and Brief.' upward. a. see Curtius. and is frequently so printed. [The change of adm. one hung round the neck (Pliny). breuis. v. . (Gk. is not very old. 1033. amus-ing-ly. properly a genitive form. verb. See Mean. Jof. AMONGST. gaze fixedly. all negative The form an. Morris. v. Used by a charm against evil. (E. Gk. On the suffix -ate. Rob. Sir T. one who baptises again. case of amor. Lat. Formed from Gk. man. hold. Lat. spacious. S. Gk. ANACHRONISM. Lat. no/xpfi. to a foot composed of a short syllable on each side of a long one (o-<j). (F. dear. iii. y. ' 724. afitfu. bk. F. p.) Ben Jonson. amont ' is also common. amputattis.) M. dvaxpovifnv. Vulg. an-. ace. merely a Latinised form of the Gk. 204. moenia.-letter. whence See Muse.) Sir T. and E. to think. . E. Lat. iii.. AMPHITHEATRE. ace.D. Arab. amorous-ness. AN-. 2. often used as the indef. which begins with the words 'An preost wes on leoden. A-. (Gk. See Ana. q. A. to write. AMPLE. cognate to pain. one is derived. (Gk.'] montem is the ace. . love (also the god of love. amorous-ly.) Barrow has amnesty. which stands for camrus. 5. 1806. Lat. letter 6. xxiv. Also F. AMOUNT.. Glossaire des Mots Franjais tire's de 1'Arabe.' prefix. large.] Low Lat. a mixture so that on mang(e) or on gemang(e) meant 'in a crowd. amidst. ANAGRAM. sometimes used in composition in the sense of backand xpf> vost time. (Scand. . amnestic.) Otarpov. 382. i. MAN . violet. Lat. AMPHIBIOUS.' This shews that the loss of before a consonant was taking place about A.). c. 3) also B. life. the same. amulette. on both sides. in iMfwrtiv . sense is ' on both sides. from the same root as the Lat. a change in a word due to transposition of letters. large. loss of initial It has taken place in the English word ape. Formed with the common Lat. a foot in prosody. wonder or gaze at into a dump . negative prefix. 1200.) Gk. am-are stands for cam-are . from the same root as Pure. a-. ii. The - + given. privative. of admunitio defence. A. dva. un-. dva. mcengan. vi. On ANABAPTIST. it originated with a substantive.) The final served before a consonant in Layamon's Brut.' &c. Thus the prefix occur. a theatre. The form amongst. an. F. Der. dva. F. y'MAN. to mix Grein. p. an grave). ad). from Lat. speaks of 1UNO.e. prune. prefix. to mount up to. unreesp. 13. col.) with E. to think. to make to muse or think of. Hera's of anagrams. a forgetfulness. v. iii. privative. muser. Used by Hall. again it has the same form ana in Gothic. The is still commoner . amplifier. amonter. The . i. he hammdl. negative prefix. Irish an-. dvaypaf^na. B. (F. See Mingle. onmang. grave. Lat. Spring. 62. alaOTjTinijs. b. ed. originally spelt moenire. a negative prefix. amoureux. an error in chronology. So also ana-baptism. love.to amm. There seems little doubt that this Lat. see Amphi. here used in the ' sense of double and plot. form amnestia by Howell. ^f . to cleanse. a-chromatic. a-byss. find amuntet. T. anagramma. ANA-. a crowd. preservative. form a- AMORPHOUS. We ' It appears as an. ambi-. amnestia. to augment. AMOROUS. a is ana-.] Gk. diufii. AMONG. Gk. also back. 575) as ambi-pultis. 331. In living both on land and in water. 158. Curtius. charm. coll. L. to cut off round about. amounten. and has assumed an additional final /. . Errors. . Ancren Riwle.

auncestre. account. anarch-ic. strictly. ' ' Perhaps Mahn's suggestion is correct. F. forsake Curtius. a predecessor. 233). or carkass cut up Gk. the reverse of the dactyl. which is rather common. [Curtius. Parv. prop. a thing devoted Gk. made by adding the suffix -ya ( = Gk. p. anacoigne has a poem on The Anatomye of a Lover. Fick. if the do . 2861. . cessour. all parts of the body. The A. Gk.Gk. dactyl. 1. correspondence. (L. dva\vrix6s. p. throughout . vicinity. Works. 3. [The word was oriL. entgegen. tomy. anderia. S. commonly means anatomy has been performed . F. Skt. See uvaripvuv. Gk. ancient-ly.vfiv. i. from Gk.). to be -) the first . analytic-al-ly. 247. anlzutua. a female anker or anchoret] or anLow Lat. ante. a fore-goer. Gk. L. and. analog-ic-al. copulative conjunction. p. before and cedere. 9 ancessour. anarch-ist. (F. ancre). a thing devoted to evil. a hermit. e. put. adj. dvairaifiv. O.) Sir T.-^. in) to the stem of \6y-os. Der. Lat. to rule. we have 'Aundyrnes. 'A aundyre. a commonwealth without a head or govemour . pp. anachorete. Poetaster. before. anker. signifying analogous. ANCHORET. M. cites a Lat. with the same sense. dvdirataTos. note. also. in the Vulgate version of Rom. Herbert's Travels. it was reduplicated by the addition of if so that an if. 125 (ed. you will trust my counsel.) (F. See Alley. a ruler. anathema as used by St. ' ' . conformable). the thunderbolt of Indra. old. Mahn (in Webster) says a word of ^f Remoter origin uncertain. make Gk. analogue. F. 07*05. ness. i. (and Portug. 171. without head or chief. correspondence. 'an ensigne. Der. IB/I. form ancns. Cot. andier(mod. has analogic. The remoter origin does not seem to have been satisfactorily traced.-Gk. end. pauire. anndirne. Hamlet. set. F. remoter origin is obscure but it may be noted that the Low Lat. Langland.] Lat. awndyrn. to abandon. There is. auncien. F. 238. the title of a work written early in the I3th century. Gk. word is modified from the A. 177. adj. Hist. Fick gives PU. 521. 28 . Gk.) is Dyce. Gk.) The former is the better spelling. arh. Latin. a recluse. See Angle. Tome. i. refers to ^DHA. und. perhaps.' Matt. awndyryn. anathemat-ise (from stem dvaSffMT. analog-ise. v. occurrence. a corruption of O. The F. 28. i. to be . i. hence. anatom-ic-al. Gk. to recluse. tobacco.E. 333. cesftis. Curtius. up. also anaanalog-ic-al-ly. back .) if-if. alley. Milton has anarch. and anarchy. iv. ANCHOVY. E. not uncommon after s as in whilst. of the verb andare. 176.-. 160. says what the sun compoundeth. form corresponds with the two last of these. to cut. The M. Gk. a word. mod. rebounding. anChaucer has auncestre. and x^/x'"". +O. antzua. p. also written oBrf. amongst. . ANAP-ffiST.Gk. draxiu/n/Tijj. a hook. room related to x""/" 8 asunder. and used by Wyclif. Low Lat. to go. ' . we have 'Awnderne. enda. cf. or ancer. 988 . Cotgrave gives no related word in French. . . equivalent to Gk. 348. When the force of an grew misty. ancessour.] The form aundyre comes very near to the original French. analyser is comparatively modem. Works. dvaOina. a banner. anarch-ic-al. in order to give the word some sort of sense in English such corruptions are not uncommon. an anchor. A . fire analyseth. undo. (Gk. &c. an anchor. dvapxia. anatom-ise. case of antecessor. [t] a small fish. See Ante-. Lat. Gk. forms are numerous. part. ante. (F. Span. p. closely related to Lat. sc. Errors. Francis-Basque by M. recluse. E. . to bend. ivy.-Gk.. (F. id. with Skt. (Ital. in the Diccionaria Trilingue del padre Manuel de Fabre.) This sense of over against is fairly well preserved in G. (rather differently used. recluse. Borrowed slow. and \iitv. uncus. i. leave Fick. GHA. analogia. dvaO(fM) in Sir T. ende. (2). Gk. dnchua. Gk. beat. dvax<op( iv. P. t. to put. Ful wel shal ich with i.-L. see Shak. F.. lit. anathema. 229. ' . S. old cognate with Ital.' In Wright's Vocabularies. analog-ism. to strike. F. to bend. Der.' ' ' . Mandeville. enseigne. (F. Lat. a hooked iron instrument to hold a ship in its place. Rob. prop for supporting the logs. slowly. and Tiffrjfii. Gk. the sentence. [1"] a predecessor. ancestr-y. form . see Doom. ' is Icelandic use of enda in the sense not only of ' moreover. Gk. because the foot is the reverse of a Gk. suffix -anus from Lat. Sax. Thus Shakespeare's an is nothing but a Scandinavian use of the common word and. C. ed. verb.' i. space.ANALOGY Gk. anch. 'And thou wile my conseil tro. from Biscayan antzua. a-ficvpa. Probably from the same root as E. i. . but it can hardly be separated from the A. resolving. of ratios.' Ben Jonson has analytic. les chenes. according to Curtius (i. See End. ancer-lif.) The M. a bend.' but of the obvious origin of the use of the M. but the same word). (F. a ' bier. upon English soil. analog-ous ANDIRON. to mark you 1. E. the article being ^[ The prefixed as in lierre. e. Gk. want of government in a state. Gk.) ginally from the French. andas. Shak. an the Bible etymological connection with end. a poem with marked Scandinavianisms. of which a more classical form is avarop. esp. Lat.(E. GasF. chor. logue (F. Basque antzua. anchuva.. words analysis and analytic are directly from the Gk. caveare. and dp\6s. from Lat. The form andasium closely corresponds with Span. sometimes spelt anchora. ova. . atitianus. in old a skeleton. from the last are formed analytic-al. of Langtoft. and it has been preserved in this form in a well-known passage ' But and if. in Benfey's Skt. an anatomy. p. dv. apxcv. anti. of course. The copulative conjunction is an easy step.+ O. There are. Most likely the word analytic was borrowed directly from the Gk. Skt. andena. which are clearly related to the Lat. ' ANAPEST. andante. whiles. ' . but a mere corruption of 3. standard-bearer. lit. anatom-ist. G.. the name of a foot in prosody.e. ava\vatt. analog-ist. 4. See Answer. anachoreta. E. ix. siccus. I. e. anarch-ism. cognate. a Vedic form. Lat. aunderne. Lat. dva\oyos. 1665. prob.e. worthy. ancestre. a curse. and. form anchoret. an. ava\o-/ia. antece*sorem. F. Diet. iv. to loosen. anarchic. 'hermit-life' ancra. IV. ANARCHY. unli ^f 1. Lat. speaks of 'sausages.' ' if. and perhaps the F. andena.) Bacon. E. anziano. and the word ancer is no native word. Gk. F. dvapxot. to go. cut open. The M. E. proportion. hd. ancora. A. ' Larramendi. the art of dissection..landier. xGipot. a hook. auncient. no anapests in English. anchoves. In order to differentiate the senses. analogic. M. Max Mu'ller. 93 . of Brunne's tr. ro/ua. musical term. having a crooked arm which is. before. T. standard-bearer. L. Portuguese andas. metre being regulated by accent. . dry.) Only used in reference to prosody. and. F. anachoreta. and ancient stands for ancien. G. Span. dva and Traiav. en. Lectures. Com. to strike.) Formerly written anchove. ANCIENT . moreover ande. dvd. loosening. antzutua. S. 896. ante. also to Skt. thus the final / is excrescent. anchova. ANCHOR. accursed. a hermit. and. uita anachoretica in Beda's Eccl.' ' is of common : ANDANTE. andswarian. from the older O. analys-t . ANCESTOR. . anchor. Oth. An anapest is marked ^ v -.' [It is clear that the ending -iVon is a corruption. anatomia. a Ancren Riwle. Paul. andasium. i. curve. has anThis M.-L. a moderate movement. 48. prefix and. 34 cf.. one who has retired from the world.' Cot. dyicwv. ankrosse [corruption of anltress. 6713. ed. Thus we have in Havelok. applied to a woman's breasts. 23 ANALOGY. back room. P. upon. (F. retire. 2. 473. a fire-dog. S. lit. Der. X""?""! t withdraw. See Loosen. Cot. The more modern the Low Lat. Lat. ante. (F. Gk.) Common from the earliest A. if. or .) 1.v u. and Latin.) anchova. ace. AND. ^ ^ Skelton has auncyently. &VTI. Parv. has the form ancre.is used to translate the Lat. 33.of sb. . a chorite Cot. old. i. a fire-dog. dvariffrifu. hermit. Hy- ANALYSE. a kitchen fire-dog. ^AK. or rather. dini.) I Hen. p. Ducange. not by quantity.] ANK.-H. Browne. . (F. draCot.L. a being avapxos.+ O. even if. 108. which occurs in Burton's Anat. analysis. anapastus. Gk. Burton. E. anceslr-al. is from the French. and in the sense of ' if. an-s-wer and from this sense to its use as a 2. ' ' . hedera). anI find the Basque forms anchda. ANATOMY. . I will do very well by 3. + . i. I lay. dry. our 146. ii. but the spelling has been modified to make it look more like the O. to abandon. i. and a form \ayla. F. anderius. c. fandier. ava^utiv.(occurring in along and answer). ed. forms are numerous. siccus. the dva. strike . to speak.. i. It is properly the pres.' and at p. H. p. dva and rip. Again. analogy. Basque. an adj. which is not so good a form. Du. 'the hermit called an 1827). and others . . ancien (mod. Gk. ii. times. 1827. See Ensign. ^ . 78. v.' in the Diet. p. . a Gk. a dried or pickled fish. resolve. not transmuteth. struck back. Der. anciano. forefather. ANCHORITE. ipoporgium. a statement.) Anatomy. 106. See Cede. ' ' an anarchy. ancient-ness. . Iberian origin. 6. Gk. dva. Der. chua. anchor-age.-L. Formed by Lat.' signifying 'anchovy. 3. Gk. . to strike. [t] to resolve into parts. Gk. P. Havelok. awndyern. iii. off the two meanings of and more readily. ANATHEMA. I find : Seco. Neither is there really meaning anything remarkable in the use of and if as another spelling of an in if. ' ' . and the verb to analyse may easily have been formed directly from the sb. enti. over against (see antita. Ancestor is formed from ancessour by the insertion of excrescent /. In Shak. Fries. S. and in the A. (Span. as anderne. proportionate. 19. to cut up. Here (as above) the t is excrescent.. to pavi. in Spanish. place. See Logic. A ncestre. andedus. the two poles belonging . Lat. \iyttv. i. aundire. and the Gothic prefix and-. apart also to Skt. viz. 2. p. andena (quoted above in the extract from the Prompt. i. ancien). as in tyrant. aplicado a los pechos de la muger. ANDIRON. a bend. it became at last usual to a use drop the final d when the word was used in the sense of if very common in Shakespeare. to strike back or again. ancestr-ess. 8th ed. Der. ancre (mod. leave. Essay on Good. (Gk. ANCIENT (i). I devote. anti. in the phrase the rule of (female) anchorets.' as being a thing on which writers. dissection. 7. and looking into. person . e. over against. B.. xxiv. amonges.+ Icel. to loosen.e. Lat. In the Prompt. a frame or bier on which to carry a from Ital. cf. a section of. Der. driotaphia. 6741. Anatomy of Melancholy. anatomic. (E. i. O. equality up. of Melan. ../ PAW. Gk.) Tyndal proportion. going sb.

viz. neben. crooked. animosus. (F. -Lat. (F. ' .) In Hamlet. Lat. Not ' ' and (KOOTOS. anltel.F. 396 Fick. Ep. the mind . ii. angina. and esp. C. s. animatits. to wash. wet and d5-os. so that on-efen meant originally on prep. of-newe. anker. courage. anisium). and eben. and Swed. p. C. angor. son's Discoveries. a bend. supposed by Corssen to be a weakening of amnus. AN. A. S. VANGH. Catalogue of Engravers. ^[ The Lat. to Lat. angel-ic. Gk. S.. pain. old-woman-like. Der. snu.) . in. and Lat. an. See references in Koch. anisum (or : ' . + ^ ANISE. by confusion with the A. (Gk. pp. 71. G. This is the M. ANK. i. i. is Hoc anisium. curve cf. i. to cover cf. the word Cf. 178. Not in early use. ankel. to flow. anguish. however. See below. adown for A.. . The various forms so persistently retain the stem and. angel. F. E. and denoted rather the heating of metals than the tempering process by gradual cooling. Du. i. (F. kindle. angle (mod. Mark xv. Group E. compunction. i.' and wa' = if he If he here thole anger 'trouble. We may. S. aviaov.) M odem. anxious. . to flow. ANIMADVERT. Lat. Gram. abend. p. 39 whence Lowland Scotch aynd. swim. dry ter. prep. to give life to. Gk.-L. (E. ised) Der. klaauw means claw. 8th edit. a small vat. andar. cept in . an angel. dill. adj. d-. + . in. the sign of a gen. IV. expire. Lat. blow. meaning (i) the bent arm. 'to turn the mind to. See Curtius. Lat. and new is our mod.(E. From the same root of a year orig. v.' See Even.. Gk. aridare. Chaucer. tumour ANEURISM. See Alley. (F. which is from the same root. anefen. mi. given in Richard.(for ambi-). a bier to carry images in a procesa sort of sedan id. G. Der. son's ANKER. angr. and (nasalclosely related to Skt. Lat. dyitv\r]. tyrant. an. Also anclowe.) Used by Walpole. animositatem. + VAGH. has the pi. Gower. animus. &c. the ankle. the Lat. xvii. anus. walk. curve . ants. of animare. vol.' F. to choke. given out. ' ' speaks of short notes in manner of annales . narrowness. beside. ankle. as a term of astrology (Lat. annales.' and the A. breath. anger. to complete the analogy. a bend Skt. to bend. (Lat. animal-ion. yearly. ancient).. anguis.) Chaucer has angles. A. i. 1 2893. Der. animal-ism. a choking. even. the same root as E. . grief.) Mat. -is. A Arabic and Pers. see Animate and Verse. Koch. angul-ar. Here o/is the A. a story in private life. Gk. animomosity. anima. is similarly derived from G. cites a Skt. C. S. Skt.) ' is more passive in its use. vb. and became. lit. the In Wright's Lyric Wycliffite versions have both anese and anete. the same. M. anecdot-al. melt.) corruption of M. mod. Cf. ANK. up and Gk. which occurs in suffix. F. a mounted courier. allied to without liquid mercury . 13. the t is excrescent. 389. an angle. . anecdot-ic-al. animal. E. borrowed from Lat. Old Eng. a messenger . at a later time. i.' . orig. usually spelt anethum (whence Wyclif 's anete). Grein. a keg. stoutness . bathe. Ellis's Specimens. See Anger. angustus. the bent arm. in. Chaucer. 234. ANECDOTE. viz. in which case it was English. H. 320.' or even with. narrow. ' aniHall. uncus. See above. a Latinised form of Gk. to Sir W. a liquid measure of 8 to 10 gallons. ANGUISH. strangle. anguysse. pi. as near to. angel. burn. the final -e being an adverbial suffix. angle). aner. anch. id. perplexity. prejudice. F. lit. (Gk. large. no part of it. Somner. q. (Fick WAR. Rob. angl-er. to breathe. Fries. ANEROID. a + applied to a baromeGk. L. animnl-cule. an angel. p. &c. Gk. . to strangle . Cf. From the same root as the next word. wide. angulus).. Fick. Icel. prep. Lat. engel. angel. i. to cover. sin. 250. ayyapos. ii. Gk. in Ben Jonroots.) Formed as if from aneurisma. 2. . or onefent. which from angulus. poverty. angina. 6. but these endings are probably mere adaptations in the respective languages. which is plainly the same word.. the circuit sing. to strangle. 1661.) 1. s. Gk. . angel-ic-al-ly. Indeed. angere.' from angere. T. (E. ace. step. G. the word ' + + + . ^Elfric's Gloss. Fick. angul-aris. ugly. Spelt anguys in Pricke of Conscience. a strangling. also quinsy. pref. we find anys . as usual. ANNEAL. 2240. to bend. 2. Lat. usually spelt av^6ov. bkli. anende. sect.] In this the Ancren Riwle. ' ANIMOSITY. Der. i. S. Dan.' 'sore vexation. ' .. Skt. (iipvf. anys. and in Icel.' a piece of gossip among friends. how it came to be added. Der. yearly books or chronicles . 6. on. I . Skt. ANNALS. the word ankun. curve. O. sorrow. iron formed. anchala. (L. v'AGH. lit. . in Greek dvffiwvri.. xxiii. animaduertere. vehemence of passion. anecdote. has the The root is the same as shorter form encha. -f. 1731. (2) F. vehemence. cleow seems to point to the same word. breath. a year. C. annal-ist.-L. In very early use. of. a widening. ad. dvcpot. For i. a medicinal herb. that of Gk. enkel. new . and denotes affliction. animus is now used as an Eng. anguise. . 164. as the source. us-anan. Animate. enkel. ankare.-Gk. Fick. to breathe out. a living creature. like an old woman. regret. AN. nasalised form of to choke. compunction. O. viz. oppression. to go. and. a messenger from the gods to men. uru. anise. newly. anentis. the nasalised form of AK. Lat. ardour. form. v. and efen. to breathe.) A. mind. enchila. wide i. and liymbv. to flow. Lat. There is also a Low Swed. i. See Animate. anentis. Serm. privative vrjpo-f. not in Cotgrave. i. ange. T. Poetry. Ancren Riwle. anchla. gives the Aryan form as varu. see Max Miiller. G. angulus.. word. . awe. animat-ed. ANIMATE ^ . Lat. severe suffering. Gk. d/upi.V AK. 2 1 3. animaduersus. I give . to bend. wind. originally. Group F.. (Lat. S. Cf. sitas. as another reading for anonde. ((i) E. as in use at Amsterdam. which appears not only in the Skt. a divine messenger. No certain origin of this word has been given. (vpvvfiv. Letter of Apology. for libri annales. Benfey. Two disto temper by heat. to widen. Eng. A. a fishing-hook. ^ . (F. an angel.) Nearly obsolete. regret. anguise. ANGRY. anch. cognate See Curtius. angle. the name of a flower.as to point to the Span. with suffix -el from a stem anlt-. Skt. censure. beside. annales. 6-y/cos. is marked as being a Greek word. .) &c. (2). applied to metals. ANGER. See Angle. ugly . bnkla). Probably the root is the same as that of anchor.' which had the same meaning. anker. used by Chaucer. anima. T. a circle . anihas.) Mentioned in Bailey's Diet. Dan. from angere. ancle. an- ANEW. Anger.. [f] sion. See Fick. form anjiras. ' ANENT. Cf. ankle. i. dyxa\n. wide.' Gk. See Matzner. Gk. to and uertere.. annual chronicles ' ' ' . 225. 27. geltis. even and. anguish . a breathing creature. the O.' Lat. easily see that the E. Gk. from .] (3. put ' Lat. form. which is from the same root. 279. heat. Cecil. (Dutch. case. Lat. (Gk. to bend. the wind. anent. aytcuv. Gk. ed. being now wrongly placed on e instead of o. near sometimes written on-emn. on-efen. E.-L. equal an equality with.F. an angle. the ankle mod. p. and the true form is one/en or onefen. q. to criticise. 161 but he fails to give a full account of the word. (F. was sometimes spelt nebent. Lat. angel. annales.) In Matt. 227. The word was originally tinct words have here been confused. ^f The cognate G. unpublished . ovf/tos. H. put for aneurysma. aglia. Lat. Perhaps the word is of Oriental origin on the other hand. Fick. S. a comer. to stifle. animosities. sad Gk. + + ANGEL. breath. i. anguish. at the same time. [The Du. as commonly after n (cf. and Port. out. owing to the similarity of form and identity of use. animosite. (2) anything closely enfolding.. the accent in E.Du. (E.. ANK. angr-i-ly. lit. 263. Der. dvfvpvana. G. all from the Lat. to breathe. ANIMAL. T. F. Diet. angr-y. . a brand-iron. F. A. exNorthern English. to give the words a more The word is clearly a diminutive. 365. O. angul-ar-ly. angul-ar-i-ty. so that our word means properly an unpublished story. F. bodily torture also mental torture. ankl-et (ornament for the ancle). v. O. ^ANGH. ^ . dva. 2 3. Eng. ' ANECDOTE. anker signifies both anker and 'anchor. Der. and StSai/u. p. 177. ' ANNEAL. Lat. anim-us. anilis. M. . comes the word above angl-ing. annus. (E. Lat.' suffer here affliction and woe. (Scand. ayxttv. from the same root. headed Notse domini Sti. angustia. v. 5. (Lat. breath. Worterbuch Stratmann. M. Vieyra also Port. anger-y . Swed. so too Swed. andor. awe. Skt. ' . (Lat. ayxfv. ^ SNA. Engl. The confusion was inevitable. the joint between leg and foot. 3517. to surround. anda. 227. We can tell. See Anger. to turn the mind to. not only brondiron but brondyre. ann-alis. by contraction Grein. and Ger. hence. L. anendes. dvfKooros.. A. brand-ism. anise see Cotgrave. p. a hook. but frequently used as an adverbial Anent is a contraction of anefent. to strangle. pi. full of spirit. <|f From the same root we have also anxious. ankle-joint.-L. 938. Der. Cot. angoise. . Steme.) Borrowed from Lat. Serm. avqaov. anguisse. live . . breath. ed. move.) In very early use. to inflame. E. oppress. angoisse. iii. 218. q. ' ' ANGINA. ankare. produced by the dilatation of the coats of an artery. which is an old Persian word. regarding. S. formed obvious etymology. a fishing-hook. meaning leg.) ^ ' . choke. 9. ' ' ANKLE. [The forms anendes. Der. great pain. ii. Dan. am.-Gk.) Used by Hall. In Mid. endue with life. (L. 8. Diet. from with Gk. ^SNU. to bend. around. were made by adding the suffix -es. Ital. an old woman. Edw. Cot. v. Steme. to turn. + ANGLE + + . and even quinsy . Donation. be carried about. col. O. Grafton a relation of events year by year. ANGLE(i). 21. anceria. 26. from nom. from nom.) Lit. Both in Du. in. 6 and the vessel has its name from its rounded shape. ii. oppressed. a nasalised form of y' AK. excitement due to a sense of injury. has anility. Gramm. ofdune. S. okkla (for onklef. From the same root KH-) ANEMONE. also Anchor. pp. av. a-ficvKoi. angina. 37. to strangle. Albani. 230 also angle.. Lat.24 to it. angoisse. of Glouc. but also in Goth. animadvers-ion.) Used by in early use. ANILE. the same. v. p. e. S." . + + + + ' . around. Gk. The ankle is at the bend of the foot. See Curtius. Icel. life. Lectures. angel-ic-al.) Bp. fern. anelen. Hampole's Pricke of Conscience.) It means the 'wind' flower . to breathe. Lat. 2. q. Gk. E. v&ftv. ancleow. i. enklaauw. E. 435. and in Wright's Vocabularies. Lat. ayyfXos.

S. 5. to bind. of annectere. F. like a ring . 22. eld. Der. Eng. Lat. . from nouere *. dimin. See Fick. ed. Hamlet. dxa>!<i//io. Der. adjective. ii. T. Lat. ^f There is yet a third word not unlike these two. Gk. produced by the coalescence of a and o. Lat. 300. but this is directly from Lat. upon. forms are anon. Anelyn or enelyn metalle. and that the O. one other. blackish. 22.(for ambi-).ppa. to announce pp. . Dan. and notare." Wyclif. full form of the neg. F. 77. (F. ' who ANNEX. ANNUAL. 15501. ad ( = an. medicines which. 15. to smear. negative prefix. annotatus. orig. All the forms are also written with initial e. which the fire hath aneled [melted] Lich unto 'slyme. tion. it is said that the Holy Ghost onealde eorthlicen monnan heortan = inflamed earthly men's hearts. Ormulum. Epistle Dedicatory to Serm. and is probably meant in the entry in the ' Prompt. is the pp. a drug relieving pain . Acts. and used by Cicero. sb. oil . to turn. see Oil.before n) and nunciare. linke. On the Creation. en. Lat. p. F. i. enui (mod. annuel.) Hall. ANONYMOUS. . nigellus. See Name. ' at-ed. to annex. but in A. ii. free from pain . Eng. deviation from rule. Unction. p. Der.) Richardson remarks that the verb is very rare. It is clear that anoint was orig. 97. p. 21. upaKos is formed by suffix -aX. has anon. ii. un-. prefix. Prol. E. written together. 339 . F. irregularity. 31. . and o^aAoj. Dunciad. 5. an. of enoindre. nigellare. ova-. anniuersaries occurs in the Ancren Riwle. perhaps formed from the am. to reduce to nothing. seems to me. ' ' used with the sense of ' in . (E. announce-ment and. F. I was sick and tired of. Perhaps from y'NAGH. Gk. E. fire. <fled. ^AL. Latin.S. 3 . (F. thus suggesting the infin.. ad. in O. .ANNEX. to reduce to nothing. (Lat. 1. tawny. L. Der. to put oil upon. 11. with the suggestion that these words may have meant originally ' fiery. anoier. annexus. anniil-et. mintiarc. . by substituting -ous for the Gk. Low Lat. whence tpa. formed by suffix -aris from stem annul. enointen and the true starting-point in Eng. prefix (answering to mod. or may have been merely due to the influence of the very similar native word.) Used by Sir T. ^Eolic E. dvoi/zaXia. i. i. round about. annoyance. refers 08- avwowoi. corresponding to A. in-. to smear. a messenger. The Gk. ad ( = an.) The pp. nota. . on) and oindre. anui. but is now obsolete. 876. 645 . pain. to ( = an. O. to bind. 2. to bum . even . Gk. cognate with cence of a and o. in odio in certain common idiomatic phrases. is the full form of the prefix . anonymously.' See ' . Rob. vi. Grein. a compound verb. stem of oiios. ' Lat. vnus is cognate with E. Fick. (Lat. to eat. p. A. not a thread . (Gk. both meaning to incur hatred. ' 25 C. and see File. . anoi arose from the use of Lat. i. on fin. i. ' ingeniously compares Skt. formed by help of the dimin. often see examples in Grein. uncius. It proves that the 0. take from a patient all sence of pain.before n) . iii.Kov avtiidvvov. adj. A. annunciatus. This is the M. annuntiare. since hilum is.. prefix (see Curtius) . Probably connected with Aryan nak. but was after\nrri to the verb lo-nv. annotat-or. annexer. pp. Lat. anoiance. seems to be nuntius Peile. corresponding to Zend ana-.' i. the word means simply 'to bum" or 'inflame. to the Irish Parl.-L. back. on which see my note. kindle. stem of annus. formed from the O. Der. Chaucer has anoint as a past participle. 1012. for nonentius. ANNIHILATE. versus. Milton has announc'd.. tmh. and so used by Bp. is a special use of the word see P. nieler. and nihil. Isaiah. onnex-ol-ion. in ein).] O. IT It will be observed that the spelling was changed from annuel to annual to bring it nearer to the Latin but the word really came to us through French. Ullus is a contraction none. Der. not any. immediately. (Lat. P. cf. Edw. annihilat-icm. C. inequal Gk. temp. annunciate. 4158. S. . M. ANOTHER. anuien L. 8. Hist. directly from the to. doubtless. anoynt and anoynted. 1. enoint. fol. ^ . (F. and One. anomal-ous.(Lat. Fick. not having received extreme uncThis is from A. ar-usha.. 17 and the more modem annu-it-ant.) Used by Bp. F. given by Cotgrave. abolish. (F. i Either from F. e. 3. . to hurt. dvu/ia^os. annunciat-ion. p. anan. which is congeled. 2nd ed. Chaucer's Boethius. to blacken. Lat. or that Chaucer. Cot. of Christ's Nativity. ANNUNCIATE see Announce. onaelan. speaks of a meteoric stone. Skt. and A.is either the French prefix a. Der. . so that the sb. generally signifying once for all A. onan. and generally accepted. in odio etse and in odio venire. E. Lat. Lat. for anno-. anni-. Cf. 30. uertere. ed. has both annular and annulary (R. Lat. anoint. to annul.) Wyclif has anoyatidist. on) . G. verb anointen or anoynten. as it See Eat. ' ' ANOTHER. ANNULAR. 379. And see One. 4404 . a year. at p. Cotgrave's French Diet. Gen. . anniversarius. . . joint. and Verse. see Romaunt of the Rose. sect. prefix See Annals. to announce pp. and this explains the long o (<u). Other Cassel. anointen. . of annotare. 123. used by Hall. The a is convertible with o in either syllable. apparently a coined word. e.. II . to burn. cacti lateris. give a Lat. shews that ova-. annihilatus. nullus. Lectures. of niger. H. E. of Glouc. Morris. lit. fire . pp. . ANNIVERSARY. a circuit .(Lat. cccviii. a corruption oljilum. like a ring. sect. anelen. a bringer of news. same. (Lat. . a past-participial form. viz. in hatred. 219. to report. according to Corssen. ANNUL. A. occurring in the Glosses of see Brachet and Diez. anoon. O. evenness. to paint in black upon gold or silver. for the dead. ar-una.) In early use. See Same. uneven. and anan. 267. Ancren Riwle. The account in ^f chagrin lit. Low Lat. e. on which see Abbreviate. annul-ment. with a coloure. on. to vex. 1561. The earlier form message. The earliest M.) Formed directly from the Gk. 104." Lat. to enamel . neeler. a thread. 378. i. iii. See Armal. 481 1. anomal. 14 . an anniversary mass yearly. 7 has anelid tyil as a translation of Lat. ANNOTATE. to smear with ointment. See Odium and Noisome. . ova-. and its place to some extent supplied by annoyance and the F. On. annullare.. cognate with Span. yearly formed with suffix -alls from stem annu-. join . c. 818 C. to enamel Thus Palsgrave has ' I aneel a potte of erthe or suche lyke glass. to Tyrwhitt's Chaucer. 1369.from 6/1-. On the Obser. annoy-ance from O. O.' The initial a. to annoy. 41.E. Errors. ennui). anuier. Both forms. Parv. an.. anoier. afupi. i. Vulg. ammlus. anoi. and Lat. and cognate with E.) M. verb. Der. Lat. pp. in Tyndal's Works. speaks of an annyuersarye yerely to be kept. suffix -01. has annihilated.S. A. i. the annual commemoration of an event. Lat. full form of the negative prefix (see Curtius). unanomalia. F.) Ray. sb. C. to make known (F. 96. a contraction from ne ullus. [The sb. to ( = an. 246 which probably stands. and Lat. on). ANODYNE. . F. i. cognate with Gk. occur in the Wycliffite Bible. anoi. . (E. annuller. a name. T. Lat. closely related to E. But in the fifteenth century. p. Der. and ele. p. ANNOY. which was used in the phrase in odio habui. iv. F. just as it is often Gk. in odio. annunciare. 100. or direct from . annulus) we have annul- Diez is quite satisfactory. tobind. of unus. Lat. Bacon. Icel. on. one and the same. a derivative of aelan. ii. to nullify. iv. 12940. 'Hauelok . to make notes upon. to bum. dimin. From the same source (Lat. around. ii. p. F. T. 380 8th ed. Gk. where he speaks of an anniversary memorial. anoy was also in very common use . pp." Z. See Alisaunder. F. substituted for the Lat. and ooun. I had in hatred. Lat.before n) . E. Charles the Great phrases were the Lat. verb anoier was formed from the sb. ennui. je plomme. prep. pp. knit. 500. col. new id. not a whit. &c. annoncer. pp. a derivative of vb.] Curtius. as ' ' .(for annulo-). nual-ly. Earlier. from M. ANON. 1287. Numb. having particular reference to the fixing of colours upon glass by means of heat.before ) . suffix -K/-. 504. . 1734. to knit or bind to. IV. make notes. a treatise of Chaucer's age. see Prompt. vex. and returning yearly. b. p. eldr. Etym. enojo. to anoint. . xvi.~\ Cot.' Thus. iii. trouble . fol. wards lengthened into anointed. Browne. name so that the 01 is due to coalesovvpa. Cot. enoinl. Ayenbite of Inwyt. annus.) ' Cotgrave gives remedes anodins. annularis. common . a drug to allay pain. for unttlus. an. Weber. Taylor. they were written apart.) (with one n. 191. last line. Homilies. vexation.) Lat. ad. ava-.) Richardson quotes a passage containing annulled from The Testament of Love. See Annals. pp. anon. was probably taken from Lat. Swed. Used by Pope. (Lat. bk. ungere. 381. one. annual. R. suffix -us. nihilum. an. annuel. a drug to relieve pain. and ovofm. Nat. 6. See Max Miiller. gives only the ANOMALY. annexed occurs in the Romaunt of the Rose. . of annihilare. the word seraphim is explained to mean 'birninde other anhelend' [better spelt anelend~\ = burning or kindling and again. and alan. [Curtius. Group G. S. ' if it were a gnawing rightly. or more literally. by procuring sleep. ild. tawny .) See Ointment. B i. (L. 1661 (R. See New.' But the spelling anodyne is Latin.. nuncius. lit. Formed with suffix -ate. ad). annualis. S. enuier.) Not in early use. a mark. nameless. Lat. which is contracted from ne (or nee) hilum. S. in one moment (answering ' to M.) ' Fabyan. M. a very similar word was introduced from the French. see Chaucer's Works. at p. anointed. F. to ( = an. old form of one. Grein. (Gk. Fick. to ale. a year . night . Gk. Ducange. from A.' The It is properly an pi. ed. a nominal verb formed from nottos (MONKS). nuntius. Havelok. one. See Note. ANNOUNCE. L. enointed. or other lyke. S. E. VIII. L. which appears in unaneled.-Gk. anFrom the same source is annu-i-ty. ad-. the ai resulting from coalescence of a and o. annunciatus. Foxe uses annotations in his Life of Formed by the suffix Tyndal. andnectere. correctly). Hall. annotat-ion. Old Venetian inodio. 2. to fasten or unite to. nothing. The Lat. Lat. Gk. Plowman's Crede. Lat. orig. a year. has odnihilate. see Alt. a ring ' diminutive of annus. trouble. Testimonies of Authors (R.) Merely the words an and other In Mid. ANOINT.. 27. on which see Abbreviate. adj. anointed. trouble. i. to mark. to burn. enoint. yearly. Parv. ' ANNUNCIATION. [Chaucer has annunciat. onelan. i.before n).' The word was also applied to the enamelling of metal. 55. Hen. black. anoien.S. or directly from the Gk. nameless. on (mod E. anodynus. .

right. v.) Havelok.. also spelt antepcetmltima. an emmet. more in front. antidot-al. (Gk. voice. and pcenultima. the gazelle. made by prea deluge. borrowed from Gk. Chaucer has antem. i.' a human being. Gloss. and antidotus. is ANTICHRIST. dvri<p<uva. Errors. suffix -an. antimonium. cut with anticks. ANTHRACITE. border. (Lat. S. and dfaiyi^oftai. to swear . has anteriour.) to swear in opandswerien. adj. Henry VIII. appearing in mod.) Modem. F. Lat. anta. A coined fixing Lat. the stem of dv6d\<aifi (gen. also to shine. In Sir T. (Gk. Der. ante-cedent. by the ordinary phonetic changes in English. P. last. of Anti-. The Gk. Antem is a contraction from an older form antefn biginneth these antefne begin this anthem. antym. to. Grein. L. Origin unknown. [t] the feelers of insects. ANTIDOTE. 1665. ' ' close to.) ' Several Gk. ANTERIOR. Vulg. i. 1850. pi. and adding the in presence of. antilidt. Oth. + ' ANTEDILUVIAN. short for dirt. &c. .' from. fern.. before. along and answer. to see. 144. the circle in the sphere called the South. see Swear. ante. Der. boundary. neuter. \<ryia. T. as sb. Der. formed from Sioai^u. 310. (Lat. Duke of Milan. 3.in the E. odd . 1 2. before. i ANTIMONY. Henry VI. date before. 4. The word is borrowed directly from Lat. S. ANTHROPOPHAGI. old also spelt anticus. Remoter imitated in the English. is derived from the verb Stpxofuu. e. q.' origin uncertain. lit. ace. the prefix is really . ANTAGONIST. antipathy.' . SOTOS. antefn. prefix is cognate with E. against . logy. antiphona. Der. amet.. i. cfy. O. i. ' . ANTHEM. against and dpxTix6i./Elf. s. (Lat. . ^f Examples of the change of m to n before I occur in Hants as a shortened form of Hamptonshire (see Matzner. dvraytoi'ifotuu. given.) Maropposite to the arctic. and Donation. Lat.-Gk. Skt.26 thouthe al an 1395. ' ' ^ This Gk. I struggle against. . is . word. . at all probable. 4 They seem to have borrowed directly from the Gk. to go also antecedence (with F. antiphona.' Prompt. i. antepenidtima. bright-eyed"] . innocent. See another. pres. to see . ix. of cedere. an adversary. or with anft'ci-works. flowery. dvr'upojvos. 34. southern . to In ant-agonist.) Occurs in words taken from Gk. ANT-. i. v. Q. aadhas.and Christ. taille a antiques. . since Livy uses antid-ea for ant-ea . Nomina Insecto- ANT. antarcticus. ANTICIPATE. p. and-. . and with G. dvSfiv. This is an ill-formed word. before . unros. Skt. ' ' ' . &c. See Ante. 15 . ' old. form is a mere corruption from the Latin. adj. form. an adjective. answer-abl-y. and- an animal. Said to be corrupted from Gk. dvSpanro3. II. ANSWER. amt. (Gk. ante. . antidote. an anthem see Ducange. Gk. the Gk.) Occurs in words taken from Latin. see Richardson. Gram. ant-arctic. the stem of Gk. The form ccmette became. an anthem properly neut. the same (Liddcll and Scott). (Gk. avSpwnos. M. ante-diluvian. Engl. . hence the extension of the name. compar. antique. ante-date. against and Soros. antepenultim-ate. 3 . with the abl.. answer-able. 317. and-. anti. to eat. 9. Gk. autimoti-ial. Gk. cedens. E. Sir T. prefix.'] dvr. cd. dvffeiv. vii. to swear in opposition to .' Lat. sounding in response to the anthem being named from its being sung by choristers alternately. g. wnos. See prosody. and due to confusion between the suffixes -our and -or. See Deluge. (F. southern.) Used by Sir T. to collect. 1115. resembling coals -ITIJS. goose. ANTHER. 38. Formed by prefixing Lat. p. dvriantidotum. as sb. antagonist-ic. Vulg. refers to the Greek Antho- . a dyer in bright colours).. in trials by law. The common word an/elope is a corrupt form of the name avf)o\o<j/ (sic). and capere. A. from Lat. ante. Antilopece. which . andswerian. q. going before. cognate with E. also proximity. dvSpairos. v. Gk. ante. . of which an older form seems to have been anted. antecedent-ly see Ancestor. end.L. boundwith E. Also with Goth. to Lat. of dvriipQji'ov. 3. Herbert's the name of a metal. a medicine given as a remedy. dreo0d<f>at. by Shak. E. ' their follies played In the rich metall as they living were. adj. Lat. prefix. Englished from Low Lat. to sprout. ante. iii. . I John. anticipatus. Vulg. rum use. Der. last syllable but one. anterior.) Modem and scientific. 36 r ' The word Dorcas. hence. Christ. Agony. also . dywv. form [rather. S. fanciful. against the opposite of a climax. cognate with E. 20. a strengthened form of the stem dvtp-. S. More. 6. fern. almost. Browne. (L. Gk. ANTI-. and Climax. Der. 3. q. and a mere doublet of antique. Thus anted would seem to mean ary. andswarian. pt. anta. a flower-gathering. i.) Used Ultimate. against. of adj. b. I struggle. Gk. xxii. Here av6p. (Gk. dv6a\oir-. Der. .. [f] an opponent. date. and as connected with Skt.in G. amette.) Used by Sir T. (?) Travels. case of antecedens. antenna:. ant.' the Lat. a flower a kind of hard coal.S. . from Ktfdv. 25. . 2. prefix. other. Gk. i. anti-. over against and tpavri. Formed by suffix -ate (on which see Abbreviate). An and Other. flower-gathering. Borrowed from Lat. gen.' orig.) Gk.' and hence before. 43. 12. a collection of choice poems. v. prefix and. neut. from Lat. a small insect . before. I give. . In anticipate. 2. pp. collections of poems were so called . as seen in antworten. Benfey.is closely ANTARCTIC. which . to take beforehand. 26. adj. i. dvri. (Lat. given as a remedy . lit. and is rather to be considered as F. adj. 18. diluui-um. adj. the summit of a stamen in a flower. Fick. the eye. and ultimus. more in front. c. southern. end. a man avOpaiiros means having a human face. (Lat. the derivation is from Gk. Gk. Eccl. to speak) from Gk. see Curtius.= dvri. Cyclop. 3. sacrificial food. ANSERINE. herb. If this be ^ ANTENNAE. antym. ANTHOLOGY. stem of and \ty(iv. be bright the latter sense would seem to explain avBpaf in both its uses. M. dvio\6*/ot. properly ' the yard of a literally signifying bright eyes art. &c. ii. 51. 123). ^[ The prefix ant. the last Lat. also to shine (cf. see above <payfii> is from BHAG. ANTEPENTTLTIMA. see And Cede. A. and to be considered as a locative from the Skt. a piece of sacred music. p. (Gk. prevent.) Ben Jonson has antagonMilton has antagonist. (L. See Arctic. English employed by Eustathius to designate an animal of this genus. Cotgrave has anlartike. iv.) Ant is a contraction from A. opponent. amita. ^f Apparently formed from Gk. .' F. p. speaks of gold Wrought with wilde antickes. a man. men-eaters. 6.' A Latinised plural of Gk. to reply to. 6. an. (Lat. see Anti-. which from On. and Xpi<rn5s. Hall. i. goose-like. [The suffix -ent is formed by analogy with Lat. See Ante-. formica).] Lat. adj. a goose. avrl. Anted is to be considered as an ablative form (Curtius. a struggle with Gk. sometimes shortened to antepenult. remedy. 15. Eng. 509. anser. to eat. going. aunt from Lat. i.See Havelok thought quite another thing (Lat. pole. last syllable to take. Lat. antichrist-ion. given by Cotgrave. expressing resemblance. Gk.) In very early Ducange. so that ant and emmet are doublets.). Der. ' as yet been found. arctic.' . ' ANTHROPOLOGY. and Roman name of (W ebster's Diet. and di/riSoros. antidot-ic-al. Lat. . dote. of Beda. b. before. but this is ill spelt. Errors. the great opponent of Christ. Ancren Riwle. devour. ii. Lit. the in but two.) Compounded Lat. charcoal. airri. <emete (Lai. as antidote.and Capable. . p. no doubt. to E. ' Antartique. v. istic. Gk. in opposition to. anteprudent. cannibals. going Works. This A. blooming.) Used ANTICLIMAX. to answer. ANTIC. A. over against . L. q. 254). adj. dv6a\owos). and ' ANTELOPE. ^ . antworten.. and wf/. Curtius. Late Lat. the natural history of man. Skt. Gk. to answer. and tpayffv. (Gk. a carbuncle. av9o3 cognate with Skt. Anthem is a doublet of Antiphon. is cognate with the A . On avBptairos. C. the syllable but two. (F. an. Errors. a man. feminine. cognate with Gk. and suierian. The sense is ' position used. 28. See Fick. from avBpaK-. before . v. dvri (see Anti-) . to see. See Anti. ii. lowe. ANSERINE. pane. Formed by the ending -logy (Gk. of antenna.dvra-foiviarfji. Macb. . word.VT-. v. dvraywviffiiia. S.) Sir T. iii. end. P. before the flood. q. Q. ANTE-. <fdyot. sense of ' ANTEDATE. Faustus. or Antartick Lat. F. used by Eustathius (flor.) Used by Massinger in the ' anticipate . end. dv6o\oyia. Sugformed by suffix gested by Gk. See Anther and Legend. has indeed tius. says coal. the face so that dvrjp. Aryan ^AK. Milton. also in E. anticipare. Browne. an antiGk. (Gk. ante. Hist. F. dvBpcucirrii. cognate from the boundary. &vri. 3. Anti-. (Gk. <WFrom Gk. adj. is and -omos is from Gk. avffo-. Der. is a plural. discourse. Der. ii. northern. a struggle. Antique. man-eating. bhaksh.) Used by Hall. anthropofhag-y. the emmet. as the same word in Gk. avSijpot. ANTECEDENT. to eat cf. Layamon. and cedentem.' ANTIMONY. Cf. circa 1160). avSos. (Lat.Gk. antagonist-ic-al-ly also antagonism. anticipal-ory. half the choir on one side responding to the half on the other side. used to mean near. fem. Parv. pi. (with syllaba understood). antiques. a collection of choice poems. forestall. (E. a trick. See Antique. avrapicrmoi. (Lat. the A. (Gk.' The prefix anti. over against. ca>0pa(.) Used by Shak. p.) Modern and scientific. of which the nom. This word is to be divided avSp-anros. However Curno etymology ofavOpaf.' vicinity. S. to reply to. Lat. us. gen. an antidote. iii. Borrowed from Gk.) Modem and scientific. G^. Gk. antika. before. [Wyatt spells the word The latter is French. Hexaem. [f] to take before the time. old form of ante. (E. 132. before. i. anticipal-ion. c. Browne. a Vedic against. ant-. 518. precious stone. beforehand . it is shortened to ant-. P. cf. sprout. dvSfiv. an anthem Alfred's tr. AvriSorov. a young bud or sprout. last line. Magnetic Lady. Group B. to bloom avSos. speaks of a fountain ingrayled with anticke workes and similarly Spenser.) Used by Spenser. ' ' . . anserin- belonging to a goose. See ante. See Emmet. sail. Gk.) Orig. Not in early use. See Anther. against . c.is for avof-. See Goose. 382.-L. 79. suffix -ence). ' ' allied . Gk. to blossom. X/Mffros. Cotgrave gives. ant-hill. bk.. before.

The book containing the called an antiphoner. anti- phonies. the use of words in Book of the Duchess. any-wise.' Milton. It is plainly the (so-called) O.' I cannot explain the ending -ouiiler. bk. i.) tradiction . Eng. behind. I a setting. and vAfios. 441. . 21. II. ANTITYPE. dvTnrdGtia. This acThe A. admittedly. pt.' B. A. anxiete. I (R. German accounts for the double spelling in F. q. The Swed. or formed directly from Gk. H. and by blacksmiths. . was an anthem. Du.' Edw. antipath-et-ic. P. by assimilation for endi . posticus. which follows the spelling of the Lat. At an earlier period the word was apace. Gk.) Tillotson. for gird. (Gk. e. Sir T. cognate with E. The / stands for d. 2. or at a walk. S. oppress. ii. opposite to. one. avriirovt. bozen. was ' ' ' against . mod. 1 7. verbal adj. b. an-ism. dvrirviros. or endouiller. explained by Lat. dtlftiv. from ein. a return of a chorus. voice. indef. is from Lat. antiqu-at-ed. F. avriitaa. S. 1. an ambiguity in the law.. p. against. 1163. E. antipodes . -us into -ous as in other cases. and F. andwlita. See Sap. opposition. bk. einde. (2) to make to fit . the face. M.and Phrase. Der. case of pars. upon and cudere. uses the sb. ANTIPATHY. prefix and-.) Used by Bp. though occurring in O. a Gk. avri. the roots are different. dvnvofua. Milton. fella (mod. pi. 3. The causal verb. forms are numerous. i. Shak. E. antipathic. may also observe that the double spelling andi and ende in O.' 2. countenance. the lower orifice of the bowels. a kind of stanza. succus or sums. ANTIQUE. ANTISTROPHE. see Cleasby and Vigfusson's Icel. Chaucer's Borrowed directly meaning. avritjtpaaii. before. 180. antiqms. anvil. to raise up pass.ANTINOMIAN. s. also to pasture. form. [*] ' ' . antiphons Group B. it means a foot-pace. of dvritftwov. This is suggested by the fact of the occurrence of the word in all the Scandinavian dialects. You Like spelt anticus. March. riftj/u.. and antiphras-t-ic-al. Gk. article a. which would account for the long a by the loss of s.' In all with Gk. both here and in other passages. /(?//) means (i) to fell. from the base of rvirrftv. Lat. JElf. 3.) Bp. andouiller. . anus. the forehead Molbech's Dansk DialektRietz. ad. are opposite to ours. an anvil. 1827. ' * to tongue and groove work together . A. i. H.. 1 27 ANTINOMIAN. E. to sit Gk. ANTLER. (E. dyx t "'< t strangle. and Qpafav. too. angina.-L. much troubled. Thus an anvil is that upon which iron is worked into bars. Fick. Milton has the pi. to fit. pi. Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce. to choke. sb. Low Lat. 369. . ende. mod.S. one who .-L. antipath-et-ic-al. ' distressed. lit. s. H. Formed from Gk. an anvil. one.' The word is due to the occurrence of the Gk. 228) from the numeral an. to beat. anvelt answers to Icel. ed.. y ' . the causal of fall. di>Ti0ertx6i. from F. i . ii.is remarkably represented in A. a sense opposed to their from Gk. G. against.) In Dryden. viz. dvrirvira (A. Der. The oldest E. incus. old. fas. H. hammer. i. Gk. any one . a word used by Chaucer.' The phrase is borrowed from the F. Der.) Hales. 26. -as <eni). (Lye). Both Fick (i. Thus anntelere stands for aundelere. over against and TI/JTOS. . H. a borrowed word. A. amboss. a word which belongs rather to O. over against . which is from the verb See Anti-.' and partem. Der. 50. p. ii. (F. O. Similarly. A. . ugly. Probably connected with Lat. ANVIL. 479. answering to mod. 12. avri. a verse or arpotprj. Hist. The Lat. but we need not be at a culty. aneualz. amphibious. a pas. (Lat. Gk. cognate with E. + AORTA. to suffer. col. incut. 504) and Curtius (i. (Gk. G. In Wright's Vocabularies. iii. the antique world . fella jdrn is to work iron into bars. properly neut. . The phrase is composed of the E. . before. Lat. anxiete. ace. The Mid. a setting opposite. Modem. speaks of 'type and antitype. I place. Gk. 253. part. meaning. to make rotten. vol. antipod-al. See Anti-. G. [Fick further cites the Lat. . also the use of words in Gk. antithet-ic-al-ly. by masons. See Ante-. the forehead. on-. with the change of pious. who explains the latter as the brow ankler [by corruption of anller]. i. fem. indef. iii.' APARTMENT. formed by suffix -ig greed-y from A.) Shak. H. just as Lat. any from een. has -icus ' See Anti. the Dutch aanbeeld. and trrpotpTj. figure ') in I Pet. ' grave .L. but is simply coined from Gk.) decayed. c. Lat. Works. T. 1976. a feeling against another.-O. (Gk. see Pall. . G. ANXIOUS. 3. denies the obligation of moral law. a separate room.'] dently connect Nomad. an ill. the branch of a stag's horn. also spelt onfilt A. and vlfiftv.. . of Melancholy. to fit a stone ' into a crevice . . -anus. (TIJJTT-OS. Der. <KW'J is in (cf. to APARTMENT. ^f The Du. antiqu-ar-i- ^f Antique is a doublet of antic. S. Eng.. Diet. an anthem . Borrowed directly from Gk. to express by negation. ser. a cona sense opposed to their literal folia means (i) to fall. cf.) It. awe. if we compare it with A. oni. iv. dvn<t>pd(iv. Lat. feet ANTIPODES. 519) is form. <fiiu. old. to fold. juice. antityp-ie-al. Lat. . . T. on . fa-rat. 219. p. Cf. As Lat. aside. y'ANGH. . Lat. lit. pr. distressed. a word of F. sing. 4. antithet-ic. is from Du. avri. he sits. last sect. avri. is ami. formed according to a model. an antipathy. but it is plain that. The suffix -an is adjectival. S. In Chaucer. Holland's tr. See Antic. prefix. ii. sect. avri. singly. anxius. fashion. and explains by apart. from a-if-irfiv. G. men whose Used by joiners. both quse. and iraStlv. aini. the great artery rising up from the left ventricle of the heart. aanbeeld and O. to strike. 55 . 28. Dr. ' Anti-. this is of F. ANTISEPTIC. S. andi. Icel. and all point to an original form which Fick renders by anthja or andja. See suffering against. Mid. avri. anxious. E. (E. the M. to turn. C.Gk. Gk. or lowest branch of a deer's 1. anguish. men with feet Gk. G. euerich aparte to his own doing. avri. from nom. . V. (Gk. Fuller has antipathetical. rotten. speaks of the Antinomian doctrine. given by Cotgrave. from Lat. ace. origin. Homilies. occurring Hunting. (Gk.' and was originally used of horses when proceeding slowly. sect. antiqu-ar-i-an. quotes from the Testament of Love. incus. a contrast. or that on which iron is hammered out. type. of adj. avnarpo^.G. anti. 3. Areopagitica. and that the Teutonic prefix and. Nt. It is also to be remarked that the phrase has widely changed its meaning. (Gk.Lat. and Thesis. to fit. &c. Gk. some one. Somner. antiqu-it-y. Taylor. 'figures') in Heb. beat.fyllan. 65. to rise up. iii.) Rich. to fall out fitly. V. though the prefix is the same in all three cases. is tenne. on. 9. ^34. a part. any-thing. iii. say which from ^BHA. we find anvelt. Grammar. Group F. eenig. eni. (Gk. 57. Gk. as andouiller and endouiller . Gk.. G. antique. the forehead . gives.form teauntein Twety's treatise on in Reliquiae Antilere. Gk. G. Der. an. In the Danish dialects it occurs as and. ANTIPHRASIS. pi. to sit. 442. to speak. Taylor. 185. an anvil (Graff. APACE. before see Curtius. Skt. grctd-ig. Glos. a sense to some extent preserved in the M. on.) The indefinite form of one. one. and from A. ' from the verb arpttytir. i. valdan. Type. in. writings. aneualz are sometimes carelessly given as cognate words with E. antics. i.) Borrowed from Lat.) In viii. after. oppressed. at a great pace. S. 151. avrirvnov (A. an anvil.) Marlow has 'gallop 1. anfilte. a turning . upon and beelden. ed. E. sc. dvrtrvTTov is the neut. (F. g. clot for clod. and Der. and the pi. it means especially used as a workman's term. ' from Latin. v. of Pliny. H. 129. dvrlirooa. (F. See Anti. to fell. to 2. for the variation in the second vowel. L. over against and Oiati. adj. suit. of adj. lit. avri. Antiphon is a doublet of anthem. 5T The manner The Icel. (F. See Pace. . against . 151. See One. Skt. (probably) from O. antitket-ic-al. must have been taken directly explained by ' . The O. b. ani. antiqu-ate. and [The anxietie but the adj. I speak. ii. iii. The Icel. cenig. law. (Hybrid E. antlitz. the forehead. ANTITHESIS. Worthies of Lincoln' Either from F. a passage concerning the five sundrie wittes. and pattern. pronoun . The word antinomic. also ante-.) Used by Bacon. a blow. 63. counteracting putrefaction. Nat. by assimilexicon. Dissuasive from Popery. answering to a preceding or strophe. to speak Curtius. has anxyete. (Lat. + of^AGH. foot. as in other words . against. C. anxious-ness also anxi-e-ty. More. in which the sense arose is clearly preserved in Icelandic. to beat. See Anti-. angere. See Antistanza. sap Curtius. anxietatem. is not from Gk. G. written as two words. nasalised form to choke. pi. and several other examples given by Matzner. strike down. lation for ande. H. i. And further.) Gk. ' . we may confisense of ' hair on the forehead. as it represents a Gk. anxious-ly. one. barbarous. and even quinsy see these words. over against (see Anti-) and tyavi\. Low G. ed. was probably taken from F. onfilt is counts. E. a final d or t having dropped off. The same change took place in the word/eW itself. pace.S. We ANUS. Of the Real Presence. From the same root we have anger. 65 . also a model. c. ANTIPHON. ix. The mod. antiqu-ar-y. antiphona. an opposition.) In Burton.formed word.] and Strophe. 24. fella. avr'ujxavoi. and formed with suffix is formed from from post.) Like most terms of the chase. dvritpojva.) Borrowed directly from Gk. and E. to deal out. and Pathos. ATM . 472) give the derivation from the ^AS. &c. from Gk. contrary . is the entry 'an/eld. a diffihead. cognate over against.' fyllan.. a . a foot. sounding in response to the one half-choir answering the other in alternate verses. these words with the Low G. ante. upon and M. and the M. dtlptaOai. G. explained as antipathy by Cotshire.. Cot. p. an iron block on which smiths hammer their work into shape. placing. S. hence. Anat. fallen. cited by ' . doprij.-Gk.and ' foot. srirt of which forms are given by Cotgrave. i.) Anvil is for anvild or anvilt. For the root of anvil. . ii. i. contrary. with the 2. the aorta. avri. that which answers to the type. fold up. This sb. einiger. aan. ' j a which Cotgrave .Ital. 12. loss for the source of the more material part of the word. See Part. often written an-. 388 And forth she walketh esily a pas. dvr'i. F. (L. as in Chaucer. . as. The remoter origin of the word is. upon and O. irovs. . over against. 1 709. (Gk. anticus. (2) to fall together. opposite to us. Der. is from G. 3. origin. andfyllan. [#] In Kersey's Diet. ' (Gk. Low German. alone. rather than a sing. strangle. + . ' : ' APART. i. See this verb discussed in Curtius. Curtius.

off. APH. so shortened to apothegm. things hidden.) keeping bees. Gk. Thus the Gk. also spelt poplexia . a place In rather early use. rather than from the Gk. very much later.) M. entitled. apophthegm. dirdfltia. Gk. ii. apis. 96 1 aperiens.) book of the Bible. . APOTHECARY. part. diro. apvirrtiv. P. of apiarius. i. dir6<p8cffui. duoxpinrrnv. E. as given by Cotgrave. diro.. 3. Hist. Ancren Riwle. a boundary. F. . clupeus. E. (Gk. apart. apostasie. spelling is incorrect. Lat. APOSTACY. 'Airoarpotpri also signifies a figure in rhetoric. . see below. Gk. [Perhaps mediately. literally. (E. which appears also in geography.. Gk. 93 2 a. diroordTiji. I placed myself.28 tr. Curtius. JE[f. Homilies.before an aspirate. Der. [t] and Kowrtiv. . ' speaks of the booke that is called mine apology. Der. as prep. Plowman. (Gk. Gk. summit." hidden. of and of.. a cutting off of a letter or syllable at the end of a word.) Gk. diroffrpotpos.) The sb. The earlier writers use apostel.S. diro. p. id. .' Cot. used by St. ^ . APHELION. ii. Der. of. A.. called an apostrophe. pt. to bum. apath-et-ic. Alisaunder. diroor/Kxpi. form). ed. Gk. and in composition with verbs. from (dip. a revelation. diro. E.) A grammatical term.. stall. story. APIECE. A one sent to preach the gospel especially applied to Gk. of Melancholy. 248. aperient-.] Gk. The masc. Der. A.. APOCOPE. and ardats. amare. .is the comwritten a-piece.) other [bookes] folowing. .) Used by Ben Jonson. fore an aspirate).' Gk. Aphorisme. 123. diro<TTi\\(iv. the E. apex. the usual Lat. but borrowed from Skt. djro (see Apo-) and <p0tYfo^<". i. away (see Apo-) is . of or belonging to bees. APOPHTHEGM. the earth. M. later apostat. x. Rom. from aperlurus.Gk. a monkey. apolog-et-ic \iyav. Capon. . to send away. form apostata occurs even in A. ^f The myself. cf. APERIENT. i. The a parte. to make a clear and loud sound . APATHY. Lat. apoplec-t-ic. dirooraoia. dxpaipfau. Fick.. 497. diro and fffTTjv. .. Low F. Rev. 328. a purgative. it appears also in aph-teresis. Der. one who renounces his belief. before an aspirate) Gk. 2. (Low keeper of a store-house or repository. abs. apostate. prefix. shine.v. to cover. see Curtius. used by Wyclif. move rapidly to and fro. Gk. the Heb. away from. spengiu. S. wrote a collection of apophthegms. stand . a terse Gk. the taking away of a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word. 2. certain books of the Old Testament. Apo-) + + See Crypt. and tufiiv. prefix. and ir\fiaanv. V . Lat. defence. i. dnwniAu^ii. a kind of monkey.. (Gk. off. ' an uncovering. 'one Gk. Rev. i. to burn ^f Since diro ought to become dip. I cry out. cabin. 1827. and ' Gk. through the French. to strike. insensibility. 19. Jerome. sc. dir6 (see Apo-) and . 233. apiarius means 'a keeper of bees. calls the mark an apostrophus. 35. 675.Works. apologet-ic-al. a story. lypsis. 295.. APHORISM. And see below. Eng. apostol-ic-al. oppartomento. viz.. Cf. bee is hardly tenable the (old) Skt. (Gk. away (see See Pathos. Gk. as in posteles. (Gk. a speech made in one's ser. to withdraw apart. See also apostol-ic. of dw6xpv<pos. with the usual spelt apartare. separation Florio. aphoris-t-ic-al-ly. off (cognate with E.. a bee. in which the orator turns away from the rest to address one only. apis is imbi. SPANG APOPLEXY. H. for convenience.) In Holland's Plutarch.. an ape (i Kings. as in P. to turn. to open. a short pithy senCot. vi. has the form poplexye . Origin uncertain. things hidden. Drawn. brief saying. a-sleep. ap-ish-ly. i. Der. 62. \t-/ftv. . ltal. (F. . a sudden deprivation of motion by a shock to the Gk. fut. ttsh. from. to cripple by stupor. to hide..+ G. Gk. forth. aperture. stem of opening. from. to hide away. aXu/3?j. sect. prefix. 170. 852. p. prefix. (Gk. APEX. ab. apa. Der. theChalde. not remarkable in a word which must have had far to travel it is commonly supposed that the same loss has taken place in the case of Skt.+ O. apolog-ist . ap(h)-helion. of aperire. from Skt. APOSTATE. . fable. utter. See above. source. to send. mon E. the sun. appartement. a standing. which Cotgrave explains by ' a pretty or significant fable or tale. Curtius discusses jj\io. short for an. pi. lit. E. And see above. to take away. Gk. i. Prol. with abl.' Low Lat. answers to the latter. Wright's Voca- arpeipfiv. mark off. prefix . i. Lat. A. . diro. a deserter. ' .) WycliPs Works. Cf. 427. y'SKAP. defence). E. a turning away. 109. a hut. T.+ Gk. a desertion of one's principles or diroirAijfi'o.a/>i'. and Gk. Gk. 85. see the latter in Ducange. to define. also APOCRYPHA. . apoplexia. neg. diro\oyla. Gk. Gk.+ Swed. . q. and explained 'an apostata. Anat. ab. Irish and Gael. .S. apostasia . Der. and short for dm!. by neut.' Gk. apostolus. (F. Skt. a terse saying. aap. Diet. kapi stands for kampi. Glos.Gk. Der.) F. description of a Flamen.. a APOLOGY. Lat. immediately. apostate. to tremble. diro. APOLOGUE. lit. ii. and off. (Lat. O. i. p. borrowed from Gk. Fick.] *a6iiv. (F. ' tence. apothecarius. fable.' M. Lat.Du. (Gk. from. q. who is sent away. apotecarhn.. excuse. 1539. apoplexy. off (dipand bpifav. Gk. the mark apostrophe. cry aloud. send connected with E. See Plague. ap-ish. see above. diroVroAoj. to uncover. d-. a bee. Ducange. hew. aposlroph-ise. from. (Lat. a definition. from. See Horizon.' Bible. diro is cognate with E. Low Lat. Plowman.' Used by Bacon. p. diro. Pref. top.) Chaucer. or dumb things. are fained to speak. Gram. see Stand. L. Ital. appoint. . which in former times was often used with the sense of in. in order to avoid tth. c. dirotpSff^o^uu I speak out my mind plainly. apathy. i. See Apo-. apologia. apostolus. C. But this was not adopted. APO-. Taylor. Made up from Gk. which are called apocripha (because they were wont to be reade. ii. kapi.NominaFerarum. apiarium. like his potecarie for apothecary. form of on. a gnat.53RESIS. Weber. 151. From same to complete. dipcuptw. Gothic af. APATHY. See Of. 3. to 187. E. (Apo-) and are M. Matt. Lat.S. (Gk. urere. 821 Curtius. (L. Gk. &c. 8th ed. wherein bruit beasts. the a seller of drugs. Gk. and indeed line of conduct. diro and See Apo. to speak. apa. a-bed. (Lat. ' APIARY. moon's orbit furthest from the earth. because we object to double h cf. OTTO. + + + + + + aph-orism. eighth. Lat. larijiu. to divide. he compares Lith. of the same word. a thing uttered also. APOSTLE. diroKojTTj. pres. b. I. (Gk. Nat. with prefix a = 06. and APOGEE. diroAoyos. a misspelling for eight-th. i. ap. x. of Virgil. vol. id. fit for a . Gk. &c. apocryph-al. 'an apostasie. near the beginning of The Nun's system. . which is perhaps allied to Lat. sometimes shortened to pothecarie or potecarie. Itoph. a place for bees. Low Lat. iv. apotecarie. I placed Der. to make a loud clear sound. Gk. from (see Apo-) . apparently.) Bacon is . apocaGk. in a separate share. dw6 (see Apo-). which are merely different spellings. from the same * Lit. a standing away from. . Gk. vibrate.. the M. to Apocrypha. word for bee is bha see Bothlingk and Roth's Skt. to love. dno\oyi]TiKot. apolog-ise. apathies. dipoptapis. clypeus. Gk.) from Lat.) (L. Gk. . . we have the pi. Gk. Lit. want of feeling. apostata (also a common form in English). name given to the last (Gk. 4344.+ Icel. I place. Skt. apa. not openly and in common. tamp. hew.' Cf. Fick. apostat-ise.) Aphorismes is in Burton. ap-ish-ness. a mark showing that a word is contracted also an address to the dead or absent. x. dw6. [f] Gk.) Scientific. JEn. is off. /rijiros. APOSTASY. prep. 261. KAP. the summit. a appartare. iv. aphoris-tdipoptfeiy.iv. James's Entertainment. apohg-et-ic-al-ly. APH-. apertura. off (see Apo-) . 2. . . to suffer. as compared with Lat. a stroke. Shak. ^f The suggestion that Lat. form was apostol. 51. Off. The initial a was often dropped in M. Shak. See Piece. apostol-ic-al-ly. 154. aposlrop/ia. diroirAijfffftii'. The A. Stall. More. cognate with E. M. tarrrv. Referred by Corssen to ^PAR. 160. I place. aphoris-t-ic. is not a Semitic word. a taking away. ape. the point in the geometry. Lat. see Sweet's A. adv. 807. a shield . 104. to take. and is often spelt apostata (the Low Lat.-Gk. xi. Gk. an aphorisme or generall rule in physick Gk. i. with abl. of. L. mark out a boundary. or from all present to address the absent. ed. an apostle. Skt. The Skt. and for suffix -y for -turn. but as it were in secrete and aparte) are neyther founde in the Hebrue nor in ' ii. see Curtius. root.G. (Hybrid . set . away. ' . Gk. Gk. Lat. apa. to set. and yfj. B. Matt. a defection. off. G. Reader. from. E. a defence. to bum. Priest's Tale. APOSTROPHE.. ^f Since OTTO becomes dip. to cut.' Lat. -f. . dir<! (see STAL. and should have been aphhelion. whence E. despatch. Formed. (Gk. ic-al. p. See Curtius. as in O. 72. a definition. words from the same root as E.) Sir T.' [He probably Englished it from the Lat. F. Used by Bp. Ital. Spot. Lat.) Often Here a. Engl. affe. The word sometimes Gk. the point in a planet's orbit furthest from the sun. apocalips. apo-calypse. apostate occurs in the Ayenbite of Inwyt. eniris. and a cutting v. form L. tarr/pi. revolt.) Scientific. APOTHECARY.' Gk. cover . to vibrate Fick. diroaAt!irrK. These are Latinised forms. apologue. in Massinger's Virgin Martyr. I. directly from the Gk.S. apostle-ship apostol-ale. (Gk. neut. and F. The word is to be divided ap-helion. Sic. Group C. APE. Lectures. geology. King Mere Latin. apocalyp-t-ic-al. apostate. Max Miiller notes that tarn. . derives it from ^US.' Gk. 1. Zend apa. dir-. Merry Wives. cut. i. 117. (Low L. he seems to use it as if it were a new word in English. a later form of QTTO' araan. APOTHEGM. to speak see Logic. apocope. I (Vulgate version). Gk. B. Chaucer. off.) Ben Jonson. Used by Swift (R. Der. a-fool. off (see Apo-) i. Thus a-piece stands for on piece. from and <jAio. tale.before the following aspirate.) Borrowed directly from Gk. Wyclif has apostle. cell.and Logic. from Lat. the earliest disciples of Christ. p. of aperire. ^f The loss of the initial It is -j. See Strophe.) ' . saying.beRoot uncertain. dir6npv<pa.) The word signifies. APOCALYPSE. i. The word means suffix -y. 22). of) and /taXvirritv. set . Gk. Referred by Fick to */ or y' SPAG. apocalyp-t-ic.

also spelt adpellare . like. belong to. 2. appurten-ant. L. ace. upon. to fix the mind on . pareil. 8116. apel.-L. apply to. ii. The distinction between pall and pallid will best appear by consulting the etymologies of those words. and (from Lat. 73. ' Lat.] p. 192. The latter is more likely.E. C. apaisen. i. .) Quotations (without referand Garth occur in Todd's Johnson. after all.). per.F. F.. F. appellare) appell-ant. p. lit. to join to. And Gower. (La*-) p. Lat. i. or child's part . apparel. to nourish. Avon. See Pantry. to hang. . 265. pr.-L. see Appeal. that tresore appendelh.before p. p. appetyt. E.E. to strike. . to portion out. sb. to ( = ap. applica- + + apfel. appellere. pall. ii. pp. (. to put like things together with like. appoint-ment . to dress. Gk.) . to pacify. Skt. appeal. applico. Miscellany. applyen. adpellere. Der. APPLE.. p. a pais. is M. 8. flying upon. A. and (from Lat. 785 . (F. 203. share. However. appli-able. pend-age (F. hang on to. in popular etymology. ace. to (which becomes ap. an appetite.' to ' weaken. aval. to and pacem. twine together.-L. apportion. appointen. F. dress. sense of flood. 35.before p) to the F. to mark by a prick. xii. y. [&. Shopman's Tale . ' ' ' APOTHEOSIS. ball.before p) . deification. in Gower. clap. seek APPERTAIN. APPOSITE. a portion. .' and flcds. ad). appesen. See Point. to pertain.) The apple of the eye M. arrange. pane/are. + + a/a/. with the orig. the fruit of the apple-tree. ad. appli-ance. appet-ise Milton has appet-ence. xvi. amnis. to be somewhat the same. from O. the form taken by ao". 7.' [Mod. 3. 341. Gk.) Of Repentance. ' in old medieval documents hoc sunt pariailas cosas. appel. to depend on. with the orig. apalir is neuter (see Roquefort). to) panem. i. says: 'whan it is night. M. used as a diminutive. suffix -age (Lat. i.before pair. to plait. Fick. xi. to a peace. 122-130. E. counties. similar . appeal. I deify lit. Gk. given by Cotgrave. to prefer a request to.F. apportionem. min hede appallelh. prefix Lat. (E. Brachet. ad. Origin of Mankind.a/on. pp. appanagium are merely Latinised from the French. iv. . gear. ofpungere. to hold. has also the sb. a portion. Gk. to apeler. ad. to plait . ( to clothe. belongs. B. lay together. apparere) appar-ent. appell-ate. apurtenaunse. This Fick to be a little ball. (F. to produce. fruit of trees . Ducange. gen. epli. E. &c. c. L. L. a. Merry Wives. C. to appear. 272. Der. of met. parail. APPLY. 'Applyyn. P. Lithuanian obolys.E. bularies. appel. from its round shape. bring to a peace. F. 291. upon . Used by Bp. APPLAUD. sense. 148. Cot. to prepare. who arranges Used by all under the European form ABALA. pertinere.have attempted a connection between apple and Avon. Formed by prefixing F. Apo-) . The Lat.) ' The M.before p. to Lat. to and E. G. O. + Irish + + abhal. to drive. to fly to. irt'r-o/jai. A. settle. append-ix (Lat. applaudere means 'to clap the hands together. + W. or directly . appel. or kinsman. O. xxxii. appelen. A. C.. preparation. See Impel. Gk. (F. -el. applaudir. ' belong to. ace. The M. 53. to connects with Lat. F. Grein. on which difficult word see . pointen .' F. occurs in Rob. oppono . partenir. loss of energy. to. fruit of trees.before p) and parare.) ' Gower.L. Lat. ' . Lat. ad. (Hybrid . pat. VPLAK. (F. applause. i. appetit. form of Lat. brought.e.' E. evidently from Lat. to become visible. appear.poinle). rush swiftly. make ready. pimctus. APPETITE. Taylor. sickly.' Lat. l^a. F. i. Der. p. a secondary or intensive fold. bread.) to call upon. fly. Myst. 3. incline towards. . A. iii. lit. deal See Portion. form of Lat. I gave. F. ix. It is evident that the endHale. to add afterwards.before p) . used of lands set L. par. F. appareil . the usual spelling of Lat. Der. from Lat. S. mod. Lat. appell-at-ive. F. Gael. appartenir). b. Prompt. and tenere. iii. <S . also spelt plodere (whence E. to fall. O. provision. not from F. appeas-able. a river (E. of panis. See Prepare. aplier. and O. to . Boethius. 2195. O. . apart as a provision for younger sons. . 3390 O. Cov. Cf. Cf. weak. ii. Lat. appetere. whan his name appalled is for age. Group B.APOTHEGM. Group G.before p). in imitation of the Lat.-L. aparail. apparatus. apaiser. appar-enl-ne*s t apparaunt = heir apparent. Swed. vbhall. O. eye-ball. I suppose [The sb.) M. (Gk. iii. which in feudal law meant any pension or alimentation Brachet. into. APPANAGE. bread. Low Lat. and is lit. ambhas.and -al-.) Either from F. ofet. to pertain to. See Pertain.. daughter. Du. Ducange. iii. Dan. spelt appell in the Ormulum. F.-L. ad Lat. verb apposen was used ' to examine by questions . ad) . T. (Deut. apparel. parail. appertemen.(which in later times was written ap.1. = O. ing -ala is no more than a suffix. of apparare. appallen is ' ' make transitive. apanage. prefix (Lat. to a peace. Der. aperteaen . F.) M. aparel.' and that European 06.' Formed from E. (F. y. ' in the special sense of to put questions to. 366. whilst M. apartenance). Peer. Chaucer.G. attach turn or direct towards. sense of ' swelling . H. found apple and A. W. able.' Knight's Tale. portion. 13. appar-it-or. &c. desire. 681. water . fall pen. O. a. (Lat. ' . aparoir.' where he uses it. come forth visibly. of portio. (F. set aside as a God. sense to . We should expect the sense preparation. O. Welsh pall. B. Roquefort. ao"-.F. Mandeville's Travels. APPEND. pendere. produce Fick. S. forms apanagium. apalir. equip. apointed in the newe mone Low Lat. I fly. or countries assigned by the king unto his younger sons.. see Appear. Appennage. verb portionner. apparel. The Low Lat. Cotgrave gives 'Appanage. mod. -</ PAT. Cf. Lat. brandish.) The verb aparailen. . and parere. 491. occurs in An Old Eng. twine together. a (Lat. It Gower. aperen. appel.) A French law term.' or assault upon. settle. Lat. t. applaus-ive.. appetit . obviously a very old Celtic word). I place. equal . a god. See Explode. to give ' a portion. and plaudere. . 113. 45. accuse spelt with one p because the ap. 107. appetitus. any portion of land or money delivered unto a sonne. Apo-) Gk. See Peace. C. to. have recourse to. See Thesis. Der. p. and to his heires for ever.] O. transitive sense. to pertain. and Celtic. apparatus. failure Cornish palch. aphol. thoroughly . Formed with F. apartenir (mod. O. a-. to attack. through. . fruit is the radical sense of Europ. and petere. O. This odd formation was probably suggested by a confusion with the O. applicare. as Shak. apareil. ex-plode).' rather than to ' an old appalled wight = P. to prick. pp. . Lat. Curtius. the O. together (= ap. Der. 6 (R.) Lit. I suitable. of pax. 5. ad." to depend intransitive. b. of Boethius. been fairly made out. p. sb.F. appoint.before p) . Cf. similar. mod. of Glouc. to fly. See the examples in Chaucer : pale. and pellere. i. = ap. apparoir.' ' an old enfeebled creature.. ato fix. puncta. (F. anoBtua. applause. applausus. Lat. ' APPAREL. appar-ent-ly . apple. settle a dispute .] provision for a dependent esp. the portion of a younger brother in France the lands. to fold or pp. for their entertainment also. and (from Lat. T.' Lat. call upon . has appele both as verb and occurs in the Wycl. ' ' : ' APPARENT. 619. A. ' to apportion. prefix (Lat. Curtius. to appear. F. APPOSITE. applansus. appellare. applaudere. Bible. Numb. H. ' Lat.). dple. -ul-. P. 52:2 Mace. Low Lat. appil. See Pendant. and Pacify. Der. (F. and the consideration of these words suggests that. appear-ance . apendre. Plowman. ad). F. madam. E. Wyclif. appunclare. to become pallid. apparere. remains unknown. to hang. portion-rnerit. . PAR. a river. aparail. 58.being preserved in the reduplicated perfect tense. with suffixes -ic. p. Lat. a Lat. ad. part. Lat. From the same root we have feather and See Find. C. a storeanything is laid up or put away. O. appetite. prefix ' ap-. appor/ioner. applicare). apelen. F. tr. ofcet.) M. Grimm observed the resemblance between ler. APPORTION. 664 . fly. G. Modem. P. to apparel. 350. apaisier. (F. . . ^f E. perhaps E. to make ready. bring. obst. . bring to. O. 473. prefix was regarded as a. to supply with bread. F. Borrowed from Lat. apotheca. ^ . be attached to. pareil. Parv. a boss. Gk. F.. dm (see ences) from South amBfaiais. C. irdXXi. away and ri'-flij/u. L. ad-. irXinuv. pp..) F. (F. Lat. see Fick. Lat. appell-at-ion. ab-. the lands and lordships given by a father unto his younger sonne. 29 Often now used in the See Apophthegm. O. Bret. spelt appiere. share. (F. 202. Gk. a word of Celtic origin. 'a p. The sb. apple. or. apparently much the same as the Lat. to address. Gk. in a neuter ' APPAL. Chaucer. root pug..meant a ball. ad pacem. to drive to. Plowman. -aticum). APPOINT. praise by clapping hands. a. -aticus. apperen. i. viz. part is probably from the same root. C. Kacus apaised the wraththes of Euander. F. Curtius. to ( = ap. a word in which the radical idea may easily have seemed. ad. in which (see APOTHEGM. Skt. written apanare in Low Latin and pain.L. The true origin See Par. applic-ant. from Lat. Der. deification. ed. which he renounces upon the receit thereof. i. a child's part. appurten-ance (O. ' to deprive of vital energy . 26. Der. M. 129. F. fix. F. ii. G. and Lat. A. and pareiller. to Cot. Der. ad. 157. appenden. . APPELLANT. . to prepare. Shak. applattsus. in lieu of his future succession to the whole. Pair. Macb. . to belong to.aphul.F.. lit. Gower has appesed. tfpl. applicants. ambu. opaz. to invoke. ble. strong natural desire for a thing. portcullis. applaudissement. and signifies to weaken.' Lex Salica . also APPARATUS. with the prefix ap-.. appendre.) M. find. E.' Cf. applic-at-ion. Lat. and strives to connect it further with Lat. Ivopov. to reapointer. (Lat. to v. apere. (Lat. I Mace. orig.) M. Cf. F. Fries. a storehouse. however. dukedomes. ' APPEAR. to assort. Chaucer. APPARITION APPEAL. but it has not ler. pt. dress. both diminutive. to shake. . O. appeal-able.' i. umbo. Morris. E. 10) is the eye-ball. E. peace. Lat. Cf. Russian iabloko. The phrase ' heir APPEASE. p) and Low Lat. house. put. O. tr. sb. Icel. enfeeble. and plicare. s. to apportion. 4.pupugi the prick (F. or brethren.E. ' but the verb is properly hang one thing on to another to hang on to something else. apenden always has this into whom. come in sight a secondary form of parere. Others O. quiet. apesen. is appar-it-ion.. apaner. like. ' to pacify. ' Telle me to terrify. swiftly. a. E. call upon. 14. &c. a-roOf/mi.

-L. and phonetic considerations confirm it. L. to . F. O. 44. a trade. from O. ^J The E. APPREHEND. Jerome appropiare. ed. get. of which word it Lat. (Lat. Empire. ad. (Lat. 1. Modern and . F. O. is obsolete. The Lat. being doublets. appreciation. before) . from Lat. to (becoming ap.approvprove. O. aperire.. to cook.' C. form it is not obsolete. and coqnere. seilling.']'. apprais-er. of propositus. B. albercocca. to Gk. Diet. limas Hir napron feir and white i-wassh Prol. taken Lat. and proposition. mappa. appropriated'^ in the Bible of 1539. 3rd Esdras.' Martial. formed to Latin spelling.before p) and prnprius. i. pi. Morris. has appropriate as an adjective. in the sense of to value. 2345. ad. % . from the Rouchi or Walloon form apprentiche. to understand .. pp. approver. when it is nearest to or farthest from the APSE. p) and pretium. instruction. Dioscorides.) [Formerly spelt apricocli. E. read a prentice in this passage. mappa is said in Quinctilian. apAnd see below. approbare. . 2 2. c. to open. a to inform. Lat. prcecox.. to esteem highly. F. appren. 506. which again is for hed-. In coming ap. Poems. 5 9. In P. appreiien (with u for v). appositus. to approach. albricoque. Shak. i. Lat. 6 (Richardson). beforehand. Propose and Purpose. from the Port. Lat. B. 103 .(appearing in O. ' APPROVE. then to French. prisier. natte. Der. appropriate. the name of the fourth month. cf. ' ' .' ' teaching. Parv. a price. F. apposit-ion. See Price.. April. to lay hold of. Hall containing the sb.before p) (Brachet). prefixed to the letter N. mod. hence was formed the verb. APRON". Der. 1. apprehensus.before p). O. v. V/XUKOKIOV. ed. see Approve. to the purpose.in Portuguese. 263). pp. which Cotgrave explains by ' a praising or prizing . has approximate (Lat. an arched recess at the E. Gibbon princes of myjte ' . napa. appropriaf~ion. adj. a place for . appropriate arose from the adj. aprochier. -Gk.) M. to lay hold of.. draw near to. aprisen signify to value. then to Arab. to value. B. b. word having been introduced from Portuguese see Brachet. used as an adj. (F. of praicoqims. table-cloth. c. valuation. value. neut. of proponere. The M. but a corruption of the Mid. 355. nape. appris. ad. to (becoming ap. v. approximates. See Apprehend. The forms apprentice and prentice were used indifferently in M. ' . i. naperon. explained mappa by Ducange. root is hend-. put gen. pp.) fit.' like mod. F. pp. probus. 242.. apprehens-ion. ad. and proximus. of 4.F. Richardson gives to set a just value on. form of apaprendre. Gk. the Lat. adj. F. appropriate-ly. to value preised occurs with the sense of appraised. to learn. ad.E. E.Lat. quoted by Richardson.' Port.y^GHAD. cf. i. a learner of prentiz. from Lat.' P. -Port. I see no reason to doubt this account. APPRIZE. Gk. having previously borrowed the older form apricock from the Portuguese directly. . apraisen. adopted from Lat. Roquefort. Lat.. 165 (see Sophocles' Lexicon) pi. in which it is applied to the turningpoints of a planet's orbit. (F. aprisO. Aprilis. posed. Hall's Account of Himself. apricots. other MSS. APRICOT. II. (see at a [The spelling with c instead of / is due to the fact that the sb. and Lat. pp. approv-al'. pracox. because it is otherwise wholly impossible to account . but frequently occurs in Gower. They were considered as a kind of peach (peaches were called persica in Latin) which ripened sooner than other Maturescunt sestate prcecocia intra peaches and hence the name. now to draw near to. the simple verb O. viz. a cloth worn in front to protect the dress. several compounds. and ponere. a rating. near. apprehens-ible. triginta annos reperta et primo denariis singulis uenundata Pliny. 7. APSE. to ripen. preisier. pp.. though Roquefort only gives apretier. E. A. early-ripe.in English.) Hall. ad. i. to test. Rich. a cloth. ii. (F. 57. See APROPOS. p. Nat. approuver. Proper. Ital. apprendre.. prehendere. apposite-nefS. to make one's own.before p) and prehendere. a cloth. Errors. See Apprehend. . from Lat. of Glouc. . W. Span. appreciation. and preiser. becoming -ated. The pp. or apricock plum. Termed with suffix -er. sometimes. of appretiare. to (becoming ap. approv-able. 576. The supposition that the Lat. apprendere. of Low Lat. matta.) In the Bible of 1539. the syllable pre is a prefix (cf. L. St. set a price on. of apponere. APPRENTICE. v. ' . apprecia-bly. which in late times also meant to learn. B. Rob. F. apreiser. nap-er-ie. a price. apprenti by loss of final /. Avril.-L. in MS. value. (F. 44.] Cotgrave has abricot.) Richardson rightly rethis verb is of late formation. from Lat. and augmentative suffix -on (answering to Ital. article. Mids. prop-inquity. teach. as intermediate to Lat.' (no doubt the best form. as in the aorist See Fick. one's own whence E. Lat. Der. = her apparel was highly prized by mighty princes Anturs of Arthur. lit. Tyndal. novice. C. priecoqua. which afterwards took * the meaning of fit. to fear.Arab. viz. F. in P. pp. Browne. I. apprehendere. to (becoming ap. to the purpose. . Plowman. p. a proLat. 51. appreciation seems to have been in earlier use than the verb. 1 1 1. the n being an and this is cognate with Goth. to commend . See G-et. to lay hold of. ly.E. apris. . to Tale of Beryn. preciate. neut. [This is how most of our verbs in -ate were formed first came the pp.'] The Lat. Uilia maternis fueramus/riccoywa ramis Nunc in The Lat. t-X&o-ov. Curtius. word was an adaptation of the Arabic or Persian one (supposed in that case to the original) is the only alternative but barquq is not an original Pers. to commend . a mat. apprehens-ive. the words apprize. which appears again in E. apprecia-ble.30 APPRAISE. L. . . p. preis. APPROPRIATE.. B. appropriate. being pose. 13.' and To apprize in the sense to inform is a appraise are also doublets. I This older form is French the word was afterwards conp.] Lat. . April Chaucer. to apier). 29 which apricot is a corruption. So too. 21. so that an initial n has been lost. approbatio. back to the Arabic al-barquq (Rich. approbatus. end of a church. easily inmost likely troduced into England from the Low Countries. words price and praise pretium. appretiare is a made up word. The word thus came to us in a very round-about way.-L. to bring or come near to. F. ii.) as an adjective. Prompt. p. And see below. to learn . appropriation is in Gower. adoptiuis persica cara sumus. Der. prce. Works. Lat. F. apprendere. Lat. and was borrowed directly from F. q. appositus. ' ' . . albricoque. 86). speaks of ready and apposite answers Lat. a is a corruption . F.) M. prehensus.. iii. forms (with one p) apreisen. as in Bp. to apprehend. p. Lat.) 'Apparailled hym as apprentice. esteem as good. Vulg. Bacon vb. Chaucer has approved in counapprouen. or estimation of. (F. (F. 351. to take to oneself as one's (The sb. price. F. superlative Der. contr. Lat. form xav&avfiv has for its real root the form x<>8-. Formed by suffix -ate Abbreviate) from Lat. to ( = apbefore p) . to approve of. O.) Mere French . C. approchen. early-ripe. D. b.) a quotation from Bp. to have been cloth. in Sulpicius Severus and St. Span. from Lat. p. different word. Ducange. C.Lat. to (beprisoner. whence mod. Prol. see note on AppropriLat. Der. an apricot. We require the Greek form. E.before p) . . own. (F. See Prove. pp. ad). and probare. join. to place. of appropriare. formed from prope. the insertion Gk. lay hold of. Henry IV. 214. ad. pr. appropriate. then to Port. seize. to draw near to.F. ii. to draw near to and prope. adj. a thing propropositum. suitable . tr. of approximare. - APPROXIMATE. ' Life of Henry VII. of Boethius. and the Lat. . They were also called prcecocia. T. either for the initial al. irpaucoiua borrowed from the Lat.) M. A. 7 Chaucer. abricot. ' Sir T. proposed. 5. annex to. These words are traced. as in 'Hur enparel was apraysyt with APPRAISE. approach-able. ' tice-ship. see Apper- tain. C. ' . [Burguy omits the word. APPRECIATE. mod. a learner of a trade. appraise-ment. and can be so used still. Lat. 6. to propose. in -atus this gradually acquired a final d. T. ' ' APPURTENANCE. i. pp. c. to apLat. 372. It is remarkable that the proper O. ad pas. appropriate-ness. pp. form in -ate. near. ' ' -one). See Aperient. see remarks originally a Punic word." The sb.. . near to . Cf. aprendiz.-L. ing-ly. . (Lat. to the purpose. Lat. APPROACH. Plowman.) Sometimes spelt apprize. apprise. xv. also Aueril [AvtrU]. iii.before See Price and see Appraise above. with reference to what is proposed. and Arabic and the Arabic form. I. Plowman. prehendere. and Port. to seize. i. where al is the Arabic def. to prove. prefix (Lat. Group B. precocious. word see Vullers' . word was apprentif Thus (see Brachet). II. a cloth. seize. very near. i. a. 334. Aprille. 169. Lat. which is likewise formed from the Lat. C. .F. O. pp. F. to grasp. v. a large cloth. 33. an apricot the F. E. APPROBATION . and the word barquq is no true Arabic word. from Lat. 66. Naprun or barm-clothe. Proven9al apLow Lat. so called because it is the month when the earth opens to produce new fruits. col. . Nt. ^f On the loss of n in napron. F. 240). It will be observed that the . good. lit. apprentices. which has been longer in use in astronomy. preserved in the mutilated ' . aprochen Allit.. Hist. and Littre. approximate-ly. to value uses appreciate. 29. ' approximat-ion. or for the initial a.. try. and at once suggested a verb in -ale. Lat. . see the footnote . regarded as a contraction See Pose. appreciat-ion '. Lumby. Low . L. a kind of plum. appretiatus. has apprehended in the sense of attached. suitable. I. F. an. (F. gitan. ' . is from prte. on which see Curtius. Gen. whence we borrowed apricot.. Lexicon Persico-Latinum. in Webster albaricoqne. O.' Der. to set a price on. Rom. APRIL. (F. A. another form ofpr&cox. iii. prehens-ive-ness . Dr. . a price. See Approach. 46. . keeping cloths). See Precocious and Cook. but gives prover.. nappe. Der. ad (becoming ap. substantive denoting 'information. the English word must have been derived from a dialectal F. appositeofposinere. also approbation (Gower.) architectural a corruption of apsis. apprenticeship. marks that apprise.. the contracted form of apprehendere. which Cotgrave explains by the abricot. i. Formerly spelt napron or naprun. word. Der. to place or put to. iii. Lat. (L. . ate. and founded on the M.

' from the old verb betere (also written b&tere and The root of betere is bilere). Apere is cognate with Gk. ad-opt. Browne. Root undetermined. H.) In Milbe-. ' ' ' . S. ARBITER. ed. aptus. a walk arched over. the sole instance in which it has become ch . i. a wheel. 239) and biter means a comer. a tying. seize. Panton. Arabian. ARBITRATE. form arbitres (i. aqua-rium. 286. Der. G. G. arbitrare. 1 2 . Gk. Cf. done by arbitration. 17. q. arbilrat-or. nrbitracion. arcade. Lat.' Lear. Taller. Lat. L.. (i). Cf. feeble. eren. ix. Skt. .-L. ^ Modem. Parv. &c. ' . arbiter. whence Paivuv. in a curved or ' Arch in a wall. archaolog-ist. A. bow. Cotgrave) in Hall. primitive. Ausspr. earh. apt-ness. swarthy.. 193. dp. timid. so that it was also spelt erbare. prefix is taken . whence also Lat. 9. e. water (obsolete). from the beginbe worthy. (See Brachet.). arbor. From the name of the same country we have also Arab. applied to designs (F. to fasten. This word was pronounced as ar. an [i." This occasioned a loss of h in harbour. to plough. latter word. GA. argr. by the obsolete ear. we find 'interwoven with the arabesque foliages. herbarium. arboretum in full.L. a bow arcades. F. have a word in very early use A. See Fick.is to be rightly regarded as descended from which was borrowed from Lat.. . G. Palamon and Arcite. nasalised as GAM. pares Lith. adj. Aqva-ritts. 215. from Lat. strenuous . See Arc. &c. ' APT. slothful M. A. In Sidney's Arcadia. common y'AP. arh.. Shak. known to most European languages. of the Lat. vault. fasten. aque-ous.' ' ' If Elenus be argh. arch-bishop. Goth. worth). ad. 1 77. 474. . to reach. sun. But see anolhei mischievous. fastening. (from the same source) arorior. arch-ed. L. arc. eriaa. but we now use the Lat. arbitress). arbitrare). word (A. v.) Shak. . coward. (Lat. . apt. i. are all from a attain. certainty of arbour being a corruption of harbour. to seize. and to retain its strength. of plains by 'an arch. herbere. G. J. ii. influence. This widely spread verb. arbilrement. Chaucer's Tale of Melibeus arbitratour. ii. pp. 6. 248. and this again from Gk. Used by Ray. ing. a tree the result being further forced on by the fact that the M. 1770. ' . O.) In Swinburne's Travels through Spain. 692. bk. whence Itwiman. 31. a construction of stone or wood. arbours.) see Ark. also arbori-culture. S. as the pp. describes an arbour as being within an orchard 2 Hen. E. H. L. ploughable. ' ' . Lat. antique. arch-duke.) old. to come. Lat. + + . See further under Arbiter. 2. GA. airrtiv. choice)..) F. Itiva(m). mod. herbarium. Sec. arable. arbitrare. I Sam. Ray also uses Addison has aqueduct (id. i. a small and curious flourishing where rebesk is a corruption of the very word in Ital. depending on the will.' In SirT. On the pertaining to water. Made up from Gk. Frailtee of Beautie. (L.' which was in the gardine. 40. to arare. iii. iv. p.) Creation. to dpx^. [f] ^f See this explained in the Romance of Thomas of Erceldoune. fit. In arch-bishop. . was aquiline Lat. ning. judge of a dispute. arms. to reach. old. uncertain lit. 140. ' . Way. has my worthy p. earg. ' (F. aquila. The Lat. ^AP. See Come. . . Parv. to be first cf. apsis. S. Ayenbite of Inwyt. attain. p. Chaucer. -\o^ia). P. Murray. Lat.' i.followed by a gutlural somewhal like the G.. blind. whence the meaning afterwards passed into that of knavish. p. 909. plough. arbitro-. 140. is ' 334. arabilis. ARCADE. an arrow. dark-coloured. 31 Fick. 61 . umpire p. 3. A . arbori-cultur-ist. A ' ' . aquilinus. a P. (2). qu. from from \iytif. F. aquilus. derived from the verbal root dp. of or belonging to trees. Parv. He also has arbitrator. an arc.e. aqua are also derived aqua-fnrtis. Wyclif. to reach. lett. of fit. aquilin. beginning. p. H. (F. in his note to the Prompt. waggish. eren. 225..' Ital. fit. 154. T. O. Plutarch. Der. ' which is cognate with the Gk. which Cotgrave exItal. A. . Shak. 12 Ear is a native Is. aqtie-duct.' judge. Diet. S. ARBITRARY.. v. There is no doubt that this arber. air-Ttir.) 'His nose Dryden. to act as umpire. . explained by Cotgrave as 'earLat.) to faile. directly from the tf In the . oWa. erce-bisceop. 'An arche of marbel so also we have ditch for dyke. arc-ode. Goth. despotic. antique. E. which ' Cotgrave explains by Arabian-like . sect. 24. ii. . i. arh. and Scot. we read of sitting in an ' a.' Lithuanian arm. request with so arch a leer corruption argh. Der. Gk. p. S. ap-ere. ' + boretum. perhaps. to act as arbiter. tomorrow apt F. S. herbere was used not only to a garden of herbs. arbilrat-ion . 14. See below. but only cognate with arare. 0^1'*. Curtius. 5201. lit. ii. 4 Chaucer has arbitracion (F. obtain. Lat. 4. brown whence perhaps also Aquilo. an archbishop. . root 0a-. Lat. to come. Destruction of Troy. Hall. who discusses these words carefully. Fick com. by the addition of/orris. iv. i. North speaks of arable (F. aqua. tillable. Skt. A. arce-bisceop (Bos- ARCH-. Nt. arwe. . arch-ness. (Lat. CurDer. hence.' obsolete verb apere. iv. E. The form of the prefix being once fixed. ARABESQUE. H. . not derived from. arbilr-ess see also below. 2 and frequently in his Treatise on the Astrolabe. See Curtius. Trevisa. Flowring today. no. lit. spelt absis. 20. timid. ARCHEOLOGY. i. also ad-apt. (F. dpta. ' for tillage. ' apxatito* Gk. y.(in archi-episcopus). Ep. i. as in ar-cessere (Corssen. Cf. I plough. bad. and see Arch. viridare. arrant. an arc. herbier. Vulg. (Corruption of harbour. i. cumnn and E. arc. pt. groves (Lat. ad-apt. viz. and sometimes silent. is described a fine close arbor. ii. Lat. 35. . See Apt. . arbiter.. ancient. aquaaqueous (Todd's Johnson). ARBOUR. a shelter. b. by the common change of k into ch in English cf. -Lat. cowardly. dpxcuot. q. 2. arbor-escent . of arbiter. Lat. retained in our Bibles in Deut. see the explanation under Arbiter. sly. earh. where we find 'Erbare. From + O.) Dogget . E. arcA-ly. This is. a place planted with trees). 24. d>x*. and owrnes for ferde = if Helenus be a coward. fit ARABLE. to act as umpire. ahe. Some derivatives. <|[ Der. are in much earlier use.' . an. a nose like an eagle. F. a tree. is equally clear as to the See Harbour. Gk. roguish. H. awrtiv. science of antiquities. aptus and E. This curious word is compounded of ar. of apisci. 17. Henry VI. F. viridarium. however. suggeslion in Krrata. 1. arcata. much as arc. Arabic. Lat. aha. 2540. xxx. arbitrium. In the latter. also rebesk-vtorke. arbitrour. Troilus. ' (E. (F. Thus arch. Lat. a hawkenose. arg. P. arbitrari-ness and see below. Milton has arborets.) Shak. loch. The astronomical term is also now often written apse. 233. G. ii. pref. M. tius. Lat. ii.' but also a garden of fruit-trees or signify orchard. 6. the ARCHAIC. but in pronunciation has passed into various forms cough. 1. See Curtius. . e. 1. ch . bind. which appears as arbitratour (F. tr. ii. P. of Boethius.) Used by SirT. strong water. Man of Law's Prologue. arbor-etum. ARCH ARCH ' ' . [f] . but used in Lat. ticus. craven.) Pope has p. 216. Prompt. 3 Esdras." word is. water. primitive. 26 arbitre. discourse. 248.. and at the same time suggested a connection with Lat. to bend. liable. v. a bow. which lost its initial h through confusion with the M. F. ditch for dyke. fern. also arbilra-ment (F. arh. archi.-Ar.-It. crutch for crook. arbitrateur. strong. and better kept as a mere prefix. is represented in Eng. O. a bower made of branches of trees. come. More's Works.. to go . Lat. to come. i. 4. explained by Lat. arbitree (Lat. P. M. apte. ix. to fasten.. being of F.APT. a segment of a circle. gen. origin. to plough. C. apt-i-lude. dpxatot. to. bind. swers to E.is a variation of + + + + + + Moral Essays. . pertaining to or like an eagle. -ish. e. pr. had the initial h weak. Tale of Melibeus. fearful. AQUATIC. Arabesco. ed. it was used for other words. arch. through. [made] of trees whose branches were lovingly interbraced one with ' the other. but it was necessary to preserve it in some form. arbitrarius. (Gk. L. an. to be worthy Curtius. 2. crude form umpire. See Archaic ARBOREOUS.' Lord Surrey. (Lat.) -logy (Gk. areas. note to 1. Der. arch-duchy. arbitrary. a bow. ARC. apsides. Lat. an eagle supposed to be the fern.. Skt. From Gk. arce-. 189. almost solely used as a prefix. xxi. to speak. i. apt-ly. Greek see word arch-angel. vaulted form. arch-ing. G. 5. belonging to an eagle. 1350. as in the Prompt. beginning. used by Pacuvius and Plautus. (F. an umpire. the fern. I. able. Arab-ic. ar- 233. Here ar. niggardly . and shrinks for fear. fitted. Perhaps from but Cotgrave gives F. a half circle. See Fick. . to compared with mickle. Etym. ' land . v. Group B. Der. v. iii. Tw. who adds that E.) Milton has arbour. water. Arabesque. (Gk. effeminate Grein. . 626. arch-deacon. by the change of -us into -ous. arch. lit. See Fick. 6. and with the Goth. spoke his of M. Der.' Lat. arch and patron. (Lat. 473. apuciv.) Chaucer has ark. &c. 1. 119. 2943. Gk. ancient.and biter. L. and suffix Gk. p. i. (Lat.' F. ready. belonging to trees. Allit. curve. the Archi-. ahwa. place of shelter. a wretch. ton. deceitful. 378. c. 1.' This garden of herbs or flowers. arched. ii. S. 201. \6yot. Lat. 4 Lat. . Der. join together. L. arch. an umpire. what with reference to the possible caprice of the Lat. Plutarch. allied to A. Macb. hoop of a wheel Gk. though originally a wort-yard. to come. Formed by suffix -ate (see Appropriate) from Lat. L. apxri.-Gk. ^ ^ . viii. argh~\. ARCHAIC.Ital. a bow. an umpire. &c. . arcus . And see above. ARCANA. arjan. 74. to be umpire.) In Milton. pertaining to water. Der.) modification of O. ' chief. Icel. 437 and the same word occurs in Spenser. fit. Henry VI. a corruption of harbour. as in pious. arboreus. like an eagle. ad-ept. ' AQUILINE. ii. it is also spelt arch. Cf. The ending -esco in Italian anquestion. direct . a witness. viii. bind. A. to plough (given by Wackemagel under the form ern). v. arbitration). Errors. of an eagle. in Todd's Johnson. of arcare. arbitrari-ly. <ipx'-m dpx'fv'""'oms. Holland has aquaticall. this guttural is commonly represented by gh in writcf.. Q. IV. i IQ. dart Grein. Gk. but the word is we harshly used. a bow. one who comes to look on. distinguish it from are. which Der. bor-et. ['!*] i. Mr. borrowed from the French. area. orchard is now used of trees. Irish era. erian). to fasten. properly pp. turn pi. araim. a change due to F. Gk. with the example nez aquilin. Archer. Cotgrave as 'apt. the stormy wind. Skt. See Arc. fasten.' roguish. H. b. Arab-tan. that can be ploughed.

Irish. + + . cipx'-. Lat. apx*!. silver. Der. p. Der. ' Adv. O'Reilly. Lithuan. Icel. an older -S. Zend ' . 22. a space for disputants or combatants. a pattern. es-t. Gk. Here as is the root. upxfTvirov. texere. I do. of Learning. Wright. O. Der. argent. arch. to weave. T into 1 ARGENT. and mod. directly. O. iv. H. drive off. signifying Archi-) ' for the Ital. ii. Lat. is As the final * in are is no longer . to be. make . Plutarch. A. AM . to speak antiquatedly. whereby Lat. to be. also archium. It is an older form than the Wessex 33.pyi-. Lit. See Technical. Luke. arcarius.) UsedbyBp. copal. Gk. I here discuss each person separately. apxiTfKTca/. mould. ii. difficult to perform.-Gk. to hew. . which occurs in no good author (Liddell and Scott) more commonly shining y'ARK. (2) the public records. with ursine. er. The original sense was probably ' sit. to bum. ardere. to strike. are is short for aren. Cf. p. (l-fu. s-anti. the s having been assimilated to m. Gk. Fick. archetypum. dry. The Icel. ardorem. the part of an entablature resting immediately Used by Ital. or sample. the contraction of Su. Criticism. Northumbrian a-m. Weber. iii. form arci-. whence Skt. Gaelic. to beam. Germ. hybrid of Gk.) In Marlowe's Edw. . clear. The original form of the I p. ark. arefacere. silver. archi-episcopy. Gk. vol. diffi-ous. On Architecture. Formed by change of Lat. architecte. Icel.stands for as-. Lat. is rare.) The former is the' true sense. to be worthy. cf. I see. from Lat. prefix. architects. F. Gk. es-si. apyvpos. ant-arctic. certain see Fick. of which the old ardnr. irXaffii'. conNot in early use. to fix. a sanded space for gladiators in the amphitheatre. ARCHAISM. remarks 'the Greeks that epistttium which we from a mungril compound of two languages (apxfarabs. above. i. His obser' vation that it is a mungril compound is just. i. trabs. architrave. ' other forms are variously corrupted. is a : on the column. (Lat. 294. + by analogy with ARCHER. 310. It stands for as-m. ' The sing. s-unl. Swed. liksha originally meant xvii. adopted into Lat. 163. <er.-L. er-e (for es-e). sect.. has 'Mars' hill. archives. + AREOPAGUS. it is northern. . ' the architrave (of pillars. ace. er-u (for es-u)..) Milton. ' fiery. s-ind. See above. a designer of buildings. . q. archi-.. Lat. the Gk. he is . ace. closely allied to Tex1 1?.) The older form is arch-. irK^aadv. apx e ~. to Gk. residence of the magistrates. V. ' a principall type. + . <s (pron. northerly . (F. arguere. for the as-on of the primitive as-anti.). Mk. Goth. Was. ia-ai (Attic i).L. rplirtiv. in King Alisaunder. s-indon. a bear. see Skt.. ardor. . suffix -arius ARCHETYPE. in the form archi. Root unLat. viz. Thus E. Skt. prepare Lat. ii. ARDENT. ar-en. (Wessex) eo-m. arduous-ness. Dan. are-re. pi. ARENA. high. ' ' this would make Tre\ayos to mean the beating or ' tossing. white clay. Milton has arctick. Ded. cult. final i 1\ In the word .. er. Used by Rob. may be right. S. iv. example. (L. 'argent in blason.) Used by Dryden. S. . Der. to turn. whence E. viii. they are. of dpxTviro. ". a constellation situate not far from the northern pole of the heavens. A ARCTIC. architect-are. Areopag-ite. ia-ri. Lat. L. used as a prefix. Lithuan. v. 56 (O. The singular is I am. make. (Ital. Ital. G. Lat. L. suggested in Liddell and Scott. F. xvii. The O. cf. Goth. the archives. prefix (see Archi-) and Der. chief builder. form the chief pattern.E. tia-iv. Gk. pt. <if>X'"> chief (see Archi-) . as seen "Apfiot Trdyos. er.. (Wessex) eart. Hist. remain. been conformed to Latin. and Manx arci. i-s (or is). and facere. Curtius chief. we. The gen. apxriKos. ix. a builder. O. Mark.. the prefix takes the form arche. high. Cf. (F. Lat. much earlier. various languages. b. ' the bear. arctique. F. arclicus. (F.. arce-. a beginning. Skt. to strike. P. (F. thou art. Gk. and wdyoi. The form archi. are. spelling O. la. archetype.) The whole of the present tense of the verb substantive is from the same root. ar-on (for os-on). an archer. dry) and even a magistrate. an open space. 39. ' a Used by Milton. riUh. 23. er. northIt occurs Cot. Gk. chief..-Gk. 124. an antiquated phrase. except in the third person. pi.another form of <fy>x'-. e. sandy. ARE. apxaifyw. . Doric Gk. and irtXa-yoj. and frequently elsewhere.) From Gk. in the Aryan languages was as-ma. to be. a blow. wr/yvvfu. from Lat. 19. . b. a bowman. a thing is framed Cot. as an heraldic term. sc. archier. 'Apdos. See Type. Nat.32 an archaism. and -m is short for -mi or -ma. of Boethius. use the verb to be (y'BHU) for the present tense sing. architect-ur-al. 116. from which . 1 1. Der. argentum. Aryan formula is os-/a. to hew. a drying. as suggested by Liddell and Scott. present. F. and E. arena. to be. Essay on Oscan form was aragetom connected with Lat. Swed. but s. Gk. and then dropped. ARE. vum). 1. A. Tpdirrjf. 34) ART. archi-episs. is found in the Northumbrian glosses of the Gospels. a bear. to beat. ursus. i. produce. archetyp-al. . god of war. and TCKTW. ardant. as in geseo-m. a large space. This is the same in Northumbrian and Wessex. prefix. p. . ardenc-y ardour. viz. er-ud. s-u-m (for os-(a)-nu'). Evelyn. 199 and still earlier. 1. <er.' This root appears in E. Dan. plu. Root un- ^ AREA. as-i.. 7. to generate. Fryar (R. Gk. The word is connected. P. figure. and borrowed from Gk. to sit . However. 95. plain. ^f Root uncertain . coined word. later In the A. Zend ash-ti. em. xxii. has. Cornish. s-ein. Lith. arduom-ly. (Gk. it means ' chief beam. whence Skt. me. chief. <er (for as. architrave. to be. (F.) Used by Bacon. Old Irish a-m. prefix.' tect . white. Ital. or rather from arcus and trabs") called architrave. or stonework) the reeson-peece or master-beam (in buildings of timber) . to flourish. M. more familiar Gk. Better harena see Errata. (F. a form in use as well as architecton. arena-ce-ous.-Gk. the Great Bear. F. ^/TAK. in heraldry silvery. (Gk..) Lit. ardtius. Cotgrave. but chiefly in the present tense. dropping the pronoun). find O. II. 22. which occurs in the Vulgate version of Acts. also. ' s-ant of the same primitive form. yEgean Sea. a bear Skt. p. Apologie. form is er-t . s-ind. as. archi-tect. c. Skt. (F. riltsha (for arisa). p. archi-diaconal. p. 396 . from nom. as a weakened form of ^AS. is not quite Der. a burning). from Lat. is os-si (si meaning thou). see Curtius. es-se. -us J_ argutvs. and Lat. e-m. dpxfiov. near in Hakewill. dpxh. ed. where the A. It may be related to AS. a public building. Hist. es-ti. which (as explained under Arch-) was a modification of A. but Holland has archive or register . The connection suggested by Bopp with Skt. Der. of or belonging to 'Aprjs. of order.is of later use. G. ardaunt love of his wyf tr. the original pattern. ii.) modified to archipelago by the substitution of the (see ARCHIPELAGO. es-mi. 22. I burning. area. sind stands for as-ftu. 14) as distinguished from A. and stands peculiar to English. making dry. 33 beo-m.) In Pope. Dan. certain. I be. lofty.and Lat. Tempest.) In early use. trabem. Gk. 1. q. arcipelago. dropped). from the nom. a beam.) A. &c. All three persons are alike in Old English but the Icel. p. art. ardoir. the verb arefy has also been made . a sea. Gk. 394 . burning. but art Hence the final -t stands for answers to A. i. archi-trave. northern. a bow. argilla. 'a place wherein all the records. 732. a beam. ardent-ly. (F. Irish art. stamp. to make clear. The same prefix also forms part of the words archi-pelago. viz. ' . Skt. is-t. viz. as-ri.' Cot. ARCHITRAVE.' F. Gk. plague. the pres.S. er-u. 710. Areopag-it-ic-a (Milton's treatise). Zend ah-mi.' Gk. to be. Lat. p. L.L. 22. Swed. silver . L.' northern. (i.) Lat. to the stem are-.. at a later time. and ' F.-L. to beat. The connection of the latter with Gk. . a chief builder or chief artificer. ii. The English form has is-/.) pres. 14. has er-um. ARDUOUS. lost the pronoun. are the only languages which employ this form of the 2nd personal pronoun. F.' His second derivation is wrong the first is nearly right. Lat. Northumb. 24 doa-m. S. to Span.) Chaucer has ' the most mountain peak. which is the older and more correct one. see Be. pious. which see below. Gk. Lat. rpa<pTj(. . to sit. Gk. an archiLat. to bum. Lat. so that ar-t stands for all Gk. ..see Archetype.S. Texture. and the root PAK. 48. Gk. .S. Tvirrdv. The fasten. and in various parts of the verb in sounded. whence also irXriffi. p. a magistracy. whilst the A. In Milton. iii. the word little doubtful. see Curtius. preserving only is. The ^AS. clear. i. practically reduced to ar. as-tni. areopagus. P. Gk. (Lat. Benfey. aridus. i. a form ' Lect. i. to make dry. Northumbrian arS (Luke. the -on is a later suffix. ed.. and signifies the first personal pronoun. See Arch-. to make. ARCHITECT. It is the only word in English in which the old suffix -ma appears. 345) conjectures iriXa-yef to be from a root ir\ay-. i. the original type. ARCHIVES. which is the form used in Acts. Max Mu'ller shews that the Skt. 460. TixTdv. of Glouc. p. Der. Goth. Lat. F. See Arc. Swed.of Doric ia-ai. and Icel. In the word arche-type. The ar. [t] Mars' hill the supreme court at Athens.' ^f For other parts of the verb. met. meaning 'is he whence Skt.-L. arcus.Gk. G. to shine . is. v. as. Lat. s-ind(on). Northumbrian aroa (Matt. &c. old. (Northern E. com. Cot. 'Apnvirayos. ' . ARCHAISM. ARCHI-. Formed with Lat. e. 1 2. apxros. named . 715. ar-e (for tes-e).-L. . ARGENT. . From Lat. The gen. texture. steep. G. The Northumbrian retains this -m in other instances. thou. sand hence. Der. used by Bacon. chief sea. pi. arch-er-y. appears in Skt. beginning. is as-anti. the of the prefix is dropped before the vowel following. Gk. Dan.. By adding -fy. i. dpxaios. We . stamped as a model. 1 6. Hall. modell. Low Lat. v. model neut. . (Lat. . of the verb substantive. AS. This is the O. sing. a bear esp. ' . (Wessex) sindon but the forms sindon and sin/ are also found in Northumbrian. to beam. 1. Goth. ^f Perhaps connected with Gk. Gk. a rock.. The Peacemaker. . ye. AREFACTION. i-m. Gk. See Arid. The general Aryan formula a-hi. . a threshing-floor. and Gibbon. hew out. dpx'-. 6344. taltsh. S. standing for the original root AS. by the common change of s into r. xi. to be dry (cf. (i) the place where public records are kept . Cotgrave. of the verb substantive. hill. archiuum (archi[are] kept in chests and boxes . arch-angel. . (Lat. archifs. work at. Icel. but borrowed from the Lat. as at IS. prefix archiGk. a beam. Aryan formula for the 3rd pers. Mk.

metic} in Holland's Pliny (concerning Pamphilus). cf. q. See The Present State of the Ottoman Empire. argonauta. fern. to rise up. v. of GIouc. equipment. ARID. 490. Prol. Brazilian q. arma-dillo. armr. armes. whence also Gk. See Der. e. to furnish with weapons.Lat. p. 10 .) 'ArisP. arm. fit. creare (whence E. suffice. F. F. as a preposition. Skt. to shine. Lat. ^f The Goth. Lat. Rich. solstitium.' or make room. sailor. armour-y . an animal with a bony . 1. A. In Icelandic the prep. Troil. to arm. thus written separately. arGk. the pp. 207 . where s is a corruption of th. aptcfir. E. ARE. ' . apu6s. (Lat. (Span. Goth. Der.' equipments. parched. 2924. Curtius. of sistere. argis from the classical Argo. and sometimes yr in later MSS. by Sir Paul Ricaut. c. a merchant-vessel. arjuna. verbs to determine in no doubt possess See A-. of which the fern. tackLat. ' ARMADILLO. enclose. to arm. iv. Lat. 33 nected with dpyoi. John Dee. The a. from vavs. ' j j arid-ness . things kept secret.) InShak. argument-at-ive. s . L. which Fick! Der. Gk.. arm. The prefix a. argentin. by Dr. or regiment [i. armare. F. pi. ^ARG. ' get out of the way.) In very In the A. 1577. or rynt ' Rynt thee is used by milkmaids in Cheshire to a cow. 3.' Elizabeth. also armorial (F. of armare. arguere.) A quadruped lit. Several other E. but is abundantly illustrated by allied ARISTOCRACY. ' ' ' . Rob. ARGILLACEOUS. an. a ship. gives: Rynt ye. See ARM Der. ^ ARMY. secrets .] Gk. A. strength. n. clayey. cognate with E. and mod. to arm.-Gk. verb. shell. armour-er. cf. the name of Jason's ship (meaning the from dpyot.. ' ' . Doublet. arma.. from armada. . pp. xxxv. xii. arm-pit. explained as 'arith' metick by Cotgrave. q. e. Lat..' i. Span. generally written as r in mod. ARMS. q. E. used in pi. the science of numbers. S. remains in full force. t. tools of a workman. it is spelt ur. in the right way. T. b. We Doublet. armure. with suffix -itto. we find the corrupt form arsmetite. on. to clear the way. to make to stand. dimin. hidden. neut. ATi/M (i). arithmetic-ion. AR. Fick. (Span. v. Curtius. except in the prefix er-. . Cheshire Proverb. is of armer. (or ALK). 60. to fit. number. S.' Icel. L. good. gen. stand See and Stand. T. . silver. read armee. and Swed. Northum(E. The Gk. S. of dpi6/a)TiKui. corresponding to Lat. armorial. (2). 248.) C. Lat. 51 . and its place has been supplied by aus.. ment of nobles. 1. Brachet. arma-da. are probably from the Prov. 15. . See Curtius. arm. armes. Rynt you. See Argent... verb. fix .) Holland speaks of an aristocracy. aridus. white. See Argent. also earm. H.." but more probably is derived from the Low Lat. arm-let. in common use.) In M. (Lat. ARMAMENT. an AROINT THEE! T aristocrat-ic-al. and even aristocrat (not a very good from the Gk. government] of wise and noble F. ii. to shine Fick. pr. sb. to dry up. pp. are certain. ur-reisan. armed. in Arber's English Garner. (E. join . to prove. L. We find arithall ARITHMETIC. Du. In this case we . to make. of armada. argilla. 424. i. 237. ling. (F. but the right form for producing F. fit. argillacms. As. armistice. <^AR. 189. of England. fern. p. equip. afoot. it is early use as a Bible word. crude dpiaTOKparia. "a ship of Ragusa. a joint. fit. dp-en. armer. Chaucer. dp-fuvos. . to make clear. 1748. to rule. Old Eng. to rise. i. Gk. but becomes ur. 'Apyw. from. cf. suiting words in Curtius. the M.. 497 Curtius. See Arm. by merely dropping -us. pi. armed forces.!-ic. ed. reckoning. act. very common. a coined word. As a prefix in Icelandic. the form assumed in composition by statum. right. y'AR. clayey. us is used separately as ARISE. arisen. is a superlative from a form dpi-. E.before a following r. weapons .Mer. Homilies.) armoure. and its motion from the joint. Arefaction.38. such as dp-riot. It was therefore probably taken immediately from Lat.ofVen. e. landic. white. pp. a short cessation of hostilities. to keep. Cotgrave . or box a large floating vessel.. The sense is ' V I and Wright's edition. arithmetiq:. C. arma-re . to arm. quotes from dry. and risan. are connected with t:palveiv.) Modern. spelt ore. c. solstice. 36. 1638. to hit upon a thing. Arm. fut. these 790. dpy6t.' because oi its pro- tecting shell. to arm . 397. Aristocracy. Direct from the Lat. Span. proper. Ragusa is a port in Dalmatia. . The O. 11198. aristocrat-ic. arismetica. asleep. 25. verb. stem dpiaroxpaT-. 7804. Armistice is from Lat. e. C. fern. arm. armen. than that which he numbers as 4. ARMISTICE. area. artus. F. had the same preposition. to arm. ' <& D . to make room. whence Gk. of Glouc. Lat. . Mat. S. 14. forth from us himinam. and see Arena. It is right reading. weapons. In Chaucer's a large armed body of men. Lat. where he speaks of the great ships vulgarly called Argoses. arm-ful. . Gk. sing.) lit. The word has been gen. lengthens to star. 49 . Arms ARMOTJR. G. armour. Luke. ar-ithmetic. arere. to be strong. 'Aroint thee. keep. arjuna. . more conveniently " forme]. arid-it-y. 6. . out of. ut. Chaucer. Lat.' in The Petty Navy Royal. argument-at-ive-ly. by your leave. ryma. argousin is unrelated see Palmer.. the limb extending from the shoulder to the hand. prefix. armada. weapons. is (as usual) short for an. armare. dry. F. i. argument-al-ion. A. to bid her get out of the way . spelt or. and other rich laden ships. q.' i. 119 Lewis Roberts's Marchants Map of Commerce. Havelok. See also Wedgwood (Contested Etymologies) Palmer (Folk67. and -stitum. &c. supposed to be a corruption of Ragosie. 2. aristocratie. 17631. dfeiv. M. . us-. E. artnistitium *. and in Shak. 'Ap-fovavrrjs. this prefix.O. area. Curtius. At a later period the word was conformed to the Gk. bk. . Not in early use . version of Gen. (E. M. drisan. i. in his North-Country Words. which does not occur. G. expressive of the articulation of the limb." quoth Besse Locket to her mother. ar-istocracy. (F. ARMADA. i. arma. Ray. when you. Gk. Lat. to fit these are the roots numbered 2 and 3 by Fick. a fleet. and more suitable B. form) . . M. argtitus. but it is a little difficult every case the value of the prefix a-. F. armare.ARGILLACEOUS. dp-yiAos. i.) Swift's Battle of the Books. out and Goth.) M.. best. of arme. aristocrat-ic-al-ly. spelt army in Udal on St. ere he might proceed aright. create). an. to be strong. arithmetic-al-ly. p. on the E. 424. c. cf. shoulder . Camden speaks of the ' great armada. armare. c. begone ! It is a corruption of the prov. G. i. . From the argnment-at-ive-ness. E. whence Span. Gk. armour . defensive arms or dress. the tackling of a ship. Gen. Genesis and Exodus. cessation of hostilities. ar-l. arma. v.. also Skt. + + + + + + + ^AR. dpfuva. The Gk. a government of the best men a government by a privileged order the nobility.' i.-L.) Lat. witch. properly R/taguses. Matt. 211. Dan. belonging to numbers. S.. to arm. clear. find in Layamon. er-. many MSS. 49 . coast of the Gulf of Venice. i. . swift) and raunjj. Goth. Rob. Ice. also arm-i-stice. totle and other moo to argue I tanghte O. i. armee. ' . The O. F. a early use. defence. from KAR. Der. armour. . (F. arms. really a different word. e. vi. witch!' words. Lat. same root are . ' ' . whence E.' out of heaven. v. s. properly fern. (Gk. to keep.. d/xtytot. arma. to keep off. pi. iii.+ Gk. 20 . weapons. army . form of apiaros.e. fittings. to keep off.) to arm . 211. 276. but it is doubtful if it is the rare at so early a time. (trm.+Skt. the little armed one. an aristocracy the governsenate Plutarch. to stand. argentinus). -Lat. pp. 1 74. spelt or or or in old MSS. Plowman. to complete. (Lat. ARGUE. arithmetic-al. [Or the word may have been taken directly from Gk. (F. the science of numbers. Der. viii. armadillo.L. L. and Lat. armada. white. See other numerous related all from a root ap. Hulks. suit. pi.) Well known in the time of Elizabeth. to shine . E. to Gk. and see Rise. Modern. of artnaturus. to place. verb. v. Mark. armure. govern. the shoulder . armamenta. armistizio. armamentum. armare. a limb. 162. pi. Possibly related. Lat. Gk. p. exact. ir. from raj. 1900. Der. . white clay. v. 15 (Vulgate). 497 . (Lat. i. armistice. a large fleet. ' ARIGHT. 63. Grein. arme. arms. lit. (Dalmatian. with the meanings out. best and paT?v. the rule of the best-born or nobles. O. armed. ur. E. right being a substantive. The etymology of this word has been set at rest by Mr. a chest. more rarely a ship of war. has armnre. i. p. often used in the sense of in. 1675. to furnish with weapons. mus. See Arm. All from to fit. See Arm. white clay. on which Clark and Wright note: 'Argosy denotes a large vessel.9. arm-less. of armor. 424. in right . (F. See Right. Icel.. in N. arcere.) Not in In Smollet's Hist. 1588. where ur. Gk. E. 19. O. arguer. earm.in this case is equivalent to Goth. and Q. to arm. Caravels. Lat. but it is wholly lost in mod. i. ARGONAUT. Gk. vi. arms. armada. B. and Span. to arise. rynt ye. 15. belonging to arms Cotgrave). to 7. Curtius. it is spelt or-. to arise Grein. neut.i. part. prove by argument. Der. i. formed by reduplication from stare. (Lat. Lat. of armar. Layamon. a secondary verb. from arcere. apffpov. 123. arm. Lat.) Lat. from Lat. ' . to shine Fick. with suffix -mentum. Etymology). See protect. to fit. ' swift Argonaut. begone! (Scand. apiaro-. A. cf. all from Lat. which is the E. a merchant-ship.' The former is surely the more correct view. ^ARK protect. ' Cf. Der. excellence. (F. to parch. a'-. Tancock. 239. Lat. rajata. joint. armisticio . O. .is the prefix which commonly appears as us-. further altered to arsmetrH. argent-ine (F. See Arm. limb. and the word is very O. a ship-man. L. form of A. Morris. to be dry. Lat. one who sailed in the Argo. 1. ar-ticle. Ital. army. not in the dictionaries . F. armeure. AROINT THEE! i. x.) brian arm. abed. aparta*. S. ' she has been milked.) M... ' . dpifl/iiyriK^. or of some few of the greatest men in the state Cot. i. join. Argonai. and Cowper's Homer's Iliad. an ' armed fleet . stand hanclsomly [i. Low Lat. as suggested by Fick. note in Clark Macbeth. v.Gk. Der. T. see these words. to arm. make clear cf. . one who sailed in the ship Argo. Lat. arcanus. G. i. armatnra. artnata. white. arma-ment.' Thus aright is for ' on Cf. See Arms. to hit upon a thing. dpiaros.' and especially the earlier quotation about Ragusyes. ARGOSY. arcana. i. Der. argu-ment.) ' XT he mihte fusen a riht. (F. p.

fromnom. backward. e.-L. ring. had fear of the duke. ABBEABS. rond. what raysoun he hade. spelt arripare in a 9th cent. and r/ro.F.. archibugio is itself a borrowed word. and stare. T. iv. from. in -ant. Der. aragnier.Gk. 248. 2 Hen. C. arriver. Matzner and in Jamieson's Scot. harqueSee Diez's buse.ro/io. and was afraid to die Destruction of Troy. see Bouse. a ring or circle of O. p. Kn. reisoner. equipment (Grein. ii. arriv-al. to equip. (F. O. juice. to plough. common in I4th century . So named tapestry. a rank. It seems to me clear that the Icel.] What we now express See Bear and see arriere in Brachet. unknown but the word occurs apaifia. Chaucer. Etym. ' Swed. plead. G. ad. and aryen in cf. rcede. plete in the line As this extravagant and errant rogue. a spice. notoriously bad. F. 405. (Hybrid E. let. ring. to make trappings. warlike apparatus.) pounded of re. and restore. orig. to equip. ' Life of Beket.(imitation of the Lat. col. &po(iv. a break . will be observed that the sb. arrange. where d. arwe coward = arch (or arrant) coward. to set in order. of Glouc. in -and was easily confused with the F. 775- Berners. This North. besides. AROMA. roond.) M. 829 (or 837). In the same way. mod. 3. Round is from O. ii. see Ergh . Pricke of Conscience. renger. but this will not account for the O. S. ' ' . F. pt. Lect. S. arresten. Diet. . so that it was difficult Another suggestion is that the hook was a trigger. to array. before a following r) to the sb. 241. F. pres. see Rich. Herbert's Travels. s. I. O. to array .' c. A Farewell to Town (R. get ready. roi. of Lat. Dan. apparatus. ad) . See further under Arch. baggage . E. qu. . to make way. 2162. ear. Icel. a gun-barrel. 0. ' . c. arquebuse from Ital. ' He arayned hym ful runyschly. O.). from halten. v. on all sides of. i. from the Gk. rang. arrangeAlso ' . preto take aim. bk. i. I. 354. debts unpaid and still due. These Scandinavian words of which come close to the Icel. clasp. hrinc. a-. It stands for arghand. ii. put in a rank. cf. Rob. the Rynt ye is an easy corruption of rime ta. haakbus.. account. decamp. 425.(older form red-). not only in the sense of sweet herbs. y. Act v. A. orig. E. A. 1. See Beady. . Plowman. 10. a-. derationare. cognate with E. ' . hybrid of Lat. of France. suffix -age. ARRAIGN. according to Burguy . as the soft 6 would so easily drop out. 3340. an Elizabethan poet. areisnier. 1. to range. to . Q. navian origin. (E. Prol. 4. 36. cognate with E. 1 66. aresteir. G. which was bent or hooked. prep. are three equivalent ^f It expressions containing the same root. file . e. afoot. affairs.) Better spelt arack or arac. Morris. L. or a rere (in two words). (F. de. ergjaslt. Pref. derriere) is from Lat.) Used by Barnes. arere by For examples of arrearages. to rouse up. and adv. ripa is ' a rift. F. However.. ^f Brachet derives F. aryuen. 9 (R. to stay. E. to be Antenor arghet with austerne wordes. rotundas. Black. (F.) F. whereas the oldest hand-guns had the barrel and butt all in one straight line. ' Der. arainen. Fabyan has oyntmentis and aromatykes . borrowed from Gk. the more pp. ^ . ABBANOE. arredium. adripare. remain.) from Arras. by arrearages or arerages. conroi. . order.and Stand and see Best. N. a ring. F. is modem in use but the adj. put on one's trial. and sometimes backward P.) Used by Nicholas ' .. a sweet smell. a hook. to rime. to become a coward.) Spenser has arownd.) M. ABBIVE. preparation. : . an outfit. deriere (mod. O. [Similarly. . a gunB. (F. and See the note also in arribare in an nth cent. a kind of gun. of Glouc. (Lat. in its commonest use as short for an. Bing. order. and somme arrere = sometimes on one side. Chaucer. a hook. which is a significant word. esp. arrear and cf. shore. in Artois. L. arenen (with one r). 9. . F. F. a sweet herb. 1665. v. AROUND. The prefix is the common E. v. viously unused. timid. its root plesand in Barbour's Bruce mod.' that which makes more ' ' .) So arrant a thefe (better) spelt arrand. renc.) The sb. The prefix is a needless addition . vii.-Du.) ' M. gun. speak. arreter) given by Burguy s. and to make ready. C. mod. Grafton. E. ariiien. on . to (which becomes a in O. S. ger&de. ingeniously suggests that the orig. Chapman. E. signifying backward. He also Walloon gives the spelling harquebuse. followed E. Rob. iv. Of Scandi- Kn. xxiv. ' . S. a word closely allied to Arch. e. . reida. sc. reach at in (F. p. pleasant. ad Brachet. They are even found as late as in Spenser. (it for v) . bk. y. which is older and better. arrai. verb argh. verb. ' ' . e. of a clumsy make. p.' id. lest they might too soon become very slow d-eargedon who has . Formed prepare. See Dialect of Mid. Lat. (Lat. (slothful) and become very timid.arere (with one r). prefix (Lat. and bus. which point to the special arrangements for a journey. bk. esp. of the Northern E. See Hackbut. he 'aray. Howell.34 AROMA. F. where it was first made. A. arquebuse. ARROGATE. abed. roi seems to be rare.. to range. (F. apparel both 8. backward. signifies enand corresponds to a verb room larger. E. steir (Lat. is derived from strengthened by the very form of the word. (F. from ' ' cowardly to L. aromatic is found rather early. to stand. distillation. i. greiia. . [Similarly O. are closely allied to A. Poems. arroi. an harquebuse. E. ready. participles in -and. dialectal variation of Du. an. ' . ace. de la langue Wallonne.Yorkshire. C. Malory's Morte origin. backward and we ourselves use the word rear still. ii.and Scand. as in Sir T. reidi.. for remarks on the forms of thou. F. Allit.e. pt. answering to Gothic as. sb. knavish.. Icel. 5T For further examples of the verb argh. a the addition of the F.' The simple sb. mischievous. tool called a rimer. a'-. 45. to speak to. around. do thou make more room where ta is a form frequently heard instead of thou in the North of England. ARREST. on every side. and reisner. ad. arrangement. ABBAY. O. a-. Clough Robinson. reason. &c. M. . romme. P. asleep. mod. timid . Lat. : . all words directly borrowed from Icel. in the rear . = 8. ariere. xxiv (E. i. Gk. g. in his Byron's Tragedy. Lat. . eargian. 348. and ripa. use. set in a rank. by prefixing or. Plowman. Some tyme aside. Icel. back. of French Sir. the hook is said peculiarity in the make of it. modem . ed. Brachet. such as barley and others Science of Language. The M. bank.see Arise. rive. The 6 or d is preserved in Low Lat. areinen. comLat. formed from M. duke and of his dethe fere = Antenor turned coward at his threatening words. to decide. by Diez. implements. ' ARROGATE.' alluding to some barrel. clear. Cf. ' ' . to come to a place. 1 1 88 . so that arghand became arrant.F. essence. araqa. 325 . The word means gun with a hook. xii or knight errant. towards the shore. Curry. or hand-gun Cot. used 16 times by Shakespeare. P. by Grandgagnage. ' ' ' . Du. E. aranier. i. arrange. = they feared. the name of an ardent spirit used in the East. similarly the Low Lat. that it See Ear. O. Grein. F. In Webster's Diet. to reason. prepared. rede. aryen. to remove. arroier. in the Northumbrian dialect. whence E. E. Low Lat. arayngen. See Bive. S. service. Scottish graithe. was supported but the arquebuse was an unsupported hand-gun.is an intensive prefix. rationem. rymma.' We find. Diet. O.) arere is always an adverb. earg. 18. 266. 297.. also. E. H. i. preparation. Icel. Arghand is the pres. arier. Hen. implements. who traces the word. reson. order. (Scand. and buchse. . 1 1 1 7 . sweat sweated. cowardly. to put into a rank. to. word is the real origin. and rangier.. which is clear and sufficient. to reason out. and greidi. E. c. stand. harness of a horse. H. Ta. also. Froissart. Ta. araien. an arquebuse. S. but we have the compounds arroi. it was confused with the 'word trrant. p. ABOTJSE. rigging of a ship . by C. 742. but see Milton. Der. rai. ARRACK. or comto stop. greidr. In Shak. Q. . G. M. the ripam. discourse with 191. ^[ The Lat. E. There is thus a probability. arraign. i. to the bank. 1946. See Be. ed. Swed. Low see Chaucer. arraien. O. C. arengier. ready . rifa. decide. to come to the shore. arrangement. M. F. in Diet. (Arab. This Walloon word is a 278. pres. v. stare). advice. F. cognate with E. a ring or circle of people. and F. D. equipage. and retro. gun exactly parallel to G. so that a-rmind is for on round. by people ment. is the entry distilled spirit. pi. sense cf. F. to lay claim to. &c. reason. 54. S. to cite. to stay (mod. See Reason. and imitated from that in arise. shews the confusion com' A. arraign-ment. furniture. to have been the name given to the forked rest upon which the gun. Breton. chartulary . VI. see Harbour's Bruce and the ' ' ' ' . 440) ready. Ital. . produced the now obsolete darraign. aroma-t-ise. arraier. ad. iv. towards. text. hakenbuchse..) Gen. prefix (Lat. to graithe. Southern M. B. Alisaunder.F. ad. &c. literal signification being sweat in allusion to its production by ' Arab. raison. account. pt. See Bank. arester. haai. Weber. O. F. array is really older than the verb. aroma-t-ic. in a round or circle. tackle.. tackle. ed. to). . q. which is the A. archibugio. as in 'he araynged his men . O. which has passed through a similar change of meaning. being unrecognised. form of arraign is arrationare . get out of the way. aroma. Lat. ariver. the M. it. iv. For further remarks. F.' Arab. implements or equipage of war . fearing. In Palmer's Pers. (F. 293..) In Shak. rigging. Haml. to seize. 8th ed. g. ^f The word is sometimes shortened to Back. . c. juice. E. conroier. arredo. Had doute of the cowardly. Next. spelt. assume. . though I suspect roi may rather have meant ' tackle.' ' and to be a coward )>set hy to ratte a-slawedon hy ondredon . iv. and the reference seems to be rather to the shape of the gun. the word is certainly Scandinavian. i. reda. O.) monly aresten . E. by arrears is always expressed in M. earh. Lat. hartibuse. ii. on the in general. stem O/XU^OT-. . to plough. spelt arrivaile in Gower. no doubt meant to be intensive. F. decamp Dan.' &c. spelt with one r. rigging. Der. IV. glitterand. get out of the way.-O. used of deciding by combat or fighting out a quarrel . Stratmann and [#] See Bound. 409. From the Arabic word 'araq. ed. prefix ar-. in K. i.] ' ' .) a. form of A. L. ARBATfT. K. ABBAS. xii. graith. to call to account. first used in the phrase errant knights Arthur. the form assumed by ad. but likewise in that of field-fruits Max Miiller. caleever. Fick. For pres. prep. graitk. used for enlarging holes in metal. Hence to array. knavish. in ' ABQUEBTJS. ready. It is more commonly id. Late Lat. shewing that it was originally a seaman's term.

arsenicum. add to. Der. The two words together trade word being . arrogat-ion . Ancren Riwle. See further under Are. ar-ticulation. pt. name of this and root if the following note be correct. articiocco. in allu[This Gk.) A.. eart. 2 p. articulat-ion. a small item. Diet. (F. ii. artus. article. alchemy. Florio gives the spellings Cf. q. Icel. i-aAXeo.) ARSE. C. Ital. 171. eal swit means both 'just so and 'just as. It is found in M. arrogantem) arrogant. formed in its turn from Lat. ' ness which are treated of separately. 39. 239 .) The E. knuckle. art. long before the invention of gunpowder. an also spelt ataraarsenal. Wedgwood says Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of for the equipment and armament of vessels. a contrivance. 209. art-ful-ness.ARROW. archiciocco. Cycl. . a tube or pipe conveying blood from the heart.. Curtius. 1. p. (with one r) Chaucer. which is shorter than the E. artitus. in remarks upon Havelok.) Milton. art-isan. 62. applied to a well. p. De Superbia. 24. Take D 2 . A. arsenic-al. 1 1. suffix -ul. See Rogation. . as is a corruption of also... Cf. skill. . ARTILLERY. akin to arewe. F. ' (Scand. is a mere corruption from ' ' . S. cabbage. Curtius. 423. arrogance. hang from see Curtius. spelt artiehatilt by Cotgrave. . Englished from F. method.4. Plowman. Arts and Sciences. ars. L. America were accustomed to apply the juice extracted from another species of Maranta the Maranta galanga. . which was employed as an antidote to the poison in which the arrows of hostile tribes were dipped Eng. These wells are made adj. archicioffb . See Eng. and also art-ijice. vi. The final -/ is merely formative. Der. joint).E. ars. i . in Gower. ii. Du.e. and footnote.-L. Gk. a joint or principall clause. . iii. crude form of artifex. S. 107 . a limb. (Gk. artillare. the windpipe also. Lat. fitting. 1 2. E. derived from artem through articulus. the supposed root being to keep off. when found. art. arcenal. according to Diez. Cf. distinct. spelling.in forming compounds.) Old Law French see Blackstone's Comment. a claw. Lat. skill. art-ist.. the moon. before r) . v. word lit. in the i6th century. B. areas. a house. a little joint chiefly applied to articulate speaking. F. the windpipe. AS relative pronoun. L. col swd. atarazanal. pp. . . Der. to fit.' ARSENIC. from Lat. Lat. which appears in orvar. member of a senthe lit. ' A . (E. arwe ARROW. exact. to make. Gk. or of the word (pi. whence it was introduced into F. y'AR. Seven Sages. cunning. .) Holland speaks of that very place where now the arsenall and shipdocks are Livy. Lat.. 248 A. . also. ddr. cited ARROW-ROOT. the same as articulare. Arabic. F. artigliare. Grein. (8th ed. which Cotgrave. but exthe box as stands in the first Pickwick Papers. S. akin to Icel. rishaba.late-ly. I fasten to. ars . pose the word simply refers to the strength of the mineral. F. a bow .' a place for making things. artifici-. artict. . s. jointed. ' . is .'~\ Span. in any case. E. Curtius. Gk..-L. foreign. verb . to ask. art-ful. ar-ithrnetic. e. following the F. of France. artichaut. arsus. dimin. also carciocco. 1674. 336 and in Floriz and BlauncheO. arsenic. and artilries. mighty. to arsiun. 16 . where these wells were first brought into use at an early period. Chaucer. 144 also ') als mani as = as many as. handicraft. of Bnmne. everything necessary Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the Arab. to make machines. speaks of castiles. Artifice is in Milton. b. sense being a little joint. Prol. Northumpres. Cynara scolymus. The word was used to include crossbows. a missile shot from a bow. a joint. arlillement.' See Also. F. aprijpta. and rogare. C. a dockyard and darsena. ix. a province in the N. From Kick. art-less- Layamon. Shak. errand. an artisan.. written separately. to fortify. Group G. (E. an esculent plant. ers P. (F. dock-yard a longer form appears in Span. and armure. ARTESIAN. p. (Span. art.. b. [Perhaps rather from Span. a poisonous mineral. 778. iii. P. Observe the Fick. arroga-re. arteri-al. artem. artiller. Artesian well. articulus. alse. a maker of ma. alswa and al so.' (2). v. to adopt. articulate pp. art and facere. . incendiarism. title or point of a matter. Arab. mod. O. Lat. arte. c. atarazana and Ital. Plowman. arteria. of or belonging to Artois. shoot . as. iv. M. That these are all one and the same word. ARK. arsun. in his Tale of Melibeus. to ( = arof. and other maner edifices. to fit. ar'di shaiiH. distinct. to make a verb inferred from the word artillator. of artus. crude form of ars. also spelt ross. ed. ARTISAN. arrogare. . L. 521. arrogant. means male sion to the extraordinary alchemical fancy that some metals were of ' ' signify ' : . See Art. L. E. . into words and syllables not jumbled together. spelling artichoux for the plural [He seems have been thinking of F. Chaucer. the shoulder-joint. The successive spellings are A. 403. preparation is derived from the use to which the Indians of S. 2. arroganc-y. order. was feminine. C. Northumb. bows. a workman. &c. iv. ace. base ofaparjv. which from Lat.) Chaucer speaks of It was one of the four 'spirits' in ar.] also. art-illery. ed. S. P. . Arrow-root. later art See Ardent. (F. . F.' I cannot understand . a male a man. drr. Cyclopaedia. p. The A. an article in grammar Formed. E. limb..) M. from. choke See Arc. (F. a joint. an arrow.) below. cunning. ^ cf. . to claw. root i. 1.+Swed. artitianus (not found). to . . AS. from ^AS. Persones Tale. clear. a cellar where wine is kept zana. xx. an artichoke Rich. flur. carcioffb. See Art. g. an arsenal. a joint. -ate also (from Lat. ' ARTICLE. apaiv-. equivalent to articulare . cynara Levins. and Dan. 142. Lat. to a late Lat. i. artem. has artificer. a bull Curtius. Icel. : (lit. P. a farinaceous substance. Arab.) A ' . ofrpof. Zend arshan. John. v. v. arrogance the adj. by Diez. aprtos. col. arhwazna. Eph. form is artfre. Madden. A. artillerie. (E. prompt. viz. c. . 106 and see Milton. swift. art. The ar. 6694 older.(Aryan -io) and dim. s. . + + ARTICULATE. This corresponds. an article a head. Cot. Low Lat. O. S. From the same have ar-m. Der. p.] Palmer's Pers. 493 . a joint though both are from y'AR. I come. 5. ' ' . explains by an Arcenall. to go.-L. 569. Mandeville's Travels. ^f The pretended Arab. of the verb substantive. mechanic older spelling arlisien Ital. Holland has the Pliny. A. -f. Der. we a . . (Ital. an artery consequently the E. i. of P. ad. also called luna. pi. L. Art. [f] O. ddr a cina'a see Engelmann and Dozy. but from ar/s. Lumby. verb.' Cot. ariificium. . 427.stands for as-. art-less-ly. ars is. art-ist-ic-al. i. Gk. adj. And see 104. ovpa. The & sb. is properly applied to such as are produced by boring through an impermeable stratum.' tence. and these again with Lat. [So in Italian we find arzanale or arzana. T. . a craft. Neither is ar7lare.) M.' . Weber als. .+M. different sexes. artful (a dubious word). darsena are the best forms. 101 and artificial. and is a familiar fact to all who are acquainted with Middle English. (F..) In Blount's Gloss. oars. G. The Span. tirt-ist-ic. brian ar'S. See Article.'O. Lect. attribute to. ^AR. and the adj. S. article. workmanship. xx. workman. alcachofra. Gk. given by Ducange. tr. nom. to burn. Lat. C. pp. apamKuv. artifice. artigiano. 403.' corrupt form. artus. 23.. hence. from Lat. a workman. whilst silver. [The F. Skt. Speech is articulate when distinctly divided into joints. Bosworth. Others supGk. defend . ' see Fick. Chron. earn. and explained . (Lat. A. to go.Another view is to connect A. Lat. fitted. and other plants. arson. See Arm. . name. the arm . arrogant-ly. Der. Bacon and Ford use artsman (R.) F. (E. iv. ters. G. . O.) an artery. Lat. . al swa. arrow-y. T. conjunction and adverb M. Der. A. art-. al swa. e. s. which is plainly the Ital.L. older form earh. I hasten.) by boring till the water is found . i. Shak.being altered to fie. Diet. be . arewe. ready. B. E. Artesien. and the -t. . Ip-xo/jai. ace. 21 .Icel.-L. 715 Shak. arvan means a horse. (F. 230 (where als means alse. in such a way that the water. . ed.. artochocke. 3. also called Sol. ARTERY. e. See Max Miiller. Lat. John. orvar) with Goth. In other words. has been proved by Sir F. the rump cf. ' ^AR. and no part of the original word. p. See Art and Pact. knuckle.] Ital. and cind'at. word is not from French. ace. 1083 . S. arrngatus. to supply with joints. 159. Der. i. A. T. also. ' Maranta arvndinacea. the buttocks. the stem fac. al harshaf.) Rob. from articulus. Ayenbite of Inwyt. 270. R.] but orig. Lat. art-ist-ic-al-ly. M. and arod. (E. c. was masculine. provincially. form Brachet. 562. C. ar-ticle. a dart.) ' common . 442.. gunnery great weapons of war. i. distinct from the next word. male. or divide by joints. skill. als.) + . iii. id. Ital. Port. Gold. send. iv. The Lat. also. arteri-al-ise. pres. 60. stem of ars. Perhaps connected with dpraa. H.' ar-ticulate. strong. ' . choux. contrivance. arrogans. much 55 . (L. ' ARTIFICE. Grein. pp. (F. equip Roquefort. 142. i. art. Skt. a limb . artisan. an. a Roquefort. Pers. tremely Considered vulgar. K. i. The varying forms are due to the ' ' ARSENAL. P. . ri. articulate. ART (2). fit. a wet dock. to ask (see Abbreviate) Lat. an artito Arab. overflows at the outlet. 434. or. articulatus. i. machines or equipment of war see quotation in Roquefort s. &c. the crime of burning houses. v. . Romeo. ARTICHOKE. chines. ardere. by help of suffix -c. an arrow. article. articulus. ' The fire-place firste soudan [sultan] was Zaracon. ardoir. i. O. the same root is E. AS . Italian. an arsenal. arliglio. magazine. ' . F. odd .ii. Works. coll. 248. S. pp. artifici-al-ly also artific-er. arsch. as was fadre to Salahadyn. of ars. F. artifici-al. 121. . arti-. art. i. 16. I. Arab. of articulare. iii.) Gower has artificer. Span. the tail . for articulus is not derived from artem. so is Formed with suff. The Skt. artillerist. is the initial letter of 'S-u. . Lat. 371. p. v. 175.) (i). to fit. earh. swift. v. . . Langtoft. thou. a rope-walk. a house of art or construction. alcachofa. &c. -S. 306. L. made from the root From arrow of the Maranla Arundinacea. 70 al so.' Ibn Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Mr. by him as an artichock. ars. machines ARSON. a name occurring in Dioscorides. 146. Der. the obvious source of it. K. the sun. 5ss. arsenal. a part of speech. ars.enik. Lat. Gk. art-less. a magazine for naval stores. skill. ^[ ' What Brachet means by making artillare burn ART (i). than from F.

particles er and sent. the Lat. prov. ASHLAR. an intensive prefix. G. aiefa>la\ov. occurs once in poetry. Lat. Diet. = he had a daughter as was named atti d(5ttur eina. which is little used." due to confusion with and native E. H. cert. borrowed. Icel. received. askes. 160 . where a is short for an. of ash. Owl and Nightingale. also.) The pi. from O. Ashore is for a shore. ascertaine. 209. Wedgwood quotes the following sent' ence from the Livre des Rois Entur le temple . equivalent to assnla. axes. In countries where stone is scarce. Pope. M. euin aislair without directioun of his rewill = cannot hew a straight ashlar without drawing a line with his rule to guide him. St. Adscititiotis. one who is rigidly self-denying in religious observances . but on sidis hond in Mk. 13. on one side. as sb. pi. being aschen. 495. I split. nify It is also used in carpentry ' to signify the short upright pieces of wood placed in the roof of a house to cutoff the acute angle between the joists of the floor and the rafters . 0. asken. ascendenc-y . ^f Ashlar is sometimes used to denote stones in the rough. p. . or squared stone.) Gibbon speaks of ' the ascetics . and should never have been inserted. assella.+ Du..' and so ASAFCETIDA. 1. (Lat. a little board. asches. and Vigf.' It is clear that the facings of stone. while askes is in Hampole's Pricke of Conscience. but only the relat. See Certain. Hence ashamed answers either to A. aska. from Lat. i. incidental. covered withatt. ASCEND. 2. as adj. to write. ad. c. as shewn in the woodcut in the Eng. a little plank . Parv. find out. ASBESTOS. to Der. ' ' meaning a little board. house) as the king was in. . adj. E. aislair. ' . asch G. cesc. of dscamian. ascertain. a shingle for roofing also. derived from the sb. an axletree. See Scribe. Grein. 14861. S. a word for which Mr. G. assis is also sometimes spelt axis. er. ofscamod. 10. to (which becomes a. ' ' Science. called in French aisselles . practise. + + + + + + . who Scandal. ASHES. Wedgwood. as given by Cotgrave for aisselle. to climb. axe. an arm-hole also. ascensus. industrious. the case of the S. See remarks by Curtius on this curious verb. 36 . aissele (Bartsch. so called from the use of ashes by penitents.' Acertener is a coined word. but no verb ascendre. pp. a spar.-L. p. in building. in Ecclesiastical writers. The Lat. ASIDE. to attribute. as. azgo. sioan es. extinguish. 178. Burnet. p. impute. ' The Icelandic has no Icel. ' . ofasciscere. 177. has on shore. 58. asce. or made ashamyd. from ascitus.S. v. ascertain-able.. mod. Aschamyd. iv. to jump (reduced to a.' Here too it is clear that the term was previously used in carpentry of the small upright pieces which.) M. See ca<v. [There is a F. a strong plank or board. called ashlers. ascripl-ion. asce.before and scribere. Icel. y. and a diminutive of assis.' He also gives: ' Aisselle. (3. of the older F. Cf. scire. This is re' markably exemplified by the entry in Cotgrave's Dictionary : Aissil. ' ' : : ' ascetic-ism. ' Origin unknown. Lat.) thin slabs of stone used to face the brick and rubble walls of buildings Eng. a strict hermit. ' Coined.) growing in Persia. rel. So called because it is incombustible. cf. axilla. 39. assch Chaucer. 1. Diet. aaictiv. 2. G. ^f It is also by means of this relative that we can account for the -ce at the end of sin-ce. as it See examples in Cleasby and Vigfusson's Icel. ii.. a fibrous mineral.) It occurs in the Lamen- 37 a poem later than Chaucer. the orig. E. F. given to exercise. prefix the place a. after that. It is the Ferula assaftetida. Der. ASHLER. Parv. Der. Gk. to climb. to assure . In this case also. the latter being a true F. and see Matzner. thin piece ' or shingle of wood . S. ascend. or dscaiiiod. (Gk. d-. receive from without. aisselle and to the derivative ashlar is interesting and conclusive. . asche. though ascendent is purely Latin) . applied to an athlete. M. aisselle. certain.commonly answers to G. around the temple was a wall of three rows of well-polished ashlars. aiselle. Goth. ' Hann Dictionary. lit. is shame. see Curtius. ' also. id. it is made up of F. ascrib-able. assnla. 8. affected by shame. E. aske. i. E. adj. . ad). used in (5. or by hemself. axe. asydis-hond 34 'he expounyde to his disciplis alle thingis on sidis hond.'] Lat. p. us-. (E. mount up. plank. supplemental. the dust or relics of what is burnt. E. as it were. shaving.Wednesday. sidan er. A. also. to affect by shame. 424. fol. sc) ASH. da/a]TiK6s. F. 'unquenchable. ASHAMED. Wyclif has in Gal. Hence observe that Cotgrave has mixed the two forms together in his explanation of aisselle . Mary Magdeleine. to jump. an armpit. asche. The Scot. esch.(Lat. v. The way in which the use of Lat. Goth. an umbelliferous plant. almost all the garrets in London ' are built in this way . q. O. G. common in forming incho' ative or inceptive verbs in Latin. Pers. exercise . Der. (Gk. aaQfaros. in some places. as if from Lat. but was probably in use. i. also points out the connection with Gk. See Der. The Persian name is dzd (Rich. * relat. asgd. &c. but sometimes printed with his works. the far commoner ' as long as. 15. axm. Richardson. just as they come from the quarry. C.' O. s. . aisselle. p. rel. to learn. This confusion on Cotgrave's part has somewhat thrown out Mr. to certifie. Cycl. Fran9. P 8.) Thesis an idle addition to the word. osc M.' Prompt. adorn. ascension. is for a Lat. to Skt. the name of a tree. Yet the spelling ascerlayn occurs in Fabyan. cleave. fud un murs de treis estruiz de aiselers qui bien furent polls. (F. Hamilton's Catechism. Lat. esche. also written adsciscere. Curtius. Cl. a plank. pp. aiseler. to make certain. 341. . name being dies cinerum. . Gk. E. Shak. unsuited as it is for stone' : stone. Swed. Gk. 25). (E. Root unknown. ' ASCITITIOTJS. H. Dan. ascititius (not used). -afl(OT6t. both indeclinable . sithen-s . and appears to be the same word as axis. ashamed ' . C. 934. (Hybrid . ASCERTAIN". or broken piece of marble (Vitruvius). K'OI. aska. qu. (E. assure. asch. p. Again. ad-. were preceded by similar facings of square shingles of wood. The clue to understanding the word is to remember that the use of wood preceded that of stone. ascriptus. the The verb scamian. B. . acertainer. a single. axan. negative prefix . p. assis. -anus) from the O. 1 1. an ashler. G. we find he entered into such an ascetic course. This word is evidently an extension. ashler principally consists of L. Der. v. of F. the Lat. H.before sc). i. such as houses are. is from Lat. (Lat. 2924.+ Dan. Cotgrave gives binding stone. 417 (now foolishly spelt ^ + . a little boord. y. esch. See Shame. Again. though the form descendre is used for to descend. Lat.' See ASHORE. es. aisiele (Burguy). v. or shingle of wood. Ashlering is used in masonry to sig' the act of bedding in mortar the ashler above described . I quench. Chaucer. . acerter. tescan. being hewn. a dissyllabic word. the contemplation of divine things and for that purpose. Ashler. to make ashamed . ascenders. aske. sb. This would point back to form ofscamod. mortify the body.) For on side.+O. esp. bind together the sloping rafter and the horizontal joist. Dn. determine. (F. ii. an axle-tree but aisselle. pron. and Swed.). must be named from an axe. Hist. on shore. It is to be suspected that the popular mind had an idea that the stones. adj. this instance. in Todd's Johnson. pp. 207. ' ' . 214. where the prov. (E. tre. which was used in phrases like seemed to have also somewhat of a relative force. often written a-schamed. aschamed. pp. ascendant to pair off with descendant. ascendent. tation of (Lat. T. E. pi. or shingle of wood. ascribere. derived from others. .' Kersey's Diet. Bale has assarlened Image. ascend. Grein. Abp. 37. e. It is a corpron. assula has been transferred to F. ofschamed. i. to one side. ASCRIBE. coined to pair off with descent.. Lat. Gram. O. ascd M. i. which is formed from ' scire by the addition of the ending -sco. a form which Burguy notes (s. sometimes spelt axis. ' ' ASIDE. and the prefix <i. Cotgrave has acerlener. ' : ASCETIC. ash-en. aisselle (Cotgrave). an A. F. id.) ashore. pp. 60. 13.c. Gk. dimin. askr.. and Lat.. Origin unknown. er Unnr het ' Unnr. and scandere. form of on. F. word. ascens-ion. ascenstts . signifying which. the dim. Luke. used precisely as the mod.) M. as is duly alluded to. pp. but in Northern Eng.as equivalent to of-. C. to make ashamed. with suffix -am (Lat. . cert) as having been used by Marot. he quotes from mason can nocht hew ane . Icel. a medicinal gum. ascent (Shak. 143. from afiiwviu. the Lat. who employed themselves in. the usual pi. osi. closely related to Gk. where we might say : Shoreham's Poems. sure. Temp. to work. In the Life of Bp. Icel. pron.' The adjective was 'applied by the Greek fathers to those who exercised themselves in. dimin. c. pt. skand. ASAFCETIDA. . word adown. Thus asken appears in the (Southern) Ancren Riwle. asbest-ine. s. E. and incombustible. The form dscamian.) Chaucer has ascensioun and ascended. Grein. Icel. to know . who devoted themselves to.) added. ' Hann gekk til herbergis bess er konungr var inni = he went to the harbour (shelter. admit. aske. 8. a facing made of squared stones. or lit. of axis. 'Homer has been reckoned an ascititioas name. to climb up to. b. Esche. T. cutting. one who exercises an art. and the square shape of these pieces gave rise to the notion of transferring the term ashler to Bouttice. Jamieson quotes ' ' houses biggit a" with estler stane = houses all built with squared asche. x. esche .36 Mandeville. after he had succeeded in tracing back the word to F. Prol. to take in. 10. v.+lce\. So also in a-bed. stinking. ash-y Ash.' i. c. Gk. p. H. 131. which is not recorded. asch. Hence. to write down to one's account pp. ashlering. fcetida. by suffix -er. Again. Chrest.) In Holland's Pliny. in above. to and sciscere. Cycl. sing. A. er-. ruption of es. is in we may consider the prefix a. O. and the adj. as is used still. Lat. asgon. from Ramsay's Poems. quenchable. certain. which means a chip. Der. ad. to jump upwards. ais. separated themselves from all company with the world . verecundatus . sure. ascan . not innate . sense is a small board or plank. 65) . sure. This is probably because they are destined to be used as ashlar-stones. Lat. of assis. (E. i. uaicr]r/is. refers to its offensive smell.xxxvii. spellings are estler. and the -s at the end of the corresponding M. a-sleep. O. 5 a And ' : A again. SKAND. 14863. ASSAFCETIDA. of ofscamian. ' ' . a board. prefix being indeterminate. But we also find M. certain is a lengthened form. D. Little used. fraxinus Prompt. cerlns. from some accident of his life . See Fetid. scamu.

s. ASKEW. i. . 831. Asken is in Ancren Riwle.) ' Blazing cressets fed With naphtha and asphaltus . Gk. blow. xi. schiancio. ed. to (which becomes a. were we to mix up with the present word the totally ' different word askaunce. Manx essyl (Williams). she-ass.) has aspick. prov. F. . sb. * dilly (Halliwell). . Curtius. Russ. ad. towards (which becomes a. G. Poems. form asprete occurs in Ancren Riwle. I. . sey. spnrgas. to Lat. asp. ii. . sprinkle. (F.S. to Gk. The Celtic languages have W. G. also. Generally L. wry. Lat. <esp. wish. supposed to be allied to G. In the Romaunt of the Rose. P.] Lat. i. G. 296. affodill. BoswOrth.-L. abed. i. en lorgnant. asThe Gk. The contracted O. aspir-ate (i. (F. sense is on the slope. + + + . roughness. word is probably of foreign origin in phalt. . dcsian. pr. rush forward.in Lat.being short for an.-Gk. da<f>6S(\os. the word has been oddly corrupted into daffodil and even into daffadown' . as aspen is there an adjective. a garden vegetable. Root undetermined. suffocation. 1038. It stands for on slonte. aspect directly. tombe en partage (Burguy). of which the Dan.) ' ' In thin aspect ben alle aliche . iii. As usual.' Shak.. aspe (O. a shoot. S. (Gk. da<pvKros. as she lookt a sconce. to besprinkle . ape. ix. cf. eischen mod. a bituminous substance. [*] ' But he on it lookt scomefully askew awry. loo. rush forth. asaillir. to demand. . . on the slant. Pant. 354. glance whence Swed. and askew means on the skew. apuszis ASPERITY. 40. allied to E. asse. Gk. aspirat-ion. wish. and ' ' related to O. p. . oblique. H. Lat. tip. asken.) F. Swed. He adds that asparag is found in modern Persian. (F. See above. sense is ' sprout. uses aspectys in the old ' ' astrological sense.Ital. assailen. Teutonic. A.) For ' on slope. also aps Icel.' And since it is sometimes represlank-. wish Fick.) obliquely. Gk. ASPEN. about the word is that it is so widely spread. ichchhd. who adds Lettish apsa. T. the phrase was probably suggested by the use of Icel. C. Gk. Lat. i)an. a dolt. ISK. E. asinus contracted. 411. ed.' so that a stands for Lat. to leap. pp.) Spenser. with the very sense required. : eiscon. like others in -ian. ak\opai. iii.H. for which reason it is. 1 10. A. before s) Lat. Gower speaks of ' serpent. . Also Formerly written sperage sparage or sparagus . blockhead. with tremulous leaves. ' 1. (Lat. aska. Der. (Lat. and the sb. to seek to aspire unto . all apparently Also Lat. adj. eisgdn . xix. Cf. ASPERSE. direction to. gen. swell. the pp. afoot. asperge by the herb iparage or sparagus. osina. 728. . cf. esteem) f- + + + ASPECT. assa. . 57. an asp. to breathe. Ancren Riwle. Grein. 338. 501. asperiteit. i. asalir. form of on.' The older form seems to be askance or ascance. whence E. points back to a Teutonic with the sense of ' slope. in his Satire Of the Meane and Sure Estate. slope. IOTTJS. 246. 'Aspe tre. ed. ad. see Asafoetida. A The French. 15. Ssp. The form aspic is cf. though a related word. i. 'to breathe. p. prefix assailler. Cotgrave gives Aspic.. aspersus. hence mod. 143. (Lat. Chaucer has asp. to desire. L. aspidem. ASSAFCETEDA ASSAIL... ezel. xiii. 729. See Sprinkle. (E. pulsate . The form i. ii. which has lost an initial w or v. i Peter. . later aiperitr. obliquely Palsgrave's French Diet. I may add here that these words are near akin to A. as slant. the word schiancio.' as in many other instances. pp. ix. v. The origin of the word is unknown. sprout. xlviii. Chaucer.' or ' See Slope. The real Icel. when it was used by RabeLat. aselliis. heischen. . The phrase lyk an os/>enJeef.S. to throb. e. the daffodil!. attain. a prong. skew is the adj. to slip. Gk. and to our own word chance. azen. and spargere. More has Chaucer has asprenesse. Du. and <rcf>ii (tv. P. (F. The root is seen in Skt. at (which becomes a. L. asparagus. A. c. M. . to axien. slide. &c. see Curtius. (Gk. to break out. S. . aspa adj. will to Sabine eshana. look. aspirare. and Root uncertain see Curtius. 143.' C. with the same meaning of ' obliquely. to attack and saillir. of the aspects of planets. P. In old authors.before tp) . Gk. ceskja does not mean ' to ask. in the astrological sense. ffcpi/7/ius. Q. miss one's footing. + . pp. 2254. jeskoti. And this is certainly correct teskja stands for an older form ceskja. Lat. ' in a sleep. bk. asparagus. ad. Der. 1040. d-. (E. ' form of on. on the skew . 500. yet skd is not quite the E. perchance. Under a stole she spied two stemyng eyes de travels. i. F. aspe. . Formed from to cast calumny upon. asp. obliquely. Lat. Ital. F. s. singular. Most likely the word is of Semitic origin cf. like Lat. it would follow that aspidis would be the nom. (Gk. to look. and Swed. leap. . O.stands for an. E. of aspergere. 24. See Fick. or asphodill flower. 2923. the Ital. E." ASPHYXIA. form. ASS. is correct. it is said to be Phoenician. g. roughness. ' .) In KerGk. Aspalt occurs in Mandeville's Travels. 14. Cf. and near it. In English. ed. 4. which that aspidis Is cleped.-Pers. Lat. cognate with E.) Sir T. scatter.. dar<pv'ia. Lithuanian Polish and Russ. thus Cotgrave explains F. S. (See Slant. H. ' ' . to seek. asailen cf. bk. the orig. writes with his eyes asltan!. to pant after. of England it is called aps. Lith. Shy. p. a scanche. Sec. p. cestimare (E. 32. See Sleep. 362. which becomes as. ' ' ' . aspir-ant. aim at. 19. . a wish. .) ' followed by to or unto. ace. Origin undetermined. see Ass. 252. C. as aspis. slopingly.' form asp is also French see Brachet.is sometimes equivalent And here.. schiancio. sphur. st. Morris. ad. The Ital. A. a slope occurs in the sense of contrary to expectation. aspe. skew. but rather Teutonic. slope. spirare. ' David fell on sleep Acts. ASPHALTTJBI. aspers-ion. skew. Du. athdn. . esel. 6 . 29.) A-slonte occurs in the Prompt. Lat. look. also to desire. and specere. istate. O. esel. sallir. Cowper. It is IS. The tree is still called the asp in Herefordshire. (E. of aspicere. L. asper. ' Cot. seems What is most remarkable to be merely the Lat. esh.) For ' on sleep a. e. ad. ' ASPARAGUS. asilus.) In Milton. is derived from a Teutonic root. In early to leap or spring upon. ASPIC. lais. Gk. F. c. Curtius. a slave. to ask.. we see here the familiar E. v. ASSAIL. See Skew. viz. O. Grein. sented by t. Brock. ASPIRE. ASP. of-Boethius. . shy. the prefix a. scedh. seek an answer. a wish. to bespatter. . M.) Milton. E. 6. and aspaltoun in Allit. Lat. Polish osiel. Gk. dtrm'Sos. pi.-Gk. Du. O. assilire. aspides is the nom." See also Fick. the F. the diagonal of a square figure. on . i.' used by Chaucer. and in the S. so that the alternative form askant is (But see the Errata. dhsian.' Prompt. that there was an O. to behold.' See Askance. teste. 4464. 118 . Swed. Works. P. Gk. with which cf.H. 29. 307. ii. 29. ' . M. A. is a secondary or derived verb All the dsce. sparga. privative . Milton. v. sphar. to demand. C. asyn. Gower. where d answers to E. suspended animation. to search and to Lith. E. a well-known quadruped of the genus Eauus a dolt. ASPHALT. demand. on a slope. a plant of the lily kind. asperitas. wish. aspir-ing.' in Chaucer. Parv.) M. also. espen. Cotgrave gives : Asphodile. (Scand. Der.' but ' to wish .) 5T We should make easily accounted for. Espe tre. bitumen. p. Goth. covet. Icel. 37 ASININE ASK. aspect Treatise on the Astrolabe. appearance. Aspen is properly an adjective. aspir-ing-ly. desyrously aspyre unto ' that countreye of heauen with all our whole heartes . Whilst known in English in the I4th century. ce qui echoit. asm'. and W. 253.before sp) . slant. b. as equivalent to acyde (aside) and to the Lat. above Teutonic words are related to Skt. asleep. ish. diminutives. require. V . . ' remarkable that the Icel. O. . v. Attic da(pdpa"fos.ASININE. 8. is still nearer to the English. G. ovo*. which appears in E. a kind of poplar.) The form aspen (more usual) is a singular corruption. tr. use.. to attack. 281. M. (?)) Holland's Pliny.' Ital. . asen. That is.' But these are mere corruptions of the Lat.. 52. aspectus. The lit. It appears as o slante in the Morte Arthure. to breathe towards. word. compares it with the Zend fparegha. i. without pulsation. evidently to si-.G. p. [Probably from Lat. eischen.. asinus. nor is M. often view. as an E. . iv. word slant. form aspe. which is not found. See Slant. Heb. 282. 42. schi. dscian. desire. Wyatt. aspectus. a-. aspic. Fick. asilus. Corn. The A. 3(R. iii. which existed as a doublet of the Proven9al aspic both of them being from Lat. 2. If we shal . spy. Askance is thus little else than another form of aslant. Skeat. to. slippery (Rietz). prayer. not of Latin origin. aschen. dairdpayos. : ' . equivalent of E.E. and thinks it was a word borrowed from the Persian. Bret. in Cleasby and Vigfusson's Diet. towards Wish. satire. says: For. (E. the serpent called an aspe. a form which occurs in the Anturs of Arthur. ASPHODEL. F. and scanche is slope. L. apse). p. 7249. Webster's Diet. da-iris. I2i8c. ASP. as a variation of ask. Dan. oblique. p. Sir T. aa<pa\ros. who notes. <zsel. perhaps. The false form in (iower is due to his supposing that. asphalt-ic Milton. from a sb.G. Parv. G.before sp) . ASLOPE. a venomous serpent.) M. on the slant. Slant is from a root which is best preserved in the Swed. Skt. to aim at eagerly. Axien in Layamon. If so. and to what extent one language has borrowed it from another is very uncertain the Icel. to seek. B. F. e. to ask. ucsian. an inquiry.. to.. . does not seem to be older than the i6th. . (F. asal. &aQa\Tov. E. s. from nom. escance. word. Irish and Gael. 10. 117. spargo. aisos. . E. see. i. an ass. 36. ASLANT. See . but may be inferred. asperite.' But in this case. wiintc/un and E. to request. amiss. is asp. Origin unknown. . B. 127. schianciana. p. . schiancire. (See Slope. F. Udal. L. roughness. to pronounce with a full breathing). a stopping of the pulse. Aslant is related to askant and askance. M. ax. a great mistake. asperitatem nom. T. rough. a plant of the lily kind.. acsian is not uncommon. p. 10. harshness. dial. skjev. . slinta. wood-en. i. oblique. to strike obliquely. skeifr. ASLEEP. axien uncommon . obliquely. Aitia. % See Spy. See it fully explained in my Glossary to Chaucer's Man of Law's Tale. asni. F. 354. like gold-en. 1715. sprinkle. L.) Ancren Riwle. in the Clarendon Press Series. as in schiavo. Homer's Iliad. d skd. pulsation. aspirer. i. i. 296. and the Lith. ASKANCE. Antony.+ Dan. to (Lat. ace. M.

sb. F.before s. p. . of assigner). 1249. to (which becomes as. 400. iii. ASSIZE. near (=os. enough. approach. Hist. i. 199. formed. 3. noted above. assiz-er. (F. assignen. Bellenden.. exagium. as it 12 . agree. cogDer. ASSOCIATE. who also gives assassiner. range in a row. Plowman. regard deith . 8052. as. Chaucer. approve. to (which becomes as. the Haschischin." ed. sassin-like. q. Gower. This z was certainly sounded as ts cf.. [' Assassin. eaves. trial . approach. assem' Will. E. to Gk. Defence of the Apology. ' to stand by. but it is doubtful if this etymological fact has ever been dis. blen. sam. See Sense. 28. Works. Hamlet. E. to make similar to. sit. xvii. assessement. . to assist. b. adj. T. also nate with E. assay-er. (Lat. Guilds. see under Assail.^SAR. C. ad. 29. Lat. ASSEMBLE. assyth.before s) .'] p. yf he intend to be associate with me in blisse Udal. aupa. assidere. assert. and signare. like others in -ate. assignare. leap. Lat. nom. it faction. L. 1. 1109. assessor is really an older word. 899.E. Lat. ASSENT. ed. See Stand. but in M. to declare seriously. Lat. 203. mere sb. F. . O. etymologically. y Arab. of Virgil. met. Der.] appoint . in early use . affirm. assiduous-ness . consent. enough. Gk. Lat. sign. ad. yield. ^[ It will be observed that assess was originally a phrase. See Sign. . L. and sent ' them to stab his enemies. Weber. p. also assimulare. assez. &c. to comply. Fick. Skt. like . p. sitting Dryden has Englished by putting' sitting close at. Der. See in Palestine ' aseth. 222 . the public taxes qui tributa persequat vel imponit Ducange. The Scheik Haschischin. F. L. 3473. which is cognate with E. p. an intoxicating preparation of the whole account.Arabic. 1. i. water. assiduous care . and cf. to mark out to one. cf. last bk. More has assertation. A . associatus. Alisaunder. the leading Crusaders . to sit. hashish. saths. Lat. Macbeth. feign. sb. xx. bind . pp. help. C. Palmer's Pers. v. iii. verb asseoir. and sedere. Jewel has asseveration. chiefly used of water.) F. a companion. 502. and from saltus. (Lat. a tax. = In the Romaunt of the Rose. Curtius. assign-at-ion. assize.38 ASSASSIN. pp. to feel . i. to join or bind together. of Glouc. (i) ' ' For to loke domes and asise . and simul. which is the better spelling. . c. 429. drinkers ofhaschisch. sect. 21. signum. Doublet. Lat. of salire. to (which becomes as. thread. to. assessws. . Der. See Sit. assist-ant. derived from the sb. satis. like. K.' &c.) In mod.. 24. cf. often is in Latin . from root sal See Curtius. Chaucer has to assemble moneye . [t] ' . verb. from the pp. assessor. whence assault. form size . 441. becomes os. habetis. Browne has assimilable and assimilation Vulg. sit. See Severe. pp. diligent. assassin. p. hassessin. 4761. to. . 7 .) M. ' xi. z. Weber. F. Satiate. Cf. 80. 7. repr. essai. also assault (O. assenten. 26.-L. and sedere. simulate. Gk. ASSOCIATE. in assassinat. We may. ing [The and similis. often with the sense of to engage in battle. ASSESS.. 25. assimulare. stand by. to sit at or near. same.] Cannabis indica. sizings. E. sama. to leap) . A. 1338. ad. of Glouc. p. 19. and satis. joined with in company. id. and assercion. in 'Shakespeare's Plutarch. to make Lat... c. Cot. -us. accordingly. See Sit. salila. to bring together. F. Htr. riches. assizes . Lat. together . not much used otherwise. see my note on the passage. assiduitas. to flow. Formed.) shall please you to assess I will make such satis' at . iii. Low Lat." as frequently in Barbour's Bruce. c. O. ' . to satiate cf. Der. asemblaye.before s). of the Lat. assimulare is to bring together . bring together into one place . M. Der. an. mostly in the pi. pp. to add to. to pretend. .) M. 124. assister. or near. Properly a pp. VSAM. 'They assentyn. (F. assign-er. to collect. essai. aselh. T. to allot. to ' assemble. examination. See Similar. q.. B.. Der. z. Milton has as(F. xi. though the form syth or sith long remained in use in Yit the king was nocht sithit [satisScotland. 463. becomes as. then an adverb. compensation. a secondary form from stare. and similis. of meaning. Gower. Chaucer uses assay to denote the ' trial of an experiment . one who sits beside another. asseverat-ion. together. to assent to. known by the name of the Old Man of the Mountain. constant. &c. which took the place of the older Scandinavian seth. chiefly used of the trial of metal or of weights. F. amend sb. they assent with one consent . ix. ad satis. . JEa. as salire I spring. effects ' ASSETS.. and sislere. ad becomclass. See further under Essay. simul and similis are from the same source as E. to consent. 8 Shak. and similis is from the same source as simul. an assembly of judges also. Curtius.before s) and Lat. iii. verb. . assentire.) Properly a past participle. (F. ii. The sb. z is pronounced as is to this day. sb. F. North's Plutarch. 47. xi. are coined words. assiduitatem. to be assessor to a judge. verb. ASSERT. roused his followers' spirits by help of this drink. 1 1 20. Notes to P. to stand. like alms. ad. an intoxicating drink. ' And if it sufficith not for Diet.) Bp. Lat. 373) assign-ee . the i Jth cent. Hfia. to assign. full.' i. impost see O. asignen . assess-ment . O. tinctly recognised. with. (Lat. assize. near ( = as. from Lat. to flow. &c. p. [The spelling assay came in through the use of 0. See Satisfy. as usual. 390. ASSIST. &c. Hen. take to one's self.] O. to (which asseueratus. Hamlet. Lat. earnest. assassin-ate. But our modern assets is no more than a corruption of O. assail. Skt. esp.. Surrey. p.. assigner. P. F.before s) . Lat. to speak in earnest.. to join. unite. A. the use in the second sense is almost obsolete. a mark. to mark. assez. in late Lat. orthographical device for representing the old sound of the O. collect. to affix a seal to. ed. assertus. Plowman. a trial. Fick. assign-ment (spelt assignement. like. Brachet.-L. in the singular. assassin-at-ion. from ad. 219. ascribe. 61. to. form is aseth. to affirm. a rope. and sedere. Errors.C. Gk. assimilare. (Lat. verb asaier as another spelling of essaier. Doublet. it is generally spelt essay in mod. Rob. tr. to slay. Burguy. a trial. assail-ant .) In the sense of 'attempt. a leap + ^SAR. i. bk. iv. Lat. together with. to assess . S. assembly. i. in where we should now rather use associated. assis. assez) from the original Scandinavian word represented by Icel. different from classical Lat. (2) ' To don trewleche the ossys to the sellere and to the byggere [buyer] Eng. i. (from Law Der. Aomoso-pathy.) Be at our hand. to ( pp. cognate with E. ad. verb assisen. Lat. Lat. ii. become similar to. .) M. 181. kill. avez with Lat. and ' F. in satisfying the testator's debts or legacies In early use in a different form. which is cast upon the Blount's Law heir. P. Goth. Alisaunder.' C. near assidere. The Lat. full . preserved in the contracted assise of bread. p. Lat. 5600. pp. i. assesses. conLat. of Boethius. satisfaction evidently modified (probably by confusion with the O. pp. siduus.. Rob. A. same. ASSEVERATE.. p. . ' ' that Low Lat. assimilat-ive. viz. sit. Virgil.) So called to discharge that burden. The title of assessor was in accordance with the etymological also given to a judge's assistant. Lat. asseth is used to translate the F. from 9. of asiociare. p. but with mair rigour punist Mordak to the Chron. assidu-i-ty. to step to. (which See Sit. E. Gower uses assa. Hampole. v. (Lat. to . Skeat. by on assent. a trial of exact weight. of the O. however. where another reading is assetz. satis is allied to Goth. 1 288. verb. F. See Size. e. to sit at to. and serere. sar.. c. Bacon has assimilating and assimilateth Nat. to bind. assent.) ' ' down In Milton. ad. + asserl-ion. (Lat. cognate with E. to help. is the name of a well-known sect ASSASSIN. 8390. of a deceased debtor. Cf. of Palerne.before s) . Cf. sari/. 141 e . 289.E. ' due to the use of the Law Lat. because sufficient ' . Agon. stream out. Mark. L. declare positively. ad. at the same time. cf. E.before s) . E. like other verbs in -ate. (i) a session of a court of justice (2) a fixed quantity or dimension. given by Cotgrave. SirT. [We also find M.-L. T. . Skt. = as. to act as assessor to a judge pp. Hall has Both verb and sb. assign-able. i. 359. French assigns'. to sit. we read of the It is still. See Same. (F. Richardson shews The verb asseverate is that the verb to assever was sometimes used. Lat. s. The E. to sit beside. B. then used adjectively. defend. same.. bk. col. stand at. unremitted. ad satis. to.. . so assimulare. to (which becomes as. in both senses. the E. F. assembler. and assassinated. ci/xiv. asserere.before s).. connect.before s) . Lat. word is formed from the Lat. (F. shortened to 'abet's. attribute. F. asemblen ' . ad. aseetli. Group G. ' to fix a rate or tax. VIII. assez with Lat. assise. osLat. to appoint. meaning restitution. come together. 237 . assimulare is from ad. = emend. E. formed from the adj. ' ' Doublet. to (which becomes as. From the same source are similar.' see Acts. 3 . ed. assidere. Der. serious. assist. Lat. Lat. assimilate. 1480. The Lat. L. sensus.before s) . assentir. to place. ASSIDUOUS. Der. shortened to a" safs. so/r. F. assimilat-ion. . test. adj. ix. ' Doublet. ' : Skt. 167. to fasten. (F.. verb . Smith. to. F. 473 e. i. 166 . -ous for Lat. 310. acquiesce. v. The common M. as in abstemious. to stand. to adjust and fix the amount of. a weighing. P. (F. who flourished in the I3th century. syith. C. to sit . assess. oo".y for 'an attempt. assiduus. Georg. to But the verb is derived from the sb. . assembl-age. cognate with Lat. assembl-y. vii. saths. xvi. claim. 2. of the Lat. Der. ad.) In Milton. assay. ASSAULT ASSAY. tr. 796. and which is assacis in Joinville. the Lat. a secret murderer. ace. assiduous-Jy. up to what is enough . assimilate.' P.) ASSIMILATE. Pricke of Conscience. sri. stand.before s) and seuerus. . assist-ance. is in K. Heb. to the pp. 68. assemble. ASSIGN. sallus. Lat. e. assise. Sir T. ad. one whose duty it was to assess. Der. se<)/'a. assislere.. a murther. to. Jamieson quotes fied] with his justice. ' . Lat. frendly vs assist . and lastly employed as a substantive. and sentire. to judge of a thing. iv. Diet. a decoction of hemp. sithe (see assyth in Jamieson) as Scandinavian. assail-able. 1. Sams. i. employed again in the word Jitz (son) to denote the O. ad. 3. L. and some others. of asseuerare. at The final -ts is a mere the same time treating assets as French. Of course it is. C. 401. Der. F. The G. Lat. see above.-L.

id. 1. who suffered ASSONANT. (Gk. Rob. intimately confused with the O. p. p. adj. ' . ' assumpt-itie. to thunder out. assure. vii. word cognate with E. fashion. in most other words. Polyolbion. prefix d. 84. ' The folc that stod therthought . thus *. and adj. tienes. to astonish. |B. in -issant . See Secure and Sure. ASSURE.) A8TRICTION. sure. to take. seiir. 1674. /e. 3. Ital. prefix as-. and Lat. ' with the thund'ring noise of his ' swift courser's feet Astunn'd the earth . Ital.ne. L. assuretk vs. asthmat- + ^ which assonance. ASSUASIVE. appease. werkys. Gk. xix. Chaucer. astonien. a word cognate with E. C. q. 22. darrip. or brese ' Hit astonieth yit my Parv. and sb. assumptus. thunder . the word astony was sometimes altered to astound. on the stir. also spelt segur. vi (R. Properly an adj. and sonare.. ' F. sorta is of Lat. \\'A. too. prefix. Moreover. P. to thunder. panting. ad). so that the addition of it in the present case is unauthorised and incorrect. darep-. esp. to assuage is a doublet of to sweeten. vol. iii. ' : Der. ASTERN. to take to one's Lat.' C. VIII. It is obvious that the true old form of astonien must needs be the A. 161. to stun or amaze completely. F. Der. from iiSnv. 2. to (which becomes as. 4. (cf. quatio. ' : . assortir. F. F. Barasleep).' or star-shaped. verb . 1 88. as if from ad and suadere. estonner (mod. botanical ASTER. star. aslhmat-ic-al.. and Lat. if allied to anything. to appropriate . a star. B. the A. dstunian. the name of a genus of flowers. in his Ode on Music her soft. Gk. See Sweet. the intensive prefix a. asoager. Lat. secure. q. toga. astonen. sorta.ASSONANT. The host wes all on Barbour's Bruce. buy. Hen. to breathe out. 490) and in Bosworth. of assitagen. whence also Span.) name. Thus the final -d in astound is excrescent. sort. prefix a. a star owing to the star-like shape of the flowers. ed. and as early as 1539 (Bible). v. F. bour's Bruce. ' ' His wrath forto asuage . to amaze. s. all having the accented vowel So. before s) . L. P. a difficulty in breathing. o in in the penultimate syllable. beRich. E. and from some dislike to the form astony. F.and the verb stunian. we note (i) that dstunian is from d-. . he lyueth as an asse Chaucer. and ed. Margarete.. p. in the Ancren Riwle. ed. assum-ing. verb and from the occurrence in classical Latin of altonare. asuager. and the whole word occurs in G. assortment See Sort. and tonare. sorte. Jerem. out. p. E. prefix a. an. to join. b. star. prefix. L.) His people goth ' Gower. (Lat. assnrtimenf). but inferred from the form of the O. quotes Be astonyshed.before s) . See Star. ASSORT. 39 from it. assonantem. aboute ful adoun for drede. aaOjui. i. astunien.) poetry. i. to. Gk. day. -ism) to the stem darcp. and lay there as if they were stunned and as if they were dead. to stun completely . modified by F. under. P. star-like. secure. Assonans is the pres. ii.. ASTHMA. The Lat. 2 The sum:. allay. M. asassort. equall . ' .. Var on steir. to sound. to breathe. ASTRAL. See further under steir ' ASTIR. ASTltlCTION. 1674.. Barons' Wars. 195. afteroid-al. pt. figure. a word cognate with E. securus. ix. (Gk. astrum. sonus. b. . See Sequence. has the line applies . Etymology. subside. later astony. = the army was from Gk. and stunian . a star. asuagen. segur. asterisque in Blount's Gloss. Iviii.(Lat. Asteroid. It is used by Hall.) In DrayA coined word. (F. modified by F. match. See Ex-. similarly. glowing.' from the Bible of 1539. prefix.' i. 18175. to thunder see Brachet. sociare. S. form of on. of Langtoft. to blow .. only added where the derivation is from a French verb ending in -ir. vd.) In Blount's Gloss. Formed a word of which the Proven9al forms are (as if from a Lat. sound. ASTERISK. ad. From the same root come Lat. Der. ASSUAGE. darfpiaxos. 13.The word is to be utterly condemned. pr. breathe through the mouth. as regards/orm. And (2) that O. F. 1540-57. to respond to. wind. c. D.) Spelt Gk. soun. fuerte. a star (cognate with E. 483 . of aisonare. (E. amaze. O ye extinguish) analogy. are said to be assonant. but a little difficult to trace. Lat. (F. and self . Astoynyn.) Sir. abed. Cot. . frocus. to blow. Skt. Comus. Iff In all but the prefix. S. It occurs. and ASTOUND.. to soften.) Cf. Fick. Thus the words beholding.' It stands for on stern see abed. see Trench's Select Glossary. from Gk. and other words in which the prefix a. ii. 210. species . assumpt-ion. kind of like kind. assur-ed-ly. v. to astound. And leye [misprinted seye] ther as hi ' were astoned and as hi were dede. to) tr. astonish are ' .' from the Geneva Bible. v. ed. applied to a (certain) resemblance of sounds. or a correspondence of vowel-sounds only. associate. i. of astoun. from tegere. 344. make confident. To continue the tracing of the word further back. a little star used in printing. (Lat. abate. sweet. to take to The .) Chau! C. and Thunder. base of darfip. suit. belonging to the stars . pt. : q. astonish-ment. waian. lyes. p. assumption was in use in the I3th century as It is spelt assumciun applied to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. assuadere. cloak. being contraction of subimere. from The Ital. to sweeten) from the O. Verai much astouned occurs ' Luke. Skeat. and 'astonishment hathe taken me. heauens. so that astound and astonish are both incorrect variants from the same source. a compound of ad and tonare. S. astoun. And see Astonish. E. T. &c. ' one's self. viii. which was the form into which the M. ' Thair mycht men se mony a steid Fleand on stray . arrange . 1. in Holland's Livy. Astonish is the older corruption. its component parts occur. E. associat-ion. See Star. all astir . ' common words crueles. is a marked feature. 1 6. sumere is a compound verb. a sort. and preserved in the mod. in The World Encompassed. make sure. A fell down for fear. ex. v. derived sb.. St. The use of the verb is later. ASTEROID. (Lat. astonish-ing. See Stir. aswagen. from precari. and forming its pres. socius. to make O. form. around Who We .) Modem. longing to the stars. 330. 3. F. tr. and Astound. suffix -tafios (E. and astronomical. [#] to soften. Drake. i. ASTRAY. from amtp-. kind. E. Der. ad. (Gk. + Goth. to see (cognate with star.' Gk. Astound is in Milton.) Gk. console assuaviar.(Lat. E. ASTERISM. sweet. Cot.) Lat. Lat. assonance. 1124. 292. viz. 412. for. to. of assonans. estonner has undoubtedly much influenced the word and extended its use and meanings. ' out of the right way. a follower. (Gk. Margarete. (Lat. ace. 247 . G. 2 . and which occurs in Holland's Livy. from sub. . O. astonish. 890. (Gk. astonien. 'to sort. See Asterisk. Cecilia's day. used for distinguishing fine passages in MSS. (Lat. and enure. b. 493. C. take for granted.' Bible. OOTIJP. broken. Lat. extonare. F. to thunder. a^ur-ance. Jerem. assumere. . sequi. 12. p. p. iv. (Liddell and Scott).) M. a companion. er-.before s). It is remarkable that Milton also uses both astonish'd. Asterism. -isA is. imitated from Lat. Sidney : Musidorus had his wits astonished with sorrow. conclude that astound stands for an older astoun. the O. See Persuasive. Manner). astunien. Gk. gentle [?]. i. a wooer. 21. The derivation is commonly given from the O. estonner. near (which becomes as. 3. ' ' like the d in sound. This queer word seems to in a similar way have been meant to be connected with the verb to assuage. Drayton. would point to a nonexistent Lat. amaze.).answers to mod. which means in Udal. in the form erstaunen. Der. with dimin. (F. 266. from Lat. quasso Prompt. They go a straye and speake corruption of on stray (cf. . base of darrip. F. (E.. E. another form of astonie or astony. on the stem. Der. suauis. afoot. L. For like reasons. a binding or contraction. S. signifying star-like. Fick. The sb. 281. and that the derivation is. See The same root occurs in Redeem. in Spanish. asuaviar.) ASSUME. in discussing Spanish ic. E. and to have been confused with persuasive at the same time. 7969. from A. but this alone is inadequate to account either for the ending -ten in the M. a quotation ' is given from Sir P. has Having left this strait a stern. given in Grein (ii. rosebud. It is a mistaken formation. adj. and occurs in Shakespeare. astonien had passed. asleep. from M. i. Formed. sounding like . Brachet. p. Ps. Curtius. also an asterisk *. to cover. ' ' about astray ' A ' . Der.) Astound both corruptions from the M. warrant Burguy. For on stir. It occurs in . asonante (with one s). 300. 175. 'If he ' be slowe and astoned and lache. 577. 261 . F. ' (the form assumed by ad. to cer has asseured. made by adding the ton. 25. verb assuauiare. though this word is not found in the extant A. origin. see Peile. 1. Lat.) Not much used formerly. insure. a little star." Cf.) daff/nartKof. cognate with E. and. I. literature hitherto printed. assur-ed-ness. assumpt-ive-ly. secure.-L. sorte was introduced in the i6th cent.of the Gk. Thus assortir is to put together things form. M. L. a constellation.] See Sound. 202. assur-ed. and Stun. asiralis. and (to-os. softening. assuasive voice St. (See Stray. . . At the same time. ' is due to Rich. 1578. stun. to sort. assuage-ment. song 1 8. The addition of the suliix -ish (as in astonien. e. T. and assiiraunce. assuage. Lat. manner. short-drawn breath. dstunian. It was probably added merely to give the word a fuller sound. a star. to be companion with. a Der.' the date of which is about 1580. of Fame. starry. and Holland's Pliny. 4761 also of Boethius. to pray . Brunne. A. lit. ad. cf. a term applied to the minor planets situate between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Der. they were on the move. and sufficiently obvious in the ' the folk that stood quotation from St. in [Chiefly used in prosody.) E. quotes from Boyle's Works. to take. boldly. which is the pp. i. uentus. to blow. ASTONISH. and in the Life of Locke. dispose. v. wit. and astounded in the same. or for the peculiar ' ' meaning of stunned so often found. In Webster's Diet. (E.stands for an. see A-. to follow . amaze. p. of Boethius. i. Lat. tr. GW An asterisk is sometimes called a star. pr. 1539. 50. Extonare is. aseiirer. E. to amaze. behind. Curtius. (E. V. F. a cluster of stars. a form not found. dafav. astonied. daripoGk. estonner stands for Low Lat. a sumere.) Pope. O. Ho. suffix -KTKOS. 291. associate. F. Seldom used. pp. and the word has been used also by Johnson and Warton see Todd's Johnson. are the Lat.

2. astronom-ic-al.) an essay On Atheism. not fallLectures. aorist 1-irtT-ov). Hall says Which never can be set at onement more . F. + Icel. 9. xxiv. atomists. a word introduced into Latin by Cicero hi the form atheos. u0\(iv. in the N.. aarpo-. we have the form o sunder.' Advancement of Learning. i. ASTRIDE. Bp. Gk. sect. more quotations are required from Tyndal.E. where the form is This form is contracted from ofthursled = made exceedoft'wrst.' This was a clumsy expedient. Rich.. Skt. Act iv. The interesting point is that the old pronunciation of . of P. and G. Prol. crafty. science. Curate. i. ASTRINGE. atomies. Ye . used to denote astronomy also. ed.' i. IV. 40 f (qu. Xo-yi'a. Morris. Sir T. 240. dispense. pp. for avrpov. the sphere 423. to pierce . 245. 221 6. 'And lyke as he made the Jewes and the Gentiles at one betwene themselues. neut. Skt. 13. ' One God. a/man. Der. i. feather. on. 3909 . See Anon. lect. (L. ATMOSPHERE. R.before st) . ASTRONOMY. Gk. aav\os. like afoot for on foot. S.e. A. Gk. Where thou seest bate or strife between person and person. a louing againe after a breache or falling out . forms are qftliurst. 321 . set such discord "twixt agreeing hearts 384. one Mediatour. iii. p.S. L. ]meorh. The simple verb cnen. Barrow. now Gk. i. [F. (Gk. sc. Lat. (E. i. who seems to have been the inventor of ' the new phrase.145. (Gk.) Lit. yo/tos. say ' athletic .' Udal. 487. ormly).' Milton has atheist. I despoil an enemy. a. and the prefix a.) For on stride. . Meas. 259. See Curtius. (neuter Invert). . to set them at one . never meets it. A.. tr. c.was originally of-. and Lat. Gk. to cut. v. stem of The Gk. across. and to astringe in Holland's Plutarch.) asylum. A more 1133. and \4fur. form which occurs in apart. iv. that there should be nothing to breake the atonement. to reconcile. as in L. atmoipher-ic. 395. Gk. Treat. 2 Hen. astronom-er. indivisible. at. Plowman. M. now almost obsolete . usual phrase in See Thwart. seizure.' Holland's Livy. very thirsty. A. ed. the knowledge of the stars. i. Der.) In earliest use. closely (which becomes a. . on the Astrolabe. Milton has atom. 72 . astronom-ic-al-ly. an atom. (Lat. Erasmus on the Commandments. Aurungzebe. science of the stars. 2 (Truewit Beaumont and Fletcher. 3. F. or an atonemaker. and More. signifying very . sustain. Oth.) Gk. in arch. a drawing together. Der. Grein. Baret. and E. speaks of atoms. ofthyrst. Iraitov). Also Ben Jonson. 18 . and stringere. crafty. from nom. Rich.. ofpyrstan. p. 1674. ar/to-. 1. prefix and rtfivnv (aor. . aarpovo/ua. star. place of Gk. . P. ATONE. astrolog-ic-al. cunning. 30. A. contracted from atflAos . osfronomi'e. 41 c (written in 1513. astrolog-er. Curtius. divide.) Layamon. asylum. x. A. L. (f8-) as the E. p. hymself.' never as anwun. ii. d-. Lat. i. 3. astrictus. 495 and atheous. who remarks that in this word there is no evidence of any origin for the [initial] vowel but the phonetic. haps from an amplified form aks of the root AK. col. from the Gk. at oon (also written at on) in the phrases be at ing together. an indivisible particle.) In coined word . negative prefix and aii\Tj. with will in one concord Rob. we should say 'acts as an Lat. astrono- a very small particle. See a combatant. athe-ist-ic. aStos come atheous. all. indivisible. i. Africa. tense ire-imam). examples. contracted from atOKov. 53 . 36. Gk. for aarpov. 202 . of Glouc. and make an onement with God . of intensive prefix. ' : . so much so as to make the etymology look doubtful. though continually approaching a Geometrical. aS\TjTrjs. . q. adj. i. that is to say. an asylum . Gk.. . In Butler. ingly thirsty. 1120.) Plutarch." ' ' ATOM. 7. Gk. Act iii. 3. 4.) pretended In Chaucer. Cor. Chaucer. the prize of a These words contain the same root contest.D. E. tollere.. figures of men used instead of columns or also Atlani-ic. an adverb. with wille at on assent' = ' Der. pp. to fall. astriction. falling. ' . and by that word vnderstand an attone' maker. pat. astutus. 113. v. i. Langtoft. breath. w is due to confusion between the Icel. As You Like It. In Holland's to draw closely together. ii. C. to thirst. at. lit. Cf. thirt. Athirt. ' intercessor. and whose Cf. contender Wed. Bacon. 193. dav/nrnoTos. 'ArAoi/Tos) probably means 'bearer' or from the y' TAL. The use of atone arose from the ' frequent use of M. Skeat. Hudibras. (Lat. but that the thinges in heauen and the thynges in earth. 309. ATONE. to fall (perf. ad. ed. astring-ent. ATHEISM. and tolerare. Grein. fol. d-. spolium. 819. Atlanles. of ' ' . c. H. and the A. Ill. VI. euen so he made them both at one with God. Works. ^verr they were soon agreed. See Nomad. to.' Lat. 1. ' A ATLAS. For on sunder. p. n ' ASYLUM. viii. Lumby. Gk. ASYMPTOTE. gods. + Lat. . Hist.40 an. ATHIRST.E. a line which. And see Sphere. Rob. of Atlas name of the ocean. sb. B.' i. See Thirst. Act iv. Lat. of Brunne. Curtius.' See Tolerate. i. astus. (Gk. PerLat. mirrfiv (Dor. L. Shak. denoting nearness. (Gk. e. viz. to set at one. Tracie).' the -on is pronounced as the prep. I. 59 . &6tos. . where the two words are run into one in the Ellesmere MS. Kn. 43 1 (The Testament of M. to make to The easiest way is to begin with the oldest agree. O. atome. the M. star. See Curtius. drn6s is cognate with dr/ios. adv. The Gk. Sat. together (written avp before IT) and wrarros. words akin to Gk. Shak. but it can be clearly traced. 59. 819 . . Lat. a god on which difficult word see ' . ii. The use of athlete Wright. and one). ii. breath. See P. offyrsted. a right of violence. E. a derivative of Triirria>. 342. 598. Gk. . which is called person. and exploded ' of air round the earth. i. figure used to be given on the title-page of atlases. whence Ao-yos. ii. ' If gentil men. as in Chaucer. W. a contender for victory in a contest . atHet-ics. As You Like It. It stands for ATHWART. Curtius. pp. a star. v. bk. Ephesians. Nat. T. In early use. 2. L. iv. craftiness. We should seems to be later. .) Named after Atlas. (E. astring-enc-y. (Gk. a9\os. athe-ism. Der. E. ' They are similarly run together in a much earlier passage Aton he ' was wi|> j* king King Horn. pp. 3 Hen. cognate with mia. alhe-ist. and the Ancren Riwle. Tale. spoil. p. law. ' So beene they both at one Alvearie. of-. Astringent is in Holland's Pliny. a discourse. of aslringere. yet seemingly at peace . aduocate. sustainer. across. . Erasmus. iv. ix. : . i.L. . which appears in Gk. to bind closely. ' pp. 4. astronomy. ' . Der. G. Lat. to fly. ed. from Gk. p. (L. Epicoene. In anon. Der. p. E. ' . or a place of refuge. 614. contracting. but never pronounced vmnly in the standard ' speech. aarpoLat. 122. Lumby. From the same root are E. Lat. v. + Swed. of adj. Heo maden certeyne couenaunt that heo were al at on' = were all agreed. etymologically one-ly. 2. curve. she wolde bringen hem atoon. ed. sagacious. to speak about. I. p. ' Hauyng more regarde to their olde variaunce then their newe attone' ment . later a prep. Hen. (E. in his Intellectual System.' ASUNDER. Ill. 358. II. offyrstan. p. 58 . a sanctuary. across. also atonement. astute-ness. aarpo-. astringere.W. see Curtius. to distribute. King Horn. corrupted sometimes to athurst. craft. sc. ad.) ATHLETE. Bacon has disbelief in the existence of God. in 1. any\ov. Merry Wives. ASTRIDE. 1 244 . athletics. 2. neg. wed. Grein. 158. astrolog-ic-al-ly. ii.. 169. to fly. a-ropo*. ' : . 'Sone they weren atone. Timon. I. ASTUTE. leaue nothing vnsought. ed. a collection of maps.' T\f)t>ai. i. aavXov. Lat. and vifuw. and sometimes to afurst. 2. 1553. a sphere. See Anatomy. 390. id. between God and man . a particle so small that it cannot be divided. v. ' ' Attonement. or authors of that time. Cudworth. avy. q. p. d-.. whence Gk. VI. to endure. on The spelling with a translation or accommodation of Icel. 102 . to endure . (E. s. p. "ArAaj (gen. is overthwarl. form for the pi. a Greek demi-god who was said to bear the world on his shoulders. + Dan. transverse. 1530. should be ioyned together as it were into one body. pt. q. Gk. Particularly note the following from Tyndal.. prefix and 6e6s. iv. neg.) Genesis and Exodus. as printed. 4. (obsolete). 161. See Astringe. in his Math. to bind or draw closely together. pr. 29. athem. very thirsty. 116 . E. to bear. and atomical physiology. The word came into use somewhere about A. find. in nl'ine here exactly preserved and corrupted in pronunciation to wun) is and there are at least two other similar in(from M. and trace downwards to a later date. . Duke of Milan. 42 . And Dryden ' ' If not atton'd. 133. See Sunder. v. apt to fall. 70. to contend. astrictionem. is properly a The M. (Gk. ii. More. asymptot-ic-al. 437. (E. a star. c. ' Or els . Gk. Pope's Dunciad. atom-ic-al. astringent. um pvert. E. Works. See Stringent. 6. 1. 4. p. as in Shak. The verb to astrict is in Hall. . sc. ace. 207. to fall. P.) Alhirst. 2. Q.' and fyrsled. in Richardson). ii. Cymb. 2 20. (from (Gk. safe from refuge. al. or othere of hir contree Were ' wrothe. at. iii. cognate with E. and only (M. az See Ad-. astronomic. athe-ist-ic-al. Mark. av\aa>. occurs in the Romance of Partenay. is from the PAT. reconcile See also his Works. atom-ic. atom-ist. atomus. the pilasters. 4 to La Foole) Massinger. P. 1. p. on the stride. 3. Lat. Orig. and a<t>atpa. ASTROLOGY. 162. and there need be no hesitation about it. onsundran. im-pet-us. iii. now an adj. a. + Goth. 'A sanctuarie. on one. fern. denying the P. to bind or draw closely together. M. All are coined words from the Gk. Span. v. S. S. astrictus}. which enters largely into English. has 'asymptotical lines. atlilet-ic. astrictus. ' And Isedde hi sylfe onsundran and led them apart by themselves . i. ' ' . a peacemaker . Spenser. i. d-. 36. iv. unharmed. Rich. 3 (Pescara) Milton. Group B. 1. has pi. astute-ly. to set at one to reconcile. astrictio.) In Blount's Gloss. with reference to Mount Atlas. 37. See also Shak. negative prefix. + O. at. . a contest. 7. S. one. ' One mediatour Christ. (See Thwart). oon (now written stances. AT. 26.] dronot. prep. 925. with the same meaning. A Der. To complete the history of the word. ii. a9\ov. Der. and 'set at oon. ad.) Made up of the two words at and one so that atone means to set at one. Cotgrave. From Gk. in athletic games. p. a vigorous Bacon speaks of the art of activity. past participle . in 1557). ^ oon' = to agree. Gk. vapour . astrologia. Ant. atmospher-ic-al. to lift.

All these words are further allied to Icel. to attain. 248 Sams.. from he smelt sweetly. to heed./ TAN. Attic. but only the verb. whence E. little used. The cognate Old Low German words are ii.before t) . . The sb. to sting . of Boethius. branch. to = Lat. 1. A . ii. to bear witness to pp. Gk. we have in no gay tyr Alexander. See Thin. ATTEMPT. C. Hence Lat. tooth. tirlHo. to touch (as well as all the words hitherto mentioned). met. (F. 2 (sic. 25. attentare. See further in Errata . or he does not use the word attack. to try. tone . atrophy.. perfumed oil of roses. But etymologically. Lat. attendere. to attempt. uncooked. to make thin. S. ad) . or attonys. c. chap. 883.F. tagg. p. tension. 7 . a tack or small nail.) M. tanter. b.ATROCITY. it is spelt tir. tooth . known. the sense of ' convicted. sb. whence E. attend-once. a-. B.) Medical. to be witness. of Langtoft. atempter is a corruption of an older form atenter. Atti/jue. to adorn . like other words in -ate. on form of the standard F. amply : ' ' . to attaint is to convict. great cruelty atroci-ous-ly. to apprehend. B.' apprehend those cruel men . O. Cf. raw. that the source of O. Hampole. atirer is the Low G. so . Prov. P. ten. 268. 268 . From the same source. d. Cf. attack. T. a. .F. satiate. atroce. i. . to some false law see the remarks about it in Blount's Law Dictionary. from Lat. E. R. ripxtiv. is stag. ii. Parv. tali. v. similarly coincides with F.' ne attirier [appoint?]. Der. give heed to. tr. Diet. properly a prong Dan. iv. F. tire. 299. Hist. See Temper. heinous. 'The Carthage to wait upon.) In Shak. 287.) attachen. fasten . Cyclopaedia. Plowman. to M. ruvos. to assault. comprehending the whole of a plain (Gk. it is atir. prefix and Tp(<t>ay. atacier. In early use. cruelty. Athenian. to satisfy. to delight. i. p. tiara. s. does not appear in French. tirer. explained by Cotgrave as to assault. Formed. 'itr. Prick of Conscience. 2.before /) .). iii. Lat. a peg. Lat. ' term in architecture. Der. ..) The similarity in sound between attaint and taint has led. spelt atrocyte. pp. to wait. and a sb. to B. less correctly. ace. branch or antler of a horn. tangere. .e. the phrase at once was for a long period written as one word. or ATTIRE. atroci-ous-ness. Lat. a row (cf. ft. O. . terminating the upper part of the fa9ade of an edifice. rtivtiv. atiren (mostly with one /). I now withdraw my statement draw. to adorn. appears in the Irish stang. in opposition to Grimm's law. thin. attenualus.' also 'Attirer. Altick. ed. a stitch in the side. and from the same root we have E. The prefix is. Der. of ^Eneid. F. used substantively . no doubt connected with Gk. (Arabic). bk. i. Plowman. attentus. attaquer.' From Arab. 15).acher and in Bartsch's Chrestomathie Fran9aise the three forms atachier. of Brunne. thin. as being of unknown origin.sca attic. Du. O. a prong. - Attache tho tyrauntz. see above. Curtius. Gk. 47. attestari. Breton tach. p. Attic. so that attempt is to Tentare is a fretry at. a. O. atteynt. (F. Bacon. cf. aleindre. - 591.-C. a cloak-pin. a word marked by Brachet 99. The Prompt. not in Burguy. and temprer. attent-ion. has ATTAR OP a wasting away of the body. E. Der. accorder. to attach. (Lat. so that to attach is to fasten with a tack or nail. ^ Der. is simply that an initial s is dropped. so very common after n. begin with the same letter. = knightes made and armede and attired hem" they made new ' ' again. or pricking See Curtius. attacher. bk. p. It occurs in Milton. p. a peg. . p. Burguy. gloriously. pr. to unite. atempren. vii. applied to meat. to reach to. 365. from i. and to atleya tham/i. occurs in Chaucer.. (F. See . which is obviously from the same root. 7550 . with the signification of ' peg or ' small nail . atroci~ous. But. alroci-. cog of a wheel. a hold. i. neg. 2. ' atrocii'atem. and means ' to stretch repeatedly quentative ' till it fits . In the I4th century. ne commander contre le commandement de Nostre Seigneur Regie de Seint Benoit . (F. also Icel. vi. Der. xxii. to nourish food. ed. from O. regler. and testari. (perf. unfasten. Surrey. corer. to stretch. and Thin. O. 29 . spelt atones. dress. vouched for by the Old Saxon tir. sb. to bear witness to. F. a'ir (wi'. want of nourishment. think upon. . a witness. ' . ATTEST. tailok. attempren. Nat. attain-able. to stretch . O. (F.' Fick also correctly gives the . See Tangent. 2.. C. 823. but the sense determines this. Lat. attach-e (F. convenir. a bough. to stretch. pare. (F. drpo>ja. p. Skt. atirer. of Boethius. Skeat. p. a-. tangere and the Goth. pp.-L. a stab. glory. E. F. attencioun and attendaunce occur in Chaucer. from a past participle. tr.. in Sir T. y. as well as the verb detacher. tacha. to temper. thin and thunder. a low-built top story of a house. a peg. Virgil. Specimens of English from 1394 to 1579. of Boethius. omer. newe knights ' ' and armed and equipped them .' . to be sharp. 1 1 S. to attain.lainen.' The Latin letigi. Lat. Cf. atteint. atyren. to stretch. 40. properly a prong Swed. Curtius. to ( = a/before t) and tangere. probably. To reprove tham at the last day. See Tack. See Attain. 321. to stretch. It means lit. e. ' ' Lat. attent-ive-ly. to detach. to stretch. obtain. to try. F. I touched.h one /X and is later (?) than the verb. as well as by the Gk. ' tr. F. and G. 5331. of Health. after the manner of the city of Athens . of Glouc. in 1. or a room in the same. ii. L. 'ATTIKOS. a kind of order. much in use as a law term. atlirer. Tendere has an inserted or excrescent Curtius. which they call in Greek atropha. and occurs. Chaucer. See Richardson's Arab. Rob. frag. J&n. oned. and tentare. . attent-ive-ness.' and the verb alteyn in the sense of ' con' And justice of the lond of falsnes was atteynt' = and the justice vict. sb. ad. O. who acutely remarks that the reason lightly. 41 ' ' : See examples in Gloss. and Thin. deL'abbe ne doit enseignier. attack. atendre. for the etymology. an ill-formed word. parer. and all verbs in ate. as Diez remarks. to touch.' In Evelyn's Memoirs. a pin. to reach to. The derivation of the word is uncertain. see Brachet. Skt. a'. C. b. i. we find M. in arch. but only in the sense of ' touch with the hand.) 'That might attempt his fansie by request Surrey. p. attenl-ive. ateindre. F. attainder. 22. teltan. glory. (Gk. See Fick. 269. aleynt in attain it. c. i. See Curtius. L. More's Works. Lat. orne. F. Hii M. to make thin. atrocious. we see at once that the fuller form of Irish taca. so that the root is Lat. . 162. attain. atempter.] O. ataindre. honourably. of course. See Attempt. . F.' Cotgrave.-L. from nom. atrox. : . and tenuare. like convict. why the Lat. attacker. Attaquer was a dialectal F. A. t. ATTEND. but Roquefort has 'Attire. ' Palsgrave even has I atteynt. a nail. content. . a peg. Agon. to quite as often at/ones. . 1 1 1 3. ntyr. 599 . stick. ad.. TAN. See Attempt. to take (whence E. ralta. Hen. Lat. ' . Testify. p. old word ATTACK. tr. testis. hunger. prep. want of Pliny. ^TTARP. b. attaint is a verb that has been made out of a past participle. 246. in our buildings. Doublet. apparently founded on the F. and abbreviate. takke. Holland writes of no benefit of nutriment of meat. attack. ad ( atbefore t) . p. tij has lost the initial s. tenuis. perfume . to take prisoner. to undertake Roquefort.) ' lords did on the quene attend . see also Prompt. (Lat.) or decorated parapet wall. Fick. Lat. b. strain. to touch upon. ataquer all occur. to moderate. E.) F. DOT. attain-ment. 1 . atrocite.) It occurs in Elyot. F aitiyue. Rob. and without regard to imported senses. i.-L. E. Gk. V. JjjrThe 1715. attest-at-ion.. tir. grasp. As a fact. ' Mid his fourti cnihtes and hire hors and hire atyr' = with his forty knights and their horses and their apparel. alone-merit. 1174. v. Eng. F. [Not in Gower. It is curious that the Gothic actually has the compound verb attekan. E. atteindre.' administered in the land was convicted of falseness . ATTAINT. TAN. and attainder is conviction. 8. we have again made at once into two words. a peg. 'atira. atirier. to convict them. arrest. take). It appears to have been a generally received opinion that the word was derived from the circumstances of edifices in Attica being built after this ' manner . Lat. ATROCITY. 16. iv. ' L. V and. remarks that it is not an in the language. ii. It is merely the past participle of the verb to attain.) The adj. sense being that of puncturing or stabbing. the orig. (F. adj. ^f It is to be added that. ajuster.. 1 77.-L. Root unatrocity. Alteyntyn. Parv. pin. Der. sect. ATTEMPER. both being And when it is once seen that the root reduplicated perfect tenses. strangely enough. attend-ant . ' ' ' endeavour . ajuste. Often ' called. In William of Palerne. the O. prick slightly. so that attacker stands for an older a'. have attent. is M. represented in E. By introducing the sound of w into once (wunce). attonis. Aryan tan. to fasten with a nail Irish taca. 8. F. a small ' order placed upon another that is much greater Kersey's Diet. otto of roses. Der. pp. ATTACH. attenuat-ion. as in sticking a pig. vi. a row) which is to be considered as quite distinct from the common F. to temper. and the Gaelic staiag. pr. to (Lat.. ' cf. The verb ' is . technical sense in law. attach-ment. attach-able. adj. of allenuare. prefix (Lat. convinco .' i. to make thin. prickle. 276. does not appear to have been used till the 1 8th century. crude form of atrocilas. Castel we ATTENUATE. fastening Gaelic tacaid. Lat. (2 Chron. I touched. stigma. The sbs. P.. = Lat. Chaucer. Tf-T/xxp-a) ' . attentus. extreme cruelty. a. to modify.y' for tangere. . and others. ATROPHY. ' take and hold fast. C. ATTIRE. endeavour. I hyt or louche a thyng. the root is to be found in the word which appears in English ' ' as tack. P. 1725. Hence attack and attach are doublets. a jag. Lat. (F. Gk.' of tendere. both by sting and stick. where again Benfey remarks. Celtic.) ' Attemprith the lusty houres of the fyrste somer sesoun . A.. atleinen they wenen to atteine to thilke good that thei desiren . ATTAIN". atteslatus. nail. Cf. p. Cf. pp. control. attain-able-ness. decore . The sb. dress vb. qualify. xxiii. (F. used in a to convict. to stretch towards. set . and the ' real root is stag. bk. T. ad (becoming at. tan.) Rich. whilst to detach is to unfasten what has been but loosely held together by such a nail.) apparel. tij. cruel more lit. point. tr. 6514. 1014. ' Now M. preparer. disposer. ad ( = at. ROSES. The simple verb tempter was also spelt tenter. to touch. c.. stician. temperare. . But atrocity is much older. iv. attingere. L. is obviously the Goth. i. tak. attempt. atemprer. see Attach. ad). i. STAG ATTIC. i. The only difficulty is to determine whether the source is Celtic or Old Low German. as tdra [star]. tempteir.

ace. i. anon. as seen above. G. cf. atlitud-in-al. napa. Rich. attire . I hear. and the Skt. sb. 8). 1 8 . Lat. 48. splendor. aught. S. H. reipetv. the hole in the centre of a wheel for the axle to pass through. Lat. attract. being derived from naaf. 23 . Hist. to turn. and inNominale MS.42 the Icel. attribut-able.) ' An augoure. skill. H. audire. creature. Fick. to be pleased. attritus. lightcoloured . A. of Boethius. Judith. 414. a sale by auction. ii. allms. garrulus. {-at. 148. tir. down 119. Benfey's Skt. iii. and makes it mean assistant. iii. Lat. an assembly of listeners. Lat. and some other words. embellish. anything. augmenter. i. avegaar. attribute. tir.' or helper. b. S. Sat.) Formerly in use in a theological sense. A. is a M. aptitudinem. out. Der. to assign or impute. . = if he will give aught O. Dryden. F. audi-ble-ness. verb atirer was really formed in England. G. But the Du. 943. a diviner by the flight and cries of birds. but this is not quite clear. Cot. Ezek.) Very variously spelt in M.' which looks like an attempt to improve the spelling. to increase. ATTRIBUTE.) ' audacious ornaments . JEn. M. D. gar or gri. tense. M. i. E. audacious-ness . augere. ist Series. atibe. This word ' AUDACIOUS. impudent. to Cot. H. Works. ii. 191). In hearing. [t] AUGUST'. a nave-piercer. av. the second syllable. auctus. torht. E. p. Lat. G. an auger. attract-ion. ' ' nafegdr. p. iii. O. telling. . A AUBURN. ix. F. L. O. j ATTRACT. alburnus. to assign. a bird . AUGMENT. 157. AUGER. to be bold. audience. col. inner bark ol ' Cotgrave) aubourt. but in Webster's Diet. literally. ' ' . trim up.before t) to the sb. Gk. In Halliwell's Diet. More. (Ital. audacitas. dtai. 2 ^ ^ ^ DARK ATTITUDE. hardy.before t) . S. and is nothing but the A. 17. we French the closely related (in Ital. to DAR. pp. see Grein. aptitudo. attiffers by ' attires. bk. Made by prefixing Lat. and gar. The most remarkable point is that change of meaning actually took place also in O. D. which gores (see Gore). ^Elfric's Glossary It means. This. apparel. Diet. C. from which see. see Tyndal. audacity. gar). white. The modem meaning was probably due to some confusion in the popular mind with the word brown indeed. ' ' ' speaks of abron locks. These words are from DARK. and this too . ENGLISH. allure. augustus. it has lost an initial it. like convict and some others.' F.-L. Lat. corruption of nauger. augment is (etymologically) AUGHT. augment. 380. also has the word naafboor.] C. the sap-wood. augmentum. A. honour. praise (a very AUGUST. Now the verb atirer and all traces of it have so utterly died out in French. shining. (Hybrid. Cot.. " 534> 535. the nave of a wheel (see Have) . cf. ace. ' ' ' . also audacity. audacilalem. 1 2 59 c. Gower has augur. renown. he hears. and ger. 30. oght. whit. of Thus attitude is a doublet of aptitude. to give. 339. ate. sometimes confused with attire. after shrift. Cf. to draw to. ace. (Lat. S. suffectus. glory. 501. Prompt.) Chaucer. ' ' ' See Koch. tir goes back to the older is but a secondary formation.to aub. occurs in an inventory dated A.-L. form audaaudacious. auclion-eer. a carpenter's tool. and boren. A. poem in old editions of Chaucer's Works. F. The sb.' Max tiller. a public sale to the highest bidder. an increase. auditus. augment-at-ion. tus.] Low Lat. auctionem. sb. Ill. a centre-bit. 5. adj. See Trace. C. to (Lat. nave. to draw. eawt.S. trickings. F. attritionem. or tires. foratorium telum. T. grace. form of one.. which again is from Lat. (F.was an unnecessary F. ziari. a AUGUR. ' ' . H. Formed. nut. is in Shak. to shout . auburne. decorate. ad ciple. F. Ducange. audacious-ly. and tr. such sorrow became contrition . the etym. Works. 1121 d. a priest at Rome. . though the precise form auburn is not found. Thus awburne. Lat. nafarr.L. [The rest of this article 1 now withdraw see Errata. a whit. an auger. ad) turn. nafa. Der. i. or inner bark of trees (Pliny). attract. which is undoubtedly connected with the Gk. has : 'Augi. we have also audi-ble. attractus. More ' has audible.-L. zier. pp. pp.The true source of this O. being a word connected with the painter's art. augur-ship also in-augurbird. whence the G. aught. Lat. i. attributus. The cognate word to A. p. Ital.) ' . A. augmentare. boldness. Germ. Parv. from Lat. Root uncertain. Lect. to hear. 61 8 . a gore. (Lat. 164. Lat. audire. auditus. x. . . tir. as the prefix a. ^[ Italian assimilates pt into tt. bold. in which the n is preserved. to bring to a like tune or tone.-L. augaugment. to make to harmonise. ovs. pres. Ben Jonson has bold. p. daring. : Kings. terebellum. 38.) My sorowes to augment Remedie of Love (15* cent. a tool for boring holes.'] Florio. 825. ad (which in composition becomes at. awiht. The sb. to bore. S. E. and ' so long ago. S. See Whit. ' turn of another. [Yet . citrinus . zier. H. dm to mm. thing. (E. augment-at-ive. pp. alba. and the well-known A. attract-ive-ly. an audience or hearing . like from a past participle. And see Auspice. aght.. rubbed away. a wight. to draw to. as expressing sorrow for sin without shrift . attract-ive. aptitude.. iv. Lat. adj. ornament. Lat. Auction occurs in Pope. eawiht. common word). 82. given by alburnus. grace. honour. b. hearing. attribution. Songs. alburnum. The A. has lost the initial like English. M. to increase. . S. attract-able. but A. ofatlerere. ' fretting. xvi. a.' from aug-ere.' reddish brown. arrange or transact business. Like adder. ATTITUDE. attire (accented on fact. lornare. E. ii. 2. like a. a spear-point. 2. 'Yif he awiht delanwule' oht. (F. ' addition. alurneye. If it be right. 4.' &c. so that attune is See Tune. is that whitish colour of women's hair called an album or aburn colour. prepare. v. mod. See Apt. audit-or-ship. in his Satires.it in visage. (F. one and wiht. . of audio. Troil. Merch. Skt. as nothing but a Norman adaptation of the A. H. Cf. put in tune. splendor. and tribuere.) of a painter in his choice of attitudes to foresee the effect and har' mony of the lights and shadows .) Used by Grafton.. Diet. to be satisfied with . attract-ive-ness. connected with the A. Der. attorney-ship. ad. ' M ' ' . a white garment. increase mentatus. cognate with A. contrary to what might have been expected. Ital. Homilies. meaning the clerical vestment called an alb. to turn in a lathe. . tirr. an. 59." till the article is knocked find in trees. a wearing by friction.. Hall. of Vocabularies. ATTORNEY. the derivation being from naaf. ccan. an auger. The spelling with u shews that the word passed through French. and tired her head . pr. S. atorne. to bore. ' + ^ . . Gk. S. which has awiht. Fick divides the word aug-ur. G. a kind of tree tearmed in Latin of which one of the old meaning. to hear . auris. to turn.. From the pp. Cf. the ear. 5093 . ATTUNE.. audit-or-y. sap-wood. The sb. that nafu. (E. 1.) Formed. Lat.) coined word. dress. hearing. diif. glory.before /) . q. glory. atir or atyr. A. Sir T. sect.S. being used for boring (Bosworth). came from Italy. stout. that we can hardly suppose otherwise than that the O.' and ought' is for o whit. attribute. pp. which was a word in common use. aptness. Icel. ^T The O. I should suppose audit to be from the sb. ace. Yet the verb to attribute seems to have been in use before the sb. . ' set off. a head-dress. to See Auction. Der.] F. ' ' . to see. to eke. and serenely bright. noht Polit. ad( = at. S. aubier. atour. See Alb. I a. attourneie. St.' from Low Lat.before /) and trahere. ' ^TAR. (F. is very common in the Bible (Isaiah iii. audit. augur-y (Lat. garnish. furnish ii. and -gur. an * increase. is quite a different word . Works.' where o. and interpreted the will of the gods from the flight and singHence the attempt to derive augur from OBI'S. and the Skt. it is said to have arisen from the use of the 3rd pers.) and Cress. AW. i. ' the old sense was citron-coloured or light yellow. to direct. 17. to dare.] F. 13. to rub. 'bold. (Lat. augur. pp. 1. and pronounced ateer). verb zieren. from nom. F. Cotgrave explains the F. Moreover.. I see. wearing away. audiGk. Aught is for a whit. dressings. a spear-point (A. Curtius. to adorn. 3. F. 274. German. Der.. audientia. tire. b. 1301. of attribuere. napager. ought. Curtius. i. See Eke. v. ' ' to increase. ii. attomatus ' Attourneis in cuntre thei geten silver for Prompt. ziere. 'arubbing. Virgil. 170. Curtius. Der. ouht. (F. Lat. and terere. the verb in Sir T. attirals. nave. p.) A sale by auction is a sale by increase of price. esp. ziari. In Spenser. attritio. tir is the O. ciosus. alburno. &c. Cf. ofaugere. bestow. to rub. posture.). to enlarge. G. bright. Q. ii. 482 Fick. from O. It is spelt nauger in Wright's Vol. older than the verb..+O. See Tribute.' Lat. wearing Cotgrave. [Perhaps directly from Latin. Grein. AUDIENCE. and torner. Lat. ing of birds. pp. 222. attrition.venerable. xxiv. augur-al.' A.' this to the highest bidder. [#] "Tis the business position. G. lit. of attrahere. 3. a rubbing. is in fact. sing. a piercer. 103. nom. ' Atturneye. short for an. a soothsayer. i. Lat.). attends. an extremely old word.. crude form of audax. (F. terebrum. is from auis. tune. attract-ib-il-it-y. ornament. Lat. The Silent Woman. honoured. Dufresnoy. ^f The Du. an auger. sect. a. Lat. and forming numerous compounds .) Dryden. an agent who acts in the L. we find : ' Navegor. 1.. tir. p. Lat. 266 (8th ed. audi-bly. attitude. 7. from a past partiLat. we have audit-or (spelt auditour in Gower. and an old word gaar. Formed as if from a Lat. mod. Der. now obsolete except in as far as it is represented by geer. (Lat. ATTRITION. p. Chaucer has augurie. 7. fame. whitish. Der. Parv. an auger.) ' Awburne coloure. on Science of Lang. attention. the nave of a wheel. S. p. aht.occurs again in the F. See Turn. 191 . E. to (= at. 3. gur being connected with garrire. ' as in the well-known text ' she painted her face. with a new sense of splendor of ' AUCTION.' Lat. attribut-ive. Bacon has F. we need not wonder that it was often thrown off in English. (Lat. Fliigel's E. who foretold events. p. audacieux. the ear. of atorner. increase with suffix -mentum. From Lat. p. SipKofuu. sc. Der.' [The change in spelling from alb. tire is seen in O. G. see Brachet. Moral Essays. C. audaci-. audere. and that the particular Low German dialect which furnished the word tir was. perceive . Nat. 1 7. Eng. Lat. augment-able. augur-ium). which some have most absurdly connected with the Persian tiara. attitudine.' Levins. . A attitud-in-ise. [Perhaps from Latin directly. in I regard the M.

Well known in told in the ear. See Auction. two ear-like cavities of the heart . the ear. aiding. southern. more usually specere. shews that the breathing is an aspirate. the North wind. verb. yAS. F. from Lat. golden. 17. . greedy. . (from Lat. to let fall down. an. the originator of a book. am/or. I Kings. see Benfey. avaric: ous-ly. bum. himself. C. AUTOPSY. ' favour. K. a corrupted form. auarice greediness after wealth. mata. The simple form AUSTRAL. automat- AUTOMATON". to see . (Gk. See Aviary and Spy. 14 . avarici-ous. auspicium). ridge's Der. self. before an aspirate. means to swallow. hoitd vast. from ally. and fya. of Boethius. 2. downward.. (Lat. as being the season of produce. independence. original. auricularis. 18. to burn. secret con99. autonomvcuai. augere.] Lat. auctus). 27. to think. look into. c. of louden. thing whence was derived the M. p.' from the US. as opposed to amont. a grandmother. having written by the author's own hand.. By some connected with augere (pp. auspice. to think. vouched for. to be of use. US.. viii. Lat. Gk. Gk. an original. auailen (u for v). Curtius. dimin. [Perhaps directly from Latin. to write. from KAR. authority. and by Cudworth. austere. from ush. From Lat. Lat. formed by adding -c. Hampole has availes. and derived. a bird . gustus (i. aunte.VTOS. i. Lat. auspici-ous-ness. sere. auspici-ous-ly. Gk. things Temp. AUXILIARY. self-government. 3586. to make. (F. avStvnauthenticus. a Modem. A.) Formerly aureat. and Grafton. which is the tick. Der. met. autobiograph-ic.= aiiT-tis. i. dry.. strive to do. auricula. p. i. a listening.) the phrase ' auricular confession.' but AVALANCHE. avarisce. upward (Lat. T. ^ Gk.-L. b. the bear's ear. a val. avaller. Rob. jjeis. pi. harsh. aiiro- Nomad. existing.) Spelt autocrasy in South's Sermons. to be pleased. authentic-ate.K. p. Lat. the South wind. F. Dibdin. ad montem. pr. 37. 134). also. . AVAST. pp. . cf. dry. Low Lat. also. of auscitltare. to increase. bear.australe. Gk. fall of snow. Gk. perceive. of Boethius. sb. cast. aur-e-ole.-L. auris. i. contracted form for ausiculitare. Der. named after Authe honoured) Caesar. strength. of St. cognate with E. stem of aiir6s. valoir. iii. Made by prefixing to biography. Fick. auspices . to parch. vol. Der. ^MAN. See Eke. greedy . autocrat-ic-al. Probably named from its bright colour. E. Austral-ian. p. met. aur-ist. died A. cognate with E. Gk. from to bum . aval. of Glouc. a verb not in use. H. ser. chiefly medi- applied to the use of the stethoscope. 21 . hesitates about this connection with Lat. Works. absolute and despotic government by one man. to be of value or use. northern or dawn-like halo from Lat. vol. Lat. see If it be correct. nomad. auxilium. i. token 288. authenticall. 1. gold-produc- AUREATE. 5. Skt. O. spy. 490. 512 . ushas. Lat. in the phr. Diet. Vaft is cognate with E. autobio- auto-. See AUTONOMY. author-ship. auricles. i. 1814.) before /. automatons. E.) Modern. of OUT<$/XTO. auere. vofua. of auscultatio.Gk. ' ' Cot. ^AW. ' (F. (Lat. which Cotgrave explains by ' austere. + + . and that the word is related to A. p. F. Der. ii. to bum. Hand (short form hou) is the imp. avail-able..) Creation. Der. automat-ic-al. making the tongue dry. i. whence E. suffix) to the stem auri. aufnm. Lear. [The word docs not seem to AUTHOR. a seasong by C. authentic-at-ion.) The use of Lat.. G. of form ' ' . Ancren Riwle. the dawn. austral does not appear to be used till late times. author-i-tat-iveauthor-ise (spelt auctorise in Gower. Fick. neut. dawn . regard. q. desire. ft] s. b. 39. and yi/^o^at . gold-coloured chrysalis of an insect aur-e-ola. rigorous. strength. strong. 160 (R. uses the adj. dawn avpiov. ii. Du. v. 9017. golden aur-i-ferous. cf. xii. self and aparos. see the quotation in Richardson from his Athenae Oxonienses. p. words good authority been alike modified by reference to the original Greek. Romeo. aino-. put. O. of man. (Gk. Cot. I distribute . avarr/pos. authentic. 2. ' ' Holland. the dawn.) (u as v) . ush. a descent of snow into the valley. ' See Valley. auscultatus. the senses to let. i. withered.) Modem. . 32. 473. to spy. Used by Anthony a (F. auris we auricul-ar. dry. Reuel. autentiaue. venerable. valir. Lat. selfmoving. Attic ton.) aurora.' a kind of primrose. 'one who makes a to grow. common in O. avarice. from xparvt.-L. life of a man written by himself. Auster for the South wind occurs in Chaucer. 1. From Lat. i. something in one's own handwriting. August. auricul-ar-ly.. b. autor. auratus. airro-.= sant. ammd. aurum we have aur-elia. Skt. and in Byron's Manfred. graph-er. . Used by Dryden st. . s. F. 433. to be strong. the fey. C.' Udal speaks of it. stem of O. pi. On the personal inspection. Intellectual System. e. (Lat. to Used by Ray. autumn-al. AURICULAB. Browne. authentic-i-ty. i. ^ ^ AK. VWAL. a great falling or sinking down. auctovr. O. 132. to be strong. cf. autumnus. a Hymn in the ' ' ^ Austral-ia. q. ' the change of m to n AUTOBIOGRAPHY.' &c. AUSCULTATION. auri' cula. southerly. father's sister. F. of Langtoft. M. D. severe. (Gk. from Gk. a watching of birds for Lat. avaler. Prompt. to see. hard. ii. 3. G. author-ess. help. O.. (Lat. ous. authentic-al. I sway . stem of avros. the lobe of the ear. shining . AUTOGRAPH. bala. i. (Gk. . the purpose of augury. of Lat. tart. Annus v. pp. strong. or Shak. a father's or mother's sister. (Dutch. desired. Der. author-is-at-ion. I. helping .(Aryan suffix -ka) and -ul. In Shak. bitter. living by one's own laws. See Mean. 2. stem contraction of auispicium. austere-ness. 118. augere. AVAIL. autour. have been used in early French autoritel. Attgust-an. (Lat. auclenlique. F. and spicere. author-i-tat-ive. AVAST. an originator. . tr.] F.' % For amita. (Gk. (F. autocrat (Gk. sc. of uncertain origin. 482. of aureatus. 3. O. to be pleased.. to bum.v. Lat. and a stem fiar-. autograph-ic. dawn cal. streamers. harsh. Der. Der. sear. Rob.-L. . airro-. which stands for an older form ausosa.' Lat. ad. Lat. In ColeVale of Chamouni. avalanche. He was fulle austere . Curtius.. Spelt auctentyke in Hampole. airro-. p. Lat. rather than to the root us. Skt.) M. See Ear. John. one who does xot. Gk. p. harsh. have auri-form.-L. auctumnus. ^ . Austral-asian. auster-i-ty. viii. p. alos. to JEa. cognate with E. ad uallem. Gk. the outer ear . from ausicula. or F. Der. bk. F. might. Australis. from Gk. a word common ' in some of the older Scotch The aureat fanys. p. southerly. autobiograph-ic-al. part. amme means nurse.) In early use. lucke. aui-. 498 . a = Lat. listen. atacultationem. to burn. Cotgrave in the form avallanche. dry. auricul-ate. i. from Gk. which appears in iun-tvai. aurum. magnify. Douglas. to gild.) Gk. Fick. cf. ic. v. of auis. - - Cotgrave also gives. ( Cf. F. Austral-asia (from Asia). L. to AURORA. Icel. downward . austere-ly. auspicium. auctor. the mod. pp. urere. augere. [t] to denote an original MS. F. F.AUNT. 251. atuv. Auricular. L. avSivrr/s. 54. the goddess of the dawn . 7115. Low Lat. as of earth. AUNT. and err. derivative honour. auricula we have auricle. p. Lat.) Modem. august-ness. rough. 777. gold . John. it is mere Dutch. balin. autentik.) ing. Cf. speaks of auxtliarie or aid soldiers lightly armed. tr. a seeing with one's own eyes. Chaucer. golden. . later au- AUTHENTIC.) ' Livy. a helper. The adj. autumn. aur-ic. Curtius. ualere. av-Tovofun. . Lat. AUTUMN. ante (corrupted to tante in mod. aurare. Gk.e. Lat. Pricke of Conscience. avarice. Der. Boreas. patronage. E. . tr.) i. auere . ypa-tpav. stem of ai/rus. Parv. Auster. Fick. things with his own hand. fell down. Cf. written with written with his own hand . severe. to) to the O. autographe. Lat. towards the hill). who explains it by authenthe English and F. original. Der./os/. parched . to burn. which in mod. appears in valiant. ^US. fortune. in his Vulg. assistance. avTo^ia. severe. mamma. See Auction. Lat. 189. pi. G. Act F. Skt. E. . auricularis confessio. ace. fession. and A a luckie beginLat. Gk. Der. the ear. F. Fick. warranted. stem of aiirof. to wish. to increase. also Gk. in patronage . has of 'a sign.' Lat. create. lay. pres. of Boethius. 1.) Mirabilis. self. S. Wyclif. automat-ic-al-ly. On. middle voice of Der. i. aiiTo/MTov. Aryan Der. Gk. AVARICE. according to Curtius. hold fast. (Lat. genuine. stem. avarici-ous-ness. cognate with E. E. . auctentyke.of Lat. to desire . desire.. OVTOVOIIOS. 78. thentique. adj. AUTOCRACY. a listening. s. (F. b.).) It occurs in Poor Jack. JEolic avait. v. 2. v. Shak. auarus. lit. E. tr. Pricke of Conscience. used by Chaucer. aiiTuifxupov. auxiliaris. assisting. old form of auricula.. a\rr6ypa<t>ot. (F. aiiTOKparcia.. sight. auaritia. ushdsd. authenticto be. autograph-y. self-derived power. [t] airro-. 182 by the flight of birds ' ning of matters . ' ' Avaylyn or profytyn . A urora-borealis. mother. l-old. Errors. morrow. the harvest time of the year. v.= asant. stop. BenDer. aveiv. 43 find the but we O. autenlique. a autorite.' F. august-ly. It probably ' meant burning.] Lat. Prol. named from the shape of its leaves From Lat. E. ammo. hence. anspici-ous.-L. self. &c. 47. I seek after. Lat. (F. 142. old form. from Lai/art. the halo of golden glory in paintings .' the golden poets. to regard. ly. Perhaps aii9. (F. -Gk. Like many sea-terms. See Sere. A (Lat. the 8th month. promote to Der. in Cotgrave.) M. Lat. to make to grow.-Gk. num. of Brunne. one's self. c. In Boyle's a self-moving machine. austerus. 314. Cot. [It seems to have been taken from Latin immediately. gilded. autoplic-al see Optic. dimin. hold fast. author-i-ty. base of aiirit. to increase. the sense of auspicious. to produce. o. and in the Skt. extol. (Lat. automatons or automata . aino-. secret. sour to the taste . K. absolute government. given by i. Gk. avail-abl-y. 45 . [t] M. AUSPICE. free. See Aurora. a frequentative form See auris.' F.) Inearlyuse. see Ant. being.) M. O. AUSTERE. aiiroicpaTtap). Lat. F.) Spelt autumpne in Chaucer. auidus. Wood own hand and Gk. self . The compound verb was not used in the French of the continent it was made by prefixing the O.. there is a further connection with Skt. towards the valley . harsh. auxiliarius. Gk.(dimin. 10. Lat.

' bution towards the work of carrying the lord's wheat (2) a charge for carriage. E. The Lat. with which it should never have been confused. O. prep. he will make thee bare He shal lyue with thee and auoide thee out.. most commonly uses it in the sense of shun (Merry ment. I like them not Bacon. V. ^f The F. (Sanskrit. which perhaps had the sense to be propitious. averagium. (xiii. 208.) Spelt advenue in Holland's F. . An AVAUNT. 3. Cotgrave gives shun. et curribus (2) detrimentum quod in vectura mercibus accidit. it meant a charge for carriage. to turn away. 413. a bird whence also. it is generally transitive. . hail. e. employment. Low Lat. ' ' : . F. AVENUE. where the Vulgate version has: 'Ave gratia plena. have any connection. 65). away. or entry into a place. a proportionate contribution rendered by a tenant to the lord of Ihe manor for the service of carrying wheat. i. : . averium. averium was English modification of Skt. v. revenge. p. and uocare. away .) Used by Dryden (Todd's Johnson) also in Boyle. From the Aryan stem avi. come.-L. B. and is therefore a different word. See Vocal. void.) &c. cards. cpeteraque animalia quas agricultural inserviunt' &c. O. 763. and vengier. D. F. ' AVENGE. abs. a true thing. equis. esp. it appears to be connected with the F. ' anoiden (u for v). a large bird.. yea. hail (Lat. Lat. to lay claim to . Lat. and I know not how many other avocations. ^AW. a calling away of . e. . abs. also.' hence. c. auocare. of auertere) averse. Later. Anno 32 Hen. see Vengeance ' . oves. 5. 32. and has no doubt materially influenced ' the sense of the word. Skt.) o. meaning (i) to go away. aduertere. see Peile's Introd. actually cites the verb to avir. and explained by an access. ' F. ' to aver. an incarnate form. Der.' Lat. s. Lat. [For. habere. Chaucer uses only the simple form voiden. belonging to birds. (2) equi. (2)35 sb. See Avarice.) ' sinne of ire . and uerum.). ab ante. avoir. goods.) advenue by Cotgrave. with the suffix -ium added to make it a neuter collective substantive. 2nd ed. (Lat. it will be seen. to revenge. to Gk. of auere. conuiuet tecum. ' the true original sense is to empty. AVIARY. a diverting of the thoughts . auiditatem. ad. where ava means down. (Lat. The same extraordinary confusion seems to have been a popular blunder of long standing. L. i. (Lat. in this case. covetousnesse. we find quietum esse de averagiis . 28. neut. xiii. to be to be pleased. 5. form of ab. business. av. to come to. 8. meaning (i) to empty. but also Of these.. remission . passage. 14 and i Jacob. ' . greediness. pp. to). which is perhaps connected with uenia. a bird. F. P. Zend in'. 'omnia quae ' ' AVERAGE. eagerness. -tionem). Averland. a bird. Cymb. work !] Y. to come. hoc est quod nativi deberenl ex antiqua servitute ducere bladum [to carry wheat] annuatim per umim diem de Pillesgate apud Burgum. Wives. The word has gradually ' ' changed its meaning from diversions to necessary employments.' Spenser Englishes the phrase by Ave-Mary. Fick. AVERT.-L. seu bobus. Parv. and uenire. 'This to take vengeance for an injury. in. averse-ly. to ask . to punish. He says ' In the time visits. Lat. L. avertir Lat. cattle. phrase en avant.' And Shak. See Curtius. i.) In Shak. It was used. suffix -lion (Lat.' Dryden (in Todd's Johnson) ' speaks of the avocations of business. and Lat. It is surprising that the extremely simple etymology of Average is wrongly given by Wedgwood. cart-horses and extended to carriage of goods by ships.). Reflections. : In Palsgrave's French Diet. : .) I averte. AVOCATION." according to the weight and trouble taken. (From Lat.." He adds: it is used for a contribution that merchants and others do proportionably make towards their losses. 2. averer. cognate with aduenire. aver5. greedy. . 26. coined word. i. who. auidilas. See Advance. a diversion.' Cf.. it is also used in the Statute 14 Car. V. Milton. agium. as we trace the word still further backwards. that the O. after correctly referring to Averpenny.' This has been easily developed out of an older and original meaning.' evidently by confusion with vocations. Curtius.' tri is ' lo pass over. uenia is connected with Skt. French Diet. See Verity. a affirm to be true work.. fortune . avant is from Lat. in Halli well's Diet. has not avidity as an English word). which they justly stile diversions. avouch. Cotton.' i. eager desire . also spelt avert and aver. In Ecclesiasticus. Pers. Lat. ! AVE. the prefix seems to have been mistaken for the common F. Commenl. i. auis. avers-ion. ' Never have to do with hym. or of the goods and lives of them in the ship. ^f ' . i. false popular notion of the etymology has probably assisted in this . . to avenge. ' . . q. F. who have their goods cast into the sea for the safeguard of the ship. v. an alley shaded by trees forming the approach to a house.' as in avoyd thou thi trenchere = empty your plate. (A.) Hindu deity in The Low Lat. 5 in A. originally. a bird also the Gk. (i) a contricap. and bow may I avoid [get rid of] the wife I chose ' (Cor. jumenta. auersus. 25). iv. aver-ment. if thou mayst avoyde him (escheuer or B. Lat.. viz. and we even find in Bums. truth. (3) to go away from . auiarium. a. devacuo . and only the correct use of the word is found. (i) to have. prefix (Lai. avidities is in Boyle's Works. the attention. ace. eagerness. ' ' . verifie. But. Lat. form of the pp.' which is exactly equiva' lent to the modem slang expression he will clean you out. of adj. : ' . avatura. the lines: 'Yet aft a see aiver in ragged cowl's been known To mak a noble aiver Jamieson's Scot. aveng-er. we find ' Average (Lat. Chaucer.(Lat. literature it occurs in Adam Smith. ' . In Shak. F. ii. Skt. ii. from nom. i. to prove a thing to be true . In this lasl sence. i. to affirm to be true. sing. De Ira. it is short for Ave. E. used in the original sense of 'to come to. occurring only in this word and avert. and see Aver. O.' st. avidite. because it is proportioned after the rate of every man's average. i.] Lat.' Ducange. from Lat. . auel haill imp. of the verb avenir or to say. auertere. Average is not in early use in E. Auoyden. Occas. 27. of uerus. to call . ol-uvof. : ' : ' ' . ardent affection. begone! (F. 317. plaustris. In the Register of the Abby of Peterborough (in Bibl. Luke. ' b. evacuo. greedinesse. [*] to turn aside. etymologically. averse-ness. an approach.' It is the fern. Mary 1 alluding to St. p. from Der. If so. His adduntur vecturae sumptus et necessaripa alise impensae. (F. Eviter. opera.' A. Diet. to get out of the way of. but avenue at p. to shun. Average. prefix a. avenue. ad. F. which stands for ava-tri-a. p. n. p. auiarius. viz. ii. Also note. 6 version has ' Si habes. though he has 'avoid the house' iv. L. a place for birds neut. AVER. Lat. eschew. &c. pleased.. Cotgrave. An older spelling is uendicare. (2) to flee. but formed with the common F. and in senses that are all Wives. the Lat. auoyden. (3) a contribution towards loss of things carried. Der. shrink from." [His odd translation of averiis by working beasts is due to an odd notion of connecting the Low Lat. ad. to turn.. that in the day there is no time left for the distracted person to converse with his own thoughts. also spelt Livy.44 AVATAR. this cutter). The very simplicity of the explanation seems hitherto to have secured its rejection. pardon. ' a place for keeping birds. a.. extreame lust. c. a charge upon carriage.. to punish. ace. or goods carried. Ducange. ad. in Blackslone. evacuatus Promp. in time of tempest. to avoid. hence. with which the word cannot. averium is nothing but the O. And it is so called. F. AVATAR. i. amuseis in this sense that Boyle uses it. Not found in French. Etymology. advenir (Cotgrave). he et euacvabit te but Wyclif has will live with thee. short for ab.' and -a is a suffix. The modem sense is an amount estimated as a mean proportion of a number of different amounts. short Palsgrave. oeuvre. businesses. (F. has ' If thou have anything.. e. cap. (F.] F. in a poem called 'A Dream. to) . tviter. forward 1 on I march 1 The F. do succeed one another so thick. turf. 35. (F. leave. desirous. ii. (F. Aver-corn. terms of pardon. mndicare.. also avoir. &c. van.' confusion disappears.) M. intransitive. by loss of the initial vowel. I suppose uendicare to have meant 'to appoint the p. 488 Fick. ' AVIDITY. auidus. to have. L. from averia. aver was so particularly used of horses that a horse was called an aver. to call away.) the Vulgate ' where the A. after a correct explanation of Aver and a reference to one of the right senses of Average also by Mahn (in Webster's Diet. the Low Lat.. Shortened from the F. Miiller. avengier.. See Verse. Averpenny. cattle) signifies service which the tenant owes the king or other lord. a. in some dictionaries.) Not in early use . and uertere. A L.) For aviaries. Wealth of Nations. c. In Blount's Law Diet. a. ' . Cotgrave ' ' (who. 1691). Maria. 6. 203. med. 657 (R. o.' ' ft. the descent of a AVOID. . bk. . averium with Lat. (i)pecunia. Ducange. auerare. aduerare. Richardson quotes from Spelman to Ihe effecl that average meant a portion of work done by working beasts (averiis) yoked in carriages or otherwise also. Q. ' (Troil. An aver-age was estimated according to the work done by avers. 1674. 482. . who refers to the F. pursuit. It seems almost incredible that. 281. vecturse onus quod tenens domino exsolvit cum averiis. as stated in E. Mer. 503.) As mostly used. a proportionate amount. empty. Babees Book. with augmentative suffix. possessions. i. from Lat. The development of senses is easy. Ic is obvious that the word is closely connected with the adj. to. I tourne away a thyng Lat. : A AVOID. but quite unnecessarily. quis possidet. by horse or ox. ' In M. 90. (2) to remove. Modem. a ( = 06) being very rare as a prefix. .. aver. vel carfare turbas [to carry turf] de marisco ad manerium de Pillesgate cum carectis et equissuis. ed. avoyded. Lat. It of health. from Lat.) it is thus explicated Averagium.-L. The pi. 19. . solely with reference to the employment of horses and carts. a voice. Essay 46 On Gardens. ' [Perhaps immediately from Latin. to and by Richardson. vox (stem uoc-). in Blount's Gloss. escape. take vengeance. (F. Tale.. Dicare is the frequentative of dicere. ' ' . true. or by carriage with either for in ancient charters of priviledges. ' descent . we have 289. in accordance with the French. Low Lat. is wicked will to be auenged by word or by dede . and Diction. Lat. auocatio. aver turned into a Latin word. 33. Low Lat. E. witness.

. 'Tha autoc Brutus = then Brutus awoke. to regard. aw-ful. avuh. amend = emend. wait. distinct from avow. Wary. Layamon. old spelling of O. H. in Vie de St. or is . Per. a verb not given in Wackemagel's Handworterbuch. L. v. which accounts for the pt. declare openly. wrong way. ' ii. vowed . bounden. Ancren Riwle. F.) Strictly speaking.' as in Macb. to compensate for the loss of n in an. t. O. and only to be so used. p. for. compounded of es-. 'a thing vo. H. Rob. . where gewahr is from O. sense was to swear fealty to. From the same root we have anguish. -A. ge-) and war. gaitier (mod. 47. awakenen. 119 . to weigh. 2. O. S. to) to the verb vouch . awk. mod. an intensive prefix wake. H. Auk is a contraction perverse. ii. avouer. AWKWARD. Glossar. (Hybrid . which again is a corruption of A. way. anguish. to promise. ad. Goth. t. E. (F. ex. Lat. S. (F. veu. choking. prefix '-. Both words occur in the same fear.) in 2 Hen. is recorded in a Gewcer is thus equivagloss . upaai. Cf. modified from Lat. G. agha. prefix. of Glouc. [#] O. ofugr. awaiiier. AWAY. Me awaiteth = O. forward. records the fact that the word was once dissyllabic. p. and O. + + + + + . 234. also G. also dissyllabic. S. Parv. an. 211. to have some weight. F. The latter seems to be obsolete . on. 295." &c. aw-ful-ness. awake. O. claim. Shak. dwacen. word. warto. strong verb . a watching.. dwdc. the verb gewairian. ad. p. S. to protect O. auk. just as ' . 333. 9. v. Ayenbite of Inwyt. and accurately preserved in the E. avouen. awaiter. dwacan. and awakien. M. 53. 1.answers to the first n in the A.) M. or to make a-vowe . by awltward wind. S. viz.' ' maintain.) M. to have. spelling. ed. du and Lat.' ' Fick.. Awke or wronge. [The word is thus a hybrid . G. to control. [&] to wait for. (E. L. i. a vow.stands for af. E. agi. It was sometimes spelt dweg. John. confess. waitier. from examples in Cleasby and Vigfusson. E. and wacan. ' And beo eower ege and oga ofer ealle nitenu = and let passage the fear of you and the dread of you be over all animals. uereri. pertrary. F. Gower. guarding . Ancren Riwle. wake. JsS" Avouch is quite uoci-). . AWAIT. Der. 1. 168. Der. fear. Similarly. fear. to observe." hence 'wrong. H. vouer.(Lat.(A. perverse. for Meas. we find both awaken. to) . Lat. make void. A. agaiter. for. sinister. 16. Shakespeare misuses it more than once Tarn. the first n is formative. Shak. often contracted to ofgu. ed. . in a watchful state. to call. to empty. Owl and Nightingale. 9. erwachen. e. suffix -nan. to maintain. Sometimes in the sense ' to make good. col. S. aw-ful-ly. &xos. in which languages it . vocher.' M. The modern ' sense of clumsy is seldom found in old authors . vou. Lat. Lat. wachten). Morris. C. viz. wachen). E. A. Cf. bound for And see below. er-. : Hen. 48. determine. and waiter in Roquefort. wart. p. eye. cognate with A. 104. spelt away in Hampole. Ormnlum. wern. Goth. 7261. ' ' I avowe it. an adIts sense was transversely. which is used in both senses and it thus distinguished is slightly different in its origin. gewahr werden. fear. ou ' 1 O. + . E. F. warten. guetler). &c. revere. turning the ' . avoid-able. to watch. adj. S. vox (stem See Vouchsafe and Voice. Awkely or wrawely [angrily]. originally. a-. [Another form is M. to empty out. connected with the adj. . also. to rouse from sleep to cease sleeping. p. viz. AWKWARD. and vuidier. 478. ywar. giwar. . Shrew. ' ' ' . awaknen. C. another form of on. 2. to weigh.' To ' go away ' meant ' to go on one's way. . 1 8. H. Parv. gewar. us-. out of the way. ' of uouere. ge. that which is weighed out. to examine. awake. which see . y. 2269.) o. awkward casualties. . ^f In a word. are recorded. bilose Prompt. regard. avoir du pois. see gaitier in Burguy. O. F. pondus. See Void. awaked as used by Shakespeare (Timon. 2. F. 1. AVOUCH. P." with the buttvi6 hendi nfgri. 7 J 85. back foremost as in ofgum vapnum.' P. 1. Grein. voidier. Both can be referred to a common base ag. The prefix awk is the M. ii. a watch. awe. 75 1 Lat. See Awake. prefix a (Lat. ' i. dwacto awake Grein. the e being merely inserted to render the word easier to sound and the final . also meet with A. voer. heed. S. adj. e$l. eaghal. we will consider only the former. vouchen. Lat.E. answering to mod. fear. anguish. G.-O. . of that. G. and pp. H. to be awake cognate with A. G. whence also Gk. AWARE. to vouchsafe. warjan. moreover. people lie in wait for you . Lat. A. 334. on. uses avoirdupois (spelt haberby a pound of 16 oz. to avow. a watch. 3. G. xix. terror. F. avoir de illo. S. Homilies. to protect. A. The spelling pois is correct poids in mod. confess. Poems. Grein. awake. or y-.' verb. now quite unnecessary. O. i. terror. mod. 4481. look at. Plowman. F.' i. E. check. T.. as used in Milton. 1. i. it is a corruption of M. sideways. F. and wahla.is a corruption of O. ex. of dwacan. avomlien. . angor. avoid evoid. the original spelling of O. of the word is misspelt peadere. IV. watch for . this is an intranand never used transitively in early authors it is sitive verb only. G. afig. see garder in Burguy. C. (F. awaiten. H. fear. V. Curtius. Fick. to protect. Skt.' in the sense I declare it . later gaiter. avoid-ance.E. uersus. from the prefix gi. pensum. voider. cautious. 1 75. whence F. w ^WAR. this prefix was extremely common in O. p. Grein. n. prefix. to awake. 2 Hen. Here of. lit. and O. i. . e. Pricke of Conscience. to wait for . affliction. + Dan. ofigr. votare). approve. 649 where we find wes thu K><zr' = be thou aware. 1541. by an ' adverse wind. This was originally a past participle. as in onward. L. to make a vow (Low Lat. E. a sentinel. 635. O. ' prefix a. a guard. tifigr. uiduus. to lie in wait for.] Icel. to choke. S. ed. i. ave. ^\ The final e in awe. 2. ' . Hampole. from A. ' ' Morris. G. The orig. and A. to call. in imitation of the older word avow. waiter. guard. wpa. 23. warta. also. 4. adverse chances. Grein. as used in the phrase the Christmas waits. 31. the a being lengthened 47. 432 . S. AW We ' : awe. v.. ex. [f] . . to respect. avoer. -</ WAR.' i. ' woutly awowe . The suffix -ward. con/rarie..' O. . to protect . See Ward. ave. dread. ed. G. H. adj. to lie in wait O. Chaucer. Allit. The prefix a. old spelling of garder. ' ' .' ' or answer for it. O. See Vow. es. 83 . and makes no appreciable difj AVOW. Troil. 11885. used by Chaucer in the phrase Thus Cotgrave vouchen satif. 277 simply with the sense of ' weight.." F. to adjudge after examination . ference . to dread. waite. like forward. See Way. Der. and Burguy gives the forms esvuidier. ft.AVOIRDUPOIS. iv. p. Scand. 21) and others. Furnivall. 11. M. ^/AGH. (E. bilosus. Ormulum. we have broke for broken. to dissipate. i. weak verb. 15. See Curtius. a ( = Lat. Awowyn. to be aware. to wake. The spelling aware occurs in Early Eng. anguish. We also find 'tis no sinister nor no awkward 85 and again. is 45 used to render a verb intransitive or reflexive. habere. vouchen is from O. v. AWAKE. Grein. weren). p. uocare. like hawk from A. Formed. . out and uiduare. neut. Irish and Gael. ii. avouch. Thus the verb awaken radically is and essentially intransitive. aware. Der. Goth.' though now often used as if it meant off (or out of) the way. Auban. G. signifying conAwke or angry. wacian. warjan (M. thus seen to stand for awakn. 13617. away. to watch (mod." Lit. F. G. 354 . whence F. H. and weg. 147 .(Lat. however. protection. = ' weight . tirwahhen. thai all awkeward sett = they turn the world topsy-turvy. strong verb. while the prefix is Latin.as a prefix to a word is as common as possible. oga. the rest awarde AWARD. a vow. AVOIRDUPOIS. S. Lat.) de-pois in old edd. .. a watcher. P'. i. ad) and F. 120. of tire. atr. 94. properly a dissyllabic word . owei. F. ' M. 5781. Palsgrave. absent. wahhan (mod. F. uotum. see Brachet. L. In this adj. to awake. ge-. guard. B. from a false notion of a connection with Lat. Meas. out). prefix es-. and the like. P. S.G. i. 14. awkwart he couth him ta '= as he glided ' The world by. v ecu. F. E. from pensus. to adjudge. to bid beware from adj. F. Pricke of ConA. pp. S. see Layamon. restraint . i. and E. ' .' like the cognate Lat.) In early use.) ' I deavowen.) The proper sense is ' on the ' way. awei. short for awaiten. 4. T. Fick. of Icel. to empty.' especially used with regard to a back-handed stroke with a sword. See Wake. I see. 74. iii. care. Poems. and conspicuous in both Moeso-Gothic and Scandinavian. but the prefix d. An/or. VI. F. Thus wait is a secondary verb. The M..hi. Sax. sometimes warden. 2." or having tome weight. esveudier. lent to wcer.' versus. the M.' with the back of the hand see end of a weapon 8. S. 149. informed of. to awake. void. gives: 'Advovtr. aware a form not recorded.) particular word. M. I. pp. E. ay. to declare. to awake. ' A. means in the direction of.or iifg-. from awake. 11355. as in abash. Eng. its use as an adjective disappears it was.has a very unusual origin . make a vow . onward. agaitier. onweg. care. 19. ' AWAKEN. a word corresponding to O. (E. the verb is a mere formation from the sb. clumsy. Sobrely to do the sacrafyse . . G. p. of uotus. q. dwacnan. follows the Norman . to empty. Our E. the usual spelling being iwar. Atkinson. (F. and -ug- is a suffix. though it means ' ' this or something very near it in ridiculous and awkward action . anxious. see Leo. F. and again. iii. Ducange. Gk.] O. i. iii. S. warder. As he glaid by. (F. agis. but is very rare. ' . formed from an older verb corresponding to E. i. E. i. control. G. ix. O. a particular way of estimating weights. science. wars. Icel. by prefixing the F. ' ' ' ' ' ' . See below. wary. In tracing the word backwards. H. eghe. a weak verb. pp. to wake.is probably the same. iwer. F. loo.) 'Thus I thus I decide. B. Cognate forms appear in O. I awakned therwith P. to answering to G.' K. wahtan. swear. Plowman. I. S. G. to advow. O. irwachen. a word which has much changed ' see Brachet. the prefix a. i. Gen. to confess. In this suffix. eswardeir. C. iii.' towards. Note that the word awaken is nian. i. 290. ere well awake. ege. a voice.' its meaning It appears in Low Latin as advoare . E. F. but the addition of A. wara. 46. the signification is to have some weight. A. anger. . contrarius.) In M. E. H. (Scand. empty. aghe. . 42 . to vow. wahta. he took him a back-handed stroke Wallace. though wahtari. 42 Cor. avow-al. 21 . pt. out. C. backward. sin. O. However. H. esgardeir. (E. Prompt. ofgir in old writers. Grafton has avouchment ' in the sense of maintenance.

We The phr. Hence A. ap G. work towards. AX. to pierce. auvent." e. aid. Also in Chaucer Here a probably stands for an. H. AXIOM. It is an adverbial use of a substantive Goth. ac-ute. G. air. awnang. i. quality. H. S. Lat. to tend to. wrigctS wi) his gecyndes = so does every creaBoethius. awel. asleep. awn. 50 I sette hem so a werke. 41. to pierce . and anch. aims. husk of corn. ose. always. and compounded of on and wry . i.' hence back-handed. mod. 250. Benfey likewise connects Skt. though no instance of its use as a sb. H. The lit.) exel. i. 7. 316. I deem worthy. (Arabic. '. Der. Skt. G. afios. Gk. an axle. anchor. where the Northeax.) awkward was verse. O. aksha.) M. The phrase he fell on sleep is similar in construction. ac-me full form A. no doubt.) In Pope. Gk. pt. v. to drive. el. Swed. ed. (Scand. Skt. adv. The letter-changes are rather confused. ' . A. See Age. also ' to weigh as much. n + ' 1 . aye. tainly French. 473. aj. Morris. R. aluiv. 196. G.) Used by Shak. is a mere diminutive of O. ax-la. A. or on wry = either all even or abed. O. iixull. e. . cf. G.' ^AG. wrien. 46. i. oxi. ' Cotgrave explains by a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window. wheel. ' Iwain and Gawain. told. E. evil (from O. (Gk. is the same word. awanna. I suspect it to be Eastern. 3283. distortedly. y. ab.' wry neck ') used substantively to form the phrase. orig. considers the Gk.. i. 19. stem of. only used in the contracted form ala. sharp. Du. ' Owthir all evin. and is merely developed from the M. 19. Swed. aymi. of which the original form must have been ant. . ey. for cutting trees. Understanding. eax. as in kernel. the way. alas for me I Span. [Curtius. 124 . S. sideways. F. a husk.' Four editions of this work appeared. i. ways. aissel. ' find ay withouten ende. O. axis. agene. and the O.H. The ' In Shak.' Ancren Riwle. H.. ever. 291. Spelt ax. that the shoulder-joint is the axis on which the arm turns. to bend. of ' a little sharp thing. See Axis. an axe. ahsala. cf. on Astrolabe. Cf. 8. G. an awn . ay at mi I alas for me I Gk. wriggelen. twist. a prickle. in the ed. vol. just as the Lat. S. axel.Lat. it wries (i. an axleGk. ^[ The phrase ay me for me viz. -el. Arab . C. bgn. abed. as in Marlowe's Faustus. only in pi. The Skt. dwang. G. yea. an axe. i. an axle. dwo. Icel. now obsolete but once common. Skt. an axis. 3766 . the stem ak. by rule. by my K. set Hen. fro. i. i. on as in so many other instances. read where Tyrwhitt prints writhed. viz. S. + + + ' ' + + + . sect. turned away. the axle on which a body revolves. wry (cf. Essex) beards of barley are called ails here ail is from A. Der. axiomat-ic. 17. It also appears in the longer forms dwa. (Persian ?) ' Our ship became Sir T. mote. a cover spread out. an age. Hec arista. bk. and 1667 . alas. ben'cite . a beard of corn or grass. trowel. ah Cf. + + + + + I body.' Origin uncertain. p.as a secondary form from VAF. Wright's Vocabularies. Diet. to twist. (E. E. always. a shouldershoulder joint. a clothes-line . Icel. Skt. . iii. a sb. 1827.. see Wyclif.] from JElfnc's Glossary in Lye and Manning's an awl. Skeat. dft6a. a little sharp thing. i. 1. to lead. an implement also axe. [Also 'a buten ende. . + . akwisi. F. by confu' ' sion with O. q. axiculus. nxi-al. Romances. chaff. to move about. the ref. On the Human + + + + . AXE. the old one.. (from a/. essel. . iv. ii. S.S. Lear. hig ! used to transThe Lowland Scotch ' is cerlate Lat. f&" Axle is the diminutive form. Swed. ay (in aymf) from A. E. S. in a similar manner. Diet. E. for ay occurs in always.S. axis. drd. 25). ' He hit bertS on his eaxlun = he bears it on his shoulders . Swed. ebich. d t6 worulde. perverse. to wriggle . 150.answers to Lat. In Burton. p. p. axiomat-ic-al. (E. Sec. An older (13th-cenIcel. not in very early use. 155 of the same volume. S. 5. Grein. M. AWN". AY. or points (or quarters) of the horizon . sharp. AWORK. resolve. [t] The ANK bent-away-ward. awry and thus wry is. vrij. xv. iv. owel. G. aye Skt. chaff. whence the sense of + + Gk. Gk. 1665. essiea. Ancren Riwle. ever. various phrases. originally root awkward-ness. lit. achsel. 3. 2. alti. The M. Exod. + + + + ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' AY \ M. ax. ' bent away. See an adverb formed from the sb. al. (E. worth. 313. chaff. from Lat. version has cex. See Agent. causal of ri. for ale-la. g. axle-tree. ox. tion. sense is on the twist . interj. S. ocas. d on worlda fortS. . on Man. hence. Hence awn and ail merely differ in the suffixes . the shoulder O. preserved Here ah. count of the origin of ay I and eh ! nor is it of much consequence. ii. F. ' ' AWRY. E. Gk. p. clearly AK. Low Lat. ahle. pendulous. &c. ahsa. M. tury) form agon appears at p. 1 We . and Dan. acchus. e. apuJi. F. ' Barbour's Bruce. e. Der. ' Awry is properly an adverb. being able to refresh us. Hence the root is AG. Layamon. Luke. wry is ' : ' . to tend. may conclude that it is the adj. axis. Cf. verb wryen or wrien. signifying ay I chiefly used in the compound compounded of eu. a wing. being equivalent to Arabic assamiit. conduct. eternity. awrie (better awry). the word used is generally axle. umbrian glosses have the fuller forms acasa. vrikke. but a native word . (E. no awnings. a shoulder. from n! ' samt. Thus suffix.) M. Der. in Ritson's M. the axis on which a wheel turns. Russ. i. <fx.46 evil AWL. (E. H. no decks. course. Tarn. 1 7. H. met. i. ' . AXTiTi. (Scand. 8.' Li Beaus Disconus. 245. to bend. i. 206. viz. The use of the word in this form and with this sense is not found in early authors.' C. E. 268. Lat. This stands. Burguy. S. beard of corn. M.. though A. and AK. And see Adze. and derived from apa. Havelok. and in O. 17. turned away. of 1665.] ^AG. axle-tree. The change in signification from to axis was no doubt due to confusion with the Old F. vricka. ' Wry. wrigian. + A. gen. c. g. is to p.' interjection of surprise. where tree has its old meaning of block. Luke. 4. ac-. aytiv. agn. dwangdn. or point or quarter of the horizon . e. G.' the suffix being here equivalent to the common E. hech ! corresponds to A. such as d forS. only in the phr.G. as seen in kitten. worthy. and suffix -ah) in O. of Melan. the O. to twist. H. dimin.' Gk. We may conclude that aye is but a corruption of yea. Troil. a little com. whereas circles of declination pass through the These same strikes [strokes] or diuisiouns ben cleped [called] poles. which is common in the compound axeltree. 396 where a = A. i. azimuthal circles are great circles passing through the zenith . G. used in .is the same. ' On his exle ' = on his shoulder . v. ' ' wry nose. Cf. A. 2 . iii. M. O. to drive. and suffix -uh) . Pers. . sc. Romaunt of the Rose. e. eax.] ' AYE. Icel. 1. decision . The Low German forms are from a primitive ahana. See Work. (c. yes. Essay AXIS./Elfric's Colloquy. 53 1 . In Shak. 38 Haml. drive. asleep. avne. to bend. In earlier writers. Azymuthz and they deuyden the Orisonte of thin astrelabie in 24 ' deuisiouns Chaucer. egla. C. off. G. tr. T. interjection. is awel. The ' proper sense seems to be a sail or tarpauling spread above the deck of a ship. oxl. ii. Eng. Goth. Chaucer. aflvrj. hi ! It is hardly possible to give a clear achelas. And with her heed she In Chaucer. to drive. i. M. awn stands for ak-ana. cf. ackes. A. arpaya. and Dan. from. 10. word for awl. a pointed instrument M. axt (with excrescent /). The simple word axel generally means ' shoulder ' in early writers. Origin uncertain mattock. Hence probably. ed. that which is assumed as the basis of demonstraGk. Dan. perhaps from a root AKS. G. ' to an axis. From the stem a KV/WIT-. the latter is in Gower. an extended form of ^AK. eawl. which meant ' a long time. see Axle. 705. Properly. eeuam. in Ritson's Met. to turn to Dan. iii. and the root is in Gothic. iii. ascia (for acsia). Deut. M. a long Gk. a-work ' . the shoulder. p. to drive. Homilies. Lat. ii. G. aceris. <*/. O. G. But this did not affect the etymology. husks. in science. husk of corn axypov. 233. Dan. cf.) M. ahsa. achse. to keep off the heat of the sun. a small axle-tree. Ital. esteem. achse. The nail as a provincial E. ala (i. H. in this phrase. an arc of the horizon intercepted between the meridian of the place and a vertical circle passing through any celestial ever. to drive. G. G. E. and in Locke. i. Grein. See above. F. axle. 6. mod. most MSS. i. Shr. ax-la) is a diminutive of the Lat. exe. 1894 Layamon. [t] INXJ. which p. apdk or apdilch. 96. look. an awl. the shoulder. O." or ' piece of wood. T. ac-umen. 212. in 1634. hanging . or (without the nasal) alt. -f. chaff. ever. an axle Grein.) also 5 10 . A. p. H. axle. Goth. 250. A.) always spelt / in old editions. Cf. p. adj. peroccurs in E. away. Rich. . IV. ^f In some parts of England (e. with a like meaning 42. dti. 1638. an assumption. 320. age. ever. tends) towards its kind The diminutive of the verb wry. or axlelree. 9. awkward-ly. See Yea. to pierce. ed. yxa. to go. Skt. to defend those under it from the . divan. iv. agana. ahsala. ahsa. (Lat. ' : P: There has also probably been confusion with the O. their sharp awls. 2 ture. O. oipoi. Grein.) Briefly. Lat. anything suspended.. iii. ahana. occurs elsewhere.' to work. The Swed. ' yes . obliquely. E. 70. ed. dimin. is wriggle. 479. off. T. AWN The earliest quotation I can find is one given from sun. o(ijs. In Luke. G. AZIMUTH. H. H. nor invention possible. eaxl. form explains the word awk as meaning from Aryan APA. vi.S. sing. with Skt. tree. the A. axis. and see Prompt. egle. forms for shoulder and axle are alike. E. ay. 2. form of fay. acase.) 'Mid heore scherpe aides = with ' ' AWL. S. axiomat-ic-al-ly. which appears in several other the syllables -ana are a mere words. H. 5797. . AZIMUTH. -en. frequently Temp. ex . AYE. . Anat. G. a. in Todd's Johnson : sulphureous. chaff Luke. The corruption was probably due to confusion with the interjection ay! which is perhaps a different word. i. an age period. gen. azimuth is a plural form. time. ala. woe's me in the compound ' ! ! . and Id. see below. d. swa d^S aelc gesceaft. i. chaff. a'. 'weighing as much as. aiw/iaros. H. an axle. aim. agen. Cf. (E. Parv. vol. away. lo. Cf. 1. twist. cited by Fick. (E. altsha. Herbert's Travels. oxe. Ah ! . for piercing holes in leather. the shoulder-joint . Grein. eva. an Cf. cited Icel.) Probably distinct from aye. The explanation is. p. [Sometimes an aul or an all is corrupted to a naul or a nail . cart. xxi. of which d is merely a contraction. o / in . agnar. &c. die. C. and wriltben. which is not the wryed fast away related to it. G. ahime. equivalent to common E. strive. 7.' as shewn by the Gothic. from. 10165. ! See also &c. ' Why ryse ye so rath 1 ey ! Modified. . b. a self-evident truth. axel. afoiv.

. pp. but I see no clear proof that E. e. G. ivy. babble-meat. baga. The suffix -/<? is frequentative. evil. F. Thucydides. BACCHANAL. from F. life. babewine Mandeville's Travels. from W. simple .. Chaucer. The name is a sort of nickname. Plot. peior (Jted-ior). Gaelic. xvii. (i. carried . we go so far as to connect the word that it is May : + + . from nom. ' insigne quoddam Ducange. babble. Rob. Irish. Du. F. and common. The form bavian in the Two Noble Kinsmen. . baco. zenith. Fick. E. Skt. S. lassie lass. Low Lat.' Low Lat. v. seems sufficient. occurs in the miracle-play of the Resurrectio Domini. 194. bachelorderivation. bacon. On the contrary. 156) also cites Skt. a corrupted form. Plowman. has the verb to ba. Mr. So called because destructive Gk. jesting talk. as also zoo-logy. Williams.-L. veruex.' and is nothing but the See and see very common M. bacbiten. 'signum. ii. O. worst. 4. the true sense ' of M. to Heliand. &c. to babble. babelen. we read babewynus. stupidity. lazur. Halliwell. Lat. are from a different root.) Spelt bageard in but the final d is there excrescent. a seller of corn. azur. deaf. Modern. backe. A. or the . neut. which was likewise Lat. bleat. Polo's Travels. Der. from a Teutonic source. BHUGH. Gower. pacho. d-. Low Lat. 107). to live. ornament. E. booth. brebis from Lat. 4i9.) 'The tipsy Bacchanals. So called from the mines of Lajwurd . to lift. and its serving life. p. Mids. derivatives are 198. badiner. bome. M. has the spelling backgammon. a corTAL. E. Ancren Riwle. babion. of armys. a worshipper of Bacchus.) Modern.) swine's M. (F. in Ducange. G. a verb apparently . [t] flesh prepared for eating.coloured stone. 5T Instead of babe being formed from the infantine sound ba. 12. the animal had three familiar names. back-slid-ing. E. S. baban. pp. 210 Prompt. 12. E. explained by Cotgrave as 'a merchant. Icel. Gk. BACK. Palmer's Pers. baban. baby-hood. 154 . of Homer. little. the lowing of sheep. vivid. stupid. to chatter. Low G. (C. the more usual a It is position of the adjective is after its substantive. 18. com. and mere French L. baconem. bagea. of a light blue colour. Other spellings. ianioYum. a. I think word. The Prompt. O. bak. . 20. iii. It is backgammon in Butler's Hudibras. insane. Low Lat. c. misbehaviour. Works. ' This is a Irish. In an English inventory of 1295. 453. + + + Cornish bad. animal. 2. ab . and it was. i. bagia. Plowman. F. An imitative word. the/ having been dropped for convenience of pronunciation. quotation from Swift in the same diet. Der. a corruption of thierre. as is the case in other instances . pp. P. from the F. baccalarius. back-bit-er. l&x flv < to shout . Cor. Bditxos.' com gathered in . a cow BACHELOR. (Brachet). deaf. . 47 AZOTE. and the bawson. . ed. Dr. bad-ly. GI. 1. a large ape. has badde. Queen Anelida. bacon. T. More. word gamen. Fick. worse. game played on a tray or board . p. [The forms mab and mac are modifications of Early Welsh maqvi. p. ' an adjective. [t] . H. vas/i. 1. The . W. Rob. on Welsh Philology. is obviously the Gael. careless . upon corn. Iliad. 233. to bleat like a sheep. to babewynos Brachet. bite (P. Plowman. i. sb. bach. 601. foolish. Nt. bk. to chatter. 228. see quotation in Richardson s. form of vacca Lat. back-ward-ness. . miib. most natural derivation is from the root pi. This fanciful origin is verified by formed by onomatopoeia. ^ . 'Clad in asure. Gk. i. badger stands for bladger. E. Cf. Parv. quarter. . P. Dan. . a young man. 708.) M. and gammen. ii.' i. badde Chaucer has badder. we see the opposite change in F. bakke. also spelt "laxxos. ' ' . Saxon bog (also spelt bag). Diet. Parv.) Properly.' Chaucer. (E. ' . which from bacca. . BADGER. has ' Bage. 1776. i.) of Arimathie. - . to live also E. back-slid-er. baken. ba. and the verb bebuinare signified. Cf. and the ' verb means to keep on saying ba ba' syllables imitative of the efforts of a child to speak. See Quick. ^ BHADH. R. p. Low Lat. badinage. (F. the f ^MAGH. lierre. being found in O. used. The Gk. magus. ed. back-bite. azure . .) M. bad. uiuere. a ring. son. by comparison with O. to fall. worse. BACON. Comu-Britannicum. 213. ornament). 11. v. p. Unto whom [Bacchus] was yearely celebrated the feast ' bacchanal The Egyptian BacchaNicolls. 1886 (fifteenth century). nals. See Zenith. Zendji. Ancren Riwle. supposed by Corssen to be the root of Lat. ed. bob. BACKGAMMON. " B. an azure. bacon (Oudemans). back-slide. Grimm's Diet. of miib. and fwrixos. G. see bdg-gebo This word is cognate with A. bad. 8. as in baberlipped (P. as if the word were Fazur . at a late period. So) . (Danish in A quick. (L. a game. the young of any animal. bad. 66 (Todd's Johnson). 198. vain. v. stupid. has a remarkable resemblance to the Eng.) Chapman uses baaing in his tr. back-bit-ing. boos. Q. Skeat. Chaucer. Shak. E. deaf. pupus. the colour itself. M. ed. I lift. ablatum. Cornish. and pessimus (ped-limus). (Low Lat. V. to gossip.. azure . but [also] used primarily in ' Cornish and Welsh. use). but can hardly have been known to Rob. (Arabic. Lat.. E. but is preserved in the Armoric bad. G. pahho. bauths. standing for /azur.L. bend see Fick. . revels. col. bak. origin as is seen Goth. 8. 1.e. babbl-er. and derivatives. 1 7 and this is perhaps the earliest instance. giddy. herd of cows. Shak. may be modifications of M. bappern. Lect. 1. : Gk. babbla. faa stands for Siaa. pt.. So in Fick. iv. babiller. C. T. Joseph adj. Lexicon Gael. . badger or bager being a ' dealer in corn . Der. iii. like BAA. Manx bob. of Glouc. O. to bow. 149 . backbone . a. jesting talk. i. no. Yule. ped-us*. badhira. to turn i. Du. evil. Blot. e. F. ^ WAK. Welsh. i. and the sb. Arabic l&jward. col. name of an was supposed to feed. 10538. G. a kind of game.) Probably borrowed. immorality. 463 . cf. F. a son . cum pede quadrato stante super quatnor paruos Imago " V. Skt. is too unlike it to help us. I live. and Manx mac. fit for pre' a part of the body. p. or bagge. ii. bacward. [Cf. game. bladier. who gives 96. way. In M. 204. asvr. p. Cf. we may be sure that the latter part of the word signifies ' game. ii. in its present form. to babble . or ingrosser of com. a mark of distinction. samt. prate. ii.) M. the root is PAD. to jest. Low G. F. it may be considered as an English word. ?) Spelt baggamon Howell's Letters. evil. 5799. [t] an infant. A. E. a ring. 7. Prov. Fick suggests <J BHAG. dimin. 509. Low Lat.' Low Lat. The word has hitherto remained unaccounted for it is clear that the G. 0. baviaan. back-bone. deaf. further with the Lat. to animal life. but does not seem to have been generally called the badger. Williams says ' this word is not extant in this sense in Welsh. the fact that the animal was similarly named blaireau in French. in the I3th century. v. back-side. badiner. -ywe may rather account for it by supposing it to be Celtic. The last is from Low Lat. ' . is possible. to live . worst? If so. O. 74. ^T see Errata.-S.. ^f A common etymology is from W. the gray. ^ Der. E. Low German.' i. viz. collar for the neck (and prob. wicked. but. given in Todd's Johnson. worthless guess. Towneley Myst. (C. vital. p. from BABOON. Dan. vacca is the Skt. ' BADINAGE. by R. a farm-servant. E. plainly the Gael. hedera. 163. bacbon. Du. C. com see blaireau in Brachet. bolhar. bladarius. Lat.' i. F. (E. 190) compared with blabyrlyppyd (Digby Mysteries. jocularly transferred to the animal because it either fed. Baby is a diminutive form . 162 bedh. Der. I Der. 80. 134 and even Levins has 'Babbon. bab-y. Remoter origin unknown. Fick..F. mutation of maban.Du. I. From the same root we have Gk. E.. and latus. ed. (Gk. Bacchus. ivy. lapis lazuli. Ant. Wedgwood guesses it to mean tray-game.. the god of wine . Bacchus. 77. carried away. ft. a Low Lat. Sir T. foa>.' He might have added : BABE. to jest . bad-ness. ablatum. H. ?) M. in Welsh. . see Marco Diet. iii. B. C. ' Curtius. a flitch of bacon. is Du. Not in use much earlier in English. babe. wild.] which Fick interprets as the lowing animal cf. a road. ace. little. known also as lapis lazuli also. nitrogen. i. used to denote ' ' ' ^ to speak . foolish. ' Game . Though not recorded in A. a tray (see Basin). The initial I seems to have been mistaken for the definite article. Cf. ble. to augment See May. The Pers. : BADGE.-O. paint grotesque figures in MSS. O. [t] BADINAGE. jiv. bate (in common bak. from Lat.. ruption of an older form tlatus. e. In any case. to express an interjectional lax Bacch an al-ian . a. child. 23. a word of O. ship.' P. 1. bad is connected with it. M. to prate . to backY. of ablattis. F.. . probably by infantine influences. such as baoth-b/ieus. the full form being baban. direction From the same Arabic word is derived the E.) Occurs in Spenser. baby-ish.Gk. Prol. AZURE. of Glouc. Lat. negative prefix. bappeln. Bell. hose. of an old verb tlao. . these words being corruptions of Lat. Bacchanalis. back-ward. 2 Gent. profane. insipid (said of salt). bable. bauths. 163. E. Heyne. [t] BAB. wicked. say repeatedly. from The words worse. a babe. a son Rhys. p. 98. (F. wicked..) (F.) M. (F. B. bacheler. it has been modified from maqvi . 7. or Low Lat. Acts. ii. of Glouc. originally a cow-herd from baccalia. presumably. B. to mumble. a ring . 360. 11. 578). . ' . foolish. to speak. the god of wine. babouin. The game seems to have been much the same as that formerly called ' tables. babian. O. to denote 'carried corn. p. Origin unknown. baodh. p. bach. and may be considered as English. babbelen. . [t] The nearest Teutonic form is the Goth. The M. with numerous derivThis account atives. back-awards. (E. adj. B. MSS. a son. a boy. 290 . i. O. the brock. 48. or badge. dumb. 100 . Palmer's Pers. baa. a pig (Oudemans). 1 1 83 g o. bladum. a cow. vach. ii. . backward (Layamon. and Fick to bind. bacheler. and said to be so named from the shouting of worshippers at his festival. 108. + Icel.]+Goth. a contraction of abladum. abladium. devoted to revellers.AZOTE. A. i. The usual [#] ' com that has been carried. a conflict. .. bad. babbl-ing. BABBLE. Mr. in gloss. 50 (R.

&c. (F. disgrace. bait. deprived of hair. whiteness in the forehead of a horse. connected with bay. Ital. Ital. BAIZE. The term. e. formed from balgi by the A. has balance. abashed. a deputy. a beam. and thdna. Prol. (F.. </>oAi<$s. balgs. 19. clearly a corruption of Lowland Scotch bauchle. bader. Richardson to bear. &c. q. Ital. v. the -ze is no part of the original word. G. E. the causal of Icel. F. L. freckle whence the adj. also cites Span. bai. chesnut-coloured baize. bilancem. i. L. a game.e.) or met-bielg.E. MS. met-b<slig (Lindisfame Ital. bag. balance. a deriv. Gk.1. rod. Skt. From a root as Lake. Plowman. jyll. closely clear by comparison. Irish bai or ball. (Scand. baye. a coarse woollen stuff. O. bald-hend-ed. bailler. from nom. ' . 183.G. . a bundle. from Pers. 369. . . badare. nsed in many senses cf. 1. a bundle. Cf. a P. boasting. baai. . (F. bai. travellers' luggage. maid. balance. reddish brown. from the root appearing in bulge. O. Welsh Bret. -one is the usual Ital. 1838. Grein. pt. bail. E. Chaucer. Jamieson.' Der. bakF. . verb. -A. my inheritance. coot. p. ginal meaning seems to have been (i) shining (2) white. + + . Chron. Bagattella he takes to be the dimin.E. 370. bagasse. a translation of Lat. a cozening trick. a weighing-machine. t. ^f The doubtful. which is allied to E. prol. A.) Fabyan of white. tough. ously see the poem of Wallace. E. distress one. A bald-faced stag is one with Chaucer has bailif. It again appears 87). E.) Corrupted from O. bata. to bite. F. or. Bag. balg. and in Cowper's John Gilpin . BAGATELLE. the passage to shew that to bajfull is a great reproach among to make to bite. bays. and Lat. introduced in the i6th cent. light woman. [t] a trifle. Woman's Perhaps from Lat. bilanx. palisade. ' .) y. . . [f] M. (i). is probablya derivative of A. baize. . Swift has it short see Richardin the Lombard baga. penult is long with Sherbume (1618-1702). . . ^f Diez thinks it is from the same root as the pi. bhruna. ' ' . BAIL. H. S.. a ballance. .E. bdgr. M. Layamon. whiteness in a horse's forehead. 24. . berry. (F. (faXripos. BAILIWICK. Prol. Hales.) faced stag note in Morris's Glossary. word is recorded by Hall. bagat. baggi. The ^f Diez Areopagitica. . Gael. 1 137 see Earle's note at p. curator baiulus. Luke. . white. see Brachet. baggage. . adj. Cotgrave explains bagasse by a baggage.) The history of the Goth. q.) modern word. from O. a wine-skin. spelt balco (Florio). (F. and that the word is ^f Fick (iii. charpenter des bailies et les asseoir au travers de la rue Ben Jonson. bat-ing. a pair of weights or ballances Cot. F. O. (F. bi-. (E. cognate with E. xiii. on the forehead. 384. a lie. beita. baculus. . 91. assimilation so common in Icelandic. 30. Lat. batten.an. the jurisdiction of a bailiff. a stage. ^f Not connected with Skt. balance. of Parmesan bagata. baiulare. bata. as above. p. a bundle. p. . a stick.) Shak. baillif (Cotgrave) written as a white streak on its face cf. 1377. v. G. Generally nsed now to poor stuff. also (2). i. belly. <j>aXajcpos. <t>wy(ir. See Bear. To bail a horse is to make him eat.er-y. bale. to make to bite.BHAG. Dn. to secure. twice) mous author. baialus. 39. bague. form is doubtless due to the influence of Icel. being dyed with graines d' Avignon from F. + + | ' ' ! . 103. baize but baga. a wallet cognate with E. &c. duty. See Bulge. ii. to be white. BAGGAGE ' . ball. H. i. 2.48 BAFFLE. . Bag is a doublet of pachan M. to roast see Der. from M. like Root obscure. 198. 3. dish. Bail as a verb is the O. bagge. 192. an. See Baggage (i). p. . . BALD. 567). a bag. office. to roast Fick. in a word. G. and then they Troilus. bague. xvii. F. baize pagan. when homes. Prol. (Scand. and ii. The A. . tella. an outjutting corner of a house. and the sense hardly suits. 592. anno 5. a worthless woman. Perhaps the Portuguese is the clearest bay-coloured. ' ' : ' . To bait a bear is to make the dogs bite him. a flexible case.. bag-piper. the -ed in spotted. A . Levit. a bag. .. Icel. 2975 &c. Ayenbite of Inwyt.G. a child. to carry about or take charge of a child. 3.S. bai. a which is a plural form viz. E. a worthless woman.) and lanx. Bail as a substantive is the whence to be bail. But note the difference between Bay (i) and Bay (2).) Celtic root. Welsh bai. double (for bis. from Ital. punke. denoting the opening of the BAIRN. . a child. 'The oriO. Henry VIII. H. xxvi. V + + + + . so don on bere Dogges. BALDERDASH. i. 28. 168. cf. i. shining. having a white streak bailliuus or ballinus in Low Latin. batch. and the pi. but the connection thus suggested is void of foundation. (Scand. bita. pp. + + + . bag-gy. and Dan. from a sb. sometimes bag. bagascia. poor poetry. wican see Week and Weak. and E. II. and connecting the two. bacten. bayeta. . (Brachet). bald. See Balk. BALCONY. to treat contemptuIcel. Icel. 42). wondering. Probably But the history of the word remains dark. 41 Dan. O. a white mark on an animal's face. barn. But it is most certain that it Roquefort gives O. or of frothy history of the word is obscure. of the F. BALDERDASH. baten. Eng. cryenge. Gaelic balg. Perhaps originally a camp-follower. . &r Hecart. e. boi. to treat one harshly.. Also Span. bag. 13. balcho. Hales. a spot. Plowman. . ed. ]3. in the formerly was used also of adulterated or thin potations.' Lat. Chron. Northumbrian Eng. . H. . to adulterate drink so as to weaken it. in the moost despitefull manner they can. fib. short for bailif (see above). Hence Diez well suggests a derivation from O. a collection of bundles. 26 Exod. . i. T. The root is probably bhd. and with Jenyns (1704word is (perhaps) itself from the same Celtic root. p. Chron. that make of him an image paynted reuersed. . . to foil. or which I is against my freehold. Ike. bag. E. i. word occurs in the pi. F. This sb. ' . an enticement to bite. ' .. uneasy. also occurs. ^ + ' ' ' . in Icelandic. bag. xx.S. . (E. P. O.). 77. . guessed it to be named from its Goth. sian peche means to cook. security.a scaffold. W. to gape see baye r in baillon. the cloth struggle from which is formed.' &c. balu. For change of ch iojf. having two scales. uiite occurs in O. biildkhdna. a wine-skin. to account for Icel. F. bdgr. to keep in custody.S.) M. St. with a quotation from Froissart To drink such balderdash. bdgr. balled. or tale also. bailler. . .l. p. balti. wican or wican shine whence also the O. i. hoc. Act i see the whole passage. bay-coloured. F. bailies. The final -d thus stands for -ed. chamber. has both sb.) M. F. ii. or the related sb. See Fick. 85. BH AR. . Du. bay-coloured. I. rafter. of which Macleod and Dewar say that it baela. jaded. 1 1 20. to feed. balg. from adj. from Lat. 1555 and in Hall. a house (Palmer... 422. Lat. (F. baye. poor. Curtius. F. with hys heles vpwarde. bagasse. Sax. So too Rusvb. white.' Rich. bay. he caused sticks to be cut and set across the street. ' . so named because of a hollow shape from the same bagage. a child. That to baffle. a berry. . ballach.-C. mark. Juliana. [#] an imitative word from the syllable ba. cognate with Eng. quean. mite. by an anony. an upper O. Dr. bcegja. A. ' : ' . a struggle. Cf. bachen G. or metaphorically. (E. 242.) M. secondary form from Prov. . function. the vb. bdgen. Thanne men doth the bere beyte = and rushed his name. rough. . babble. Rich. having a spot See above. Ital. + + . Plowman. Ahybridword. palco orpalcone. mouth. borrowed from Icel. bactilonem. said of a horse bolt. an administrator. introduced as a law-term. spotted. to push. a gag. P. 91.E. a berry also. See also yElfric's Horn. tasteless. 255. of baculus (Brachet). a burden. in the A. baiten.' to cook by heat. F. or wice. formed by suffix This was probably -le. . sense of barricade. G.1. . (F. bayo. bage. Swed. 183. and serves to form an adj. but it is really a word common to the Celtic and Teutonic branches. (F. a dissyllable Chaucer has His head was balled. beam. baggage. barn. it has 6010. 687. baize BAG. i. bacan. and Fletcher.' not bake. and M. Wyclif. P.H. C.1. bald-headed <f>a\apvs. an. B. F. Lat. bald-ness (M. see Stratmann. See Bite. . Cf. 603. New Inn. .. iii. an embryo bharna. i. balloon. a trifle. The older form is clearly balg-. to gape nsed by Isidore of Seville. pack. q.' The word is people cause the bear to be baited Havelok. [t] (3. ?) The signify weak talk. of Celtic origin see above. also Gk. that would tear him in twain. baga..-. augmentative cf. 208.) An error for bayes. a Merch. 724. is a common Celtic vocable. as a baldBAILIFF. scaffold. balcone. Lat. o. bailler. at] hym with upon him like dogs at a bear. bajetta. S. a pera. iv. 198) gives a theoretical Teutonic form baga. Cotgrave cf. a chamber. Irish ban. to Homilies. a carrier. form used by him is also balance. ii.E. Swed. ' .) Shak. v. one entrusted with control. .) BAILS. xii. B. ed. Brachet. bajasse. a platform outside a window. Fick. balance prob. bagatelle. as a verb. And shoten on him. F. palcho. said of a dog. Lat. bajo. BAGGAGE . M. to strive. See Bag. 748. 382. viii. upper. S. Der.L. verb Meas. The M. v. v. a skin. Milton has ' balcone's (sic) as a plural Gael. suppose to mean. Ill. bay. barn. (Ital. bailie. with wolden him to-tere. Der. It II fit water and. It is often considered as a Celtic word. called bayes. bacen Levit. and 68. Chaucer. iii. pp. bag-pipe (Chaucer. E. F. of his edition. ballid. Cf. O. scale of a bagage occurring in the piece called Chaucer's Dream. to keep in custody. . See Curtius. ' BAKE.. cited by Wedgwood. O. a Mids. [t] M. sb. wine-skin.' Burguy gives the forms baiasse. appearing in Breton beac'h. Etym. a rope used for tying bundles but this Span. Dan.Lat. a trifle (Brachet). ii. small sticks used in the game of cricket. barn. Nt.. .. bate-house. 212). See Bay (i). and an. Lat. baize Swed. col. bonny-clabber Mine is such a drench of balderdas': Beaum. bags is a doublet of bellows. e. . 24. bag. the pi. 370 Der. meat-bag (Rushworth MS. ballednesse or ballidnesse. balk. The M. A ' ' BALANCE. and is used when a man is openly periured. bauch. . bacca. wice speckled. quotes the Scottes. and derived from word has a remarkable resemblance to Pers. and blowing out of [i. (C. Cf. a platter. (Tauchnitz) Ancren Riwle. . ace. schon as eny glas porter. p. 35. flirt. 1. son . BAFFLE. . also Lith. little property ' F. and speaks of 'the office of ballywycte. 324 and this to be formed from the Lombard baga. bat-er. B. BAIT. Bauchle is a verb. to brawl O. is strife. q.) M. Cf.

. to choose lots (Cotgrave) . .) Swed. . the sense is JS" The game of baloon is better known by the Italian name pallone. ranked on the outside ' has Balustre. S. unprofitable lading. provided with balusters. Parv. Bore. also to prattle. balle. of bag. see Bulge. Dutch Diet. uncertain origin . the blossome. ii. (E. ' . i.) Modem .-G. baldrast. the spelling balm occurs b. 694 . (F. Dis. . a dash. ballt. a division of land.. as of merchandise Cot. 244. sphere. a round bundle. to (2) a rampart. belt. cf. partition. See Ball (i). ' secondarily. which is from the same source as bellow. p. Balk stands for bar-It. BALLAST. bollr. a dancing song. 1. Koch. as all agree. Gower. Miiller. Anat. the flower of the wild pomegranate Dioscorides. i. on Hypochond. ballasle. Lpw Lat. palz. Layamon. to dance. O. and generally. a beam Heliand. (Many of our ii. a balk. polio. which looks like an older form. is also ballast. a ridge. any mixture. We find ' : BALLET. p. Probably merely an adaptation of M. balm-y. but ^f this seems to be wrong. But a form baldric must have co-existed p. see Fick. e. buckets. G. (not given by BALDRIC. practically. bolt. 279 (Todd's Johnson). and short ' of cloisters. QaXavonov. cf. ballet. polio. Parv. an acorn Fick. C. 177. See Belt. English Garden.-O. <papoai.iinv. a ball also. BALDRICK. a beam. ii. if more were known of the word's history. i. ii. bale. F.. ii. ' balderdashed with two or three sorts of simple waters ? Mandeville. balderdash was most probably compounded (very like slap-dash) BALLAD. Barrier. of earth between two furrows (perhaps borrowed from E. 109. Parv. See ballots and ballatry in Milton's Areopagitica . p. O. 5. shell. . so called from a fancied similarity in form to that of the pomegranate flower. and Swed. evil only in Grein. to torment. BALM. Balk easily understood tr. balwa-wesei. baloon see quotations in Richardson from Burton. iii. cf. bale. to ballast. C. halite. ' Can wine or brandy receive any sanction by being iii. balja. + + + . G. balon. dialects. from f)6. bealu.' as in Halliwell . that the adj. Der. See Bag. e. T. See Ball (i). it does not account for the Dan. a ravine. package. 1. from Span.) Not much (i). to flap . Swed. to throw.BALDRIC. whence balien. ft.E. (E. M. a piece . balca. a very sensible plan. ter. 22. O. 'came. A. Cor. Used by Dryden. a girdle. [t] /ios. 1 10). a load to steady a ship. ballrast. 596 . balu. a pack. Dan. as seen in M. Gower. @a\avos. in the Swed. BALL (2). given by Burguy . a mode of voting. 209. also a piece of wood laid across a door . Fick. a belt. and Dash is Scandinavian . bar. BALK ' BALLOT. 624 (R. on balcan legan = to lay in heaps.. cognate with E. a heap 3625. (Dutch. baldrei. balderich. Layamon. G.' laid in heaps. wood. E. case. 116 . and to ballt means to bar one's to put a bar or barrier in the way . balo. a sheath. Ital. due to assimilation. r^^^pue cited in Webster. to empty water out of a ship. Ital. in the I4th century. balder has an excrescent d . 1 73. H. By comparing balg. evil). a hodge-podge. ball. G.) ' They would never take their balls to ballot [vote] against him North's Plutarch. a boundary. Icel. balavsta. balz. ^f In some authors in this case. a beam of way. I Hen. H. balws*. Balltyn. we see that bail is.) ballare.) Evelyn (Of Architecture) speaks of rails and balusters . The latter syllable is. ii.) F. an acom. May-day. whence. or bawme Chaucer. 24. a girdle . to dance. balotte. irabs Prompt.) F. 259. See Bellow and Dash.. a dimin. from the BHAR. E. The derivation is from the European GAL. its etymology would be all the clearer. The E. to bale out (Tauchnitz. H.' Ballada seems to have meant a dancing song. we may rely upon the Danish forms. 1. . but. bdlltr. for which little balls were used. a corrupted form. load. a small column. also. a tub. a ball. glans. a partition. bdlltr. a' burden. at the back. round body. IV. 8. v. xvi. Probably pail is different from bail.) (F. 4. Hence daske is to slap. ed. Icel. from ballotte. yet not convincing . to cut. from F. ballast . xvii. omitto . a little dance dimin. M. boiled. Du. iii. Back. the flower of the wild pomegranate tree. Boeth. baldringus in Ducange. Of ballare. (3. to express a hasty or unmeaning noise. The Swed. Swed. Gk. baglast. F. a ball. a dance. The derivative enbawme p. Hackluyt 's Voyages. From the same source. in ' the rear . dial.) baudric.) modified so as to bring it nearer to balsam . is corrupt. which Cotgrave gives as a variant of balle) means. balie. (F. form . to pierce. bavsme. H. 2. ballra. 6481 .' from Ital. See ful. spelling ballata. balle.flBW^at..) Ballasting occurs in Cymbeline. It means to empty by means of bails. Du. 26. a package. a beam. 2 which O. Bale of spycery. ballade. sec. balle. Curtius. I plough. in one sense. Mason has balustrade. or flower of the wild pomgranet tree. -O. bag means ' behind.. barlast. p. B. BALE F. [*] a sort of dance. balaustra. pt. M. or a trench cut in the thing cut . derivative of the form bar Scandinavian). a fruit.' or a load in the rear . See Ball. a pod. little. Gk. The Dan. ' or to make a balke in a londe. 8. Gk. ballten. -on is augmentative . pt. H. Alisaunder. p. pp. (F. from the Provencal ballada. a word also used in English in ' the phr. : (Dutch?) Not in early ' having freed our ship thereof [of water] with baling. [t] Shak. + . The original idea is ' a ' hence either a beam of wood. a beam. BALLOON".e. Friesic word Ostfriesischen Sprache. a rail of a staircase. as the Swed. wickedness. baltlasst. I suppose. and we find. bau'derylte. s. See . 2. 70. &&\aa. bal. Swed. globe. both a ball and a bale. balauslro. C. Dryden has ballustred. which Diez says is from the O. balle. a half-tub this with Swed. misfortune. torment. E. bar. Prompt. clatter . i. balje. The Dan. Allied. enclosed field use.. /SoAAii'. Ballad. has batted. + .. ballast. a form which preceded the forms baldret. 61. from O. bale- Wackemagel. bolt. tattle . which shew both the original baglast and the later form ballast. balweins. a sort of song. to dance. to make a clat- We find Dan. y ' and ' hinder. See Bar. of Fame. an aromatic plant (Timon.. xvi. balwjan. ii. O. The Dan. bulga Prompt. ballte of lond. pt. scabbard . has baile (ist folio).). i. p. 9 2 7 (R. The theoretical Teut. ' . Icel. Balance. Gk. i. i. i.) 'M. para. Tw. . a ball. ballare. A. 'balked. baglaste. an BALSAM. <t>apaff. 166 . 164. (F. [t] A and Vigfusson). G. iii. a dance. a load. ballisters. balg. i. Ancren Riwle. likewise. see Last. &c. Low Lat. 22. bala. a spherical body. Doublet. ballto. a dance . 3. ballon. Ball . M. Curtius. rafter. F. belt. to mix wine with water (see Webster's Dictionary). &c. us here. tpapaos. form is barmie in Chapman's Homer. a baluster. but BALE ' ' . Plowman. of F. bal. G. a large spherical bag.-M. i. . The former syllable is disputed . ball-oon. earth .. form palld. G. 54.) Formerly bnlmutie. I. other lyke. B. balder. To dash is. G. (F. bal (as well as F. Much Ado. a skin. to ballast also sea-terms are Dutch. or ridge B. ii. ' ' Ballryn or ouerskippyn. ballotler. a ball. Goth. . balu. p. to dance.balade. iii. in the same way as a dylte means (i) a trench. i. Halite in ' a howse. Ho. is not + clearly word. balaustium. or (F. ' ' Gk.) and baleful. 307. ballast. Fick. ing the articles on The force of the verb (i). . Du. (and Ital. ii.) (i). O. G. Not stances it means a ball used in a game resembling football. Romeo. the connection with Gk. a fence (Cleasby BALK (2). C. the ending ' a large ball. i. ii (R. H. Parv. Koolman. bale-ful-ly. to bellow. G. The root is palld. BALUSTER. 2 2 balbes. by J.' See Ball (2). form is balwa. date. iv. 466. balle also means a bar. e. F. Havelok. A. bj&lke. Gk. Prompt. Lat. balsam. comp. Another etymology is given in the Worterbuch der + + . a football.. See Balm. bawdrilt. Du. Still. to Gk. a term borrowed from the Dutch or Danish. 78 . it. i. bale above. b. cognate with Lat. ' balustre . (E. Sbak-Jj^baldrick. . beam. 23). rafter. 325 (and very common).) TA. spelt balsme. the fragrant resin of the balsam-tree . baldric*. Gael. noise. And again. G. to cause . back-loaded. to dance. a tub. A. as explained in Curtius. small pillar. the O. the older form is shewn by Icel. and others . S. of which Brachet says that it 134. L. + + . bale. 1455. balausto. (nautical term) Fliigel's Diet. iii. 'Ital. and is clearly derived from Low Lat. ten D. last. Fick compares Lat. i. spelt baglast. Icel. more probably the former. <papos. H. in the phr. Prompt. boil. H. bailie. baler. and we may therefore look to Scandinavian for the other part of the Prize. Art of Poetry. Chaucer. a beam in use at present common in old authors. from O. G. Saxon explains Shak. made out. v. but from F. so as to tilt up the bows . He also pillars. 315. Lat. the being ballast (Ihre). i. 569. 1 708. the earlier form of G. terraces . bole. E. The ending -otte is diminutive. G. b. 101. balderdash ? ' Chapman. i. 06\\eiv. ballast . a word used by Montaigne (Brachet). see above . + + + . useless load. is BALL (i). fallere. bealo. probably seen in our verb to bulge . 49 ' What have yon filled F. H. a last of herrings . sc.) Shak. 76. sphere. is used of a cart that is laden heavily behind in com' ' ' parison with the front (Rietz). Prol. Dan. (F. 27. balast or ballast in Hackluyt's Voyages. O. evil. canto i. Swed.) formed with suffixes -er and -it. 594 . (2). a confused sound . Hence ballast means a load be' ' and we may conclude that it was so hind. of MelanIn both incholy. bol. but the M.-Prov. round. Nt. H. allied to E. See Ballet. 6. G. bolster . of Lucretius. ball-ot and cf. a tub. BALE (3).. as the plough causes both at once . The idea of ' ridge easily follows from that of trench. 29. ballasten. Hales. a beam. F. and last. Parv. ' " . H. bale. bowl. balj. E. rafters. a balsam-tree. spelt bame. : : . a beam. and may be explained as compounded of bal (the same word with E. &c. the word follows the the form ballat or ballet occurs ' Ital. i. Dan. G. Cotgrave has Balustres. and Eastward Hoe.-LowLat. 1 730. this accounts for the latter part of the word. by read- Bar. Dan. G. destruction lost in mod.\aaDer. balle. balsamum. Chaucer. ballra-sk. (F. bore. In this case ballast = baleThis view is possible. BALUSTER. + + + + (2). and dask is a slap. E. a little ball used in voting (Cotgrave). occurs in P. (F. separaison Palsgrave. Act i. ' ... The spelling has been aromatic plant. called because the ballast was stowed more in the after part of the ship than in front. Icel.

to bandy against. See Bind. xi. Cath. Baluster. bent is deceiving. a proclamation pi. or bonde dogge. Dan. v. Ital. an outlaw. Kn. quotes ' bande doge. with his whole power . bane a probable form. Chron. E. G. H. from Gk. I. to prohibit. M. but this is uncertain.) Borrowed from Span. D. to bind.. M. that a good drink makes a drunken Of head. of Errors. of bandire. curse Layamon. vb. a ridge of earth. has bang'd. ^f In Awdelay's Fraternity of Vagabonds. bdng.' against. G. 73. At p. Low Lat. his Friend P. to ing to the Lat. bannan. p. away). . Swed. the A. G. Palmer's Pers. Travels. bank-er. ^f Perhaps related to kill (?) BANG . a summons). table. furnished with balusSee ters. also 'A bandogge. Pers. bander. a bank . S. A. E. stands alone. banke. of the genus Musa. Plowman. a hammering. 426. to break. death.. G. 19821. (Span. F. i. bannum. So also ' Hie molosus. .-O. 1728. band. form of the adj. is an importation from the East. More.) M. who play such tricks. Ancren . it. 881 f. and Way in a note. to pursue with all insolence. . E. Herbert. bind. Furnivall. BAND BOND. a bond. a bond. and see Thus band. a band also. O. Turbervile. band. 24. from Skt. pp. H. bannir (with suffix -ish due to the -iss. a ban + Icel. bandi. summon. See Bench. to speak. since the word is not English. a bench.) M. to handle. from G. a band.' G. . See Bench . p. a proclamation.. (puvos. See bane. a doublet of bench. bands. banaen. BANNS. broken. a place for depositing money. also A. a wound. F. -esc-). ' ' BANKRUPT. e. banere. bank-rupl. Mat. destroy. as in Romeo. bhangd. a murderer. an inebriating draught. or pannen. to bind. Der. bane-ful-ly. Chaucer. baand. death. as in 'To band the ball. H. p. The word is therefore the same as that a conspiracie together.) Originally band-dog. is and bamboozlers. tpovfvs. q. 86 of that work is the saying that bene bouse makes nase nabes. (F. bann. v. that be large reeds Sir T. ban are found (both being derived from the O.which occurs in conjugating a F. 43 . (Ital. pant. (F. rigour. bande. Bandi is the pp. BANNER. A. iii. E. The latter was introduced into French in the i6th cent. 402. BANG . of BAM". formed (with excrescent d) from bannire.) Shak. i.) M. and band. 135. Low Lat. to obfuscate. and bench. ' ' Prompt. See Bind. F. 155. Banker. a hammering. It is formed from bank. see Fick. 690. But quite unconnected with bondage. fasten with strings . (F. Prov. Icel. in the phrase 'to band together. exAlso : ' Se bander centre. binden. banja. a mound of earth. O. Swed. e. a band. bandha. a robber ." the remark ' : BAMBOOZLE. the word is to be considered as E. band-age. the same.. and. a money-changer's table or bench Udall. + Du. Banish. Sir T. a shelf of earth . and was formerly also spelt band. + Goth. who talks of a set of fellows called banterers In the Taller. E. . 187 . right G. word being cognate. (E. S. and the other F. has the sergeant of the band Com. a narcotic drug.' i. 521. breaking. 47. a proclamation. bent. from Ital. to exile. Skt. . the fruit of the plantain or banana-tree . apparently. P. G. p. ' to break. pt. by a knowledge of its relation to the Lat. to split. F. H. BANE.Gk. Cf. to outlaw. ban or pan. (F. balustrade. bandito. BANDOG. to being shortened by dropping -er in the usual manner. a company of soldiers. banir. Works. Curtius. + Dan. to speak. and Swed.' bene being a common slang word for good. baltlti (for O. at tennis .) crook-legged. to speak. C. Works. Malay bambu. ^/*EN. (F. q. p. bang. and not the original obviously a cant word. banishen.. Der. And. + Skt. ii. a money-changer. Mr. binden.. Cf. a slayer. rotla (Brachet). VI. a banddogge. a ban. bank-rupl-cy. G. no. bande. also Rupture. a gang. G. 5860. though the one is E. Angl. spelt banes .) Banker occurs in SirT. a bench. gri. i. . 43. word being taken as a whole. The staircase railings. cyng abannan lit ealne }>e6dscipe = then the king commanded to order out (assemble) all the population A. pp. Molosus . in fact. . Could bamboozle have meant to treat to a good drink ? course. E. baniere . Hist. band-box. hemp . Der. p. BANK BANKER. the drug being made from the wild hemp (Webster). Wedgwood supposes the contrary. . cajole. verb of that form . excommunication . +Du. bana. a shelf of wood. Tw. from bhanj. of John senses. Der. banyue. held in a band or else tied up. Portuguese banga Capt. also. tie.) M.-G. E. bandire. with the same sense. a large dog. E. pan. H. to cast.. 93. Swift (in R. has Bondogge. Cf. which properly meant 'a breaking or becoming bankrupt. Abandon. gara. See Ban. to cheat. D. (F. ^f Hence pi.' i. with E. Parv. and E. a modifiband. G. Der. and also includes the sense of G. The true French word. are ultimately bandy. bhangd is a fern. (Malay. (Persian. break. account for the final -y . ^f The Span. Of Courting and Tenys. O. banana. H. proscribe. introduced by the Portuguese they call it in ' Knox (A. bannien. to beat to and fro. 30 also banding as a pres. T. bane. the name of the plant Marsden's Malay Diet. Icel. Tale. T. . . 31. p. BANDY. of rumpere. (2). fall GAR. to bind. But he does not account for the termination -austre.. Diet. banns. band-ing. O. upon arches or posts of bamboos.) M. baa. or G. p. The only difficulty is to Riwle. banderia. sir.) [t] B. as if pp. M. . (E. but was originally French rather than Latin. v. to curse. bandiera. More. a row of balusters. a fastening. and these are from G. But. the phrase bene bouse means good drink. P. the name of a drug. bhanj. Dan. Manip. bang.) Not found in this Shak. See Ban. i. a beating . in Arber's Eng. banco.' Also B. Chaucer. 300. is. </ BHAN.-Ital. to break. col. see Fick. i. [f] harm. balaustrala.' He has here the sense is (i) to string a bow.. to cast (Gk. bannan. the plantain tree.. BHAN. suffix. whence bank. v. bander. bannire. Works. ' : ' : fall. ruptus. + BANISTERS. S. to summon. to chide. Banish. 96. in Mlfric's Horn. to proclaim . ' Bull. Ital. equivalent of bent. canis catenarius ' = a chained spelt bonddoge. iii. bannum and O. + G. Gk. Probably of West-Indian origin. a BANK (i). (A cant word. Sir T.' Wright's Vocab. (2). band. explained by Cot' grave as to bend a bow . a band. Cf. destruction. Parv. to fall away. amphitaba . (F. Tit. C. the tree itself is called in Spanish banana. Der.) Bandite occurs in Comus. Irish bong. or crooked nose . bhan. BANDY-LEGGED. or to joine in league with others Us se bandent a faire un entreprise. 81. The oldest sense seems to have ' been ridge . i. ii. prop. s. 1385!!. a sort of woody Indian reed. Bind. i. ' : . 30. to bind. + Icel. To queroultier (Cotgrave). pannan. (E. band. (i).50 to BALUSTRADE. from i. c. The prefix bandy is merely borrowed from the F. cation of band. Dan. ^ early history of the word is obscure. money-table) broken. tie. (Perhaps further connected with back. (E. ^f The word is. (Scand. a flag. A Bank is in G. S. form). bankeThe word has been modified roupte. bane. G. More. ' ' ' ' all bamboozling.Ital. The word to bam. (F. Parv.e. . v. A corruption of balusters see Baluster. Cotgrave. the F. to + + ' ' . 187. I Hen. It was a term used at tennis. ed. q. Molosus . bander is derived from the G. (E. broken. See crue. to beat. (i). and bouse the same for drink. tie with bands. Prompt. related to bhdsh. 14. of a verb balaustrare. fetter. a bank. Night. bande. Modern. bander (or bande).) BALUSTRADE. to contend. The Skt. 2.. Skt. bnag. He bind. fart. a company of men. ' louer a bander et a racier centre. a murderer. BANNER. used either as a table or a seat. G. .) Modem. but French . see Cotgrave. . Ormulum. Skt. formed from banqueroutte. ligature. BAMBOO.' The F. banki). cf. Levins. (2) to bl^^Hty stringing See Bincr^^^f Observe that the resemblance of bandy to E. iv. 32. a baluster. Bandit. BAND ' sense in M. to bandie or oppose himselfe tremity. too. to c but the older sense is to beat to bandy. 1099. unintelligible trickery. See Fick. fama. balustr-ade. with E. and must be a corruption of balaustre. See Band (i) and Dog. M.) tions point to the original sense as being to cajole by confusing the It occurs in Swift. a proclamation. and Goth. p. a crew. 1. ruplus. bond. suffix -er. to trickle down. band. Low Lat. set. a bench and Lat. bane. and bandetto in Shak. by metaphor. bande. cf. this is but a guess. bhanga. A. a bench Bank (2). of F. E. ban + bannen. 9210.) (2). Icel. a rod. was ban. bend. ensign. on Luke. + + + + ' ' . Borrowed from Ital.) ' has : ' Your bandy leg.. See 156. (F. [t] The quotato trick. a fluid. from a Teutonic source. at also gives tennis . ^ to Skt. J>5 het se gebann. 25185. yet it happens that bandi is the F. H. Still we find boncke in Layamon.' Cot. and invj^ithe order. who cites O. p. VI. I suspect it to be a corruption of the F. O. G. a tie. a gang . answer- BANISH.) 'They raise ' . I perceive this is to i.. hashish. 6am'. bkand. 372. I. binding. . F. bank. Furniture of a Woman's Mind. 1006. has bandedogges. v.. instead of F. Webster and the Slang Dictionary assign it to the Gipsies. and Swed. scamnarium.] A. (Somner) is + + ' BANDIT. outlawed.. Friesic band (which shews the true in Sir BANANA. e. 5. Fick connects ban with Lat. to eject. gal. 312 and fro. to proscribe. cognate with E. and Bench. It is you e. Works. beat violently. More. banna. Prompt.) Glouc. a 5 1 dog.) Bang. panch. also. ' ' : . to confuse. 360. ^f Prob. q. p. i.' i. they are plot [t] ing against. Skt. the G. a troop. Borrowed from F. S. and would derive baraustre ^ from vara. bankruptcy.) M. banco and rotla. one unable to pay just debts. q. spoken of a bow. O. and bankes in Ormulum. band-ed. a company. band-master . ^f The usual account is that a bankrupt person had his bench (i. p. 1681). Vocab. binden. Rob. H. and originated in thieves' slang. from the sb. banish-ment. banke. See Bend. id. their houses . Low Lat. and see above. 497 Gower. because bend is also derived from bind. 3. 2 Hen. band. band. ban. O. bane-fid.' which appears as band. [Though the Low Lat. 568. baraustre. iv. and in Arbuthnot. a contraction of it. but not supported. Cf. . inchoative suffix -isc-. v. to proscribe. to furnish with balusters. also. 0a\\fiv. murder . ii. 157. 19. Gamer. 434 g. band.

' barbula.) . BERBERRY. q. sapling. 1.) In Arber's Eng. 209. W. ' . v. Diez prefers the Celtic to the Teutonic origin. nate with E. bare-faced. Arab. a little beard. bindan. a spread the latter word is. upper chamber. term) were used as a sort of market-place. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the bullies in White Friars. to the benches of the guests). Cf. a flat Egyptian row-boat (Propertius). ' to mock or jeer at . stammering. in Senegal. to bind. 1709. I. Parv. (F. BARBEL. . Pers. 441.. badiner is incredible. barti. (W. xiv. Chaucer. Fick. barbdris. p. be so despicable a thing. The older par (G. Lat. a bar. a table. F. Banterer occurs A. bore. the sole of the Gael. ' BARB Barbe. foreign cf. a dipper) baptism and bap/ist-er-y. form. a ribbon (also from G. barf. foundation. of Langtoft. bearded also.. c. ffapflapos. Gawain and the Grene barbican. an outwork ^f Brachet says that it was adopted from Arabic barbai-khaneh. dimin. M. Ill. &c. v. notches whence flesche barbelee. Cot- Gk. of barbus. berberis. tan's. and part. (F.' BARK. q. (F. Voyages. spike. of Langtoft. 2. . barLow Lat. banij. suffix -et. one who shaves the beard. with less likelihood. . Chaucer. (C. of barba. pole. 2 2 7 which is clearly borrowed from F. BAR. it is but calling it banter. trade. barb (i) and E. 1591 Knight. banneret. barren. BARBED. i. 7 where Cupid is called the wanton bantling of Venus.. H. Origin unknown apparently slang. a bench.Scand. [t] a kind of flat cake.-Gk. and the bannyan-trees (an English. a proclamation of marriage. bane. a beam M. &c. G. ' . Low Lat. F. . See below. O.' BARBAROUS. the barbarie-tree. 210. a boat small ship. Skt. but fail to explain the latter portion of the word. rail. . though this form has not been found. bardd. berr. . a barbarian. ' ' . fl" This is an excellent example of accommodated spelling the change of the two final syllables into berry makes them signifiThe spelling berberry cant. F. by help of wrapped in swaddling bands infant. q. barga from a form bari-ca which is probably a dimin.) M. bane. . barbar-ise. bar- ' . [The sb. in the Taller. a band. and see embarrass. Prompt. . said of a horse. at tennis . barbeau. a . barbari. The more in^JK accoutred . with suffix of agent. Gael. (F. eel. barge. ^f This Icel.. Gk. to bandy. . barca. + + + f. . a barrier. E. iii. on the supposition that the flat cake was named from resembling a flat sole of a shoe . G. in closer imitation of the Latin. Grein. . barbarit. Diet. ibid. u.] O. vol. bar. barbed. H. a token . BARBERRY. The Gael..' &c. the beard which is cogLat. barque. to christen by dipping. barginer. barre. /Sairriff iv from P&wrfiv.Low Lat. an A . ^^fc Henry V. + + + Low Lat. 129. has: 'barbed steeds. 51.-C. which Cotgrave explains as ' a BanG. Cotgrave adds ' Jouer a bander et a racier centre. v. a knight of a higher class. F. barbar-it-y. [f] a sort of ship.. sb. tr. used (like -y in E. G. Also spelt barded. ^f The fish is so called because it is furnished. . 2025 (Kn. prob. See Fick.) Cotgrave has: Named from the country. A. See Barb (i). a Barbary horse. (F. to pursue with all insolence. 1794. BARBICAN. the barberry-tree Richardson's Diet. barba. bargia. (F. a bar bar. F. also O.. . as answering to the French and Latin. or Knight banneret. . Low Lat. i. barbe. (F. . i. (Gk. . ' ' . bier. a feast. i.' cf. banned. no doubt. bare-footed. &c. bonn. Diez derives it from Pers. p... in describing ' ' the religion of the Bannyans of India. Bret. q. barbyllus. uncivilized. hence. an outwork of a fort. 169. baptist .) Banquet occurs usual form in old authorsisoanto. ^ . Lith. . See GAP in Fick. perhaps. and Pers. H. F. a kind of tree. ii. the beard.' ' .-O. q.. ^f The etymology from F.) Shak. 10. corruption of handling. band) . Ban. banda. ed. pierce. S. a gooseberry p. E.-Gk. a barbel cf. BARK BARQUE. Swift. 1075 Havelok. flat Egyptian row-boat. BANNERET.) BARGAIN.) Lowland Sc. the beard.. bargaigner. a small boat. 1665. H. M. (E. p. of Glouc. p. bardh. a bearded . a word of unknown origin.) M. Cotgrave has Barbele. barde. an. H. 362 . bore.] barbacana. 282 Robert of Brunne.. q. 547.. BARB . Lat. : Occurs in Drayton's Pastorals.) ' ' . barrier. barbel. . Der. Prol. bar). p. with dimin. (F. word bari is cognate both with E. Herbert. . 41. barba. See Beard. bare. perdrix. band or bant. 189. strip of cloth . E. BHAR. to cut. (C. -F. E. Cotgrave has both forms. the branch of a tree. . The bantam fowl is said to (Java. i ' : . . from which sense it was easily transferred so as to be used of horses furnished with spiked plates on their foreheads. [t] BANTAM. II. ?) When wit hath any mixture of raillery. . verb. . bander. BANTER. to chaffer. mere varieties of the same word as the above. BARD. the dimin. at tennis . dimin.' &c. a beard. BANNS. Gramm. barca. and are Skt. bandvia. bhdsh. 86. Prol. Gk. a sash. as they call it. ' the sole of a shoe. bargayn. rigour. 24. A. barbarous. solea. Origin uncertain Diez and Burguy refer the Low Lat. whence also E. 1. ' banquet. BANYAN. [Not A. /3apis. owing to the fact that it must soon have been corrupted in common speech cf.. banijya. E. The word has reference to the table on which the feast is spread (or. See Bind. . Was (also bhd). Der. Der. to bar. applied by Greeks to foreigners to express the strange sound of their language . barrister. bandwo.) (F.* which were esteemed as sacred. naked. The word appears to be closely related to barb or barque but it is remarkable how widely Icel. to chaffer. BARBER. 12. F. [Cf. C. the hook on the point of an arrow. (E.. Col. bare. Wyclif's Bible. from Lat. Weber. barre. extremity. Parv. Irish bard. a brim of a helmet F. 75. bonn na coise means (i) the sole. and Curtius.' a shaped piece of wood from is. dise. i. i. the beak or armed prow of a ship of war. a shrub. barbellus. ed.' the sole of the foot or barbed arrow. a table. Mahn cites . a rail. balbus. a base. a bench. L.) Selden speaks of bardish impostures On Borrowed from the Celtic Introduction. BANTLING. Afterwards Lat.' Icel. tr. something bound to a M. 684. it occurs in Berners' tr.. and Bind. M. . Cf.. Cf. See Band. King Alisaunder.) have been brought from Bantam. See further under Bore. and is a dimin. B. and Beard. (F. 2 . The M. which appears to have been coined for the occasion.) M. See above. 410 Robert of Brunne. of Celtic origin.Der. . Gael. Dandling means one formed from band. nursling. at the western extremity of the island. BARE. partridge from F. and defines barbeau as the river barbell Lat. with suffix -ach. Hackluyt has barlte. see Curtius. B. v. The name was BANNOCK. and Irish barra. a title. bare. barbier. to shine. barge. a banner. G. also a feast. barr. Properly a dimin. Drayton's Polyolbion W. form was certainly bas-. F. bdld-lthdna. bare-footed. 793.Gk.) Barbylle fysch. naked. The original sense a thing cut. bare. ^[ This resolution of the word is strict. Heame. and perhaps Goth. for the change from d to /. proceeds to speak of the bannyan trees. F.' See Bandy. then fell among the footmen. ii. G. ' barz. Skt. a kind of fowl. jags. barre. . barricade. a barber. the shrub. a cake. also Span. G. is the Gaelic. and Balk. the word cannot claim three r's. Gael. E. Ba-miarTjs. Hence the spellings barbed and barded are both correct. Barber. P. p.) M. African. F. (F. a barberry Turkish barbaris. barba. but if this bantering. which occurs in fondling. Perhaps of Egyptian origin a Coptic bari. (2) a certain flat fish. beard. ' : . iii. i. stony) to form adjectives from substantives. i. harbour. (E. (F. the name of baryn (Prompt. However. 160 and baptisme in Gower. Ta. (L. the older form. (2). . baptizare. E. a poet. a signal. Morris.Barbary. of Froissart. and it probably meant 'shining. with suffix -eria. word is a borrowed one and so. . Gaelic bard. to dip.) M. barbar. of banner.) Sir T.Arabic. ' bonn broige. bare-ness. . S. para. a beard. no. 77. which Cotgrave explains as a banket . baptiste occurs in the Ancren Riwle. The native name . is the more logical.. Author's Apology. barbacane (Roquefort). C. to change about. foot or shoe.. F. beard. -ee. fische. Perhaps the word orig. ' BAOBAB. f. probably. mockery. baptise . bosvs. horse-armour. bara. i Cor. Chaucer. and so easily transferred to street talk and slang. barbell bar-ic. Cot' grave has : Barde.Gk. barbar-ous-ness.] p. 256. O. See Bench. Lat.. a Barbery horse. a merchant . bar. Chaucer. Rather I would suppose it to have been a mere corruption of bandy. near the mouth. firstling. BANQUET. m. Owl and Nightingale. also.-L. the Icel. . H. to Low Lat. bandum. a rama word which is not in Richardson's Arab. a stiff rod. the priviledge whereof was to have a banner of his own for his people to march and serve under. meant speaker to speak. Theplural of Chron. Berbery would be still better . a poet so too Com. full of snags. bar. 270. D. but partly proceeds by guess. also. Bret. and the work is done. v. Garner.) Formerly was the commoner form it occurs in Rob. O. . vol.' Rich. Tale of a Tub. p. Low Lat. (Gk. under the rank of a baron. Prol. 69 BAPTIZE. i. barbar-ian. barbar-ism. Fick. (F. BARGE. with four barbels or beard-like appendages (Webster). O. without hesitation. $dwTia/M. 51 See Barbel. word is borrowed grave has from French. barcaniare.) Merely the Lat. nestling. v. a kind of large tree. 684. . . and see Matzner. H. bard-ic. basas. a little beard. see Cleasby and Vigfusson.BANNERET. i. (F. shuffle. bare-headed. ed. E.. (Skt. ed. a term used in tennis. ( ).) is adjectival. [t] (I am told) still so used. baptiser. which is far from satisfactory. from the same root. to bandy against. bargea. The bannyans were merchants. cf. a bar.-L. and by metaphor. shift. bonnach. but leaves the first syllable meaningless. not a native. a standard . T. p. G.) neret. barbe. barbarus. Lat. suffix -ling. G. a barque or boat for merchanSee below.' The Eng. as some say. barrel. of F. M. O. M. O. F. Icel. Cf.' &c. Der. and at last retired to the pedants .) CotHerberts.. which accounts for the loss of final s. Com. . a sort of boat.) These are (i). cf. or trapped as a great horse. the name of a place in Java. a dipping) ^ . ' a kind of fish. (F.). snips.

(G. to be unquiet./ar. baro sense of vassal. G. A. H. a wooden cask. 8th ed.. berbernacles by Sir T. ' . S. BARREL. Curtius. Fick suggests a connection with Skt. BARROW ' : A ' bergh. baroccio. a barke. qua limpitudo est. and that the word was assimilated to the name the suggested derivation. Levins. suffix -bar. baron. [t] a boundary. du Berri) instead of O. 584. barricado (also barricada) is formed as a pp. e. a species of goose. Koch (iii. 378. E. Lect. and ern. 1124.) of Glouc. 602. which could only come from a sb. 1 1 8.. a large barrel. little ship. fiapo-. 61-. bard.) M. . S. a crash. unknown . bairgan.' Baret corrupted from prov. 6. c. berniques. but see the account in Max Muller's Lectures on the Science of Language. M. which for lee. Der. used by Rabelais to mean a pair of spectacles (see Cotgrave). vol. Dan. 35. 17 . protect . bark. pt. Atkinson. compare with bara. barun. Prompt. a kind of grain. ' BARRIER. . Manx barrel. birotus. soldiers' lodgings. to bear. bareil.' Hackluyt. bark. 1. See Barton. spelling ap' having barricadoed up their way . Chaucer. barmr. and Garlic. O. to bluster. baril. in Cotgrave barriquade. p. berm. a tent (Brachet). See Brouette in Brachet. See Bar. Swed. barke.Ital. -ach) The Bret. flapvs. King Alisaunder.) M. ii. an instrument L. For derived immediately. Dan. Siege of Thebes. a wheel. specberyl. to boil The root is not BHAR. form is brouette. ^f The F. is also Celtic. (F. S. e.. less likely. bara. bcerme. a title of dignity. barque.' p. barre. O. Ancren M. F. or Ital. and Dan. bairneach.' Diez quotes ing. was not but through the Span. Browne. (E. (i) a hill. Leek. + and Mete. double carro. an instrument + BARK English. has barrow. and lie. the y. on the Science of Language. Brachet says origin O. Origin undetermined. Plowman. however. barley. ^f It is to save. ii. p.55: Appellantur et pernte conch' BARNACLE Barnacle (2). great boat. S. p. 106 . 228. 798 . Icel. (F. ' ' ' . a defence of barrels. G. 3083 (ed. to snap. Morris. Ducange has Bernacce. Prov. Luke.) but G. bjarga. a bar. brehaigne (F. servant) . i. (Gk. Sec. barra. (C. to cany. barain. baron-et. two-wheeled with the ending modified so as to resemble Ital. to . ed. Chaucer. plant. borcian. Formed from the sb. a hut or booth (preis made almost . Sherwood. E. weight . preserve . barristarius Spelman quotes it See Bar. to ' The bridge. . Icel. a contracted form ofber-ern. bterlic. the lap. formed or closed together. and palustribus similes. Wedgwood compares Gael. (F. a burial-mound. 8th ed. plants (collectively) a name imitated from the A. ed. Comment. which enters into many other compounds . S. p. which seems less correct. Com. barley (Lowland Scottish bear). i. i. a carriage. the fowle called a barnacle. as a verb. barma. beorma. branching. barricade. monly (and more correctly) spelt biroccio. crystal tacles. A. a man origiin the nally. grauis. A. Low Lat. See we also find W. v. is clearly a directly from barrique. Hist. in Lydgate. a barrel. to hide. 132. (3). aves aucis See Bar. man. e.. a wheeled chariot. aves Hibernicce or Hiberniculce . It occurs in Glanvill. i. G. bdrme.} See Farina. Plowtree.F. Works. barrow. p. (Lat. 28. that the first syllable was dropped. Lat. dicuntur repagula ac septa ad munimentum oppidorum et castrorum. to bar. barn-door. in Isidore of Seville). . baris. rind. 2. (E. T. a chariot. Hul vel beoruh. as and Corn. . Curtius. 32. This would give Low Lat. and so Johnson. Eng. (Scand. barrere. ne inconsultis custodibus in eas aditus quibusvis pateat. lit. BARLEY.F.Voyages. Provencal phrase la femna. vi. Gram. 70. But the F. Plutarch. B. spike barrack. i. ' use of A. beorcan. Goth. (Lat. bread. That this is no fancy is sufficiently shewn by fragor. a ham ^f Mr. BARREN. 35. or that the spelling brehaigne is older than baraigne. sb. pp. i. 301). of which there may have been an older form bhar. full of branches. beorh. that Corn. heavy. Bar. The Gk.. irons put on the noses of horses to keep them quiet. the same word with the A. Welsh brenig. Lat. pt. quarters hastily fortified by palisades. a limpet and proposes the Manx bayrn. BARRACKS. C. Lat. F. . A. Gael.' &c. bk. a measure. barh. or at once made from the Gk. iii. .) further details. p. . a diminutive of Provencal berille. ' ' ' ' ' . (2). brille. ii. Barley. barometr-ic-al.) (2). Legends of Holy Rood. ' ' as in ' Brakyn. p. ratha. Gk. See Bear. bericle is. and llysiau. . the lap. -ek. 8th ed. bark. an.' Grein. word . barme. barriere. 21. Icel. of Palerne. Barrel seems to be also a Celtic word cf. which from barrica.52 BARK. F. . a barrack. ofperna. barms. 154). see BARK + for measuring the weight of the Not in early use. balliar . a bearer. 99) suggests the base BAR. a well. in p.). S. BARNACLES. 1. 143. iii. porter (cf. . O. cf.. from Lat. in his index (i). baron-y. Luke. air. (F. See the word discussed in Max The O. The final -on both bar and baron means a mere suffix. 28. S. 117. yeast from G. is cognate with Lat. the further end of which Span. in the sense to vomit . iii. Ital.ii. bar is the branch of a tree whence barrek. of beroue*. and i*(Tpov.) fortify hastily. F. Etym. the word is easily seen to be a variant oibrecan. fermentum. ' evomo . earth. See Bar . M. P. [t] M. 68. barley. was barricaded with barrells . Barrel. ' arum circa Pontias insulas frequentissimse. ?) ' ' bird. no more than lo bar non es creat per From Raynouard the O. to bar up. allied to Skt. + + The word is not a sort of carriage. formed from A. barli). baraigne.) earliest quotation is from Holland. sterile . pedali non minus spatio. B. corn. (2) a . a dimin. Grein. E. cibum venantur. . used of a sudden noise . BAROMETER. Der. comP. a top. the F. ^ [t] M. 'Barnacles. So Gael. from a vb. and the Span. barrte p. S. in all probability." The original barracks were. who says. and bernicha. By the metathesis of r (common berkja. Group B. The history of the word is very obscure . heavy .) Swed. (E. E. bern. unknown barre. barca. originally. barm. chelonalops . iii. pt. Will. timber. put for /Sapos. to bark. and note to 1. This supposition ' BARM Prompt. or spewe. Slant velut suillo crure longe in arena defixse. probably Max Muller. bar. vi. barca (a little boat. monceau de terre. who connects feruere with and with E. Spelt barell. a sort of small shell-fish. bericles. 568. see Vie de 5t. 692. i. from haigne). see this discussed in nacula. 1. Vomo. ii. F. but the woman for the man. barometre. Goth. xi. bk. biroccio meant a two-wheeled car. though a sort of ship. g. bere. Rob. 77. Either Englished from F. but the connection M. from and rota. . a car. beryllus of which spectacles were made cf. Originally.C. C.' Gk. lees.. the rind of a B. introduced in i6th century from Ital. ' as the etymon. Homilies. barricare. but there is little to shew that this is a true Celtic word. berme.. is regularly generis. perna. C. p. in 172. 3 (R. Low BARROW. which is. Auban. G. Breton brec'han. barun. E. S. Cf. bourn. quoting Ducange.I) to Cotgrave.) Riwle. bre- of a shell-fish.F Muller.' grave has 'Barque. G. on the Science of Language. cade. bosom. Icel. ix. barm. M. see Haldemann's Affixes. Exod. baron-age. limpets. again. to bear. parm. 13. Gael. Hackluyt. no.) Nearly obsolete . Cotgrave has ' Bernaque. this strengthens Gael. E. Ormulum. word.' M. with suffixes -ist. barm. xiii.T. heaped up. S. a limpet . 1977 . BHAR. used in the dialect of Berri (see Vocab. E. (Low Lat. barrer. 134. S. Tyrw. . Grein. the usual guess is. a spring. 158. BARRISTER.' R. as in Low Lat. Wright's Vocab. 25. A ^ + + + certain when we remember that bar (q. B. Lat. a barrel. which for ledc. 1. bearm. c. the breast from the shape. to start. a hill or a hill. berke. ed. pears in English also . ?) A modem BARM + + + + . top branches of trees.-Swed. [f] spectacles also. yeast. Old Eng. a barrier. The Span. barr. to creak as timber does. see Der. bar. His theory is that the birds were Irish ones. bernescnee. F. 12741. Chaucer. quotes from Swift's Letters and Blackstone. a house + BARN. . Parv. but BHUR. M. vol. (F. verb was barriyuer. made of barley. BARNACLE A baraill. (F. 163 . mere borrowing from the Span. barley. [The Gothic has the adj.and -anas . i. baroque. Lect. E. F. Vulg. See Break.) 31. ii. baron (Norman F. (F. and cf. brushwood . the form barrasterius. See Beryl. put Welsh barlys. barein. 138. if this be admitted. Grein. ' . which occurs in the Old Northumbrian version of the same passage thus the Lindisfarne MS. is not quite clear. P. i. to crack. [t] . See bharas in Fick. cf. bere. a bar. The F.' O. barli. a leek. barutsche modified so as to present a French roperlj^^Bkii appearanc^irhe German word is borrowed from Ital. i. Apparently set on the nose of unruly horses . Irish bairile. brew. tempting to connect these with Icel. aream by ber-em vel bereflor. E. Lat. break. ' barnacle. Barge. See Spelt (2). Weber. E. baracca. pales. brecan in the sense of to roar.C. 1. 103. used by Pliny. P. sterile. a hastily made fortification also. the cognate Lat. a hillock..) 1 7. 125 (see Koch. T. Ess. bernestee. Rich. Errors. to yelp as a dog. H. 251 . from a Celtic source.. Chron. Williams says. Brew. sumably of branches). feruere. dimin. brake used braka. mas la femna per lo baro = the man was not created for the woman. S.) and see Levins. yeast. 13899).. dregs. a cap. glosses Lat. . See Bourn. E. W. A. bar. to roar as an elephant (i. Chaucer.) Boyle has barometrical . a place for storing grain. 15511. i. ed. which he explains as a barri- ^ BARRICADE.) is a Celtic and that the termination -ak (answering to Bret. A. . 223.' i. Nat. E. barren. barricado. or stones. barizeins. ii. vel ad eorum introitus ac portas posita. . beorg. Probably from Span. T. after all. p. Parv. barra. Lat. O. ii.' with by-forms bernacelce. 47. 137 .-C. See Bear. .A. (E. bernagium for hybernagium.' compound word from A. Du. trlpva. 192. standing for Lat. . H. brennic. and the older form is bar man or husband. for pernacula. carroccio. (i).-O. bearing from BHAR. . a bar. hiantesque. a bar as if the barrel were looked upon as composed of bars or staves. <t>plap. F. cf. See Fick. bere. E. (i).) C. 151). Lat. formed from iron. B. Diez and Scheler suppose the derivation to be from O. F. Voyages. [t] BARJHCHE. berne. Hence we also find M. or castyn. barrachad. see Bride). iambler. (E. See Grave BARON. 583. baron-et-cy. ^f Brachet points out that derived from Lat. The one who pleads at the bar. birotus. i. or place for storing. barca. borkr (from the stem bark-). Skeat. 12997. Wycl.

B. Sir T. lowest floor of a building. /SatriXi/cds. . and Busk. to chafler. O. is strife . Welsh bar. bassaAnd see Bass (i).' ' ' . ^f The form bane bears some resemblance to perch. base-line. basilic. F.' p.. + + + W. basenet. M. a vessel made of flexible materials. sella quam vulgus bastum vocat.' See Bear. a tray. to warm. a deep tone . i.E. . a going. also barrack. base-less. G. BASEMENT. bas> shallow. This suffix is certainly O. and tardh. vi. wrathful. S.) M. OS* Sometimes corrupted to bass. 'bast-Ire. See Abash. Matt. low .' ' sb. (Gk. brahsem (G. a basin. . 17. basse. I bathe in water or in any licour. So named from its weight. 13. find also Icel. [t] BASIL.' gestion of Diez. Der. . fiapvs is the Lat. a perch. Cotgrave has ' Bass. &c. GAM. with dim. 21. basu.-L. This remark. William the Conqueror. BASTARD. . from the verb beran. See Grave and . couzen. parse. (F. i386o. tilia' (i. From A. Thus it BASENET. BARYTONE. basso. bassus (Brachet). BASILISK. of which the lit. Gk.. BAST. Works. a large stone. 'Wyllam bastard.) M. 2. Bier. who cites it as a word of rustic use paterae quas vulgo bacchinon vocant. More. BASSOON. a king lit.. BARYTA. base. iii. BASILICA. as seen in Com. ed. here. Vol. Bast. barley . bat. bartryn.F. a helmet . Low Lat. basilica fern. H. Bret. bac. a bream . fishes basking in the sun 8. i. issue. Histoire poetique de ponuntur sarcina. ' basilis/te . lit. records the same notion. 63. Chaucer uses bathe hire. Gk. Somner. bastard. . bresme (F. Lat.S. ^f The word was Charlemagne. Grein. a hurricane barrad. bar. radically. a light helmet. to go (Curtius). used of shallow water Bret. from a white spot. bach. BASIN. protect. 7 .. of fish. to hide. bacin. . strife. to bear. to lower. G. barr. . hard. humble. a bassoon. a bream. .) A compound word from Old Northumbrian bere-tun. bastum. Ital. a conical heap of stones. p. </ BA. base. Lat. ' . A. E.. W. Gk. grave. centre. Chaucer. barpa. Eber-hart (whence E. H. 1. p.' F. Du. QaaiXiKus. (F. . C. (Gk. bk. flat. the inner bark of the lime-tree. who saddle. ' yet the Icel. ^f Fick suggests the to bind... A. Lye's Dictionary. (2). by augmentative suffix -one. E. scourse. a pack-saddle. (F. . beorgan. trough. base-ness. bars = perca. bathe herself. BASK. Cf. See Bind and see Baste (3). a son of a bast (not of a bed). The sugter. viz. H. signifying a hollow hollow. Fliigel's G. V GA (i). the same as bar barradarne.) (F.) Not in early use. resembling a crown. the and other like heat of the sun badfisk. - mento. Ital. 1. would easily fall out of a word. Also spelt baritone. false. low. sect.43. C. evidently from Gael. BASALT. fat rather than 'short. 33. g. king's ffaffiXtus. i?heO. on the head (Pliny). a courtyard. 81). barowe. . . .. and refers to M. p. F. to go. and truly. prove that the word is not of cf. and in Du. sinister sense C. . BARSE. Nat. where ft stands for or to go .) Lat. low. barsch. p. name kiinigsiraut. borrowed from Ital. origin. G. . (F. cf. i.' grave has p. The Gk. It appears to be now ascertained that O. a top. BASE sound between words like pass and Levins. yBHADH. c. heavy (hence deep). a bevelled edge see Bezel. bag.) a baritone. 290 and the quotation above. Com. S. BASIS. so called because 31. ed. Barn. BASS : ' : Tone. The derivation is then from an O. iii. BASTARD. to bask in the sun also solen baddar. like busk. such as Regin-hart (whence E. cow-ard. now represented by Icel. a fish Prompt.. tincha. does not seem to be a true Scandinavian word . Gael. a foundation. plant. basilica. . yet both words are from the same root. T. drunk-ard. Prompt.' . barat. O. &aat\tvs. (i). that the word is certainly not Celtic. A. (and even in English. berewe (an unauthorised form) see Bosworth. 446 Tale. (E. BASHFUL. cf. 4). which Cotgrave explains by cheating. C. that which comes with violence baramzer. the . . bos. a wide open vessel. Lye. Pliny. Skt. royal. royal. E.G. which looks more likely) baryt-ic. F. . F. basalte. basilicum. 'the herb basill. or matting made of it. Noted as a Celtic word by Martial. bacin. de-base. a German. ' BARROW M. bat.-Ital. formed like a See Basin. from The G. used of a male voice. e. bassone. badask. Hist. baslte. E. a heavy earth. . the sun bums .' It is short for basilic. the -sk being reflexive. See little real difference in We applied. to traffic. It Bury. O. a word which I suspect to be allied to E. bars. 1 46. Parv. bassamento. ' . abate W. (F. not to the sb. base. solbase. royal. ii. barout. Evidently formed.) . C. a large hall. a precipice. Skeat. the soft sound 9 phrases see basa. which occurs as a gloss for Lat. high-topped. 0a<ri\i<r/(6s. bascaid. a ferry-boat. Gk. Gk. basse. basin Seven Sages. However. flaais. bos.. where bast is the mod. Parv. a tempest. 25. /3a<7i\ei. F. crook W. Gk. 361 d. connecting barat with the Gk. 46. ga. beorg in the sense of grave-mound was really an adaptation of some Celtic word cf. vpaafftiv. M. Dan. . F. bos.i. a hook Bret. 2242 (used in the sense of helmet) Alisaunder. p. the 'Basil. Paris. See Base (i). brassen). cf. bast. also a hook. Prol. baritono. bjarg. is wrong .E. point. (E. Borrowed from F. wort. sense is 'abasement' (Brachet). to lie exposed to warmth. a deep-toned musical instrument. not as bas-tard . 192. .) M. Fick. See Grave.. bast.) has base. the base part in music. I.-Gk. a wheelbarrow. BASS (2). &c. i. bace. 106. The ending -ard is common in O. wrath. .. ' ' a kind of lizard or snake. See Barley. a packSee Brachet. and secondly.) bast. that the old guess of a deriv. esp.-Gk. . (F. iii. (F. generally printed bass Tarn. and Bret. Wright. A. also. (Ital. with the common See Bath. (F. (E. e. i.BARROW. a perch brassen. Rob. but of Celtic origin. as soubassement.G. a see examples in Pref. [t] BARTON. p. basson. E. bait. bast. bass-relief (Ital. and bassement. bacin. basaltes. cf. basced. + . to fall.H. of Glouc. Der. on account of his ' . baDast. JElfric's Glossary . Gaelic bac. basged. Gk. heaped up . G. beguile . e. a lime-tree. G. Bosworth. 818 (Webster). Everard). and tun. and the arguments of Diez. in Rietz. viii. Levins. See Base (a). bastard meant 196. F. small basin. bast. . formerly sousbassement . ^ . royal Gk. (C. exchange. 452. a child of parents not married . Bass M. See grave-mound . basis. Dan. corruption of final -sk to -st. Ital. F. with suffix -ewe from the stem her. . tone. 995. of Shrew.oneself. m. royal. a cairn. in the sense of bask Nonne Prestes and see Gower. (Scand. but the words are different. (F. F.. BRASSE. PalsI baste. BASKET. a palace. M. bar. (F. E.) i. Der. F. royal Gk. lower. . Spenser. 20 see Way's note. In French words this suffix assumed first an intensive. Chaucer. from W.e. . Base (i).. been borrowed from French). . but bakask would be less compressible. boars. papvrris. of basilicus. of which the etymology has been much disputed. -hart. alluded to by Gregory of Tours. like arrow. bass. bos. heavy. ' thus Cotgrave has Barater. an African word. 11. bareter. . a kind of rock. reynard). at basa sig i solen. Besides. illegitimate. enclosure. iv. base-ment (F. F. . base. house). W. these are. belongs to the adj. [The remarks in Burguy shew that the word is to be divided as bast-ard. strife. . 295. a tray. xii. and Fletcher.' All evidence shews that it is certainly the latter . Q. shallow (used of water). i. very widely spread after the time of William I. on the Astrolabie. 441. a bassoon formed.] B..' Cot. bardtta. O. 12. BARTER. . first used as a suffix in proper names. basket Corn. bakke. called a . BASNET. baas. a word made in the 1 6th cent.) BREAM. from 6asso. bassorilievo). basse-contre. to bathe oneself. Gael..41. of Vocabularies. See network. domus. shallow. also a barSee note to Vie de Seint Auban. barater ' hair. quotes : Sagma. and Town. manor used in provincial English and in place-names and surnames. Doublet. under.) M.) 'The serpent Holland's Pliny. a perch braiem. of bos. See Base (i). the lowest part in a musical composition. E. lupus. barter. barog. The latter is of Gk. E. ed.S. a basket. form vras prahsema M. (2). grauis. to make shallow. and appears to be from a different root. grauis. M. suffix having being dropped. Parv. ffapii-i. O. a trough. S. occurs in Chaucer.-Ital. It is certainly formed. pp. Swed. barrow . e. Diet. names same word. ' ' . a king. i. low. bacinet. Valentinian. (E.' i. brime}. still preserved in F. ' 53 We . flapv-s. a top. * Diez regards bonus as a genuine Latin word.' Sherwood has The base in musick. also. 98 F. Icel.2 333'~O. suffix -el.) . Wedgwood quotes a phrase in a Swedish dialect. to do.Lat. . Shak. 105. a kind of herb. base-minded. abasement). neut. The only question is whether it means 'to bake oneself or 'to bathe. fern. and Low Lat. fishe. the O. 2. ^f It is suggested that basged is from basg. F. a dark and very hard species of marble in Ethiopia.L. a lime-tree). Gk. shy (Tempest. See below.' he says. cf. bass. the E. (F. basse fern. deceit . to bathe oneself. H. a king. xiv. that Bassus was a Lat. sulphate of baryta (unless baryta is derived from barytes.. leader of the people Curtius. L.) Spelt basill in Cotgrave. B. The common meaning of baret in M.) Prompt. a pedestal. weight. C. S. However A. who Latinise the word as bascauda. B. a common Celtic root. basis. Breem Diet. a plaiting. Gk. Ital. Probably of Celtic origin cf.) M. Der. baz. (i). to Brachet's Etym.) Modern. to truck. f. T. G. from an Old Danish source. a shallow flat-bottomed boat. from sous. a-base-ment . Weber. . F. make barse. Scand.. of basilicus. 124. 'A BASE . (L. . is valueless. Irish basceid. super quo com- . 4. baryt-es. Gael. ^f ' is most probable that the A.-W. aream in the Lindisfame MS. carry so that the signification is a vehicle. 1. to cheat. A. 36. . and G. (sc. sou-bassement.) Appears in F. a town. basse.. bastart. Strabo. 99. a grave tone. last syllable 7.-Gk. . 6rafom. personal name at an early period. An Italian musical term. 1. O. ' a-base. W. and rovos. Cower. and by Juvenal.E. A. a foundation (Beaum. meaning stout.) F. and it is more reasonable to suggest a Celtic origin . 350. Also Com. cognate with Lat. . for further information. BASEL.

Parv. Goth. to fortify. babvlle. ed. E. de la Rose. to put together. -lor.) F. to warm. Bable for a fool. to thump. bad (Ihre). has Span. Mark. the washing-beetle. S. or Span. The history of the word is imperfectly recorded it seems most probable that it represents an O. Dan. blaka. /Sdflos. Doublet. answers to the Lat.. 26 . to fasten down with battens. p.) batte. Cf. (F. verb Prompt. Appendix and .) Icel. viii. G. to support. ed.) Cotgrave has Baterie (also Batterie). Some connect it baste. and to E. to pinion . /SafliJs. fouere is allied to Gk. is a derivative from baf$. shewing that librilla means a stick with a thong. 18044. Morris. 26. make. (Span. vb. a bat for beating clothes a. vacillacio. abatre. O. as in ama-tor. ii. giving bach-che. See Baton.. . p. See (3).54 BASTE. whilst being washed. 74. to beat. to warm (G. pat. bataille. bataile. 22. Fick connects Icel. (2). p. a small bat to play at ball with batiling-slone.. and Prov. 3. i. 19. . G. Moxon . Goth. BATTLEDOOR. v. The O. formed from O. O. a wooden rod. See Batter (i). by librilla. meaning both (i) a fight. and it was ^f Lye gives an A. 1. gabatnan. 655. Halliwell.) Box from Ital. word is hreremtis. batte.-L. p. So called from being beaten up together Wedgwood. BAT (i). . Note provincial Eng. to beat. See Batter (i). baiel- BATE ' ' . explained in Prompt. beadu. . Parv. We find too Batyn. 75. q. p. i. bad. has bate. battre. formed. (F. Skt. only used in the Wyclif comp. Chiefly used of the bastir.. to improve. Shak. Merely a contraction of abate. See Baste (3). added to stems to form passive or neuter verbs. British. a battery . 1. suffix -one.) ' f BATCH. ' . librillacio. (C. or waveryn. See baste. . to foment) cf. E. trans. .' t Hen. battaglia. M. Strictly. v. ba'.-Ital. it is intransitive. pt. a lover. or more likely the Provencal (South French) batedor. Were this verb still express it by bobble. depth. and the true A. 690) . of Good Worn. leirblaka = a leather-flapper. &c. ( i ). F. Der. Lycidas. Ormulum. For change of Jt to /. bat. ii. a collection. balling-slock.-L. F. babyll. to beat. See the allusion. S. and milk. and in Shak. We also find. BASTINADO. bastione (Brachet). has breeds no bate. ' . avail. a derivative of batlre. Formed from F.p.. p. O. (2). . E. a quantity. meaning exactly a Once imported into English. to tie. Fick gives a European form bhatu. batlre. G. or batche. Citizen of the World (R. Parv. is probably a mere accident. from baslo. broad. Swed. p. batiian. + Swed. deep. from batir. and into In Cleasby and Vigfusson's Icel. cf. Span. a body of armed men. a compound of eggs. bat-let (with dimin. batlre. whence prov. is BATTERY.Icel.) be a different word from bauble. appears to have a still older source in the verb bdhen. introduced. i. BAUBLE ' . I . xi. Prompt.-O. Parv. sound beating ii. Parv. p. a beating with Span. battler. 2. make better. and in Goldsmith. with E. bestan. Bate. this accounts for the batu. H. Prompt. bast. F. (F. Swed. batter. bad. to the the word does not seem to have been originally a native The O. BATE . E. (pvrjttv. The A. F. mod. a fortress. in Todd's Johnson. a bat with a thin handle. or pdwen. p. Rom. Hamlet.' Hudibras. G. pden. See Bake and see Bask. to use a bath. [t] battery. nibble in use.H. Cf. gambhan. Lat. see Brachet.E. remit. to pugna. or abaten of weyte or mesure. deep. Lat. a packsaddle. Parv. Curtius. M. Low Lat. and Adonis. bat. Herbert's Travels. to A Treatise of the Bathos. a scantling of wood. 1 . a stone on which wet . an explanation of the word is attempted but the remarks on bastardr in the body of the Dictionary. - - BATTLE..i2. H. lit. strike. 4. This seems to (i). It occurs in (2). basa. j ' . Diez suggests a connection with Gk. or bakynge. e. . find basting and (i). to dive and emerge.) M. 2 24. See Bob. 104. (E. a battle. are of more weight. 1 1 in trans. (F. 'batyldoure. bataraz. a stick . hostile in Paris. O. baston. to build. propugnaculum Prompt. ' . ba]>.' a combat. and the Lat. flyinge best [beast]. bastion. (F. was no doubt so called from the wagging or swinging motion with which it was employed from the verb bablyn. baiter-ing-ram... bataille. (Gk. has batten (i). to beat . e.) M. bast.G.' i. i. a place for F. . maroite. bdhen. s. to build (F.. to avail. It is supposed that the word was borrowed from the Span. 2 7. exploits.) Shak. Batyn. E. Plowman. (F. bk. and the length unlimited . ace. 1458. H. ii. (E. by adding the augment. Parv. P. to sew slightly. batte. bastir. batour. cudgel Perhaps this furnishes the root of Lat. Eng.of Lat. in many passages. (South F. to (i). as distinguished from bata.-Ital. baton. P. a word which in common Latin answered (2) a battalion. rearmouse. batter-y.' Palsgrave has As he that with his babel plaide Gower. . or 4 in. gabatnan are formed from the Gothic root BAT. form. to beat. or for use as a sling and pegma means a It stick with a weight suspended from it. I (R. p. pad. So. from Dan. ii. BATTEN BATTER A BASTION. bataillon. p. p.. (3). Lat.' y. 271 also bate-breeding.-L. beysta (also beyrstd). F. staff. Parv. 26 Irish and Gaelic botie. in the i6th cent. E. Poems. pegma.E. batalia. strife BATH. baiidor. for inflicting blows with. preserved in the E. ' . . Ven. F. Layamon. batido. E. Chaucer. S. F. Ancren Riwle. and found its way into nearly all the Celtic dialects. a small bat for beating washed clothes. seldom above I thick. 2 7. to profit. to keep swinging about . 20. 59. batlal-ion. pear to be a place of warmth. Cf. Ital. E. F. . 338. by adding the suffix -le . flour. English. (Unknown. batere. bailment. bastonada. F. Roquefort quotes the phrase mur bastille. straggle from stray. linire. . wasshynge betylle.) occurs in Howell. probably so named because covered with woven bast see Bast. (2). See Abate. K. a bastinado as a sb. beysta with Icel. bad or vdd. mere variant of ballon or baion. S. bature. Der.) The A. a cudgel. O. E. (F. (Scand.. a winged mammal. Lat. to bind with bast. BATTLEMENT. John. L. to beat. .na. M. Cov. Of obscure . Allit. letter 42 . ft. Parv. ' ' . bear-baiting. and in Kersey's Diet. . ' babelynge. See Bake. bacche hence. bahche. too. bastillemenl. to fatten. a ment. a/tenbakke. bata. A. Origin unknown. fortified or embattled wall. 1. B. baston. F. strife. or wauerynge. -A. v.) A batch is what is baked at once M. ' : . to beat. fiaSTafav. ^f The M. a bat for clothes. Parv. from the Roman a building. a staff. (F. debat. a place for washing in. batere. pistura Prompt. a short cudgel. i. gabhira. O.' BATTEN . (Scand. Diet. Prompt. so that to bobble would mean to bob frequently. Bast. Icel. F. O. ii. effect that a cudgel. as if basting was done with a piece of stick. suffix -let=-el-et). a fight. :46i. to beat. equivalent to an older bak-ke clearly a derivative of M. for weighing meat. Ital. ?.) ' 2. (F. batter (2). but this is uncertain. Mark. . H. . word. So also Dan. or babelyn. to beat. as dis- + . Hence it is generally conceded that bate is a mere contraction or corruption of the common old word debate. Parv. 67 but Milton has battening our flocks. reremouse. 366. or make debate. basingr. a stick. (F. The resemblance to Skt. BAT ' the pp. E. parapet for fortification.E. batir). Shak. jurgor Prompt. (F. batren. Cf. Gawain and the Grene Knight. also. Lat.) ' BASTE We BATTALION. Leg. to be deep depth . was Icel. s. says Brachet. a plaything. 29. Shak. we should from nip. depth.-O.) Spelt balloon in Sir T. to beat. a beating a place for cannon. Bosworthhas: Myst. a beating . 36. BATHOS. . 49. evening-bat. to abate. a popular form of batuere. the suffix -dor in Span. where cch is for ch-ch. batten answers to the former n of the Moeso-Gothic suffix -nan.) M. to batten down. Fick. a beating-stock . G. F. Hence. E. Also bat. 4. 149 . word for battle is beadu. E.) Ludicrously applied to a descent from the elevated to the mean in poetry or oratory. baS (Grein). as many frequentatives are. (Scand. Both Icel. ' . form would have been batnen . batuere. baten. of batir. bastille. basliller. 69 . ' ' . ' . to beat down. BASTE bastyn baste. Parv. [fl V GABH. See Beetle (2). O.) beat down. bosta. The original sense of bath would. 569. to strike (Ihre). to pour fat over meat. B. Milton has it P. c. generally. Here batche is a later substitution for an older bacche. Span. baton. See above. F. to beat. to bind. or the Art of Sinking in Poetry. See Way's note in Prompt. of unknown origin. 4. batir. to build. E.' a bat. batna and tinguished from boljan. O. borrowed from O. Com. bastardr in Icelandic. to flutter. battle (i. p.) Shak. S. S. in Appendix I to Pope's Dunciad. bauta and origin.-L. a fight. 1627. good. i. librillo Prompt.) Icel. a M. bate. Errors. a dimin. C. F. Gurton's Needle. The word part of a fortification. used in precisely the same sense borrowed from the O. apfouere. batuere see note to Beat. seen in Icel. diminish. 36.' has bade..' i. to bake.' Levins. A corrupted form. M. See Baton. M. 26. to build of which verb the O. Prompt. 21. .E. a club. subtraho Prompt. flap. See Baste (j). BATHE.. better and best. Gk. 198. 27. H. F. Der. iii. basionem. F. bastiller is also a derivative. . (2). cf. a popular form of batuere. 463. 'Batylment of a walle.' 20. : linen was beaten to cleanse it .. 1665. p. . Bret. [t] ' Batten. suffix. vespertilio. See Baste (3) and see Embattle. hence the final -en in mod. bake Fick. batten (2). F. bastir. BASTILE. a stick. B. hasten. battaglione.) iii. and for the A. leaving -door meaningless.) BATON. vii.) a building. See Better. . has Batte. bat. bast. As You Like It. of bat. 21593. diminish. recover . and appears earlier in M. (F. introduced in the i6th century from Ital. bable. cf. bastire. (F. . E. Langtoft.-L. at the same reference. a bath not vice versa. the inner bark of the lime-tree. (C. a beating. BAUBLE. + + + . mate from M. beat BASTE Gammer 'To with cf. formed from Ital. (E.. bast. O. cf. a fool's mace. M. Gk.) M. Parv. p. Batte stands for an older blatte. The Prompt. bate. to bathe. contentio. BATOON.) Corrupted from M. battaglione.' but it is an uncertain word. but without a reference probably merely borrowed from O. .. O. accordingly. to beat.) IV. ' : ' ' . of the Rose. BATTER See Battle. to grow fat (intransitive). crayfish.. to grow better. a quantity of bread. first two syllables were easily corrupted into battle. See Battle. Levit.

be-. Lat. . the most BHA. G. baklte. 1348.) Berners' Froissart. The A. . O. to be bu-du. having something of the same meaning. a sign. 2 1 59. T. beads-man. dirty bow. Cf.becoming putil. beer. The modem bowwindow. to exist. E. bear-ing. H. gebet. prefix. <pvnv. 1058. BDELLIUM. ursus (Grein). 1079. a lewd person. between. and the also. G. BEAT). [t] ' BEAGLE. a berry. harbour. Lat. i. 3882. Plowman. bacea Prompt. aor. the bill of a bird. bubo. whence also the dimin. Goth. (O. Tarn. . bi-) is a short or unaccented form of the prep. v. Hen. for a childe to play ' with all Cot. Behead means to Prol. to be (passim). Du. + Icel. col. the burning beam-less. early as A. Curtius deduces from the same root. 1385. 6936 P. (E. beic. Gk. a wild beast. . Gk. G. Payne. L. at bay. Old Sax. pt. B. G.i 28. bear-ish. (F. bub. Wher hy hym ' myghte so hound abaye = where they might hold him at bay as a dog does . bawd-i-ness . p. babbole.Jfaen. bakki. an inlet. xvii. deprive of the head invest with bedeck. Herbert. bede. P. c. i. q. a sort of cup. and of Welsh origin. e. E. Havelok. Swed.S. G. bhuman. . barkings. Gael. bacca. an inlet of the sea. by S. child's toys (Diez Ital. See Bank. has bauble in a useless plaything. (Unknown. M. + Russ. (E. BE. see also abaye in Halliwell. Here He Worn. gugaw. babbola s. . at. It appears in Low Lat.' Allit. See Bull. to pray. O. a simpleton. stands for nk . BE-. a beak.. i. bhalla. beak. beran (Grein). on the nether side of. to make numb. E. So called from Bayonne. B. bede. manna is likened to it in colour. Select Works.+O. Doublet. bawd-y. a nib. bai. ^f But the M. P. bemire. + + . a bead Chaucer. The begele. properly. to low as a cow.) M. pike. 683. O. an ascent. weary of running. dirt. H. . Thanne he hauede his bede seyd = when he had said his prayer.. Heyne. to bid. to shew. E.G. Chaucer. E. as suggested by Wedgwood. Chron. to proclaim bead. E. - bjrirn. of which there is no proof whatever. to bark as a dog. A. bk. F.L. It somerage. Court of Love. S. bead-roll. bauderie) Doublet. 15. window with a curved outline. to exist. Plowman. also become. gen. board. request gebed (cf. point. + Gk. ^f Some connect the word with E. i. A. beddan. a simpleton. babiole. a bay. S. 65. (E. 30. xi. S. beren.) M. that blonkkes myjt renne. (E. ed. bed.faba. B.-L. See Palmer's Pers. in. (E. coloured. babe. in France. frute.or bi. ' + BAY BAY + M. Grein. an owl. to carry. to fall upon. Beside prefix of prepositions beset. by. (Pers. modified so as to coincide with bauble in the sense of a fool's mace. A. bayDer. a prayer. 1 867. H. [#] The dogge woulde bay (4). ed. signal. Dan. . bitten).Gk. baud-r-y (O. B. C. with leaves also as large in proportion. to set upon. bera. 1665. H. in very common use. . to screech as an owl. mfxuiaKtiv. rising ground. badmr. BAY ' ' . to exist. Icel. a tree. The (2). G. biker Prompt. S. E. (3). belie. BAWDY. is . Diet. pi. [t] . a plaything. bart. bairan. and unpleasant in taste b. M. A. Heje houses withinne the halle. Fick suggests y' BHUR. ed. A. ft. &IKOS. C. were easily assimilated in form. See Bold. . a reddish brown. 80. King Alisaunder. of Dates. B. a berry. Gaelic badh. See byd-. Icel. BEARD. like Gk. BAWD. Grein. i. + + + + . free. y. Grein. C. Way notes that the word occurs as . bean (Lye. the word is made Pliny. S. . 685 . See Bay (3). . A. by the side of. v. and the baies or berries (baccce) that it beareth are nothing Holland's Pliny. a wine-cup a word formed from Gk. or small toy. ^f If the original sense was a fire-signal. used of clothes. is a different word. bi. 32.) M. Bid + (2). Parv. a tree..BAUBLE. Prompt. Cotgrave has Abbay. ad. ' BEAK. prefix. bydel. babbeo. 1640.fui. a cup. hert. M. as shewn s. Poems. See By. babble. bete. 30. bear-er. E. bazar. Der. in Surrey. E. bedcen. tr. byw. bicchiere. Irish bu. a berry-tree. request. ' . forms Umiov. to utter a hollow sound Fick. ' Withyn a bay-windowe . to chatter. a tree. ' BEARD. [*] a dagger at the end of a gun. + ' ' ' ' . Russian buite. dirty. 2848. E. in ' ' his Travels. + O. Gk. Ital. Peck. v. 27. backe. to shout. to sit by. piotan. fury. and baubari. Voyages. to Cf. Introduced in the i?th century. 105. abbois. ed. Plowman.D. ' is joined with gold and onyx-stone . + + + + + + + . 103. a bear. T. tobe. when the suffix -el is added.. Der. for hunting hares. 12. (E. Lithuanian bapka. times serves to locate the act. (E. (i). a kind of laurel-tree prop. on the lower side of. (F. S. an earthen wine-vessel. . ' . q. baud. s. bayings. Fick. wanton. ' . (F. a recess. A. Prol.) A. Chaucer. (F.) Bay occurs in F.) O. i. BAZAAR. pen. 35. berde. gay. Layamon. xii. 171.) ' . be-. the ground rising from the sea.. prefix . v.) Spelt buzzar by Sir T. attack besiege. bedrop . obviously Celtic. bedim. bikeri. ' index to Cotgrave has 'Beagle. S. I am. baburrus. bald. Chaucer. S. W. p. puna. G. . Plowman. Bay. here. Hall's Chron. This is probably a mere adaptation of the F. beta. ' ' . (F. bin. so also beneath. bala. xii. badius. 77--A.-G. 161) compares Skt. bene. pointing to an earlier bubere. iv. iii. H.) M. See Bid (i). F. Corrupted from a fuller form abay. 58. + Lat. bay 'a stede bay' (i).' as in be-numb. t. which probable root is been. an officer. cf. See aboyer in Brachet. H. Begle. . a point. + O. an army Also used as a ' . BAYONET. and Pike.' the word came to mean a recess in a So brod bilde in a bay. S.ii. i. Haldeman. 376. beam-y. formerly bayonette. E. ' ' . Chaucer. 9. P. bold. ii. bouchen. in 1693. [t] M. e. 606'.' The same is also expressed by the phrase etre aux abois see aboi in Brachet. .) Used by Burke . B. 3774. T. 12540. E. Icel. to live. Ptxioiov. E. to bark. Pers. cf. Morris. here. . of Good + + BEAKER. exist. in Numb. (E. 55 . betene. Low G. G. above. beag. becher. ii. Der. signal. 109. Lat. 332. with which cf. babe. a trifle. v. p. p. 3. beam. bate. verb. abayen. bera. . fiiKot is of Eastern origin (Liddell). a bay. bawaidd. Welsh pig. [not at all] sharp. see below. [t] M. (F. beem. a window in a recess. + Skt. . bida. to carry. ii (R. BAWL. i. to yelp.' SeeBay(4). . be.L. a small dog. babulus. + + beach-y. The word L. beard. bhu. + 'W. to bid.. to exist.) The old sense is a prayer and the bead was so called because used for counting prayers and not vice versa. Icel. used for counting prayers. gebed. ed. bay-ard (a bay-horse) baize. v. a English Words.) Sir T. a prayer. It was used at Killiecrankie in 1689.' Works. pauhhan. 148. Weber. bi. earth. S. baubari. as in before. From the sense of inlet. S. . (E. and sometimes intensifies hair on the chin. standard (Grein) . where he speaks of the great buzzar or market . a growth from the (i.G.) P. ' . bagms. Lat. to come upon. bidjan being made from the sb. an entreaty. O. See Peak. a ridge . a point.-Ital. BAY doubtless imitative (5). root BHU. ^ BHAR. Shrew. O. bear-able. See Beck. a laurel-berry Pick. baun. an animal. (E. grow. S. bold.-}. M. vol. E. Leg. to bear. ' ' ' ' to a bay is really a corruption of to abay . pitcher. <t>v/ia. 6ec. }. H. a sign.' F. a bank of a river. Der. a cup Kleine Altniederdeutsche Du. befall. i<pw. a piece of timber. H. to bark or bay at the sense of a trifle. abois. C.Skt.. -A. BEADLE. . See Haydn.) Rich. which I believe to be quite a mistake. ben. K. (F. bill. G. tyepiiv.) Isidore of Seville see Brachet. c.) Shak. babbeo). quoted by Suetonius as of Gaulish origin (Brachet) . Breton bet. a prayer. in Varro. and see further below. from bawd see above. beam.. early authors. and E. to cover with mire. O. xv. biting. Beckon. little . . H. Ital. Low Lat. byker. Lucretius.. bidden. a tree. pleased. G. I am. v. BAY + . It is not known what it is. S. baia. G. M. Low M. 262. 1. Not found in (Scand. Diet. bald. Below = by low. Lat. or uttering inarticulate sounds. a sign. Parv.) M. O. appears in a simpler form in bubulare. Parv. Icel. of the yEneid.) Merely formed as an adj. word A. It some. babble. S. bikarr. a precious substance. ' ' + + . form bhabd . been. in Chaucer and P. babiole. it is the gum of a tree. 1 27. The two words. ii. bale. . to yelp.(M. whimwham. + Lat. B. More has yalping [yelping] and balling. p. used in the form Du.) M. E. BEACH. whatever that may mean. in phr. bhri. a kind of plant.. + Icel. where they are said to have been first made.A. A. F. whence E. p. 0a/3a(ai. 49 . petite chienne. folowed the chace of an Fabyan. Plowman. -fW. [t] ' ' ' + Lut.Skt. it .J^a. ^f It has been suggested that it is connected with Gael.' Cf. biddan. The ' original sense of 0601 is the bark of a dog. abbayer. beach. to ' times implies ' to make..) Affixes of Du. a perforated ball. 3882 . F. Levins. a beadle. becalm. Fick gives a European 690. bem.H. p. a market. [*] ' ' . (F.-VBHU. one who proclaims. (F. M. Lat. I shall be. The Gothic is different the vb. BEAR (i). ^f I see no connection with F. E. to roar. baula. bagh. is a corrupt substitution for bny-window or else an independent word. canicula . BEAN". fore. [t] . H.L.) a bay horse Chaucer. BAUBLE (2). an. barbarous. . herd Chaucer. also spelt ^ . paum. gebet). G. 105.C. Alisaunder. bedel. 4 [. 43. The Gk. poetry byrnende beam. The a ray of light. BEACON. beon.) roiall lawrel is a very tal and big tree. 7. baionnttie. Der. and broughte hym to a bay . BEAM + ' + + .F. E. . T. as bicarium. a bean pl. to shine cf. and holds them at. . or puts them to. the barking or baying of dogs. In Holland's At any rate. from F. [t] a market. word is really another form of bank. lewd. better. i. (E. G. These words express the notion of stuttering. . baudy. BAY-WINDOW. F. Denkmaler. beccus. . (Scand. pittan (G.' 'Abbois. The Itk in Icel. 53. These are derived words from the verb viz. BEAM (2). BEAR (2)./erre. a bill. 1391. Luke. Der. about 1650-1660. quotes from Hackluyt. c./era. Of unknown origin. Swed. Cotgrave says ' a stag is said rendre les abbois when. he turns upon the hounds. building. + Goth. J. from the Hebrew beddlach. 102. baude. VI. was. beam Grein. Cot. q.) Bosworth). G.) In Gen. The Lat.) M. (Hebrew. 355. Gael. and at Marsaglia by the French. Du. (F.) F. E.) particular use of the ' pillar of fire mentioned in Exodus is called in A . E.

cf. fern. beast-ly. bedde. Somner (Nomina Ferarum). T. Dictionary. A. Prol. A. p. iii. 1 23 29. p. bhalish. Chaucer.. Bret. tions in Richardson (E. [f] + + W. beat. 684. (E. Old Eng. signifying state or condition. Lat. bedlawer for one who lies in bed. sing. whence the corrupt sb. Skt. a M. . O. Dr. viii. BECAUSE. Goth. belief. beaute-ous-ness. i. O. f BECOME. 5. 158). O. thus the sense is a bedrider. a child's ' bib. q. confined to one's bed. suitable. q. BEDABBLE. and dight. q. O. beatificare.) iii. bedrede. 29.turning beatus. foam. 16. of beare.T. M. see i. ^f Prof. 99 . a sign. slaver. C. P. Der. C. a large ichneumon . according to three MSS. (Scand. put ' before the bosom of a slavering child . best-i-al-i-ty. Scandinavian.-L.. Skt. i. beltrise. for . ful-ly. a bed. an unauthenticated form. T. Grein.) M. (R. to shave. to make blessed. which can only be exwith reference to the Low-G. 4. beech. Du.) A corruption of Bethlehem. the lower part of the helmet was named from a fancied resemblance to a child's bib.. happi. These forms point to an orig. baula. E. i.+ Dan. F.) M. Lat.) Formerly written hi cause. biaute. an animal. in comp.) M. v. froth. back. i Thes. ' met . be-. used to form verbs from sbs. (E. Again. be-. H. 2 g). apt. vol. .+O. bekkr. bedlem. as a vb. incorporated by Henry VIII in 1547 . a knight. pozan.S. bed-time (Mids. B. C. v. origin.+ + BEAVER + Modem. BEDAZZLE. dressy man. . [t] From the E. 113. T. IV. bestia. (Hybrid . pettiriso. beten. Diet. stead-fast. slaver. 6. S. leading a wandering life. . Q. suggests that bedrida means 'bewitched. ed. Hackluyt's Voyages. 65. 224. i.e. Dr. q. 23. and in Formed by prefixing E. ' ' That derely were bydy } th . bi. mocket.E. Parv. it is not to be built upon. S. 82. bug. and F. v. p. good. iv. beste. i. ' and in babiloyn* in Bethlehem and Babylon . i.Icel. B. G. ' ' bedeaweth the herte . From be-. E. Prob. wandering. bestialis). Swed. beanie. to befal ' ' .-L. iv. ' Der. and ridda. word. from the same source as bene. p. a fine. nor can we thus account for the spelling beddBesides which. wild. . beak of a BEAST. ^f The derivation from Ital. F. (E. Spectator. bind to strike. . O. like bedeclt from deck. form happiness prefix. See Beau. 12.) . 1978 bete). beatus. Cot. befall. p. Cot. q. By and Cause. 8. origin. From be-. i. p.' which . BEATITUDE. See Come. 168 . E. Ormulum. BEDRIDDEN. very well. beddrida. See Beatify. both of which occur in Chaucer. 223. bed-right (Temp. Rom. babhru.o'rr. a bed and stede. BECALM. 379. H. Prompt.+ Russian bobr'.) P. a wandering Arab.. (F. (Hybrid . E. Skt. beatific. 3. ' add that we find also M. 252. (E. 647. . is not found in early writers it occurs in Surrey's tr. (Lat. bedouin.T.687. 443 bedaubed. to come. i. Tarn.. Hamlet.) M. cover with dew. [6BP The A. beast-like. Cot. a beech-tree. Lat. 96). . bed-chamber (Shak. S. he went into the desert see Rich. M. ' beatifier. E. to make blessed. sb. G. */ A BED. Icel. E. by. and occurs in Chaucer. bedde. there is a term of similar import. fair. F. 19. form beyti. See BECHANCE. L. . F. bed. See Be. 2. See Fick. froth. S. beare. G. prefix. Be. comely (Cotgrave) . (F. q. 534. A. F. a stream. beechen. Der. (E. The quota- BEAU. as. q. bel.. ser. Eng.) Becalmed is in Chaucer. BEECH. Gael. happy and facere. commoner in the collective Icel. See Beak. 55 bedazzled. becuman. v. [f] . in the Prompt. a couch to sleep on. to From BEDIGHT. . 42). Plowman. beautifairness. F. root badawa. Swed. becom-ing-ly. E. to bless. a rider . P.. no. a bee. bed. ed. to come developed). 272. 3. a hospital for lunatics. to foam. Dan. Nt. The spelling beaver is due to confusion with ' beaver hat. there can be none about the first syllable. i. 85 . battre. note 4. (E. . Der. bece.Lat. See Bounty. [t] Fick. BEATIFY. S. another form of bonus. S. H. badawiy. a verb for which he gives authority. 230. an animal. to signify by a sign. bearr. bedrida. Cymb. [t] to a state bicuman lok. Thus. fair . G. M\i.. petti. baviere. bed- wort (Troil. (Hybrid . Russian buk'. and dim. 34). beaute-ous-ly. whence mod. 1. push. q. bed-room (Mids.56 brim. rude. Homilies. ^f The resemblance to F.Swed. Merch. puohha). Chaucer. with the addition of the suffix -tan. well. ace. and by are all early forms of the prep. which is yEneid. p. 2. BEDIZEN. where other MSS. to 38. So called from its firmness and stability. bee. becom-ing. the beard. i is the mutation of 6 thus btjc produces bicen. station.) Degrevant. E. Plowman. to beatific . but it seemed best not to pass it over. bicen. beaste.-{. to make happy. bdfver. Plowman. bed-stead. + + + + + + . beatific-al-ly. Nt. and bonus. v. bed-fellow (Temp. Shak.E. beech-en. a beaver. a stream. adj. [t] the frame of a bed. and dabble. ii.+ Du. bella) we have E. Parv. 6. p. M. A. iii. to eat from BHAG. 735 1 A. v. ii. bequem. A. If there be any doubt about I may the termination. S. i. bedreden.S. brook. A. to suit. BEDSTEAD. . and dew. a word of F. 735.S. (E. and. 46. Elegy on ness. bedd-ing bed-ridden. bellitatem. ' BECK (i). to beat. G.) befer. drivell . fiber. F. so called from having been ' belle (Lat. happiness. badw. to arrive. to bless. M. Mr. Cot. Temp. E. a bed. hi. S. Grein. See the large collection of examples in Matzner. bever.) F. Cf. beatitude. ace. C." to make calm. of onomatopoetic Bothlingk and Roth's Skt.] Du. In used in the plural . pp.and Calm. mod. bee. bete. Fick refers it to the root of bind. to be a synonym for bedridden. C. glossed by clinicus (Bosworth). More. p.) 2387. BEDOUIN. the lower part of a helmet. a bee a rare word. Prol. buche (O. . in his Philology of the Eng. to make a sign. bedtan. 2925. fagus.+ Icel. i. I. bek. bekomen. bardhd. possibly meaning a tree 0ij-yds. i. a bed. Cot. bellitas. M. S. primarily. cuman. be. bed-clothes (All's Well.-L. beaule-ous (bewteous in Sir T. but rendered probable by the existence of the adj.) M.). v. BUT. belli-. daub. 1. shew that the earlier word was the simple form dizen. and Com.F. bicen. BECK + + + + Beck. S. . B. 81 . hot. as in the phrase ' in bedlem Haydn. a royal foundation ' for the reception of lunatics.. happy.) Virgil. iii. O. beatific-at-ion. iv. to eat.' Cot. origin. with suffix -tat-. = Der. slaver. a place.) Legends of Holy Rood.. Bethlehem hospital. v. (E. p. bedd. BEDAUB. + + + BHADH. From be-. Beatus is a pp. badi. Cause is of F. to a bed. G. or bea/i-. s. beatitudinem. gloss io fiber . ii. bed. A. dimin. Icel. i. G. . which can B. BEDEW. Irish beach. barf. Chaucer. bach. besl-i-al . Morris. p. bed. O. Mandeville. beatific-al. the suggestion can hardly be accepted. . rare bece. v. bedcnian. BEAUTY. (F. q. beat-er. -J.) Bp. 268).. befal. at any rate. 28. Mirror for Magistrates. 109. Mids. is given in S'ained likewise only be referred to Grimm's Ger. also be cause and by cause. ' F. bhdga. 1. beauti-fy. (E. happy . of Dates. dazzle. G. C. Shrew. See Bed and Stead. 28. pijueman. beatitudo. ( = A. beatitude. but Icel. of It is clearly formed from the verb. Shak. drive. Lat. a brook. to happen. prefix. from nom. . Lat. G. to beat.) Sir Cloudesley Shovel is ' ' represented on his tomb by the figure of a beau . Parv.) The sb. for which a reference is given in Bosworth but the usual A. 205). Grein. be'cnen. 3. from nom. P. -\. is quite unfounded. Gloss. haver. ft.-Lat. Havehim swithe wel' = it becomes (suits) him ' + + is said. 277. v. Ayenbite of Inwyt v. beste (F. H. ^ . H. Bounty. or mocketer. haver. -A. or older. bicuman. best-i-al-ise. has (2). Diet.in composition. 10296. G. form is hoc. Gk. to make. Der. Prompt. bed-hangings (2 Hen. A. Fick.) M. verge. G. p. 51). F. (2). adj. which is from Arab. cf. Perhaps of Celtic origin . bellus. ?) Not in early use. See Beacon. E. becquer. xiv. verb . an H. Shak. 41. ' An Milton. has bedabbled. 2.Russ. fine. ii.) = and became his servants. fit. But it is not shewn how the participle took this shape.. my Muse (R. barba.to calm. In short. . read bethleem. + . Chaucer. beast-li-ness. Lat. bed. (F. See Prompt. find bedlam-ite. bha. T. turn out. beauti-ful. bedstede. v. + + . 27. Taylor has beati' 214. beard-ed. Lat. E. iii. prefix. ' fied spirits sacred. to 'make a sign. compound of prefix be-. given in f. betterise. BEAST. Der. as the Arabs in the desert. L. bevere. 287). E. Tongue. (Proper name. hecuman. Sir to array. and A. I. bees and been.) and chance. &c.) M. &c. bicumen. and F. to make dim. q. 1 738. 'Low Lat. It occurs in the : Lat. to beat.) Spenser has bedeawd. Irish bearbli.F. bever-hat. a kind of tree. BEECH. [Not properly an A. yet we (F. beiicen.E. BEE. Arab. E. 62. a nod or sign C. Parv. batuere. A. happen. Der. pia. bealteit. Cf. (E. (F. with esculent fruit cf. E. departing for the desert. (E. BEDLAM. 2. p.S. borodd. stead. bedoyne. an insect. (Root unknown. a bed. a sarcastic term for a disabled man. to drink. G. 1 1 6. bedderedig in the Bremen Worterbuch. ^ 689. See But. for bellus. into fie. I. vol.' and is the participle ofbedrian. P. i. Teutonic BEAT. good . 251. E. supposed to be a contracted form of benulus. S. iv. happen. for the reason that. 28. to attain Not allied to ' . belt. spelt rida. of benus . See Book. H. ship. upon one. to beat. E. to pecke. Chaucer. 295. sled-fast. 2. 196). bed-presser (i Hen. v. Arab. i.] Dan. viz. i. beard-less. reach. 106. G. originally the hospital of St. Der. Fick. an animal. (E. 10518. Nt. beet. convenient. by. M. and F. a beech wood. Works. from which bedizen was formed by help of the common prefix See Dizen.) BECKON". From the F. Plowman. IV. Mary of Bethlehem. 196. biber. Dr. betili. to deck out. v. M. Diet. have. Lat. beau. btek. meaning 'the bever of an helbeaver. belle. bob with the beake . Cf. the stem fac. Used by Ben Jonson. to bewitch. pi. bihviman. befal (whence the sense of suit was later Goth. seems to be accidental. q. Bestiary. M.v. Lat. p. . . s. Der. v. BEAVER (i). H. beak.) In Shak. G. See Bat (i). p. and bicomen hise men 'it bicumeth 2256. prefix be-.) Borrowed from F. S. Earle. BEDIM. hot. 35. y. v. (F. Lat.-Arab. bever. (F. to make happy. babouz.

It is also quoted in Max Muller's Lectures. ed. with suffix -/ or -el of the agent. M. some say 1226. bete. and 'Pensioners and against a Standing Army. 2nd edit. beggere.' I buffet is explained as suppose it is hopeless to protest against what all believe. from A. bitan.. ed. Steevens derives it thus. with the sense of waiter at a side-board in reasonably old French. Grein. and the verbal suffix -n of the infinitive. Mr. ii. 16 . In phr. A. began. and adv. betel. see Biestinga. G. the idea Apparently was adopted from the M. buef. Parv. in Cockayne's Leechdoms but certainly borrowed from Lat.) M.' Hamlet. M. [f] a kind of drink. is far more common). G. S.) was to Hence to beg is to bid often. See below. previously. which was anciently placed in a beaufet. the Latin sb.) ' To bitten mine rihte ' = to obtain my obtain. bior). Wackemagel gives M.' in Nares. betteln. biforan. in front of. it was chiefly used as a feminine noun. BEG. bigangan. BEEF-EATER. for. 689. in a vol. beggar-li-ness. it will be sufficient time to discuss the question further. i. used to form both substantives and adjectives. A. The G. also spelt bitterThe sense is with biting brows. E. They were first established at Liege. to make a fool of. and fail. beJohnson is the following notable passage. This A.) M. but I find in Cotgrave that buffeteurs de vin were such carmen or boatmen as steal wine out of the vessels they have in charge. B.' i. one who attends at the side-board. Parv.. which could hardly bjorr. A. 580. : .) common use . and this bid.' JE\f. From the prefix Cf. E. ' As theigh he gyled were bi-) . one of a class of religious devotees.A. bifallan. prep. biting. bitan. was understood (Nomina Insectorum) (E. H. + Du. 57.BEEP. and lived together ' in houses called beguinages.a fool." where powder-beef certainly means salt-beef. and A. in that sense. began. to bite. 2981. 398. and afterwards fill them up with water. Thus the word beef is co-radicate with cow.S. BEETLE (2). Layamon. with browed. bityl. affected or pp. . pray. S. $& In the phrase two words it should be written ' be gone .appears in A. Cf. 10074. brows projecting like an upper jaw. 83. a sb. also. and G. The business of the beefeaters was.) M. O. F. ed. B. biddan. in common (E. E. Der. and F. Layamon. hi/alien. i. Both polus and bibere are referred to the root pa. a plant. P. See Bite. E. Der. p. ' beguil-inz-ly. 2 73. bedecian. and thence be easily contracted to beggen by assimilation. (E. guile. In the Ancren Riwle. S. (Hybrid . O. begitan. bigo. and A.) M. See Beat. BEGUINE. beset. bevallen. H. of M. 12:' Hit is swiSe wel be iSaem gecweden iiset he eft bedecige onsumera' = ofwhom it is very well said that he will afterwards beg in summer. bigetan./o/. S. prefix. 131. beta. 8th ed. + Icel. with a head like a log. The M. fern. &c. (E. Judges iv. we read Hit is beggares rihte uorte [/or to~\ beren bagge on bac. Prompt. to beg.S. spelt biforen. and Goth. see Buffet. G. viz. This being so. 90 . so that bitel may be used as either. see Curtius. 42. E. of similar formation. beer.S. go. Wel began occurs in the Rom. and F. to beg. The suggestion that beer is connected with barm (i) is more reasonable. + O. 115. well surrounded or beset. bigitan. When the F. and perhaps is still. prep. Grein. bed. Reliq. adv. E. S. . = as if he were beguiled.) Cf. beguil-ing. iii. i. . and gitan. Chaucer. as an epithet of an axe and in Layamon. Steevens does not tell us what a beaufet is. ' G BEER. pivora. . begetl-er. O.' Argument H. x. by Matzner. (E. Sax.) O. 321. 328. p. (E. 5 S. showing that the word E. Skt. get . O. 1697. turn into beer. with the biting or biter. ' wo }>e . H. Beefeater may come from beaufetier. begangan. . 115. bidagwa. coined by Shakespeare. C. 1.. ed. p. 2. O. Parv. Cf. 1.S. See v. i. 86.) -A. having projecting or sharp brows. gdn. who. 4. Lumby. to begin. A a word which was undoubtedly associated in the I4th century. . from biuoren. ii. S. beginn-ing.' give the verb a frequentative sense. e. 190. q. nor how a sideboard was anciently ' placed in it. (E. beset with grief. (2) to beget. BEGET. T. acquire . as an epithet of steel weapons. we may note that Ben Jonson uses eater in the sense of ' servant as ' ' ' ' ' A. Der. an ox the flesh of an ox. betel. Layamon. be-. rich man is spoken of as having ' confidence of [in] so many powdrebeefe lubbers as he fedde at home . beggen. ' ' begone ! ' ! BEGUILE. E. 236. Similarly. Ancren Riwle. amuse.' Mr. Gower. sharp. beef.' Yet the word is never spelt baggere. begotten.. bifore. to deceive. to ask for alms. a cow. see Be. + Du. A. Plowman. as in P. that the ' expression powderbeef lubber occurs in the sense of man-servant.(A. E. bed-ec-ian would become bed dan (accented on bed-). but why this designation was given them is not recorded. biforen.) . (F. (E. but I must point out that there is not the faintest tittle of evidence for the derivation beyond the hasp suspended to their belts. bigilen. 57 + + + BEFALL.in G. H. E. bytl.]. here. deceit. See Get. connected with the Lat. an ox nom. like a Woci-head. of Palerne. bread-winner. footnote. 315. 1112. S. e. Thus beetle means the biting insect . prefix. ' bitela. be-. S. beetle-browed. translation of Prayse of Follie. E. See Before and Hand. an insect. i. Gael. begg-ar (better ' begg-er) . E. Sweet suggests) a contraction of the A. Low Lat. G. prefix be-. Steevens. Chaloner. Grein. be-. Plowman. ' The summit of (3). BEGUINE. and M.corresponds to a H. to whence the M. ' ' . before .. G. beggar. a beggar M. BEETLE .S. S. biuorenliond. Der.' from the same root as ferment. before.) Notes and Queries. 83.or BEFOREHAND. See Gin. p.) oppressed with woe. A. (Hyb. qu. beetle-browed. M. to generate. 141 (Bosworth). sb. and foran. beginnen. See Guile. hand. E. ginnan. 41. On this point. . dull./oron is a longer form (-an being originally a case-ending) from fore. Pass. use. id. a cow. It means ' fermented drink. Der. gailer. used by Pliny. bigitan. bedtan. a heavy mallet. BEGIN. bovem. beforan. Wright. to go about. cu. For. iii. 7332. guile. By adv.) M. bitel. M. and afterwards at Nivelle. F. E. 5 S. . ' Thus wes Marlin bitten ' thus was Merlin right. or when the E.' cf.. Sweet. her. S. . (i). buffetier can be found. 21. viii.stands for bid-. 84.(corresponding to -ag. gen. Ancren Riwle. 237. bevore. (i) to (E. p. as in 'fa blacan betlas. beforen . to beset cf.. and adv. which occurs in Gregory's Pastoral. with the same signification. C. BEGONE. before. bear.' woe come upon BEETLE ' we really use See Go. 2. boef. it suggestion that since that would from Latin. See (i). to acquire. Grein. begeten. i. to drink . S. Sax.in A. lit. bier. p. v. to deceive. whence beggar-ly. prefix be-. 37. before. M. to beat. Grein. F. 212. C. This is one of the original pivallan. it is probable that the vb. to go. + + O. The bSguines belonged to a religious order in Flanders. p. and -el. a cow. without taking regular vows of obedience.in Goth. biginnen. hi-.' the black beetles MS. use . sb. see Fool. 168. to beguile. in A. be-. Antiq. (E. . to attend the king at meals. A. So too O. Havelok. hi-. beggar-y. make this common Teutonic word a mere loan-word Moreover. 285. in 1207. S. as seen from various passages in P. e. Sax. M. Du. beguil-er. begliina. Hence bed-ec-ian is formed from bid-. bevallen. Der. ^f In Todd's ' From beef and eat.S.. This derivation is corroborated by the circumstance of the beefeaters having a hasp suspended to their belts for the reception of keys. to jut out and hang over. produce. i. 41. Meanwhile. The insect called the beetle is similarly named see Beetle (i). bifallan. to salt. beginnen. in com(E. gilen. bifora. O. by vowel-change cf. to seize. From be-. E. bitel.' I do not find beaufetier nor buffetier. E. befolen. Cf. iii. with suffix -ec. was (as Mr. and thus taught to young children. bibere is unlikely. before. ace. beseech .. A. Also.) beefeaters' [of Charles II. which is really the older expression. E. E. to please.) A. 1577. bos. A. beefeater can be found spelt differently from its present spelling in a book earlier than Ike lime of Mr. before. A. hi. only used for secondary verbs. Grein. Der.) the cliff That beetles o'er his base into the sea. and M. BEFOOL. BEEF. viii. Gloss. Lat. E. See Fore. Colt. begaan. (E. . Plowman. E. bettler. 582. to find. verb. By whomsoever coined. with the word bag. E. 1 88. a beggar. Prompt. Ferment. A. beginnan. befallen. but with the substitution of buffetier for beaufetier. 600. which tends to shew that the word was forced out of its true form to suit a popular theory. Fries. M. ii. affected. The stem bed. though we find a Low-Latin form beguinus. T. beguine. Grein. and . woe-begone. 31 . to get. S. 405. bidag-wa) and the common infinitive suffix -ian. whence G. Plowman's Crede. prefix. cited ^ BEFORE. This extraordinary guess has met with extraordinary favour. p. bitel. 1. 115. a beetle suffix -el. F. bilelbrowed. and Bitter. It is the pp. i. bete. i. A. S. E. biforan. p. Barm . in ' Where are all my ' eaters 1 Silent ' ' Woman. to bite with suffix -el of the agent. 348. In early use as an adverb. betan. in N. Grein. to happen. Prompt. bier (O. cause the commons is Acs/when on waiting. concerned. A BEESTINGS BEET. betylle. The use of the suffixes (-. See Cow. bb. 1. S. contracted form of gangan. S. thee. a beggar. a. see 'Powder. The word is from the A. S. 395. beef-eater. Du. and even earlier. Will. A. beginn-er. bidder e used as synonymous beg. lived a somewhat similar life to that of the begging friars. to deceive. 98 P. mon . v. (3.. H. prep. is + f with beggare. prep. betteln is made from bitt-. 34.L. G. From prefix be-. of the Rose. bevor. (Lat. 71.were modelled. having been quoted in Mrs. C. befeallan. 86 (though the form onginnan. apparently in the sense of ' glad . bigiten. German bet-. and hand. 'Mordiculus. C. in 1549. bee!l-ing cf. bigdn. i.' a frequentative of Bid (i). Goth. i. a yeoman of the guard. with suffix -el-. i. The Grande is . in front. bifalla. occurs in the Ormulum. Markham's History of England. and a table near the door of the dining-hall.S. King Horn. See Bite. Moreover. to commence. beetle-headed. of Vocabularies. gylen. i. ii. bytel. An eater of beef. ' lit. i. . to begin. Jul. p. verbs on which so many others beginning with be. to 'ask repeatedly. 84. Teutonic word from that root would begin with/. (ist ed. the primary verbs ending in -an. Ancren Riwle. i. The word (F. Q. 112.) M. The variant bitter has the same sense see Bitter. is polus. the G.) rather French than English and.

beleggen. BEHEAD. Seven Sages. the names of these orders varied. or behalue. A. which appears in bell.be. 65. The curious suffix is best accounted for by supposing a conq. bihoue [u written for i>]. to keep. or from the E. behindhindan. adv. [*] sing. lady. 1567. behalf came into use at all. a kind of fossil. Lat. and labour.) M. prefix be-. to behove. Chaucer. cf. 10. 314. Chaucer.. . be-. (3) to fit for one's use. to low. Spenser. A. behave answers to G. The A. (Northumbrian bekoef.. Dan. Sax. only used in the comp. Q. gehaben. v. means to stammer. behdlan. is constantly used in the sense of side and even now the best paraphrase of in my behalf is on my side. to denote great beast . regardless of the accent on the word As a fact. Cycl. has behave. made in imitation of before-hand. + + + . behcebban. Swed. 43. Ancren Riwle. bihdf. Rare in early authors. had the double meaning of (a) possessions. M. Cf. Parv. Diet. behouden. avoir used substantively.is a mere prefix. it occurs in Spenser. behoven (writ. s. ' he bihedide Joon.' see Cotgrave. adv. (E. to make serviceable. behaviour. Ps. to contain. case behoue. +M. 16. oportet in Luke. and hest. properly a plural. teneor." he beheaded John . 15. Chaucer. suffix. iii. de la Langue Wallonne. ' BELEAGUER. belatsge. befit. fl' There is also a native E. corrupted to behold-ing. beholden. to eructate. by confusion with a second common phrase be healfe. behoeven. as compared with regard. belaboured Jubellius with a cudgel . the be. 4847. to behove. an old woman. . to promise. case. viz. It occurs in Shak. O. see biho/lic S. a hippopotamus. signifying beasts ' from sing. behdfgloss to Lat. v. Chaucer has on my bihalue So also: 'in themperours bihelue' (u v). T. of. Hen. belagern. beguer. BEHEMOTH.is a prefix the simple sb. fair belle. prefix be. Du. 322. to see. (F. . the back afterwards . Parv. Grein. behaben (from be. v. 2 . in the dat. huobe. healdan. moderation. verb. q. the Namur word for ' stammerer ' as a masculine substantive is ' beguiaut.. containing. (2) to restrain. to bind by obligation . beleire. ^ . Swed. + Dan. belegeren. 53). . to keep. Also. A. ' ' . (not in use + O. 58 ..(the same as E. it was merely another way of calling them fools. huopa.) See Job. v. C. in P. a measured quantity of land. bihovelh. p. It must be remembered (i) that behaviour was often shortened to haviour. beg\ Neither solution is even possible. to lay . and ' F. to O. p. G.(as in E. and the vb. commoner in the derived form bealcettan.) 'He . (E. A. E. Holland's Plutarch. i. Formed from the stem bel-. to cover. ' . behof. roar. commonly as impers.. Fries. Du. a command. 42. (E.. watch. from tell stal-it (along). biholden. prefix. lair. Lay. orig. S. G. Moreover. [Cf. T. dialect). 114. prefix. Lat. E. refl. 1. measure and on the other. to surround. adv. a bed. standing. Bellow. a hide of land. by the side of (same ref.) ' Heo us wulle bihafdi = they will behead us. conduct oneself. beholden bowndyn. These Namur words are recorded in Grand! M. to Riwle. corrupted form. fair. on the side of (see exx. 397 . Another set of ' religious were called Begardi and it has been supposed that botli terms were formed from the same root. Prompt. a beast. G. to become. bella. Cf. behesle. behas. + + + + behold-en. biheste. hold fast. for an older form beguialt. where -all is an Old Fr. ' to besiege.. C.) M. and prep. Swed. to hold. and (2) that havings. biheafden. iv. measure. to see. from bi-. betdgra. From the same root we have behove. garnish with fringe. prefix be-. to have. and adv. guard. xliv. North's Plutarch. ten behoeve van. temperance. Cf. domina. I. The development of ideas is accordingly (i) to Fick. . be-lief answers to glaube (i. of course. lay. lit. S. and this circumstance gave to the word bigot its present peculiar meaning. and leger. BEHOLD. i. beat soundly. we can but guess. possess. 394. shut in. capax. to beseem. self-restraint. 10. . BEHOVE. + . to need. hofva.. afterwards. The form begard or beguard was confused with a much older term of derision. in the dialect of Namur. and no one seems to have known their exact meaning.). at the back. &c. BEHAVE.and haben). BELCH. xviii. fusion with the F.' from which beguine would be formed by the mere addition of -ne. to behave oneself. with F. 283. bihinde. half. to behove . S. From prefix be. Fries. S. 334.' origin (Brachet). Du. H. tal-k. stammering. xviii. dame. capere. M. occurs in among men Le Bone Florence of Rome. in the phr. i. bihalda. See Lay. Lat. See Bigot. In Sir T. S. See Beleaguer. which shews ' ' : ' names were given in reproach.. and See Hold. D. 151. suffix that is interchangeable with -ard . xiv. lic . to restrain. bellow. behouen in MSS. p. 87. bolken. army in encampment which from leggen. It is a mere compound of the verb to have with the A. Plowman. to besiege lager. + Du. ' . belegeren. . &c. See iii. xl. conduct. 2 iv. i. (Du. ' ' . . behof. behemdh. See Head. to seize. . want. to lay. a camp legen. B. bealcan. betten. h<efa. contain cf. See Hind. i. Heliand. L.) on (or vppon) bihalue. viz. ' BELDAM. prefix be-). see Grein. to belay. beketer. e. a word which not only ' meant ' wealth or 'possessions. We beleague . 1 ' ten bihouen. behof. 3. pt. Cf. to surround. p. 1457. iv. v.' and hedfod. . cognate with E. in common use. of Dates. commonly O. wrongly has A. on healfe. C. bigot. q. p. . to besiege Ifiger.) also find the verb to as in 'besieging and bele aguing of cities. detain hi behafdon hine. belke. head. ^f Just as E. hand. 3660. ii. Why these nuns were called 'stammerers. observe. Diet. obligor. before the sb. q. . 1. Wyclif. (Gk.) M. ii. behind. Dan. O. (E. for bag is an English and Scandinavian form. Sonnet 14. to conduct oneself. to lay. Diet. to form a fem.'] -f.58 BEHALF. Shak.' he made to promise. The sb. but it was a most likely nickname to arise. iii. prob. 63. to hold. (E. Du. in Grein. iv. behuf.' but also 'ability. bihoven. S. Luke. [Thus the true E. commonly ' used in the sense of a promise . to border. but not refl..] Der.and Cf. to preserve. prefix. See cxviii. bihouede. From A. measure The Goth. bihafden. to be to behove. behete. vol. hdf. i. at Chaucer. lady. &c. e. not in early use . in the Lindis- fame MS.' i. without a reflexive pronoun. begehren. (E. h'dfvas. place. so E.] after. whilst beg is an E. but this is a less correct form. BEHIND. grasp. moderation. Arts and Sciences division. v. bolke is found. 319 from prefix be. Grein. behdt. but also to possess . S. VI. to keep.Heb. F. S. a word of unknown B. 76. . and leggen. from the verb to behave. hdf. advantage. S. See Behoof. to lace. I. to keep . A. behedfdian. Du.and lay. The ' order arose at Liege. Formed. T. . + + In M. (Du.. Chron. behave. Used reflexively. term. behind . as bag. bihefden. behuf. See Layamon.). to behead. begardus. and intr. keep. but here used as behemoth. need. and Cress. Ancren that bihalven was in common use as a prep. ' . a promise.G. sb. they detained him. after. behalten. Towneley Myst. beholdyn. to besiege lai^ge. behold-er. + Swed. that it is a wonder no one has ever hit upon it.) . behoveth. E. hold. have. (E. the word which appears in E. the F. xiv. is. E. S. i. and. beholde. . and all are agreed that the A. and begui. Begvinagc of Bruges was the 'most extensive Haydn. Saxon bihindan. behoof. Hence . Mosheim was actually reduced to deriving the words from the G. From be-. G. . onthoofden. to lay. (Hybrid . Browne. prefix be-. which sense . Here on my bihalue is a substitution for the A. tueor. after. F. a vow. ' ' ' . observe. bihplde. to hold fast. 43. He fela behisa behet. be necessary.) . gagnage. 87. and Cress. a compound of ' ' ' be. The Du. (E. 5 .' That this explanation is correct can easily be traced by the examples in Matzner's Old Eng. to take possession of. t. lit.) in the dat. Regin-ald with Reyn-ard. Fries. See Jamieson's Scot. E. guard. but the sb. bihaldan. behdjian.e. E. behufen bihdfian. from begue. hdfvas. Der.) M. . Sax. in Ritson's Metrical Romances. behofva. need. put. G. leger is E. Troil. also.. to beseem. 1856. The Namur begui is. The be. + BEHAVIOUR. with the prep. of course. a camp. liv. S. biheden iii. it meant to govern or control oneself.' for the use of anchoresses. spelt Matt. landgrav-ine. Dan. Troil. Oth. but it means to besiege or ' beleaguer a castle . BEHOOF. = on the emperor's behalf. Vulg. beholden. behinde. 45. advantage. lady. Winter's Tale. 2.' Prompt. E. Yet the real solution of the words is so easy. vol. S. as in Merry Wives. many promises See Hest. BELAY. laying it round and round a couple of pins. very abnormally. C. A. healf.) Ironically used for beldame. . [t] BEHALF. Matt. to behead A. Ps. B. A. behove. in fair.. . E. to besiege. as in Shakespeare . see the article on Beguins in the Engl. B. as a naut. 349 . E. ge-laube) in German. observe. BEHEST. to aim at. enthaupten. a bed lUgga. iii. at least in Lowland Scotch. need. word is belay see Note to belay. beholding for the pp. hero-ine. hufe. 'by. Layamon. 171. occurs). p. O. i. + . 1 08. see BELABOUR. cognate with E. to pre' ceding it . with the addition of the formative suffix -c or -i cf. (E. 978 . to hold. only in the phrase interest. to lay. gahobains. 90. and could at last be used intransitively. to fasten a rope. BELEMNITE. whether High or Low. C.) See Lair. t. to see. 45. beldam is a doublet of belladonna. behov. to ply vigorously. for the advantage of.) Spelt behavoure. The final / is excrescent. E. p. + G. also pp.) To belay is to fasten a rope by Borrowed from Du. This gives us an equivalent form beguiard. unknown at any time on the continent. the original oi the above Low Lat. 28. place. moderate. from steal. (Heb. as in to ancren bihoue. 1. being balg. ' necessary. is related on the one hand to Icel. Grein. and (4) carriage. to besiege. See Half. cf. and kebbian. See Have. behealdan. Diet. 964. behindan. The form of these verbs shews that they are derivatives from a substantive. bihebbian. to leme hur to behave hur = to teach her to behave herself amongst men. The simple verb appears only in the Icel. the German form. bihovia. so named from its capacity or content from the KAP. word to belay. lay. bell-oto. H. 4461 and connected with the verb bihele. S. S. Almost invariably found in M.) Shak. bullten. which is BELEMNITE. Ps. but the phr. The whole subject is rather obscure . G. ' Swed. to hit. benefit. p. 87. bihinden. Levins. proportion whence the verb hatfa. E. appears in the Icel. G. From A. to overlay.. (E. p. i . I. 0. H. Later. retain. or [The last sense appears only in the pp. anno 1093. O. to hit. v. a corruption of Du. to cut off the head.

ball. c. pres. Plowman. See Bind. S. used in the special sense of bellows. Lat.. bileue. Layamon. prefix be-. Parv. of bonus. E. H. benelhi. + fall away .-L.factus. Spelt beneysun. a pair of bellows. (F. (E. be-. form is to bell. Lat. to fall. BELIEVE. Tristram Shandy.. benefice. C. benefact-ion. and uolo. below. biloogh. belt (Bosworth). belligerent-. . E. below Grein. belly is another form of bag. p. 424). G. so much used in the siege of towns. See Lief. Prol. BENISON. bench-er. H. fall. berfroit.) Rich. (E. a bell. Goth. benign-ant. S. s. i but the word was not French. by . 90. B. bi. v. BELLOWS. (E. Ho. form. benignus. A. Grein. Swed. ^ GAR.) In Sterne. 187). Der. jest .) reysed therby notable summes of money. A. c.) Low Lat. (3. a mutation of a. and Bag. to bellow. belefreit. T. (Bosworth. Layamon. was also used in the same sense. Allit.' ' for. S. 35 A.. of bindan. 203. bely. + . of dominus. see Don. belongen. and see benefit. Lat. See Moan. Doublet. husk. 1 1. the Ital. See Voluntary. and bellows is merely their plural . bienfet (F. prefixing the verbal prefix be. t. O. btelig. 422. the pp. 351. In Pope. glauben. stem of belligerens. biilg. 151 E. BHAL. bilufien. Kick. may be called a benfite. t. Swed.. pt. A. S.. See BeneLat. S. form to the rest shews that it can hardly be a cognate form . of Fame. E. see domina. G. loud sound (Grein). a fair lady. and the original sense is See bag. ' . Lat. E. Irish and Gaelic bait. Allit. and gerens. the whiche way of the ' of this money was after named a benyuolence . a belt but the close similarity of this belt. prefix be-. and -fit (for -fet) is Old French ! The spelling benefet occurs in Wyclif s Bible. S.) Now jealousie no more Eleonora. pew. Gondibert. to strain. bilowen occurs in P. A. iii. well. or good will . 8 than beneficence . 23 (Lye). O. done. [The . E. Grein. to believe. The pi.. Lat. helium stands for O. substituted for the earlier prefix ge-. from galaubs. ' beloivcs. also. and prep. i.) M. belle. of gerere. belly. ii. O. ^f Bend means to strain a bow by fastening the band or string. the pt. (F. a doer. Gower. follis . beneath. C. ii. hi-. bank. Poems. to lie. (F. and A. 351 Ayenbite of Inwyt./r).. 17. benefacl-ress. E. S. S. be. Lat. war . . deadly nightshade. belly. . iii.-L. waging war. bellaa. beneath. bag. throw also. Chaucer. kindnesse. C. a ruption. a bench a bank for money. A. 5.fri. M. As loud as belleth wind in helle Chaucer. dative belle. . T. BELFRY. to do. a doer of good to another. to beget. . Shak. gestus. distil. well anAfacere. BELLADONNA. See Benison. again. (F. E. and n(Ser.) A. Plowman. used. Ayenbite of Inwyt. 29441. beleve. 1. - . Prompt. Macb. /3A/mT7. below. 1. (E. Beldam. benign-ant-ly. Fick gives a supposed Teutonic banlti. Du. iv. whence G. (which fridu (G. quotes from Elyot's 7334. Eng. H. Morris. another form of belly . (E. BELLOW. B.) The latter vowel has changed. from beni-. Gael. (E. (Lat. G. gellfan.57. Ancren Riwle. affable. to concern after. benign-ly. fifof/ivov. husks or shells of beans Du. bene.F. + + + + . G. [f] to moan for. to do. to cast. berchfrit. i. Lat. Owing bells' . C. The present is an excellent instance of the laws of vowelis a change. a contracted form of benigenus . prol. H. to do. Der.) M. 40 Chaucer has it also. C. derived A. bienfait). See Love. blow-bag. Eng. the belly. (Ital. + + BELL. It is the pp. cognate with E. 1187 berfrey. benefacere we have also benefic-ence. old form beneuolus. to a cor- Corrupted from M. of bellus. 290. E. In Dryden's overtaken by nightfall. (Lat. 4. (E. to make a loud noise. bolg. (E. See Bank. Group I. Curtius. Du. beneuolentia. M. believen. O.) Shak. 91. bendan. perhaps the Latin was derived from the old Celtic. curve. of M. G. to protect) . a kind of stone. Dan. i. c. from Lat. where Tyrwhitt reads belous. benda. bindan. O. S.) Benefactor in North's Plutarch. .) M. 201. + + + f + He an act of kindness. please . with a secondary vowel derivative from (and later than) band. and neo$. Skt. See Bellow. p. S. lit. neoSan. Du. handsome Beau. frit. . ' Bag. blasebalg = a. S. col. belangende. p. which again is from Goth. belt . b. to have faith in.. 105. Homilies.. bella pupils of which it expands.' Spelt bely in Chaucer.) tion and benison the former is really a pedantic or Latin form. bineo'Sen. p. an implement ' And that vertue [benevolence] . to stretch. to bemoan . to Poems. i. .= ni$-. G. in the comp. means to ' + + + . T. benevolent.BELFRY. E.' to tell lies about. Prompt. and in the Ancren Riwle. adv. Compounded of prep.friede). + ^ M. S. A. benevolence.or U-. benefic-i-al. ' ' ' . Coined by benights her face.-L. belonge. kindness. We see at once that bend. Gk.' Alisaunder. L. pi. duellum. sorrow for.) The name is . S. Parv. (E. E. bende bowys. to pertain to. 735 benefactour in Tyndal 's Works. moan. in the sense to crave. bella donna. well-doing.. old form of bonus. ii. iv. bili^en . The more usual M. to drop. 257. E. much loved.is Latin. belli. (F. 10. bellows. M. prefix is A. ^f The M. bene. or belows. form is balig. lief. A. 59 bilufien also a dart. iii. as for . low.) M. Du. holies. a long seat or table. M. a church preferment. favour. valuable. E. S.) M. low. H. Morris. balg. Havelok. to please. to bind. to make a loud noise. to bend Grein. 41. 2. a benevolence Cot. gerere. (E. Der. G. a. of belowe. kind . S. to bellow. The vowel e is for a. beneoftan. biinda. also bienfait. G. Cf. F. +Swed.. bk. BENIGHTED. and A. (E. a favour. (Bosworth). E. Chaucer. to benefit. pp. iii. a belies.+Icel. H. belangen. ii. adv. the original A. benefactum. p. to esteem as valuable .' and even a tower so that fridu meant also The term was bercfrit meant a watch-tower or guard-tower. 9. night. a place of security (which from O. heli. i. cf. 17 Jan. 30. a girdle. good . A. H. S. a ' bag. p. belief (M. BENEATH. lower. missile. to love greatly spelt bilmien in . Not found in A. blessing. C. ' a place of security. in Chaucer. (E. . Tyndal. benign-i-ly. 621 .s.to the sb. G.) . a lord . Eng. From the BENEVOLENCE. belli-. C. c. ii. for blowing. ed. dear. from the verb genere. A. So called because shaped like the head of ii. E. a doer of good./ar. 1. A. belg. kind. benefactor. below. is called Govemour. as in moan. benefic-i-ary BENEFIT.' i. The suffix -aw is due to the g in the Fick. 30. BENISON. BENCH. to believe . vulgarly named a good lonrne. bant.) M. i. born (as in indigenus). belly. also spelt benitiolus. G.) M. Martyr. 12. form. Bella is the fern. 30. bean-belgos. pp. dart. Gower.] BELOVED. nether. a border. Layamon. beneden. to make a loud noise. i. crave after. to love.) Gower uses bellewing with reference to the noise made by a bull C. with the odd result that bene. (2) Lat. Lye) . and loogh. beneficium. bank. properly.) 4598. 2856*. Tale. Belou/e. See Lie. of which bench is a doublet. and nucnan. make a bella. 291. a fair lady. an. IV. 187. Grein. benche.' Prompt. see Duel. (F. Lat.) M. 390. Chaucer has benigne. pellan.) M. and Dan. BELLY. appears in E. due to the use of it by ladies to give expression to the eyes. 1. E. 713. nfSe. carrying on war. galaubjan. gal. 1723. i. i. 31. pi. benefacere. prefix. Rape of the Lock. kind. seen in A. benigne (F. pt. 216. E. xxix. a watch-tower. vi.. S. S. ed. ge-lyfan. benefice (Cot. . below..-L. C. S. From A. (i) Lat. led/. Here -an is an adverbial suffix. her/ray. bend= a band Gower. Lat. . benevolent-ly. 1 16. A. a fair lady. benc (Grein). and the latter was in earlier use in English. E. BELT. charity. Lat. a bond. Lat. bellan.) Much Ado. be. E. S.) M. means to long See Long. 121. with the primary vowel a. (E.-L. prep. bienfet. BENEFICE. S. beneficium. g. 5.' but O. bende . O. also boli.friede means only peace. P. 12. 'Tobelye the truth . ii. BEMOAN. . Lat. cf. A. a 3931. Domina is the fern. a bench. ' . e. E. O. [f] BELIE. 9239. p. well and/aor. offacere. S. of the verb benight. bilge are all one. for bello-. Icel. Homilies. A.L. . belies. vol. s. Lat. benefic-ent. attenuated form of the stem of benns. See Low. here. or see above. galaupjan. ii. as far as concerns. 1475. a bag. has both benedicblessing. balg. Pers. See Nether.. O. bag. G. A. Plowman.F. Homilies. bilien. Gower. bimenen. S. bent. from benus. Gk. ii. ' : . C. iii. 157. pp. bimcenan. (E. Lat. A. Gower. to ' ' ' applied to the towers upon wheels. BENEFACTOR. belly. benden. gelifan (Grein. to crave for. . believ-er. i. beni-. 2777. ait&faclum. same source. G. the word is now only watch-tower. E. adv. Works. bk. berfreit. beloved. and M. wat belangt. concerning. form bylgean. F. which has only the simple verb langian. first ^ and ledgan. stem of helium. S. (F. a kindness. BEND. old form of gignere. ^f The word has been modified so as to make it more like the Latin. Morris.) M. Der. to long But cf. Icel. benefic-i-al-ly. to carry. balteus. 89. believ-able. sb. E. tendo. 76. BENIGN. from bergen. Grein. G. 8. B. protection bercfrit. Der. p. iii. lufian. The words bag. I wish. here used intensively . H. The A. equivalent to A. ' ' . a hollow metallic vessel for making a loud noise. M. benin). shew that bellows is the pi. A. Hubs. 39. 73 .' Davenant. See Belly. (E. belangen. shell. 'a well-willing. O. by and i. has benison. /SaAAfii/. to resound B. belja. beldam. Ecclus. The numerous examples in Matzner. Cf. Fabyan. and the vowel a is the original vowel seen in band. T. pew. Parv. which occurs with the sense of 'good action' in P. G. ficium in Ducange. a benefit. to bellow. i. . bekkr (for benkr). From Lat. The mod.) used for ' a tower for ed. H. belemnite. . and See Beau (F. 22. H. Icel. of bilefen. /rid. Jest. a bench. O. BELONG. i. B. shelf. a grant of an estate. .-L. bi-. F. 68. A. bend. E. Alfred's Beda. p. prefix. v. to bow. pelangen. Gk. to believe. Lat. a bank for money. p. 'bilefde. the lower part of the human trunk. . see BELLE. Pp. and the deed. A. King Weber. to beget. Errors.' M. BENEDICTION. leuyinge Edw. biluvien. BELLIGERENT. good and -germs. BELOW. y' GAN. 106. a kindness conferred. adv. 13. A. 148. 117. ed. a bench.

the usual form being biquidi. S. and dicere. settan. B. 176.' may cites a Dutch form brem-bessen. Gower. besetten. Bergamo. a later development. 6426. origin) and quide. rods." In the Devon. beset. (E. bezie. 1. a thing bequeathed. . berft. . byquelhe. or . i. 10. Grein. BENT-GRASS. (2) to bless. bistad. Troilus. T. baa.?) It is applied (i) to the place where a ship lies when at anchor or at a wharf (2) to a place in a ship to sleep in . dialect. G. . but is as old as the 1 2th century. BESPEAK. barthless means ' ' houseless . Of old Low German origin. seken. It does not seem to be W. called the Bergamotte Ital. (L.) M. has be(Hybrid . but not in Lye. used as BESHREW. Grein. S. Chaucer. from A. zoeken. E. bitalten. to employ. berye. (E. amend.) wytheholden yn wele or wo. of sid. by Matzner. E. Formed by besegen. Athalt hire burfte origin) . but very rare. occupy. decet Prompt. V. beneifon. Mat. See Siege. 170. iii. BESIDES. p. but especially Dan. to seem. be sidan. (E. bischrewen . A. beneison. ' ' ' ' . Biset. beonet. Cf. berige. besprecan. has bespoke. See Numb. circumstanced. (E. E. Spelt bistaSet in St. fill. moreover. fc'r? means (besides birth) natural place. st. a side. a rod.) In Rom.* as in bitake min soule God = I commit my soul to God Rob. to set round (a thing). p. or perhaps a collection of twigs or + + BEREAVE. bisetten. a word given in Palmer's Pers.. ' ' ' : ' . Roquefort . word of Lat. beredfian. 99 Haml. S. 92. bestow-er. E. ed. bezetten. E. A. . but a past part.) Li Shak. to place. p. binz. bene. 93. be-. M. beast-like. E. G. infatuated. Cor. T. prefix be. cwide. 13. a small round fruit. Halliwell. to inter. C. besseaboom means 'a currant-tree. is is + pinuz. Der. and sprecan. (i) to use words of good omen. it no very suggested clear reason for connecting Root unknown with bind. [t] BESTIAL. E. prep. or prefix.or bi-. Homilies. . ^f The A. a berry. 3. from quoth (of E. Layamon. p. 61-.' and sidan is the dat. S. and a verb. garrison. The derivation is very uncertain. berga. to be ill bestead. 2770. take to. benediction. Arab. and redfian. i. v. 384. bereue (u for v).-Arab. &c. ' ' = appoint. byquide. ferent from bet. of Eng. 82. Parv. (F. setzen. Gower. and Scand. BESTEAD. where references are given. sottish. hand over to. bessem. . in Wr)ws sal I to fe schryue confitebor tibi in nationibus. A. i. S. the A. ' Bisides Scotlonde '= towards Scotland. a proffer being common as in E. met. go to See Seek. to set. as in veere ilde bestedt. 6. put for bes-. there seems to have been a confusion between quest (of F. T." See Stow. as in ' Hoec scopa. to place under certain circumstances. (Hybrid . See Set. G. H. and stridan. the pp.60 0. crystal . E. . Prov. complain. H. C. barth. to dispose of property by will. also ' station. and A.. where ^f BEQUEATH. A. From the prefix be-. E. 33. i. G. 20. to better. Prompt. besem . A. Dan.) M. bisettan. Ital. Goth. prefixing be. 477. a form adduced bent. tr. E. (F.) M. See Stead. to rob. bispeten. to assist. a variety of pear. betan.) F. beneifun. 266. to eat .) Chaucer.). bestridan (Lye). ii. 6. (E. met. E. her. be-cwfSan. Wedgwood 'broom-twigs.to the M. (E. (A. i. ed. of the verb benim .or hi." a secure position. accuse. a BESOM. besatta. G. of bireven . S. p. ' For . to strew. Hali Meidenhad. nor Bosworth. BERTH. to place. E. . BESIEGE. ban. to make numb. bent-grass. [*] to ask. the name of a town in Lombardy. 'And (E. cf. and verb ii. dicere.) M. Parv. H. two distinct words . 6718. O. Goth. biside. O. p. Again. to visit. bearu. 475. 1 24. Ital.and Shrew. deliver. from nom. See Quoth. bergamotte. besema. berie (with one A.) M. E. M. explained as a yellow peare. the essence called peare. begarrison (a fort). Spelt beril in An Old English Miscellany. hedge about. with precious stones. with a hard rind. . stowe. Chaucer. It is a mere contraction of abet.. The chief difficulty is to account for the extension of meaning. C. Parv. ' Cf. Morris and Skeat. V. to occupy. shrew . besemen. Written benum by Turberville . there binez. p. 5095. to situate. (E. A. semen. BESTREW. i. Skt.. the pp.) M. sege. Bartsch. to enter on. which is a p. short for bireued (u for v). bestede. ix. A. a beryl. to be becoming. bestow . besum. From verbal prefix be-. E. biseche. but = Icel. In Temp. employ. Chaucer. BENT-GRASS. Du. to speak. frjpi/XAos. M. p. See Seem.S. O. and Lowland Scotch bode. . Chaucer. Chrestomathie Fran9aise. 176. + Swed. 378. ii. ii. Troil. we find ' Barth. iv. C. 207. C. streowian. 115. ' Bestad. be-. but the M. H. q.) A. version in Spec. iii. xxiii. plant . bestowen. and sot. to declare. : Seldom used except (Scand. -f- Lat. but it would appear to be the same word with birth. i. 33. bes. '(Hybrid . 276. + + + + + Shak. See Be. From prefix be. H. a coarse kind of grass. Grein. to order or engage for a future time. G. See Bequeath. p. surround. bistrewen. biqueste. to say. to be badly off. of Glouc. BEQUEST. 86 . O.-L. of Glonc. b. formed from the M. 91. From prefix be-. surrounded. xvii 28.S. E. &c. occupy. to be in distress. bestedea. 119. has nothing to do with it. adv. 50 . p'eB. beryllus. to occupy.. v. 2. BESIDE. prol. ' To bysegy his castel .) M. said of the Roman wall built as a defence against the Scots . 25 . (E. to visit Swed. to bury . BERRY. perverteth. tell. besides is to the habit of using the suffix -es to form be means The more adverbs the use of besides as a preposition is. Gk. . prefix. &i<fic/io. bud. Hence to commit . From the prefix be-. due ' by. Marharete. being properly not an infin. v. ' and adverb. 6427. of a verb bisteden. F. Doublet. Du.. . to strew over. (E. bestow. invest (a town). BETAKE. Wyclif uses beshrewith to translate Lat. 5. Chaucer. (E. the stem of the word is her-. which is quite difBoth suggestions are wrong. S. besteden. bessen Mr. bone from A. ' ' With golde and riche stones Beset . and apparently Scandinavian. meaning Du. 2 7 thee St. iii. cweftan. well ' . cf. (3) to a comfortable official position. 404. benve. biiegm. with pp. 967 . staddr. . bereave-ment. See Abet. bestead. a wager to wager. correct form is beside . 20. Hence 1. E. of beneace. Diet. The common use of inquest as a Law-French term.S. Pyndara's Answere. S. p. beyond .S. of Boethius. Errors.' Formed by prefixing beto the sb. Der. A. 1691. ' larly is used Icel. to beset. besum . (E. beneison. 2.) A. s. declare.) In the Bible to place. bereft. hi-. prol. The original samo. as in Rob. V. to lay siege to. to stride over. S. a nation .. Du.1 also. bicwelSan. byspekith al his deth . Ps. plant. M. E. Knightes Tale. ' ' to set about. Grein. A. 12410. p. beseche. i. what Bin. hence it means ' to put into a place. Eastern origin . bisemen. besawme.' but here be better connected with Du. to stop. and BERYL. Hen. [For the dropping of r. benedictionem.' Heo sculleS eow Jiat lond bitalten = they shall give Ich you the land Layamon. S. and Hoc gramen. pp. I. of Glouc. Du.) M. strictly. bar. set fast. produced Scottish beet. prefix . BENUMB. Rob. 55.and the M. (E. From prefix be-. bestedl. give in marriage .] A. bireafian. besattle.E. 1 27. Layamon. bisprdcha. Old Eng. T. detraction. a bequeathing . O. beere. bertedicttts. ' deprauat. A. and M. C. M. Rev. bireue. incorrect.-Gk. + G. verb segen. make sotted. See Birth. BESEEM. bad. 1. E. Cf. 9 . has the simple verb tM$%an. Weber. a place .) M. but also biseke. 44. 113. opinion. Juliana. 16. bisatjan. to speak to . Also besme. iii. BESTOW. bisides. From the prefix be-. bistriden.' Wright's Vocabularies. sechen. E. 98. bestad. and hence Gower has ' ' But altogether he is benome The power both of hand and fete = he is deprived of the power . 118. sb. a siege. Grein. bast. Parv. In Ray's Glossary of South-Country Words.) Shak. G. to surround. Jif he . and A. and F. (E. all three forms being used both as prep.. T. Root undetermined. E. From A.) M. to stride. col. our E. nor Grein. berry. 399. beneichon. (F. affirm. a pledge (Bosworth). of sledja. 2. BESTRIDE. The A.S. BeWei bisemeS ]>e = it well beseems cemyn. xxi. to speak. be- iv. sing. besieg-er.) M.) p. (xviii). declaration. S. besuchen. Cf. to BERGAMOT. BESET. i. to + Du.) : to imprecate a curse on. see. See Reave. it. which is for bos-. E. Luke. a berry. an the change from d to o offer. xii. locate. binse. a precious stone. Swed. M. the sense seems to have been ' edible fruit. besoge. 60. Chaucer. E. . S. perplex. S. bes. of the Rose. ^f It may have been confused with other words. 40 (R. Morris. Shak. (E. Lat. to situate. (E. Icel. See Beast. besen. or ' a race. beseke. + Dan. 118. in ' Cotgrave. ' BEST see Better. besiita. Deut. A. Der. E. S. be- A See Strew. to be used as badly off vtere bestedt i Nod. M. prefix . (E. a warm place or pasture for cows or lambs. AurS. a shady place . bergamotta. pp. bequest is a corrupted form . pp. and Dan. A. e. i. Langtoft. fix. BESOT. a broom. bestow-al. BET. 5.) Benum is a false form. . Chaucer. a saying. A. C. taken. . good for perry . bistowen. origin). i. a floor. beseme. King Alisaunder. see Speak. Ancren Riwle. E.) M. and see Burrow. C. which was chiefly used in the sense of to entrust. peri. bequidt (trisyllabic). G. bezem. to set. Simiin the past participle. to deprive of. G. G. A.or bi-. has it both as sb. 24. to seek. and M. Oudemans . 'i.' Wright's Vocabularies. bergamot pear. E. ' His dangers him bisides . bi. sense seems to have been a rod . detentus Prompt. 381. trim. i. ed. E. Lat. and M.S. 191. to speak to. especially used of surrounding crowns. ed. forlete his ' propre bur\>e if he abandon his own rank (or ' p. M. Cf. beseken. bergamot. 3979. Ex. S. See Stride. easily suggested the false form bequest. Orosius. 235. ' = maintains her station (or conduct) in i licnesse of heuenliche cunde the likeness of heavenly nature. E. position. bi-cweftan. by the side of. to say. xi. people. the delicate Italian small peare.' which comes very near the sense required. formerly used both as a sb. a broom. bhas. S. BETAKE. a grove . a berry. billaur or balliir. H. Du. and F. Prompt. bisiden. A. Goth. E.) 143. also. a broom. be-. BESEECH. where r). S. p.

which is ultimately from twa. like Lat. 1 18. Dan. has Beva. two see also twih. between. BETEL. roebucks.BETEL. beetla-codi (Webster). forms shew that the verb is formed from a sb. 771. it was a Northern English . In A. . See BEWARE. On which E. BETWEEN. . Goth. Der. dat. thence applied to a company of ladies generally. from zwei. to think . The Goth. p.E.E. . A. tuene. from O. beveraggio. ge-. between. ' Bi besides from beside while. S. Again. B. A. formed from A. and beleach. Made by prefixing the verbal prefix bi. the action age.. has the note Bevie a beavie of ladies is spoken figuratively for a company For they say a bevie of or troupe . bithenchen. I See Wilderness. to think on. where the n is a real part Cf. to betroth. adj. double. See geond in Grein. basil is generally used of the sloping iron leaver. A. prep. taka. giond. forms extended from tii'ih. 1716. pi. G. to lead astray. From prefix be a witch.) M. or slope form. call to mind. ii. (Turkish. of Glouc. to Lat. It occurs in Cotgrave's L. suffix -aige. There is thus no reason for supposing it other than a purely native word. sect.] (E. a censure. with bewray. dhd.or bi-. ?) (F.is Skt. it is clear that E. (E. rugen. and adv.) Port. to accuse. T. bewilder has a trace of Scandinavian influence .E. .. 647.. Lat. and G. as F. two. Layamon. Swed. deliver. betroth-al.' which is just the way in which it was first * used. E. Man. bhadra. passive forvildes. . . beteeken-en. bevel represents an O. xxiii.. to drink. Dan. e. to happen (Bosworth). (F. G. and geond. 1. . i. i. be or bi. ii. adj. (E. From the E. or make fortunate. Observe that the right spelling Grein. (E. a governor. and Scand. wicce. The other forms of belter given above. . v.) Ormulum. A. jectival.. Der. From the prefix . across . drinke. G. Troil. prefix be. . C. zuiski. Twedn is an adj. bever- . Luke. and fyencan. to censure. i. O. ^f The Scandinavian words shew that the peculiar sense of E. . G. bitraien. or treowthe . and M. Diet. as is in the point of an The E. i. (E. BETTER. Prefix be-. A hal felawes! belh war of swich a lape!' C. see Eastwood and Wright's Bible Wordbook. (Grein. p. be-.) Dryden has the pp. beverie. A. 96. (E. squire-like instrument.) M. 9. Ital. From be. 242) and better (Chaucer. A. -el. bevere. + + + + . Thus bewilder (for bewildern) is to lead into a wilderness. batista. word is unknown. Gamer. 66.) Formed (with excrescent t) from . . p. twd. A. . Diet. biwreyen Chaucer has bywreye. Cf. E. 454. larkes. bewilder 'd . adv. ii. + between from bi.to the sb. which from zwei. to accuse agunnon hine wregan. tense betaught. two. consider. T. -aticum. in Grein. PA. from A. of the O. E. Grein. ed. 70. to go astray. 346. Turk.) M. or E. F. and A. p. biwailen. 462. to later MS. to consider. BEVY. F. wregan. See Token.' between two seas tweon. bytwene. S. . Chaucer. and which Also spelt basil. . though other languages . bewraien. the final -en is for -n. war. BETIDE. . O. E. bilocnen. Du. Cf. prol. ii. BEWAIL. to be wary. betroth-ment. See Time. Eng. which is from A.' it BEZEL. bewicchen. ' . drink. E. i. though they themselves be bevel. 40. S. Kal. to drink. think about . influenced by doubt the Icel. batiza. 142.) Formerly betime the final s is due to the habit of adding -s or -es to form adverbs cf. to denote. to act as traitor. baivel. Misc. and. betr. bedenken. . spelt biwmched (unusual) in Layamon. between. Goth. of quails. Alisaunder.possess words somewhat similar. . bibere. Other forms of best are : Du. for the comparative. a lord. a wilderness. to be found. A. 95). 1 247. O. the prefix feehas been substituted for the original prefix ge-. Ad. Just as in the case of believe. etymologically. Swed. bay). . a bevel. betel. adj. twe6-. to bewilder. infinitive ending. bewitch274. 119. occurs thrice in Shoreham's Poems. betele. getdcnian. prol. bk. 497.' Now. see Think. F. for which the longer term wary has been substi'Be war therfor = therefore be wary. col. See Tide. tray. to . : . ritge. adv. Persian nearly as E. q. cf.' but the Ital. S. Origin uncertain sense as being a company for drinking. best . e. by. witchcraft. e. ^ DHA. xxvi. wrdhs. 3502.. 39. bewilder. be cautious. -eau stands for O. to perplex. two. beter. It appears early. to put . E. the (really different) A. No would have become Mentioned in Malabar 61 was i. or an eye of pheasaunts. Cf. + to puzzle. S. Der. Fries. Der. Grein. (F. best Goth.. melior.S. bitokenen . wter. and also the simple verb wreye in the same sense. a prince Rich. -dere. (E. S. however. 314. F.) M. . sloping Sonnet 121. K. bewailen be-. betray. E. but this was a weak verb. beztr. tra-. perwilderd. M. . . betwixe. T. tiden. . 2. i. Grein. crooked Buveati. Yonder. and Cress. holds the part of a ring in which the stone is set. to charm with best . Wary. E. T. v.. and tradere. . forvilde. Twain. wrohjan. Icel. 310. bedst . drink Span. betray-er. betiinka. which from Lat. signify. suffix -an. v. betweox. bedre Swed. to affiance. tweoh. adj. begeondan. Matt. a beauie [bevy] and mod. BETWIXT. M. . whereas it is rather compounded of wildern. E. adj. to + to consider. i. Diet. trahir) . cautious. F. Cato. Du. a slander cf. by and tweohs. bovraige. verwilderen. Group B.. confound Icel. ed. Icel. good. traien. brebage. 310. 4394. [This hybrid compound was due to confusion p. [f is rather be/okn .) Matt. C. tr. bhand. 121. chizle. pp.) this bevie Spenser has of Ladies bright Shep. has beverage. prefix bi. The Gothic forms have been to A. beyeonden. equiv. besser. S. . v. which Mr. word. beva means ' a drink. See Wail. Wright (Percy Society). ' ' ' : . Plowman.) This is now written as one word. BETROTH. in Rob. i. are Du. Maundeville's Travels. -V . ' ' ! .and -ness. adj. Dryden has ' Bewilder'd in the maze of life (as above) and Puzzled in mazes. has iwicched. The former is commonly adverbial. The etym. 96. and tdcn. or more probably bevel. I. C. (E. wailen. the M. of Laurel. big (pron. of bi siem tweinum. 520. . which would naturally be supposed as compounded of wilder. between. zwischen. Diet. by and twednum. Lat. prep. even as a covey of partridge. 2133. who explains F. bitreuthien. +G. (E. cented on the e. belweohs. p. Grein.. two. S. by- Gower. two-fold to slope. zvisc. ii. happen to. K. Malabar. ' : . an accusation Icel." of drinking.) O. BETRAY. for numerous examples. place.) M. i. Treason. Rob.) Shak. where the be. F. i. BETOKEN. zwischen. bat. S. a token . bitwene.. . . .and -ness. to put. wiccian. lament. of F. biwicchen. i. twi-. slant. as being the clearest. beue ( Wedgwood cites. in good time. twiska. ' t ' : ' . (E. . Ancren Riwle. to drink. bust. to disclose. &c. to discover. i. origin. Grein. Tale. billden.) M. Lat. . prefix. to accuse. betray-al.' they began to accuse him. tweu-. 95 . Modern. The M. a tide. Swed. F. O. E. from O. Weber.or be. betJccan. vrcegja). I. be spelt with double For examples of wildern. 414. p. . BEST. hour. S. 25. bezeichn-en. 552. g. with which cf. S. has in the fruitless search. from sense BEZEL. E. to take. two. of the word. to betoken.) Shak. A. BEYOND. i. T. bewildered. Eng. tredwft. time. = aha sirs. 278. 1 1 Made by prefixing be. See Two. C. and should.. excellent . better . adv. beware (lit. m. viz. to wail. bezling. C. prefix . See Beverage. Chaucer. F. and explains as a brood. ' a bezle. uncultivated plex. shortened to wilder by the influence of the wildern. Friesic bitwischa. S.' y. tuted in mod. and Icel. a wilderness. 531. Truth. ' : . a kind of squire [carpenter's rule] or Cotgrave has or. Scandinavian word. bezt. Cotgrave has ' : Bruvage. E. B. mclius the latter adA. M. see Halliwell's Dictionary.e. (E. i. ii. to consider. Grein. See Boot (2). boivre (see boivre in Burguy).) A. bevie. be.or be-.) Cf. 73 . Chaucer. Dan. F. longer form wilderness. a on the farther side of.-L. in King Horn. which is not. A. villr. to beMorris. from a root BAT. and A. forms are. flock. be-tweonan. (F. bet. double . for trans. astray villa. and in O. : . two. Pick. pd. pp. The M. S. See Witch. A. (E. bdttre .. points to the original p. afterwards lengthened to whilst P.' i. See Twin. to slander. adv. to use witchcraft . and twisk. See Troth. M. straight. . 557. so thow go bityme = provided that thou go betimes B. [f] to wail for. baig. to Du. Two. G. BEY. treuthe. 96).to the prov. BEWILDER. Ital. A. across. biseau by skewing] such a slopenesse. F. the term is taken of larkes. betdnke. cognate with Skt. Dan. twain. hi-. all from twd. 1 238." Spelt = bev) in Skelton. [f] a company. beteckn-a. BEVERAGE. a species of pepper. Lost and bewildered Addison. double. from See Traitor. properly. from the same root BAT. E. biyonde. S. truth . be ye wary) of such a jest Chaucer. with O. E. ed. bithinken . troth. Ital. Skt. of Glouc. bitacnen. trair (F. betst (Grein. to accuse. which is an obvious contraction of bel-est. Winter's for bitwiska. in. ' . 1629. S. + and Layamon's Brut. to disclose BEWRAY. bewilder-ment. 597. having moveable and compasse branches the one branch compasse and the other straight: some call it a bevel!. BETIMES. ' ' . M. to grow wild. The latter phrase cannot be mistaken since beth is the imperative plural of the verb. [t] drink.. lord a Mogul title Palmer's Pers. ' M. (E. April. whiles from &c. roja. Breuvage. rccgja (orig. of Lucretius. Cognate with Goth.) 1. rog. to deliver. S. Cf. A. both bet (Chaucer. to drink. lose one's way. betera. esp. BEWITCH. to happen which (E. double. betegn-e. S. and the M. or scuing [i. has 'I may be BEVEL. Icel. S. V. befall. S. 2. beyonde. betraien. betweoh. see Arber's Eng. 2. bevre. pt. iv. ' : . Thorpe's Ancient Laws of England.. buvel. . and G. bibencan. to be fortunate. 371 be-tweonum. p. (Port. 131. G. not the M. reveal. . ment. and M. 102. belri. a witch. E. Swed. is short for A. wary. biwrogia. 6529. 256).. bewitch-er-y. 1251 . which appears as Goth. time. E. bitwixe. howWe rind. to put. bithenken. fiirvilla. traien is from O. acever. to drink cf. as in Grein. and considered as a verb yet it is nothing but the two words be ware run together the word ware being here an adjective. + + Swed. to assign. i. ^f Cf. verDan. Skt. (E.. by and tima. . q. BETHINK. in the middle of. 1. of ladies. drink. S. E. the Span. iii. bevre. e. H. and F. to signify. larks. beyond with And see Yon. See Fick. defame. Garl. 1681 .' Florio's Ital.

and cannot tell the In any case. in . ed. book-worship. words have lost s before /. ii. such as biskins. (Lat. bida. bigg. to pray. cf. ^f From the same root come G. both words being probably of 8. +Swed. 2337. duskie. bysting. beter. beidan. 307. of Fame. of books. It is clear that the Provencal and O. which becomes ennalis in composition. angle imperceptible . prefix. and basil are corruptions. where numerous spellings of the word biestings are given. [The second i in biennial is due to confusion with the sb. This gives the sense of slope. used by Isidore of Seville in the sense a slope. Hence wine-bibber. bisalus. i. L. . ^f Fick connects it with Lat. bitten.. sb. a Lat.iElfric's Glos- Very common ' sary biest. vii. dial. 4160 wisly bibbed ale. bezoar. as noted in Schmeller's Bavarian Diet. bidjan. but should rather have taken the form bead.) The true sense is 'grayish. Cotgrave spelling of F. bi-. See Beak. 3. bidden. (E. to awake. to make big / appears also in the word billow but has been dropped in bag. Goth. Goth. bezel the edge of a looking-glass. pronged. is connected either with bid. to ' This miller hath so tipple.. bitter) to Goth. Plowman. and of Scandias it does not appear in Anglo-Saxon. bicra. bezoard. adj. It has been assimilated to bid in spelling. i. 325. BIAS. Gk." i. after calving. which ' Cotgrave explains as brown.) Used by Byrom. and so are Icel. and Gk. the sacred book.) [Bid. but it is most bilter. fern. a slant. (Gk. bis. The Captain. ["f] to await. bede. p. The original sense in O. mania. we 78 .. E. Chaucer. 4 (on the Aloe). <piptT/xii>. bibben. bibliomania-c. Generally Latin . picten with his bile. and Goth. note c. bysting. of bis. annus.) Modem. Ancren Riwle. iii. O.62 edge to which biseau bezel ' BEZOAE. biennium. a pale blue colour green bice is a pale green. ed. but (i). (E. BIBLE.' Prick of Conscience. 328. fer-e-trum . bisel. iii. bis blanc. little book . 78. . observe. pitan (prov. See Fick. to ana-biudan. byst. BIBLIOLATRY. 1460. 32 . Errors. to persuade but Curtius is against it. has Vulg. See Diefenbach. Lat. pittan. cause to know. pad. bibliofor 0tf}\iov. well-furnished. biennial-ly. to forbid. and compared with the Goth. to combide. to bite see Bite. 34. all certain mand. two A. 1. Skt. from the same source . Morris. also of Gk. p. Upon the Bp. tf be- a slope. a cloth on an infant's breast. BIGAMY. to part in two directions. . Prov. q. a pike. bidan. occurs as another spelling of the prefix two. skirmish pig. word. from the verb pick in the original sense of to peclt. ace. b. biestings. viz. lasting i. as the milke of a woman that's newly delivered. a hard. (F. bit/en. biestmilch. biltlten. in bias. 211 Curtius. This looks like the same word.) M. bulgig. (E. bellum for duellmn.] a year.) Lat. S. bably common. puff bigg stands for bilg. G. Teutonic is perhaps Teutonic origin. grapk-er. and as if derived from Lat. Prompt. 244. and can be traced more easily. bible. cf. preserved in the Goth. vert bis. navian origin (3.. 29. see /9ij3Aio-.' In discussing the O. 315. irwOavo/uu . ?) M. pi. Der. Ducange. (Lat. T. bk. . a collection of writings. O. A. xxvii. thick milk. ' ' in the sense of ' skirmished or fought. bete from Lat. or beesty. ficce meolc G. dvi-.) O./BHAR. from the M. ask. a book and ypa^fiv. bi-. G. To which add that hiked ^without the syllable -er) occurs in the Romaunce of King Alisaunder. in a great number of differing forms. P. H. F. from 8uo. bare. as usual (cf. Gk. bifacem. but it is ' ' .) In Ray. to awake. Pers. to pray. bi-. A. See below. biais. the true sense being. duo. to skirmish. B. Browne. two . big Rietz. coll. See Annual. 8236. a. biddan. tie prefix bisee Be-. generally referred (like Goth. ' . . bisel (accented on ). i. and it is not at + + ' BEZOAH. poison . + . C. an inclination to one side. service . we may difference between the two ideas indicated. grayish blue . bibliograph-ic-al and from the same source. Diez quotes a passage to shew that la mars betada. double and/wrca. BIER.' Span. Rob. P. F. BIBLIOGRAPHY. of Gloucester's Doctrine of Grace (R. bibb-er. bide. see also Minot's Poems. biblia. P. 122. BEESTINGS. 291. bioja.. Formed. The word is found also in Italian as bigio. Fick. 1774. to command. from dva. + + + + .' and the bezle seems to be the ' slope formed by the two faces of anything that has a bevelled edge. Diet. sane Irestout belt. and blewish rocke. logy. B. a book. e. bifurcaLat. and Aar/xia. used by Chaucer. must have been borrowed directly from Lat. antifona or antiphona .' Port. See Fork. a basil. (Gk.) [Closely connected as this word appears to be with E. to trust. it was probably at first a Northern word.] M. wait. O. bester. to pray. to bicker. 1 6th cent. /3i/3Ai'a. faur-biudan. the beak of a bird. is seen in Du. Gk. Mania. . to command (very common). bytt. and that these examples point to an O. prefix. ireiSdv. /9t/j8\os. 162. big. Skt. beg. Where Into faces meet there is but one angle . (E. ffiptio-. See also Abide. a double marriage. bis. i. byble. E. cf. i. p. S. dimin. two years. F. BIGAMY. pdd-zahr. grayish. beost .. pt. prefix &-. of squinting. (F.e. Parv. Grein. E.-Gk. Lat. xviii.. G. inform . common use). 81. A. The F. pp. Pers. Palmer's Pers. Diet.. . Chaucer. Lat. Origin unknown but we should not pass over Low Lat. Der. prefix. and may be imagined to have been also used jocularly by those familiar with a little monkish Latin. and E. The Lat. : piess . ' ' ' ' ' A. and annalis. Der. i. From for 0i0\iov. orquarrey.] B. understand. had an older spelling bisel (noted by Roquefort). Lat. beer. and zahr. Richardson. biudan. bifurcation. request. See Billow.) M. 6. p. Gk. BICKER. tion. the bezoar-stone. 84.' See Bead. to pray. a passion for books. a skirmish. [f] (2). double. Pick-axe. prong. i. Havelok.) milk given by a cow in provincial English. bid. has the sb. Origin unknown see Diez. origin . or crystal plate. bienst. bdlgig. x. two. 1. by assimilation Swed. leaven. a book. to inflate. Weber. [t] Used by Beaum. The out. (Lat. Lat. borrowed. Grein. ' .) From Gk. and BIB. but it is probable that many are unaware of this. Prol. A BID ' . G. a verb. biestings .625.] M. Du. to use the beat. from tied. also called zahr-ddrii . beiten). papyrus. See Der. lapis cui ' sunt duo anguli . . -Pers. but still from = dvi. e. see Idolatry.' Borrowed from F. BICE. also signifies the axil of a plant. a book . Gk. double . If 'this be the solution. Chaucer. . with frequentative suffix -er. BIFURCATED. B. E. Pennant. peck with his beak or bill. E. (F. On the CreaLat. These are strong verbs. the angle formed ' by a leaf where it leaves the stem. 5. bida. ^f The root is obscure. a chisel is ground . Plowman. . means the quotes the Romance of Ferumbras. beist. Dan. 300. Icel. . F. bezoar see Brachet. a fork. bislins. (F. according to Brachet. The interchange of b and p is seen in beak and peak and in the same page of the Ancren Riwle. turi-. The origin of beist is uncertain. 546 . so as to be thin at the edge. apparently.' Cf. S. baitrs. BIENNIAL. 6arar. E. bestar. of 0i0\iov.' This. B.) It must have meant a cloth for imFletcher. c. have beketh hi pecks. to pray. to pray. has something feel to do with the word.. lasting for space of two years. grayish green. equivalent to ax-la. aztir bis. Cf. 325. of one who looks sidelong. where the Vulgate has bibens uinum. T. large. for the change from -acem to -ais. blackish. also spelt biest.) Modem. the Egyptian whence paper was first made . the sense is curdled .Lat. see Curtius. sure that (as Diez remarks) the Lat. Luke. ' a sloping edge. the same as biennis. he explains calleboute as curdled. a bidding prayer. notwithstanding the termination in -ja or -Jan. Bulk. there ' ' but the confusion is prois a confusion between face and angle . to pray. to notch. coagulatum and again in Proven9al. bikere. xx. W. of bifurcari. prefix. Sir T. S. to drink. Icel. O. Ho. a Lat. ' clotted sea. the description /3i/3Aj'o-. A.. 19481. ^ bidd-er. ' ' Cotgrave. fidere. {. Being used by Minot and Hampole. which Roquefort explains ' . biennalis. Bible. (F. bestia). beodan. (Lat. 681. 538 commonly. Plowman.' He gives too : 'Roche bise. [Looking-glasses used to have a slanted border. F. C. . Der. Bosworth and Lye quote from a copy of. from which E. a Beazar stone. &c. belgja. S. half jocularly. hence. to bait a bear [which has nothing to do with the present word]. ^[ cognate word. Plowman.) ' a large bifurcated tooth . bodhaya. to pray. F. from the same root.. See Bear. Lat. double. a year. and Bag. of stone. BIDE. imbibe. pp. See Fick. Du. bib-ul-ous.) 'Bigamieis . rich.' To bid beads' was. again. to engrave a stone. (C. F. expelling . Gk. or with BID - + + BHUDH. to pray prayers. beiden. British Zootwo-pronged.) M. Gk. i. L. a kind of stone. bdra. O. Perhaps cf. has ' Bezoard. S. vii. + + . causal of budh. of Glouc. of &'/3Ao. 318. E. only in comp. Icel. bifurcus. is nearly obsolete used in what is really a reduplicated phrase. to clot . 4Van. bicltelen. Layamon. from Du. So called because it was a supposed antidote against poison. Lat. H.Port. bibere. E. Der. Rich. (A similar loss of f occurs in antienne from Lat. to write. .' From a Celtic source . Pike. E. whitey-brown . ' Du. a frame on which a dead body is borne. hie. to command.-L. 1. (Gk. for two years. : . to pray (in bidden. F. twolus. vrai from a theoretical form veracum as a variant of veracem Brachet.. a/a. c. to pray. iii. (Scand. as in the deriv. who remarks that the word was introduced from India by the Portuguese. See Two. F. and a/a. for 0if!\tov. the application to the ring relates to the sloping edge or rim of metal round the stone. biestings. a wing. bead-le.) ^f This is not wholly satisfactory. : M.) M. to bear. bise. ' . biest. In . originally. G. P. bibing moisture. According to = ' + + bibl-ic-al. it is almost certainly from a different root. H. C. 107. and was originally. -f. the first BIESTINGS. betatz means red clotted blood y. that bid. it is F.) Spelt bimt Holland's Pliny. 790. cf. by en pente + . ' . a book . i. Low Lat. F. (E. to shew that sane vermelk ' ' in Old French. BIG. ' BIBLIOMANIA.v. beere. bidd-ing. bible. [t] From Gk. BI-. two.

In Shak. or L.F. 165. bulla. billard. (Scand. prefix bi-. F. v. by the simple term bblle. which is from Gk. now only found in the dimin. a stud. : Dan. it is very likely that this old term of derision. At the same time. they often said. If so. double . Hall's Life (R. 2. a bird's bill. the term. a Cornish bool. the belly. ben. G. a log of wood . of O. battle-axe. P. bin. Bosworth. billa. also. blue. from Gascoigne. ' . viz. writing. a small bowl or billyard ball also. A. to swill. Hence the vb. bigot. And it is a fact that the name was applied to some of these orders some Bigutti of the order of St. BILL (i). por coi Ne tolez la terre as bigos . 1 200. BILLION. hi-. bill. from F. bili-ar-y. See Beguin. S. to break. The transference of the nickname to members of these religious orders explains the modern use of Der. derived from yd^os. i. (Scand. The holy than he is also. a bird's bill.' 'a swelling wave. 633. See Bull (2). &c. to a Frenchman meaningless. The word draschiers means dreggers or ' draffers. a short and thick truna billard. That is. dimin. anger. + H + + . See Bite. E. F. bigatwie-wifing . a manger. with dimin.. of F. i. . given by Ducange. to express ' a treble million. a billet. ' Lat. +. Swed. mentioned. letter.' i. billot. .' Shak. ii. Cf. dark-blue . Curtius. 449. i. We L. .. From Lat. ' ' and means. Swed. which. a phrase which the French picked up from often hearing it. Cot. signifying both a log of wood and a billyard ball. Cot. 1518 . in a charter of A. is ^ knob billet." &c. Irish bille Welsh pill. bblleb&r. Chorus to Jocasta. It is more confusing than useful to compare the F. livid. of Lat. bulleta is also found. Swed. a chopper a battle-axe sword bird's beak. or one that seemeth much more a. I. I. This verb to bilge is also written to bulge see examples in Richardson and Kersey's Diet. bblja. v. Dan. account. ^f 1. or cudgell. preposition. a wave. bil. ^| Disputed .. v. Wedgwood's guess that it arose in the 1 3th century is disproved at once by the fact that Wace died before A. in which the word occurs again: 'Sovent dient. from bylgja is formed (by rule) an M. note. a sword. imitated from Gk. by suffix -ard. BILATERAL. ii. our phrase to beat black and blue. . a shaft. an axe. Neither is bin osier. so that a billow means 'a swell. a boil . S. benne. A. Rape of the Lock. E. We BILLET . and bilboes. wherefore do you not take away the land from these barbarians ? In this instance it rhymes with vos (you). [t] Cotgrave. . having two sides.' word occurs in Wace's Roman du Rou.BIGHT. an axe. a million of millions. Shak. p. a billow. Du. from Lat. BIGHT. Orosius. p." Bret. to tame.) protuberant part of a cask or of a ship's bottom. (F. 36. There clearly related to Skt. BIGOT. a ball. from Icel. q. to divide. a coil of a rope . The old supposition that it is a corruption of by God. bulla. ii. However. it (Scand. have been confused with the term beguin. Grein. used in the sense of chest. bulge. bdlge. and doux (Lat. : and ' bille. ' ' ' a little bowl . bynne. . . Sire. Prompt. Bullet. a log of wood. It means the BILGE. T. Chaucer. sometimes use billet-doux for 'loveB.are Scandinavian . and especially in the Scandinavian sense. Icel. sword. has been replaced by >. e. Ant. .. letter. bijl.-L. marriage. pillwyd.-na. the French must often have heard it from the Low-German races. henna. The to anes wealles byge = at the comer root appears in the verb to bow. C. bent. ' ' .TA-R.-C. origin. . the bilberry where bar is a berry. 138. but English. Friesian. or the stick wherewith we touch the cheon. dregjar. bing. bile. Since. + + + + + ' strument. Der. 118. ligo. to fill one's belly (Rietz). Swed. bulla. comer 9. ed. gall. and Swed. a sword. + + and bowl. billet . billed. and the evidence of Wace that it was a nick-name and a term of derision is so explicit. a blaeberry. but bill is Teutonic. bil. pinuz or /iVn'z. H. origin see Billet (2). BILB(i). dead standing trees. lateral.) M. banne. 5. e.' or a million times a billion. See Boil. 6. secretion from the liver. meaning a writing. and mere French. blunt. stem. bilge. stem odatus. E. however. 79.) In Kersey's Diet. . bulge y. Parv. that this solution is as good as any other. T. bila. Chaucer.) Shak. ' com. a billet. form of that word. O.' a schedule in mediaeval times and properly a sealed writing . The origin of the word is unknown.' Several bilboes (fetters) were found among the spoils of the Spanish Armada. Hence both BILBO. 1715. The vowel is perhaps due to A.' like the Danish bing. 3. F. BILE (2). a side. twice. dark. Lat. Rich. a stump of a tree.) Not in very early use.. from F. and (2) a bay. a round seal. Anno^Edw. biUaw-y. stock . a young stock of a tree to graft on. v. Si-. letter . Dimin. This form is due to the Dan. a note. bldr. in which case we may perhaps connect bin with E. is used for an impediment to be a clerk. axe. . felagi . but the signification of bblle is uncertain. Stya^ua. but -berry is English. bilberries are also called. which was especially may used of religious devotees. or else it was borrowed directly from the Low Latin. ticket. Bigamy (tigamia). later-. than (as Benfey thinks) to the root to beyam. to cleave.C. blabdr. Swed. Icel. p. sweet letter . M. bile. . 228. Bout. both with evil deeds and evil words. bugt. are rather to be referred to the root gan. v.' Blae is the same word as our E. He also has Biller. get. and -illion. . A . bhil. F. .' An old Norman word (sigF. BILLET (i). Both words are derived from Bilboa or Bilbao in Spain. to express ' a ' double million . ' ' but esp. an axe. writing . The most that can be said is that the Gaul' ish henna suggests that bin may have meant originally a basket made ' of osiers . . Parv.) F. very improbable . the French have much reproviers. ' blaeberry. with a stem pin-. later. y. bigamia. a writing.) Modern . Act ii.) Shak. 5. b'ollr. the chief objection to it is that by is not a Scandinavian ' . Spelt bylet. and Bulge. Layamon. Dan. double .D. BIJOU. or our for God's sake [he means by God] and signifying) an hypocrite.) (F. bliiber. marra Prompt. billeta . a ticket. 595. a bin. bingr. a heap origin. jdmd. billet. a berry of a dark. Dan. See Bill. to be confused with the different word M. coarse grass. Cf. blaabeer. oir. Of Celtic . . E. D. and are still to be seen in the Tower of London. after all. iii. dial. a bay. fol. A BILBERRY. (F. i.' Genesis and Exodus. noticed by Festus as a word of Gaulish origin. i. v. literally. bigot-ry. i. E E insulted the Normans. from the classical Lat. (Span. 67. (L. G. D. which was famous. Parv. the trunk of a tree billead. 31. a scrupulous or superstitious fellow. a billow. (F. and a form fa/ua. and signifying a heap though such confusion is introduced by the occurrence of the form BIN". . the most likely sense of bblle is balls. B. adj. drinkers of dregs. also a bag. Swed. billa is a corruption of Lat. bilda. for the manufacture of iron and steel. which begins to leak.. of a wall . Bylle of a mattoke. (E. Probably from an O. bolge. a car of 2. (i) the bight of a rope . billart. a double marriage. 9810. So fellow. bylgja. q. G. (F. Dan. BIN.) ' Shak. . E.)Scand. Mr. Parv. 2. an axe. From the root which appears in E..' as explained by ball at billyards ' ' ' . a chest for wine. Augustine are mentioned in a charter of A. bla. marriage.' cf. a trinket. preserving the final g. or log of wood . to beget. byle. 71. bile. but is used in the older. binge. a daughter-in-law. in the case of belly. BILBOES.. i. ' a billet of wood . coined word. and in another document. said of a ship. Dutch. dulcis). blae is the Icel. and Old Saxon. p. where we find: ' Mult de mefaiz e de mediz.Du. livid colour . billette. Sire. Owl and Nightingale. It is mere F'rench. and call them bigots and dreg' ' drinkers (Diez). cf.) M. bildr. bille. ' . hatchet. Icel. Skt. See note by Clark and Wright to Hamlet. hybrid compound from Lat. S. iv. 3.. 1. we find : ' Beghardus et Beguina ' and again Bigvttce are et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis . 4. -ya/tta . Luke. a sort of basket. which passes into bilow the double II is put to keep the vowel short. + ' ' . A bige or byge. Also M. Cor. 166. Uli. 3. and becomes offensive. ^GAN. 6. s. pi. E. (E. billet. The original sense is simply a cutting inbille. a whortleberry. BILLOW. Prompt. not Celtic. to from bilge. block. o. hatchet . from Lat. [The Gk. (Scand. with the same meaning. ed. the latter part of the word million. whence and la'eralis. a writing. 16. sweet.e. which Cotgrave explains by choller. (2). as early as the time of Pliny. 36. to play at billyards . and Bow. Roquefort quotes another passage from the Roman du Rou. (F. ^f Perhaps akin to bole. ^[ The ending -ow often points to original g thus. p. the belly of a ship or cask.' see Pope. pill. bdlga. to quarter. of Scandinavian cf. Measure. It is certain that Low Lat.] . ' . bulge. H. . see Errata. 1 499. Icel. lit. a suggestion which is strengthened by the curious form which bent takes in O. bigam-ist. and Skt. bille. has both Merry Wives. quotes . See Belly. bili-ons. bhid. fetters. viz. bilbo. Morris. a bending. Der. bills.' Blount's Law Dictionary. G. in Cotgrave.) variation of bought or bout. Hamlet. a tilt of a cart. ' a young stock id. a hypocrite. (F. has the vb. e. Bulletin.' which is . Merry Wives. Dan." from its from ^| In the North of England we find bleaberry or spherical shape. in Danish. RTTT.) Lat. bille. 58. See Fick. Benfey. i. Used in Some Specialities of Bp. and Gk. ' Origin unknown. 74. G. E. see Fellow. lib. Spelt bylet. of dregg. Parv. and Cleop.) 'As blue as bilberry. a game with balls. ' ' BILL Cf. bille. ii. the word means ' ball-berry. and is of Scandinavian origin should expect that bigoz would be of similar dregs. and is merely the Scand. L. bille*. Formed. and blae. C. jewel. Prompt. and is the dimin." &c. and Bulge. pulga. Der. Low Lat. is not. twice. 5. F.) M. and often speak reproaches of them. F. Bilge-water is water which enters a ship when lying on her bilge. Icel. yd^os.' See Bag. bi-. So also trillion. a pick-axe.. has billiards. bil. a basket. 63 M. bynge in the Prompt. See ' ' [f] an obstinate devotee to a particular creed. blaa. a (2). and E. of a tree to graft on. an axe. which Cotgrave explains thus nifying as much as de par Dieu.' i. bil- Icel. 7. 49. used in both senses. bill. mie. Sovent lor dient ont Franceis Normanz laidi claiment bigoz e draschiers. to to direct to one's quarters by means of a ticket . to fill its belly .

episcopus.) In Cotgrave. and iroCs. 1731. C. Icel. 11. I Lat. bit-ing . A. heap of corn. Swed. is .64 Grimm Bent. Spelman). G. 192 (1. See Bite. upon. doubt that it was originally a thing bred. to bind -( O. twice and cuit. and this word is one of the very few German words in English. has bisson. cf. H. And see Grave. 27. 6 (ed. with Du. bi-. bijziend. bisshep Chaucer.) M. Grein. bis. or L.) M. ii. as a gloss upon Lat. a bisket. Lat. (Gk. Bekker. Coined from bin. G. Chaucer. A. angry. BISMUTH. Swed. spelt birce (Bosworth). supine of secare. Cor. bitt. The adj.) Modern a singular corruption of the older form bittacle. byrd. gold-en. bicche. bijster.S. kafurt. As You Like It. Swed. short-sighted. Lat. a heap. Bytt of a (2). brid. imoitoiros. (E. prop.) Surrey has bing of ^ BHANDH Fick. divide. obsolete. bitter). I87. birche. cooked because formerly prepared by being twice baked. a gloss on brydylle. double and partiri. ' ' . + Skt. bissextus dies. Icel. 13 (about A. 'Most animals note a. Comparison ' near. 70 . reich. since it is a more complex form. (E. BIT (i). 'seeing by' or ft. D. ii. Der. (E. Miiller suggests as the origin the O. in phr. a binnacle. also bistre . E. to Gk. beitan. 78). G. BIRTH. (E. VSPAK. 253. (Gk.) M. C. 665.. bend . chiefly with the teeth. 0. where -ric is A. so that this word cannot be fairly separated from the preNo doubt bit was used in Early Eng. See Spy. bk. overlooker. a bison. of cuire. Der. beorc. Du. denomination. Du.. and the A. 124. E. see Bait. F. biscop. . and. C. [#] a dark brown colour. the bison-ox. dismal. BHADH. ii. 8639. + + + + + BIT + + + + + + + + + + + + + Icel. S. v. p. ^f The habitaculum seems to have been originally a sheltered place for the steersman. F. Prompt. A. S. biolog-ic-al.' Gk. Either from F. morsel. T. the young one of an eagle. Perhaps from G. bite. bitter. B. sb. by. bhid. an ecclesiastical overseer. hi-. the leaves or bark of which were used for writing on Der. Binary and Ocular. (F. S. Fliigel. ' BISHOP. a reddish-white metal. C. blester. beissen. bitter-ly. an ox. . Book iv. six. i. 2. suited for two eyes. 25. 7. bit-er. gloomy (in prov. ed.) are binocular. S. a small piece. brid. short-sighted. from bi-. c. 2822. -Lat. bid. binarius. Ayenbite of Inwyt. v. 8. pp. bisket-bread Cot. H. H. Biscute brede. Gk. + Dan. (Cnit is the pp. See . q. T. hind-weed . to divide. a bite . but especially the briddes. bereza.) In Johnson's Rambler. q. BINARY. Grein. binden. to bite. a bite . Plowman. where coctus is the pp. in the sense of ' blinding. Ormulum. a name for leap-year. i. when. is + G. BIOLOGY. an intercalary day. Gk. + pizan 1 . i. bent-grass. pt. BIND. 830. i. i. blind . co-radicate with Lat. Parv.E. explained by 'bittade' in Vieyra's Port. A. [f] a being born. very rarely byrde. A. whence the Port. word should be bisen. BIPARTITE. ^f In this case the prefix must be the prep. to curb (Grein. spy. (L. a little dwelling. . . bitor. binden. 2931. B. T. E. twofold. BITTER. Der.) . -A. G. Wright's Vocab. to see._/?<fer. a morsel. betze. bison (Cot. birth. bis.) Lat. from 0ios. crude BIPED. Matt.. bitill dimin. BISSON. bitter. P. Dan. to divide into two parts. ' ' . + + + + + + . hi-.) M. birk. binus. for examples of words with prefix bi-. an Epistle. version.) Lat. Compare these forms with those in the article above. bister. bita.S. Skt. and <rom5s. Breed. It seems reasonable to connect these. bk. habitare. to fasten. nourishment. Du. as though wisent meant ' leading the herd. ' Der. a tree. bita. lit. -mark. T. p. -right. E. E. though it is not recorded. S. Cf. purblind. . bitol. biter. of bipartiri. . c. (E. bird-cage. adj. berlienboom. twice. ed. a bite . O. bijlen.. E. belt. meaning BISTRE. From A.) In North of England. cxlvii. bindan. binden. also bundle. Intellectual System Pref. bitacora. vol. grapher and biographical. Friesic berthe. a foot. ii. bi or big. and pes. i. . and really standing for airex. at a loss . has 610- In Holland's Pliny. an example. and Swed. which see in Grein). 2921. bird-bolt. a dimin. ga-baurtks.) A. (L. Icel. E. pillar (G. double . Lat. beet. See Pig. gebiss. is corrupted by loss of the initial syllable. bitol. (2) dark. coqi/ere. to direct. Span. Curtius gives the book-binder. one that watches. behold. S. which has been formed from brid by shifting the letter r pi. xviii. to dwell . E. see Quick. to break. a. a discourse. Skt. annus. Chaucer. A. a chest. 82. angry.' Prompt. also bitter-sweet. birch-tree. Genesis and Exodus. bkiili. s.. . to have. S. bite or bita. berde. used as in the form bis. bisen. p. xxxi. ' BIOGRAPHY. Gk. bilen. borrowed from Lat. O. Pausanias. A. double. BINARY. Du. S. behold . ' Matheconsisting of two terms or parts. a bird young of birds as in earnes brid. life. S. an abode. Icel. 15. 4. G. of A. (Scand. Swed. Bistre. write. in common use. Der. and nomen. (Benfey). Bing. bird's-eye. 155. bison (Pliny). cleave Fick. Browne's Vulg. 1857. (L. specere. Bind. G. confused.) Shak. the commonly BISON. + + + O. S. wesent.' suggests that bisen may be a corruption of pres. Gk. Du. prefix.' hence. bissextus. and see Rich. rather than the less emphatic and unaccented form which occurs in biseon or besedn. the name of one of the runes in the Rune-lay. Cf. q.) Modern. bitan. of uncertain origin. A. living . BITCH. 3. [t] ' M. ' (i) bistre. grim. p. H. Der. bird-call. A. a box for a ship's compass. Goth. -place.' Derham. E. bide. consisting of two things. and Span. knitting the brows. bit . 106. two-footed. habitude. Lectures. i. double. visundr. See Bite. i. bindan. bitan.) M. C. fierce . to cut. a foot. pt. bipes. with long '. and the form gebyrd was used instead. ed. 121. a curb for a horse. bear's (which see in Bosworth. to bind . divided in two parts. See Grein. two-footed an animal with two feet. Psalm. bite brtzdess = a bit of bread. i. cleave. Group B. prefix. 529. burdr. Der. bot. and sex. though sometimes confused with it. 1715. Fick. to examine. Low Lat. Gk. bhurja. g. It cannot therefore be looked on as the origin of bit. biograph-er. 4082. a feathered flying animal. <jf So too Gk. Only the form bittacle appears in Todd's ' Johnson. Swed. ^BHAR. in phr. Group B. The word merely means biting (rather an exceptional form). Lat. (F. to divide into two equal parts. (E. wismut. The manner in which it is used in early writers leaves little 142..' connected with A. having two feet . H. 117. so called year. viz. Theol. 1 2 (Spelman) .-A. bytt. bisen. biird. grim. bipartilus. S. bind-ing.Russ. Cf. birch-en. Parv. baked hard. + + t.) matical. Icel. as well as the ceding. bitter. G. bind. .and Part. G.) or from Lat. frequentative ' ' of habere.-L. (Essex) bigge. bisne. troubled. S. + + + + Goth. a bit. a colour made of the soot of chimneys boiled . double and oculus.) M. Icel. ed.' Prompt. 60. Swed. iii.E. M. 461 2). and sedn.). like the E. due to confusion with bin.. Dan. geboorte. a bit. Coined from Lat. G. BINOCULAR. fierce. in the Life of Plutarch. binda. . a kingdom . M. no. lupalum.) Used by Cudworth. F. or bita. a female dog. biscuit. flio-. to bite. bit. a name. G. so that there were two days of the same name. i. G. beisichtig. to cleave. the bissextile year. . leapLat. bitr. a kind of birch. bitter-ness.and Section. BISCUIT. fidi. twice . 6 o. bilt-er. See Bi. bjork. but this throws no light on the origin of the term. bird-lime. 24) was called the sixth day before the calends of March (March i) .) M. bismuth. twofold. BIRCH. bismuth more . Coined from Lat. Du.for biuus. Diet. E.. tvisent. quick. G. birth-day. 39. E. wisunt. sometimes bipedal. Curtius. ii. Icel. ' BITTERN See hazards the guess that it is connected with E. ix.and Foot. boot. from /3ios. a binnacle . BING. in the Northumb.+ O. G. bistr. in the special sense of near-sighted . bis coctus. to cook. habitaculum. E. p. ^f The A. a teat.[t] BITE. an overseer. 37. bid. . bis coctus . 123. Also in Sir T. word. also. f3ios is allied to E. Lat. from Si-. dominion. (G. S. Dan.-Low L.) M. 1. and only borrowed by the latter. Der. but very rare.. because the intercalated day (formerly Feb. to bite. /3i'o-. 120. beita. M. Goth. G. . S. bismuth. bins. bicce (Bosworth). a heap of com. v: a bird of the heron tribe. Also Du. -f. caecus. ba^tan. birke. 205 . wild bull. Chaucer. T. (L. G. Possibly connected with prov. See Brood. brfdan. bite. biped-is. the science of life. Grein. Cf. from prefix bi-. cause to bite . G. Icel. It is chiefly found at Schneeburg in Saxony. S. . BISECT. viii. . Icel. Swed. biti. binde. birk which is perhaps Scandinavian. biograph-ic-al. bjort. ftiauv. and sectum. e. is cognate with the Icel. t. BITTERN. i. (L. Si-novs. also. bispell.E. Grein. baitrs Swed. rice. 376 cf. Dan. E. Morris. Lit.' Portuguese bitacola. bite . tie. But this is only a guess. ^f It would seem that the word really Teutonic rather than Greek. bishop-ric . Parv.Icel. Chaucer. and is directly derived from A. spy . (L. bird-catcher. v. bit. to cleave. a bitch. bistre . BIRD. weisen. bisect-ion. S. i. a kind of cake. life and ypa<t>(iv. Langhome. to breed. a bite. with which pes is cognate. O. 37. Dan. (Portuguese. (L. a discourse on life. bite. Grein. y' + + + Uoth. to see. from an older form badh. bandh. . (dimin.) In Barrow's Math. See Habit. (F. a bit. + Lat. as copied from Bailey's Diet. And see In Holland's Plutarch.) M." in his translation of Virgil. Phys. a part. ' . a frame of timber in the steerage of a ship where the compass stands. an eye. is borrowed from German .) bissextilis BINOMIAL. S. binder. of See Cook. pinion. root 2Ki:iI. Der. An Old German spelling wesemot is cited in Webster. to bear. also spelt wissnmt. b.' Bailey's Diet. . &c. bison. See Bin. gen. form of pars. 61-. bissen. (E. biter. See Bi. geburl. q. bitan.. The F.) 'Sister. bitter-s + + + + . c. pt. 471. v. (F. to bait. BISSEXTILE. and \6fos.. Errors. G. H. a mouthful. It should rather have been binominal. . Lat. (E. + Skt. parii-. .) 'A . also Du. double. biseond. (E. L. acid. bikkja. i. Lect. i. gebil. F. See above and see Logic. ^f Probably distinct from bingr. frcenum in Ps.' Hamlet. Dan. having two eyes. biped beast Byrom. an account of a life. and Dan. ' a heap of corn . biche. Bosworth.) In Shak. 10. 6m. (L. See Bi-. G. to cook. See Bi. 84. 160). a large quadruped. to yBHID. Dan. biss. (E. ed.) In Kersey's Diet. Lit. a wild ox . corn for ' + BINNACLE. a heap. wissmuth.-Gk. v. bait. binge. birihe. bister. probably bast. Grein. purblind.

in derision.^forere but the ultimate root is probably the same see Curtius. x.) In Johnson's Diet. v. Lat. fi\aa<pr]iuiv. bedingsbolt. Milton has 'the void. Thomas. planch. I. blaser. night without tents. swarthy. . 42. terms of the chase being notoriously Norman. 14 whitened Castle of Helth. blinchen*. both adj.. Mons. Blame is a doublet see Blaspheme. blaffra. Swed. See Blow. . black-bird. black-letter.T. Du. for a bird that bellows like an ox. M. S. &c. a naval term. 'Close unto the front of the chariot marcheth all bk. . 1. Du. of Boethius. valiant. bizarro. 374. [t] ' . 72. to burn. the sort of weavers and embroiderers . diminutival) from the stem blag-. Prol. bland is in Milton. . a shell or seed-vessel with two valves. Swed. where these words are carefully discussed. + whom goeth the Holland. blakeren. bivalve. . bos laurus . to blab. . . ' . blanch. orig. H. grave). P. Lat. by and bet. <t>\vos. E. (L. Thought to be a corruption of Lat.' [Cf. a watery swelling. rude. Der. smoky. Du. bitts bitt (naut. Lat.E. a bitt .] E. scorch BLACK. primary notion of bubbling over . + ' BLAME. H. blakerig. BLANK.-O. a keeping watch introduced into orig. the leaf of a folding-door gen. blandus. to bum blaken. a chatterer All See ' with the common <t>\(Saiv. Der. Fick refers it to a root bla. The etymology is easy. E. a bubble. . for Meas. aleaf. stutterer + + words discussed by Curtius. v. to roar. BIVALVE.' It seems probable that the root is that of blow. The word clearly arose from the use of a noose or tether for pasturing horses. also Du. 1618-1648 (Brachet). trumpeter . From BLACKGUARD. Der. B. blister . bleyn Prompt. (F. (Gk. pres. S. has blasto speak injuriously. horse whence betingbult. blank-ness a coarse woollen cover. See Trench's Select Glossary. double and ualua. white.. + BLADE. 177 and see Marten. to shine.. blawan. Modern. Lat. 38. v. (F. bloc. black-ness. blaren (spelt bloren in trumpet M.) . pp. blakkr. F. H. blasfemen . butor rather than borrowed from the Span. . 562. Icel. Descr. 305. bladdre. form bitor . O. Chaucer. . capricious. .E. G. Der. burning. blame-less-ness. 147. . blasphemare. bitumin-ate. BITUMEN. with Skt.) See Blench. . bleed. shewing that the Du. mineral pitch. betinghout. v. (2). a puff. The word bladder is formed similarly and from the same See Bladder. white. Swed. a leaf flat part of a sword. Sir T. . Dan. ' ' . BLASPHEME. C..' Brachet. + Dan. The White Devil. x. bitts. used in the pi. 304. able-ness would seem so. . 7. + . [The F. S. E. ii. Elyot has blanched. T. Gk. ' It originally meant valiant. near . S. H. G.E. a chatterer. 177 . tr.) ii.. (Scand. a bittern. iii. Mark. p. blame. leaf. ' the devil's black guard should be God's soldiers Fuller. Der. a stammerer. agreeable. Swed. black-lead. a blister Orosius. a blain. BLANCH .F. . BLAIN. . ' . BITTS. 138. of Fame. ' ' BLASPHEME. See Blow (2). P\aa<t>rinos. to scorch . The form blegen is formed (by suffix -en. evil-speaking. Gower.] B. B. Chaucer. Der. i. white. blandisseLat. blade. blister. Lat. to blench. W. and see Prompt Parv.' but to melt in a forge-fire. F . black-thorn. L. L. F. a bladder. pheme. iii. q.. mineral pitch used by Virgil. See Blank. L. A.4II. Ammianus.) blandisen. to blow. from the dirty work done by them and especially used. blaar. a bitt-bolt bedingsknte. that Stanihurst. Parv. which only used the verb see Cotgrave. fare. or the devil's blade lamentable case. white..Span. Gk. and the E. <t>\vapos. a variation of blow-.) The bins are two strong posts standing up on deck to which cables are fastened. gallant. black-friar. Der. v.) Milton has bituminous P. and G. i. . p. From c.' It is clearly not Latin.. <f>\rivapoi. (F. ii. . v. blabaran. 125. : Often a sb. F. i. v. bede. beiu/ache. mild. pleasing. like babble cf. v. BLANKET. (E. blahen) not only meant ' to ' blow. Swed. idle talk. blak. black-ish. 38. to censure. The 0\a>fis. &\a. blanc moon. a bittor. strange. puff. Cf. is obsolete The adj. bitumin-ous. a bladder. F. bk. O. . lit. 0. pldlard. "mongst spits and dripping-pans Webster. to we now use blandish. G. blakig. E. Grein. form corrupt or contracted. 6554. G. plabair. to blow. s. Black. Boom . (L. Agon. . blow in the sense to bloom. blein. [ere] he can speke Palsgrave. E. dial. i.. B. bubble.) M. (F. and F. to flatter. the usual substitution of r for s. Ho. A . iialuce. a pasturing-pin. Wyclif. C. . blaga. to speak ill. 2132. B. an encampment for the Modem. . dial. bivalve. Du. G. to shine. Span. q. gentle. Job. a watch. 37. (Scand. G. black-rod. mild. mild. . 12367. to yelp. bizarre. Evidently formed planch. to speak ill of. a slip-noose. Parv. to smear with ink . 37. . Icel. . L.(E. black-ing.) F. blame. The verb more often blabbe. Du.E.] perly Scand. folding-doors. to blame. a leaf. Du. Sometimes used for blench. bleed (base blad-). bland-ly. See Bleak. (E. ^f Partly an imitative word. of Ireland. blamof blaspheme foil. smoking. Cf. a cf. . iii. gen..) G. causing smuts. and blank-el. sb. a thing blown. Icel. H. a. G. A. a breath. black-berry. blame-less. blare. ' . lastly strange. from damage syllable is generally the latter syllables . to blow. -VBHARG. see Prompt. pldtrd. Gaelic plab. 'the trumpet blared . and sb. . to babble. pr. to caress. See Valve. plop. to flatter. q. of servants attendant on the devil. bleren. from A. butor. i. a bladder. pale. blanket-ing. Blob. F. O. sb. directly than from F. black-guard. A See further under Blaze (2). to bait whence beding. and vjachen. the sound of a prov. BIVOUAC.Jlatus. blister. and Blow ( i ). i. and Blink. an Old Norse form blabbra is cited by Rietz. blad. beting. G. Parv. ' . taken rather from Lat. H. p. black-cock. ft ' 65 bitoure. blaffen. . bitumed. /MIXi'x'os. 5 . Dan. 4. E.) stands for an older blasen.) M. M. ink bldclia. Milton has avoided Sams. 495 but also blabbing Comus.. Borrowed from F. A. 12. Geor. BLANCH BLAND. of imitative origin . blanket.. Dan. Lat.. [f] a vesicle in animals. plof. A. lit. <j>\uo. lit. + Gael. a bitt bdtingholzer.' or. i. intrepid. + + + . i. blein. part. strange. beding. Holy War. black-en also blackamoor blackmoor in Beaum. blam-able. G. blane. Lut. q. Oudemans. also blanch. H. Life of Beket. next unto black guard and kitchenry .E. (F.' P. Ancren Riwle. It means that which is blown up. bytotire. ^f it is rather connected with E. a soft noise. bitumen. affable. blaberen I blaber. babbling. . a blast. cf.. blandiri. blossom. to blow. v. black. bladder. 656. percaressing. p. + . . bk. 39 Wyclif. . a bitt-pin. ment). . G.) M. They are taken for ' ' . G. bland-ness also blandish.) A. Chaucer.. as blab ' . G. G. bitoure was no doubt corrupted from the F. verb blanden. mridu. ii. Gk. blandis-ant (whence the sb. + Du. by flare. blandir. . 749. and the lowest kitchen menials. Cot. guarde no better than rakehells. term is The word is probittes. and Du. to shine cf. to flatter. 9.E.E. as a chylde dothe or Dan. O. 1. that within this twenty years rode with the black guard in the Duke's carriage. pimple. BLADDER. i. iii. soft. + + . pldhan (M. p.' Lat. headlong. blanch. M. ^f Does this explain the name Pizarrol It BIZARRE. C-A. bitume (CotLat. blichen. a blowing bldwan. bivouac. -G.. blabhdach. to watch words cognate with E. (F. Der.+ Dan. i. to roar. . beting. Gk. iii. blaas. black and guard. for bailing them. its way into Du. More likely. p. used in the sense to blame by Gregory of Tours (Brachet). suffix -el to F. . as of a body falling into water . q. quoted in Wanley's Catalogue. with the sense of flaring. words are borrowed. a pliirren.T. O. p. (E. B.BITTS. See Bland. Low Lat. ed. dark. H. blcec.) name given to scullions. BLANDISH. blaira. M. Parv. blam-abl-y. a pustule. Merely borodd. See Blow (i). garrulous .' Cf. <p\iyftv. first supposed to be for ' /3Xo^i-. black-mail. the same. gentle. Gk. and Curtius. S. bilumin-is. to prattle to tell tales. Prompt.. cf. blad. bating. bligen.) rowed from F. 12. By : a term of reproach. v. blcedr. G. C. Parv. and bluff. babble.) Originally of a white colour. Chaucer. see Prompt. capricious. (Hybrid.) M. plappern. then angry.) Generally used of a (i). seen in A. bltijen. formed by adding the dimin. blegn.-Gk. blaken can be expressed in E. Shak. H. cf. blak. 711 'With his blake clarioun He gan to blasen out a soun As lowde as beloweth wynde in belle. blubber. with much smoke . Bopp compares Lat. (E.' ' . Peric. c. has the pp. a guard.. H. G. blasphemare 7. by. H. Curtius. Lat. ink. shriek . not only to Du. Grein. blandus. 64. gentle. a bladder. C. Formed. blabbre. . See Bait. at the time of the Thirty Years War. bladder-y. E. M. blade (of a sword). Rietz. 374. term) [It has found bedingsbolt. (spelt . adj. 620. plat. make a loud noise. G. v. taurus being used by Pliny. white. F. ^[ The word bait is Scand. blandus. 'A lousy slave. Bleb. bldddra. to blow. Lat. and Fletcher. to shine where the long i is due to loss of n. 1. blacche). Cf. which is supposed to be the bittern. blame-less-ly. blaken. bulio. (F. b. but to the remarkable set of European prate. G. . . plinchen *. to smear with smut (Rietz). c. Cf. F. -O. []] to whiten. preserved in mod. See Mild.-L. So also Dan. from an O. Eng. to pasture a or. black-smith. . turnspits. to cry. to shine. S. Swed. black-ball. which has a different vowel. high-spirited. . which is used by Chaucer. cf. O. On the suffixed -n see Matzner. bladdra. In Mahn's ' Webster. haps for mlandus. shining. + + + . the M. and G. blandish-ment. 451. black. 1 24.j?or. to gabble . guard especially. (E. pustule Liber Medicinalis. O. blanket (F. . blanchet). watch respectively. 59). There is probably a relation. black. blanc. betingbult.' The G. sb. black-ly. E.) [The M. butorius. E. BLARE. a tell-tale occurs in early authors in the frequentative form blabber. blinlten.] flatter (Shoreham's Poems. p.[t] ^T The M. to cry aloud. a babbler. See Blank. . In rather early use. but this may have been taken from English. . G. a slip. a bitt-knee &c. Swed.' a blister. used of the colour of wolves.aq>Tinelv. a Chaucer. 76 blamen. 2). beta. hi-. [t] Shak. see (i). Lt] root. blanche. 1167 and see Prompt. blasmer. from blazen. Gk. bivac. mild and perhaps rightly see Benfey. ^J Origin obscure not the same word as bleak.) M. E. Meas. mridu. blanc. ' the trumpet's blare. a boil. S. The O. x. a bittern . a bladder. the word is said to be of Basque-Iberian origin. (F. in other words. 219 blatt. idle talk. a pin for tethering a horse while at pasture. . Chaucer. ' . G. BLAB. M. 375. also blotch (M. q. T. 7. Group E. with suffix -r(a).

blasa. pale. O. 828. part. ^Kij-^aoiuu. cf. Icel. . p. ii. P. Dan. Blaspheme is a doublet of blame. blazen. viii.A. is from an A. blason. blereyed. bleelt. and in P. blemisshen. p. a flame.) (F. and fame speak. S. 711 (see extract under Blare). See Curtius.) Shak. on which Curtius remarks. O. blesme. burbulium. a proclamation. and see Blaze (2). of Fame. from <t>rjftt. Ancren Riwle. bleten. blura. [t] BLATANT. See Blood. 1240. BLAZE (i). prol. a stain. 220. Der. e 6. 703. Song of the 6/06. Dan. to shrink from. i. B./ BHARG.) M. to stain. -f. Havelok. See Blink. blent. Blab.+Dan. xxiii.' H. a flame . Du. ' . very early period.G. I hynder or hurte the beautye of a person .) o. E. towards the fifteenth century. A. See Blame and Fame. O. p. B. blcesan *. E. 9. Mink with G. S. blasphem-ous. blason with the also.) Riwle. Chaucer. bUdan. Grein. a B. pale the sense of consecrating the altar by sprinkling it with the blood of Dan. 21 106 also. 45. O. Formed from an A. . to shine. (distinct from the allied blast.) M. ' usual form is blubber. blober upon water. xvii. as if it meant to wink. 461. Swed.E. 212 blasen. p. . said of a haze caused by the heat of summer (Rietz). We . Cf. Du. 103. bless-ing. glance [cf. vf-blesan. The stem is bland-. to bleed (Grein). (f>Tjfjiia) . Dan. blessed-ness. the German word being cognate with the English. iii. F. A. Skt. noisy. . P. the mutation of ^f The change of vowel is regular. BLEAK BLEAR . flame. Icel. (E. I say. Kentish Psalter. Ancren v. G. to proclaim. the coats painted on it Brachet (who gives it as of unknown origin). H.S. a small bubble or blister. S. source. blesmir. G. though a different word from blanch. id. vi. bleme. +Swed. to render livid. Plowman. blacan. blenche. blasoun. i. O. . 198 . where the n is the sign of the infinitive mood and (2) to confusion with blazon in the purely heraldic sense see below. to blow (an unauiii. Du. to The blink. blirrii fojr augu.E. to bleat. Parv. -f. . Plowman. (E.' F. to praise. H. fame just as the Span. Plowman. S. to consecrate. (E. The word Benfey's Skt. prehen. E. Smith. no. in the same sense.) Best known from Spenser's It merely means bleating. Sonnet blason.i 57.) M. 1. -f.E. bleeken. to shine. vol. G. . blobyr. in comp. bleach-er-y. the root being exactly the same. describo . simply to ' ' BLAST. to M. . blanda. early period the sense of glory. I blemysshe. or blubber. dial. Group E. ' the root is in the syllable ' softened into bald. i. 324. ONE'S EYE. A.127.) a. ii. exposed. to turn aside. a bleating . blason means cf. 20. Swed.E. blesaa (only in the comp. blanlan. I. Icel. P. ' . Gamer.S. iii. originally to make to blink. ^f Cf. 6/as/. I bleat /3Xi. (E. 1 6 1 3 Eng. to trumpet forth. Shrew. iii. from foot. meaning (i) to mix. : . (E. blaspliem-ous-ly [tj a blowing. O. 20. blasen. lengthened by different consonants . P. a bilberry see Bilberry. blasphemie. 21. blys. plira. bldsd. bylis. to shine. and can only be guessed at. to blow a trumpet. bide. blessen. . ^[ Much trouble has been taken to unravel the etymology. to blow. BLEAT. (E. conclusion. See Blow (i). dial. Notice O. descriptio . start from. as usual in E. blira. bletsinn. blanda. but from a German Hence source. blencan. glance . blasen. This is a secondary verb. i. to make a noise like a sheep. iii. . E. 589. blazen. blear-eyed. bleat. S. + Du. 124. Shields probably bore distinctive marks of some kind or other at a Dor. a kind of fish. Grein. verbs in -<>. 470. Mod. . (E. a torch a blaze. blood. + + . from plire. plira. ' . H. Alfred. . blazon-ry. to very obscure as a verb. with bladder. a flame. communicate with. The sense of blear here is ' cf. but it was often conSee fused with blink. Fick. 74. to bleat. pliiroiet. Der. vb. sb. + . to blow. Grein. B. to mix together. blelt. M. blereighed. blobbis. blekkja (for blenkja). form of Lat. y. Prompt. ' his mouth a blubber stood of fome [foam] Test. 38. also. a shield then a shield with a coat of arms of a knight lastly. 5. Diet. 39 shining.) M. Tarn. Northnmb.. to shine has not been traced. stain with suffix -ish.' to dim . blason.E. also blire. . blight. and The more blisteris. (2). a blowing. See Bleat. BLIGHT. dim-sighted. ii. Der. blood. pale. Compl. E. bleikr. M. Sir Gawain and the Grene Knight. 'pallidus. to shine. Parv. 1. Plowman. + ' . formed from A. -f- same root as Blow. to shine see Fick. i. wan. Uttst.' qu. By comparing blobber. bldslr. q. ' ' . bldman. to blink with the eyes.. A. a trumpet. pres. is probably from the same root as blink. Troilus. the sacrifice . 232. blege. pleih. Jamieson gives: 'Brukis. E. Parv. Wyclif has bletende for bleating. blast. Palsgrave.. G. blechen. p. also Blast.' 3. (2) to blind. to mix oneself with. i. (E. shine suddenly.) S. livid. p. ' . 457. pale G. to deceive . Chaucer. B. Layamon. balare. i. S. blasphem-y (M. blue. given by Lye). . ' . p. blemis-ant. ed. A. p. 219. (E. blican. -Scand. to bleat. S. blira. . to blaze. like a near-sighted person.x^. . iii. blede. from Roul's Curs.) M. blight occurs in The Spectator. . BHLA. bouteillis. Gl. blase. to sound. bid-wan. blasphemia. B. to pourtray armonal bearings. O. Grein. D.+G. S. it is easy to see that blason took its rise from the M. bdd-blcese. Gk. of arms themselves that the Proven9al blezo had at an P. See also Blare. BLEAK . . Y. .) orig. has a trumpeting forth. bhrdj. iii. a F. + trumpet. M. q.Arber. bleak. has 'bleared tline eye' dimmed thine eye. a trumpeter blasoen. 1. 206. 126. blober . 127. Cf. E. iki'i/o. confuse. 156 (whose solution I here Icel. BLIGHT. goose BLEMISH. Sax. H. glory. used by Chaucer to express the loud sounding of a trumpet Ho. P. and blasynge of arrays. Icel. Hamlet. a shield. I. plantan. blinten. See Bladder. 152. vf-blesan. Prompt. 231 shine.' 39. to sense of glory.' to impose upon . + + + + BLESS.S. Parv. Blob. + Swed. and just as Lat. having the same meaning. Fick. S. speech. form of the same participle. to beat black and blue. . Swed. of Beda. 32157. connected with blear-eyed. 0\aablasphem-er. Henrysoun.] Icel. BLEAR-EYED.' forms point to an orig. Sweet. and cf. whiten. and the various uses of E. Lat. From . p. F. A. and Blazon . A simpler form of the verb appears in A. used also of a kid Wyclif. to sound an alarm. said of a sheep. to puff up.A. Plowman. to flame.) The history of the word is Gk. 6. See Blazon (i). in the sense of to blaze abroad. E.] from the same BHARG. blase. 192. to proclaim. honour. the causal of drink.) Spelt bleek about A. however. in comp. This is closely blican. we see the probability that they are formed from the same root. Blazon. fama is from /on'. ed. where the -and would have served for the Northern Eng. blasonar. to blow a From the trumpet. Blast. (E. F. or Scand. to wound. See Blear-eyed and Blur. Prompt. The final n is due (i) to M. weakThis last form is closely connected with sighted. blikja. S. Weber. Tobit. Perhaps it is Fick. bla-tan. Swed. See Blood. These M. to deceive (Scand. a breath. Der. S. xxiv. From the adj. thus to blench meant to impose upon. . blandan silt. Shak. causal form of blink. 324. a proclamation to proclaim. to quiver blur. ^ . BLEACH. with sense of Lat. blemir. See Blow (i). from Gk. Cotgrave has Brulttre. blat-ant. 13 . G. BLAZE (2). the suffix -ant is a fanciful imitation of the pres. Soul. 117.-flcel. bldsa. i/eia. to bum. blichen. Dan. I. are due to ifrnaj. S. + + + + . 39. E. B. before the eyes. See Blind M. may be found in Lye. bldr. glitter cognate with Icel. (Heliand). deceived. i. to blazon . brehen. H.E. ' . ed. Towneley Mysteries.+Du. wan. Icel. (2). wan. See above. blase. quotes blebs from More.S. glitter. bleach-er. v. xix. shine. G.) [Sometimes spelt blanch in old authors . which is closely connected with Swed.. Cf. or dyscry arrays. v. an heraldic term. to bleach. bid. . Goth.) M. King Alisaunder. geese. tr. 553. by R. bledsian. S. this is a secondary use of the same word. Der. prehan. bldsa. give). [t] to lose blood. brag of. + + + . (E. also deem from doom. A. . to boast. bleg. 8. suffix in French blatand would have been a better form. to twinkle. wan. shining. pale. See Blow. to spread far and wide to proclaim. to blow. 221. blaser. ii. Fick. brant-corn (an herb). (F. to blow. This word is a corruption of blaze. Romeo. bldsan. up to bleat. BLENCH. which does not appear but cf.l. 40. Span. 12 (heading). We . from blod. blenden. pale. a mist before the eyes . to proclaim. I25-+O.E.H. Tyrwhitt. bleichen. A. blaten. lippus. WHS.E. . bloedsia. see Fick.)+ Icel. Goth. i. 2571. Swed.66 BLAST. Palsgrave. pldzan. Der. blendan means to make blind. xvii. a blazon blazoenen. Swed. to shine. blita. 124. A + ' BLEND. (E. ii. So also blasyn. the A. flinch.-A. bleach-ing. ' ' ' BLEABERRY. v. H. BLEED. a Midland form Tobit. Icel. blasen. A. see Blaze (2) whilst the heraldic word is French. lippus .. i. blira. The orig.) (i). See Bleak. Bavarian plerr. 20. see Bleak (i). to mix. the confusion matters but little. blek. soil. 9. . in the nth century a Knight. part. bltcettan. The original verb appears in A. BLAZON (i). to blow. 1609. i. 362. 1. and signify that which is blown ' also from the root of blow. blasen. see below bleach. Parv. to redden with blood. (E. Prompt. 330. dim-sighted. E. The A. pp. and . verbs from F.Du. a blaze. B. O. to blow. This is unassailably correct. (Scand. <p\iyitv.. 'blatant beast. to blink. Grein. a trumpet. i. (E. p. Prompt. . Grein. blesan *. and hence to flinch. from the same root. i. xvii.) Began to blaze abroad the matter Mark. v. blddisdn*. G. 120. shortened from the A. + Goth. bless-ed. . S. a bright light. to trumpet forth. B. B. G. blandan. pale. cognate with E. p. to blow a thorised form. buckler. bleich. to blast mildew. in Anglia. for which references ed. Matt. of Creseide. Q. 225 pp. to close the eyes partially. M. to whiten. Named from its Wraiorpalecolour. bleylte. 48 Durham Ritual. p. plira. So too in Chaucer.S. i. 'In heathen time it was no doubt primarily used in b leilt. O. C. O. but it is really very simple. T. . + + ^ BLEB. blonde. From the root of blow a torch. Swed. to blow. . BLAZON M. v. to twinkle. 'a coat of arms. M. dial. from the same root. Schmeller. H.' ' ' At Blobure. 1387 . pale. also find the form Rich. = o. to mix. (E. to puff up). sense is See Blue. 77. Jo. the livid colour of a wound. 1. blueish . to blink Swed. Gawain and Grene G. blase. feet. Blow Blubber. roaring. ^Elfric's Gram. Blink. blinking O. drench. as well as blazonry thus connect F. blasen. to gleam. Burguy remarks. O. also bide. to bless (Grein) bletseiyn.

bloated is now taken to mean ' puffed out. Grein. blicettan could have been used to make pale. is effeminate rather than ' bloated. Icel. you stink like so many bloat- newly taken out of the chimney . 119. ' formed from bid-. The theo. from blandan. Icel. ' tawney. of Ven. i. + + . See Bleak. blok. to make confused. naked. whereon Mr. iii. Grein. ' M. Havelok. p. G. Blotte vppon a boke. fluid. It is obviously. See Blow (2). y. blod. The last is connected with E. see Bleb. and bluomo. to lighten. bloater. because etymology. (E. G. to strike. glad. And the stem blat. Gael.) Du. blids or Wi'Ss. a blast in the sense of a swelling or blowing up bladder. a flower. break. (i). H. straw-coloured. (Scand. S. Morris. ' F 2 . blote ' a hundred herrings ' Beaum. G. Cf. to lay oneself open. blossom. v. p.' Shak.H. Thus ' it means. Goth. Perhaps it is./mV/us. bldmi. See Blast. bludgeon with a large head. a little bladder on the skin.) M. happiness. is made almost sure by the following fact. the bark of trees . 375 . The A. Swed.) A. mod. block-ode. blithebliean. a block.. Cot. So also O. Saxon blflSi. s.+O. A. And. E. a splash platze. from fluere. The Flower and The . blithe-some-ness. Thus the word is related to Bleach and Blink. blind. Cf. in the active sense to bleach. . bliczen. *AA .' perhaps owing to a fancied connection with blow. Bless. G. which can hardly be right. ii. ' ' ' BLOB. is the passive form blikna. ruption of blindfelden. Goth. Princess. occurs in lightning. the blowing of a bellows also. See Fluid. Ancren . to strike blind. bloma. Swed. blind. to Dryden's Circe. block-head. word is blossom../SHARK. form blindfellen. 182. see Curtius on these words. crack bounce !] B. Morris. Legends of the Holy Rood. bleccliezen. yellow. See Blink. Dan. But it is widely spread we find Du. Swed. mixed . a crash platz (interjection). A. Vigfusson notes that fiskr. C. ed. Dr. S. bliss-fvl-ness.) bliss (Grein) . blasa. H. blitzen. H. S. of Lu. to shine.BLIND. blind. 408. This example at least proves that we must bk. iii.curiously reappears in the Gk. Havelok. also bleed. All of them are connected with the Icel. Owl and Prompt. E. A. bldmi. 'blond. i. Swed. S. Lat. G. blot. blinlte. S. blome. large clod. which certainly stands for blin-can. a large piece of wood. 375. bluster. after all. to blow. to swell. the Dan. root. blixt. happy. remarks Mr. Dor. 799. A. to soak blotna. commonly 'to shine.E. to foam. sb. to expose. G. Nares gives an etymology.. naked. All that is necessary is to suppose that the A. B. moist . (Scand. if>\veiv. to gleam. (Scand. used blindfelden (with excrescent d) is for From M. the cognate O. bare. . E. to flourish. Molten. ii. B. blustma Du. and with M. Jtuidin. from O. Cf. by adding the suffixes -st and -ma.' M. G. of light colour a blonde is a beautiful girl of light complexion. effeminate. Du. M. F. . E. Moot. E. a spot.) late word. p. blichen. though the words are related). Why. plashka. Prol. BLITHE. Not to be confused with blink. merciful. . bluyster. v. The root appears in Du. + + + + + + + ^ BLOSSOM.. to become soft. ly. bare. 9. M. blood-y. blinka. H. Swed. oblitum Blottyn bokys. 375. bloesem. But the older form is blostme. from the y' *AAA. much in the same blasa. ^ BLOT A . a flower. blautr Jiskr. blotna. a round mass. Not in Johnson. Blow. xxii. the phrase give out. bluost. oblitero Prompt. The long i before S is almost a sure sign of loss of n this gives blin-th. See Break. Wedgwood's suggestion He compares Swed. bldstr. S. but not found in A. white. BLINK. blood. M. shine as lightning. iro^Xdfeii/. (E. or deer-coloured . See Bloater. roots discussed in Curtius.G. bliss-ful-ly. + + O. BLOT . ed. a little block) . Swed. B. H. to make blind. See Bloat. Chaucer. (E. in 67 ' . p. ' : . lit. blotta. blogh. retical form is blenda. 314. an extension of *AA. with G. an by Palsgrave and. A. 94. platzen. moist cf. blot. plakha. The Swedish also has the phrases liigga i bloat. Hit. a plug. the Irish gives the . Origin unknown. See these bluost. }<f>\aoov. The root is better seen in the Lat. 221. E. prop. ' . sweet. C. to flourish. again. blud (Grein). G.' bubble out. blicliening. kind. bliclta.) BLOOM. verb blind(E. blanc. the latter is absurd. + ' . i. block-tin. G. gray-haired . BLISS. Du. q. I tore with a noise. 131.S. also 'to blink (look) through. B. which can hardly be admitted the difference in the last letter shews that the words are y. blatte. relent blotfisk. bloed. H. A. blautr. S. p. blot. blust. i. to blindfold. blinlten. mix. than Would ii. a soaked fish. ii.) vb. 31. to ' blow. blbt-Jisk. H. P. M. a prepared herring. bright . so that a / has been dropped. Der. we have the Icel. ^f The word is Celtic. S. Vigfusson in his Icel. Dan. (E. naked . BLOND. Der.+ Swed. ploot. See Plug. to spot. but blincan may easily have been A also. stain (stem blot-). ^f a bud. Kick.) M. 178. to blight. soaked fish. a blossom. 25 . Der.G.) is Not in early authors. seen in imj>\aivnv. also Icel. Tyndale's tr. i. y. G. Group B. G. ! . Swed. mellow. &. Lat. happiness. . 141. blood-stone. blomme. since the same root ' BLOT. v.^Jos.' blot at backgammon is (2). There can hardly be a doubt that Mr. The word is rather connected with the Icel. herrings. plomd. (E. ' 'The bloat a conjectural reading We if right. blood-hound. Not A. macerate. light Ir. flint. blind. to amaze. a flower. + + + + + ' ' . and. E. blautr. deprived of sight. WiS. 128. 1. blind-fold. . ' The of the word obscure. 1. E. . blood-shed. happy. S. a blossom. bloth. a blister. Swed. but it is worthless. Referred Diez to Icel. blomma. blotte. Dan. O. S. (Scand. 437. blandinn. in hawkes or stags. a mere variation of F. a blister. bliean as the root of the word . Grein. small flower. 129). to become pale . Midi. m. O. H. also Swed. S blonden-feax. Goth.) M. blynd. bloom. [misprinted bdstma]. ploc. -W. to twinkle. also Swed. blood-i-ness . or else to Icel. 63 . to twinkle. . secondarily. cf. blenke. soft. 41. See Blithe. fresh fish. Parv. fair of complexion. Diet. to fell. O. G. blind. S. blecchezen.Icel. cf. (Scand. S. to breathe. . 4. blootstellen. a fragment. Chaucer. blust. faint.E. but Kilian gives the O. . find bloat him up with praise in the Prol. 2315. verb. 846. (F. T. blotfisk meaning soaked fish. H. to swell. blosme. S. way.] blot. q. blithe-some. to blend. blis. it is probable that confusion with F. plet. st. H. whence M. blat. Blonde-lace is a fine kind of silken lace. Wedgwood well points cf. ^f Blood seems to have been taken as the symbol of blooming. blis. ^[ When the suffix -ma alone is added. bldwan. to splash platsch. see Blow (2). flaxen BLOOD. harSr . + preserved dialectally. spot. blautr. also Gk. but used in the sense of blight to translate the Latin rubigo in Palladius on Husbandry. flarere. See Blend. a diminutive of means a pair of bellows.' Mid. BLIND. O. p. blithe-ness. bldm. platschen. 166 . O. 41. i. blazen. lightning . soft. However. blister. blod. to stain a small portion of anything wet. the blast of a trumpet. a bubble (Levins) . S. S. 33. bliean. happy. . soft. 5. Low German word. When the suffix -st alone is added. (E. wrongly ascribed to Chaucer. Russ. Dan. from Gk. folden. The word bladder is formed. blanch. Icel. naked . we have the M.. confuse. B. . melt. to spout forth . bliksem. a splash. bloom. to the root Wo'-in A. Chaucer. Blister is. to shine. Formed. E. M. blossum . bung (blocan. Irish ploc. pulpy sop blod. soft. to steep. Der. G.' Gawain and Nt. i. where the n is dropped . 159. Riwle. Icel. T. yElfric's Horn. blod. and possibly there may be reference to the effects of lightning. Woss. stump of a tree . blanc has influenced the sense of the word. as opposed to soak.H. Bladder. G. glad. as Mr. to flourish and see Bloom. Saxon blomo (Heliand). [These words are not to be confused with Du. 375. happy. practically. to fall down Wedgwood. hard. Perhaps connected [Cf.) This M. i. . Der. to flow See Curtius. blichen. ' iii. G. Allied to E. i. block. Du. BLOATER. S. a contraction from A. from biota. found in bliss-ful. 1548. Nightingale. just as blast is formed from See Blow. Du. The E. cf. p.) an exposed piece. blasa. to blind. block. iii. v. a The Swedish blaster swelling. C. plotter. there is an exactly corresponding form in the O. regard the A. as shewn in Curtius.gore. blind/olden is a corearlier a fragment. dial. my mouth Isl. blonde. or dried fish the Swedish usage is different. Du. 130. blood-i-ly. a scrawl plottra. 8. to shine. to shine.. 130. E. bllkja. Grein. tn<j>\aivfiv. Ben Jonson.f Swed. blilta.' swollen. bloom. Masque of Augurs. to commit or expose oneself. bltSe. f. cognate merely. flourish (quite a distinct word from blow. 121 . to fall down with vehemence from stem blatblatzen. from the same dblicgan. has a blinking to wink. 1. Even if not.) I have more smoke BLOAT. floe. A . Lat. .' and so to cause to decay. Corresponding to Icel. H. Icel. a blossom. 1 7th speech. blok. blindr. blister. 314. 106. to blow. from the same ultimate root. blithe. form of the root is blow . Parv. to lose courage blautr. with hair of by colour.) M. BLISTER. an active form. blind." Thus a bloater is a cured fish. E. Gk. . 651.) idiot. bltiSe. bright (said of the sky). Pick cites M. from a different root. to flourish. (E. at backgammon. mortification (in a medical sense). Swed. blot. The signification bright in the Heliand suggests a connection with A. equally suggesting a connection with the same A. preserved in Du. flourishing life. block. H. to spout forth. ' were borrowed from German Woss. G. 220. + + + A. 64. in fact. + BLINDFOLD. Lodge. M. andfyllan. Irish blag. cf. blettr. a Dan. mingled Both results are unsatisfactory. and Fletcher. S. speck plette. fluid. bid-. to scribble. That this is the right train of thought lighten. see Curtius. to lighten. stain. to 7. M. p. the white pellicle on Note also A. a spot. but it is not certain that the word is correctly used.+O. The change from soaking to curing by smoke caused a confusion in the use of the word. BLOCK. it means king' in Hamlet. also to grow pale. puff. i. to lay in a sop. [t] soft. bloem. cf. Kick. a prepared fish. glance . E. ed. to twinkle (Grein. weak. to soften. cf. Prompt. imbecile . The truly E. and Dan. to spot. . The original sense of the root is ' ' to spout forth. steep. has only bliean. i. These words. to lay oneself open. (C. Parv. adj. bleiths. in Leaf. See Bloat. flower. naked sig blot. Dan. . a glance. pallor. the Grene Knight. history 4. biota. Du. block-house. blidr. overflow. blott. blind. pluot. to is correct. Icel. blatte. blowan. 40. A.

(E. to translate Lat. (2). bleb. See Curtius. deserves attention since many names of stuffs and Cf. From the same root. in comp. though now used in a humbler sense. Levit. blast. blialt (mod. to stain . . of ploc. aldson. (blduel. + Cf. leaden-coloured. ' ' . Palsgrave's F. to bloom. a in fall . Curtius. Jieo. E. + a bluff. glow Panton and Donaldson. blunt. ' ' Allied to Parv.' But the older meaning is to 'The borne [bourn] blubred therinne. 13. . used Du. properly the plural of bliaut. worn by both sexes (Burguy). Du. form is the verb. blae is clearly a Scand. slumber so that it means to keep dozing. and verb ' and'to Lucrece. blas-hewen. blys. Palsgrave has: 'I blober. signifies literally a barker. naked. pliuwan. form is see Ducange. bldr. vowel influenced by Scandinavian pronunciation. We commonly say to blurt out. Du. noisy fellow from blaffen. .) Shak.' we can tell the The mod. See Blaze. Gk. blouwen. xxvi. as suggested by him. a Icel. blunt-ly. of ploc. blusse. &c. or rather. it blott. as shewn s. formed from black as bleach ' ' Smutted and blotched . bliiuen. . All these are verbs formed from a sb. ii. seen . no. M. Bladder. See Blunder. (E.' Cf. to puff. strike. a blunderbuss. . 567.-^BHLAGH. 131. Diet. gun-barrel. donderbvs. ' . erubescere in Levit. a torch. [t] BLUSTER. H. q. (Scand. discussed by Curtius. flagellum. S. to blirt and greet.' standing. . downright.) Slink.' shame Lye's A. blear. Du. smir-k. (i). Blurt is. iii. blowe. blouse. in the phr. and with the pi. iii. to crush. a bubble. p. blus. and little else than a doublet of it. blabyrlypped . blober. Palsgrave's F.Du. H.' as applied to manners. Formed. (E. Plowman.) M. blauwen. F. Prompt. G. to beat down . a box. black and blue. bliauz. doublets. to doze. S. Pers. blaf.' as 374. to grow red in ' M. a beetle. [t] not sharp. as it boylled had . the phr. is with the word following. fronto. blober. also Gk. v. 1.' from Cook's Voyages. livid. F. weak. ' iy- BLURT. . <f>A<z See Bleb. plocan. Icel.' i. ! i. Eng. P. tr. S. meaning to make a noise inconsiderately. to Akerblacken. 522. occurs in a quotation given by Oudemans. S. to beat. ?) Rarely used but given in Johnson's Dictionary. when applied to the under- ' ' BLUNT. hammer. . 40. Sg.) M. blund. The sounded like E. Diet. blabber. G. made of silk. v. that it was probably borrowed from Old Danish. one having a flat broad face also. a blacking-pot. pi of block. blain. dull. E. 41 . 289. iii. and in the Digby Mysteries. Blend. Swed. + + We blusshit the sun.) Modern. form does not appear . 222. Prompt. . to dim. but once find it would be difficult to prove this word's existence. bludgeon is a derivative dimin. Dan. ed. 'noisy' (see as applied to a headland.) ' . sense of blurt is to blow violently. and Du. now shortened to rude. blondren.' the sun shone out Destruction of Troy. see blauta.O. M. said of weather. blue .) See blacchepot. i. p. . E. broad blaffaert. Dan. blunt (of edge). garment. Origin uncertain but perhaps Dutch. bluhen). languages give the idea of tempestuous weather. with Icel. i. (4) To blubber. e. Parv. to make Jamieson.' with blering all hir ble quite = the tears spoilt with blurring all her complexion wholly . e. 88 . + + + + + . viz. M. 9132. and often embroidered with gold. is the same word as when it has the sense of boaster. florere. cited by Mr. as the root . bliuwen. so that it was probably more or less confused with blabber. a libertine And Oudemans. and see Blot (2). by the addition of -g (cf. Diet. as in Gawain and the Green Knight. A ' . i. blu-ish. blot. to bloom. to dress flax. ' lividus . blur . S. ' and the phrase a bluff point. Lucrece. blubber. to doze so that blunder. BLUE. i. BLOTCH. blunda. blue-bottle. |3. flagellate. from the A. v. The original sense was ' ' ' see Blow (3). bluwan.' ' M. explained by Lat. bk. (E. and buchse. a torch. Sermons. flour.G. struck. sooty man's Wilts. to BLOW BLOW . fligere. H. with frequentative suffix -ren (for -eren). thunder. a steep headland. See Blind. (Dutch?) Rich. to chatter. ' blowe on the cheek. G. a loud noise. flourish as a flower. smile}. to weep. E. has . gun. blowen in Northern writers. a blunderDu. like a person in the act of blowing . a vestment worn over others. (Celtic 374. Eastern origin. . confuse. (E. Blood. the Scandinavian languages it is very common the North. Swed. . or bleren. Swed. also spelt blobber-lipped. etiptiv. ' sense is sleepy. a bubble . applied to the face. a short gun. Blear one's eye. T. i. Wo. blaa. to swell. blozen. 2 2 2 . form mistaken for the singular. Wedgwood quotes from Kilian the phrases blaf aensight. souffle! . We find also Icel. . 4. in weeping. Du. . ' BLUSTER. A. E. Curtius. bleo. It has no written history. to beat. a gun. a boaster. BLUSH. with the Not in early authors. tempestuous. bliaus. . fallere. ' ' BLUPP. blunde. blow. viz. blau. Hearne. to puff up. [t] BLOUSE. to pore over a thing. Evidently from the root of blaze. Blind. Der. iii. E. dblysgung. inflict. .v. to err. M. The orig. to blacken . has blurt at. Fick. bldhen. 1 50. (3). (Scand.) blow. and bus. balydr. bdl-blys. From the same source are flourish. q. +Du. G. jouee blowe with ones fyst.' i. E. Mr. burn in the face. and blabber. a scourge. stem <p\a-. a torch). Cf.) The old sense is ' livid. thus_/?on'sA Blossom. Icel. blusshen. a blister . bliwan. E. hit. 6. p. Perhaps bluster as an extended form (expressing iteration) of blast. to deride. je plenre. y. -j. C. (Scand. O. yelper. A. The M. yielding. form is blirl. to . -f Lat. as seen in clearly in the phr. A. in Fick. Levins has both blirre. I wepe. bloom. a loose outer garment. in Matzner. to bark. v. The Scot. ed. a dimin. Diet. e. to blow various in . . 374. y. a thick cudgel.+O. Cf. but the word is so In scarce in A. but can hardly be far wrong. Lat. 5T The number of connected words ^ BHLA.' It is also nearly allied to blind. and cf.' Palsgrave has But I take to be quite a different word 220 . a blaze. G. (Dutch. 41. fat swollen . . has both sb. to mix. Blow (i). . to beat with a beetle . blialdus ^f The suggestion (by Mahn) that it is of Origin unknown. . flat. Grein. cites a remarkable bluffness of face from The World. 7 . blysgan. a stumpy piece of wood. but we find O. v. to blossom. form. And it is closely connected bleat. Per. Sec. nat sharpe . 97 Woo. S.2174. (E. iii. ' ' . e. H. the more remote source stupid. mallet. blaude).' in Prompt. a stroke. blont. Wiltshire blotch = black. blue. forms are blialt. a doze. blunda. slumber. bluffer. doze. a fire-blaze (whence blysige. dblysian (less correctly ublisian). balydd. G. blyse or blaze. which it differs in sense but slightly. blunda.E. large. bios. bloss.' to be sleepy and . buss which should rather have been turned into thunderbuss. Wedgwood with the sense of 'naked. Du. (F. to blow noisily.) Used by Pope. to blush. it is best to consider blurt) to be. Palsgrave. blowe . to blaze. flower. E.' to utter suddenly and 3. (E. viii. languages being blend. Wo. having a broad forehead. Gael. box.' blirre. pluon (G. blaffaert. 115. The primary sense was probably 'inflated. A. bly. blei. is M. blaseken. + . from Icel. broad. just as blast is formed from A. + + + More remotely allied to blend. to blow.' or bold. only found in deriv. and perhaps blazon. blare (of a trumpet). If the O. W. Prol. a boaster. pldo. Chaucer. BLOW 73- .) The various senses are all connected by considering the verb to blow.' ' I blonder. t. Dan. Thus (i) blubber. Grein. having a flat broad face. a beetle . to weep. c. Blurt is formed from blore or blare. ' ' The teris blaknet P. see Thunder. It is usual to cite A. plocyn. to roar and blast. Gloss. flare. S. and the etymology Irish blocan. flame. to puff.) M. p. This shews that it is a mere extension of blare. ' . See Bleaberry.' ' a is and both Cf. This is the same word.' blubber') to flounder about. livid. See Block. [t] : BLUR. bleren sometimes means to dim. dander. to Cf. This seems to be one of the numerous words connected with E. lead. Fick. O. to shut the eyes Dan. . see Bluster. 352. G. with a round or large head That is to say. blue-hued. ' .) The sense pustule seems due to confusion with botch. a wooden marked by O'Reilly as a vulgar word. see extracts s. blister. (2) The fat of the whale consists of bladder-like cells filled with oil. Harmar. to swagger. bliant. also flatulent. to puff. BLUDGEON. S. The O. Panton and DonThis is also of Scand. : Thus A blear. is nothing but another form of still blear-eyed. blossa. Blend. word is native and genuine. bldsan. 1. moreover. The M. (E. Rich. practically. very common. . . bldwan. E. (Scand.34' ' : <t>\oi. bare. A singular corruption of Du. bloss. to strike. . from the orig. a little block is a guess. blunt-ness. facies plana et ampla blaf van voorhooft. The A. B.e. The Low Lat. a colour.. naked. to Dan. sb. BLUNDERBUSS. ploro. a . G. blaze (to proclaim). blau). Thus it means thunder-box . Kilian . to beat . also afflict. a block. a pustule. a stain. e. S. thunder donnerbiichse. bluen. blundr. ' a dark spot. Icel. bloat .H. a smock-frock.' esp. as in we blondren euer and pouren in the fyr.) Shak. from donner. q.) Goth. blidnt. To blotch = to blotch or blach. i.. p. Scand. is an extension of bleb or Woo. ' bubble. Formed. to burst out crying . p. of Beza's is formed from bleak.' then 'broad. blow. inflate. . pudor. Swed. ^ The M. I begyle by dissimulacyon. The orig. orig. S. on the stems BLUBBER. It is a further extension of blurt or blast. a like E. A. Lat. a plain articles of dress are certainly Oriental. I spout forth. Rob. 107. root. p. in fxipKaiva. Destruction of Troy. from the same root as See Blare. ' . and from the same root. of Glouc. S. to yelp E. 1. blysan. flog. ^T The connection with Lat. a gun-barrel. 703. an elegant garment. bldstr. bleb. O. 'puffy. only found in the comp. to utter rashly. p. and Box. is co-radicate with blow. blustering.' Der. bladder. a nap. words which have been shewn (s. the colour due to a blow Cf. G. bliggwan. . the face. is clearly allied to Swed. F. 375. 1 2598. Nor can we prove a connection flauus or fuluus is very doubtful. deceptio ' I bleare. 4665. and more . ed. cf. cf. (3) blubber-lipped person is one with swollen lips. A derivative from blind. [t] . 195 (R. blue-bell. a blush.) ' i. Fick. as the strong pt. See Bloom. to nap. and blakien. Parv. See ' Bloryyn or wepyn. p. Dunciad. . bloeijen. In English we have bladder. je perturbe Chaucer. origin. and Swed.68 BLOTCH. f3. ow in cow the Swed. iv. BLUNDER. blue (G. explained by Macleod and Dewar as any round mass a large clod a club or bludgeon a block of wood. B.

Perhaps from BHAR. . bagaid. 232. B. S. Named from its round shape cf. . S. Prompt. blast. 23290. which is substituted forg-o. Low Lat. tempestuous weather <*or fettered. Irish bata. Bureter buratello. Gael. body. byle. a shield scare bygylu. ballr. a ghost. + . q. E. v. 153. belly. of bolgja. a tie. Irish bogach. and helps to form the sb. bout.' and perhaps in on board. we find buleter. to brag. bodi-ly. bata. + Du. 3. bug in Du.whence G. bullen. ' ' . a boat. E. T. Ital. biod. bost. to knock.. W. brutal. ed. Boil (2). bolt. po'-acli.. O. in Wedgwood. soft. G. body. bat. G.(Elfric's Glossary. at any rate. to 'boyle. a staff. 4. W. In shake. bod-ig. a message. Cf. Boiled. Another form of the pp. boilen. Ball. and see Bole. to live at table board-ing-house. [t] swollen. See Blast. unruly. Grein. p. shelf. sense is a from the root of bulge. bwystus. poniard dimin. Icel. in orig. boiling. a sort of pillow. . iv. of bidog. \rrot-bolla. bout. boslye. has bolt. stir. The form of boa answers soften. BOULT. a bowl. bob of cheris. penetrable cf. (C. The Skt. the stem of a tree.-Gk. -aig. A. verb. bidogan. A. 94. E. bkuj. + + . and broad is not. P. bat. Chaucer. T. bolt. A. board. bolr. i. hurra. . bul. Lat. pero. (C.' O. a cluster which cf. a plank. stormy. . 994. G. A. biodag. stump..) M. a table. cluster. Towneley Mysteries. to announce From A. still earlier French. Bole. . BOG. A. bold-ness also bawd. borov. in comp. sense of catapult. her. + . Swed. swelling. C. 218.. 3897. Irish. corpset. fraud. with the W. S.) p. a bragging. polstar (Stratmann. to See above. Icel. bdtr. trunk. a stroke. v. S. move. a cluster. bat. See + ^ BOIL (i). BOLT. in the orig. who. foot-board. a bid.bidogyn. P. F. may be explained from Gael. A. bod-en. 1632. W. Grein.S. Wyclif's Bible (Glossary). O. to bind. . boil-er. the F. fetter. See Bear. bad.) M. boggle. /3o/i/3i. . the throat-boll. a bolt whence Du. rough. . bolster is both a pillow. moist. Gael. V. Nomina Ferarum. box. (F. C. loi. E. bald. + + + Swed. move. (F. with Gael. + . plank. [#] a small ship. is perhaps more See Errata. v. 17160 also boystows = rudis Prompt. H. Palsgrave has iv. a sieve. bald. bondaig.. with M. boast-er. BOLE. Icel. Gael. T. Parv. boor. (C. I move. bolzen. B. A. 4. iii. a A. vol. Hist. agitate. ' .) M. viii. Chaucer. boast-ful. baban. to command. The original boat was a stem of a tree and the word staff. ^[ Diefenbach refers these to the same root as bow. . Irish and Gael. Goth. . bos. B. Der. M. paid. of tod. a quagmire cf. boillir.) A term borrowed from Latin. + + + ful-ness. gavaya (allied to Lat. and in the sb.) M. a pole. he was invested in bodice made of stiff canJohnson's Life of Pope vass (R. + W. a small tumour. for throwing bolls or arrows. bluter. suffix -us. . swerve for fear. corset. bolt (?). tender. E. 500. 46.- + Russ. O. + + . pp. the body. to swell . BOLLED. O. spelt bord in Gaelic. -baurd. boda. a blow. . of a lost verb. G. bord. bogan. Cf. Russ. BOIL (2). B. convex.) Shak.) M. bunch. and a borrowed word. . + See Ball. I07. bot'. to sift meal. bolster. board. from its roundness. See Bulge. 5f 1 1 8. bast. to bob.' . mod. bog. a dagger. Muller). formed. byld. . boile. ii. from Sherwood's Dictionary A woman's bodies. + . In cf. bulr. bluter. swollen. in allusion to the size of the ish -ach being the adjectival termination. vvp. Exod. also bulginn. brag. 209. H. 3264. wind. O. Skt. . The suffix may be compared with that in hol-ster discussed in Koch. . . M. bulna. . bow. BOAT. a messenger. See Bulge. (E. like a bolster.) M. soft. . Mark. fotu-baurd. ' boPlutarch. bodien. (E. a covering of boards. Der. E. porio. Curtius. bostio. xi. toe./BHADH. . S. boot. (E. I wag.) In the A. Group B. hard. to boil. sense of 'wild animal. by A. See Leaves from a Wordhunter's Notebook. . . . Welsh. a skane or hanke of gold. boot. + ' + + ' . pair M. side of a ship. G. to jerk about. for shooting. BODE. (E. bold-ly. bile. to BOARD. to start aside. . swollen. a stick. H.) boa occurs in Pliny. softimmense size.' (Palsgrave). and then. to announce. swan. Skeat. S. to bob. 73 Layamon. according to Brachet but probably Celtic cf. Irish bideog. a kind of arrow (Oudemans) in all senses. It can hardly be other than the W. coarse woollen cloth (of a red brown Lat. . to foreshew. bdta. Du. from bwyst. [f ] BODY. 301. S.) And Mr. agitate. her. ^f The suggested connection. Der. The orig.) M. Pp. ii. of being scared. S. may be connected with bat.) M. bandlia. bord is Low German or Scandinavian. v. wild. Scotch bogle. Gael. ' . Cf. Exod. F. p. In Dutch. i. to boast. O. fringe. &c. like pence for pennies it was Hence. a stout pin. boydeUn (trisyllable).) Shak. a bubble Lith.E. bar. boarding-school also board-ing. (F. also. the word is. wag. only recorded in the straight rod. Der. of Palerne. 6'J bldstrsamr. Grein cf. onomatopoetic. Irish and Gael. G. E. S. scaring. ' . Du. xx. pp. Gk. 99 . But the word broad. a morass lit. blister. (E. Plowman.) M. a small dagger. v. Chaucer. deceit. pid. is bolned. gavaya just quoted. the trunk of a tree. quotes from Colebrooke's Essays. [t] A great bog or BOA. i. with the vowel a altered to at by confusion ' S. M. suffixes -ig. i. vii. a dagger cf. Plowman. vi. pointed top. vain-glory.S. which occurs in bolle^. a skull (lit. ed. . a wooden pin on which thread is wound round tape. I of ox. damp also. Grein. (L. footstool.. Morris. of iron.. BOBBIN".' board is Celtic also . polz. . bragging. a bear. Engl. a boast. allied to Lat.] Probably named. BOGGLE. reddish. a vaunt. in a note at p. Fick gives a supposed Teuadv. bos) not only means a kind from bog. P. 14. + + view 606 stands for an older form bog.-A. toss Gael. a bolt. BOAR. per. host. fringe. a trunk. to steep. bore. puffed. in the first passage. bole. F. balthaba. bol. Der. a noise. ^f In the phrases star-6oarrf. Du. bure). (E.H.) Bodice is a corruption of bodies.' Probably All's Well. bodian. P. + . that it is connected with Prov. 43. a dagger cf. E. an arrow.S. a bolt. bold. also bolter. O. Wyclif. 204. (Scand. bod. bald (Oudemans) whence Du. a large snake.+Du.) Cf.' See Body. the side of a ship. bwg. ?) Shak. Gk. or a (appended to Cotgrave. that which confines the soul. v.) M. Nat. -ach are diminutive. BOLSTER. agitate Irish bogaim. colour) see bure in Brachet. bold. pick. a point. BOAST.) M. (E. babag. . . beiidan. (Scand. bid. p. ' . BOB. margin. Swed. Group E. bal. G. boast-ful-ly. bagwy.-L. xvi. fuga. Grein. . Icel. The age. [t] BOISTEROUS. to boil. (C. Dan. + . mippus. bumbuls. p. S. wildness. bord).' Cf. 16. 42. + + f + .G. Gael. sense. -A. Some see a connection with adj. baiter I boulte meale in a boulter. ' . P. e. this ' A . Cf. P. a box. a boar. Bug (i). + + + % 375 . has it. 1660) of bodies . edd.' ' ' ' lar-ioard. Poems. Gower. See Bob. toss. ' : ' ' : BODKIN. Origin unknown but there is a presumption allied to bear. From the same root as bulge.) a dagger. iii. or ball in the throat. -Lat. E. where it means serpents of marish North's Plutarch. a. bubble up. plank. bvllirt. Will. biule (G. Origin unknown. a blain. (The Icel. 203. has boisterous. Com. H. 81. I Henry IV. is modem. + + . H. Prob.swaras. -f. bolstr. bulla. flight and E. spectre. Parv. a corruption of burster see proofs in Burguy and Brachet. E. T. v. * : . Icel. ferocity. Bulge. a cluster. intimidating. brett means a board. tender. iii. bode. H. boldly.. p. Wedgwood quotes. sveinn. because the G. make mellow also Irish bogaim (stem bog-). Der. Du. . bule (Oudemans) Du. . a dagger. hero. Vf. A. bard.' i. Ball. O. to vaunt. . to Skt. -O. to bubble. B. bulne. G. fastened he. Plowman. S. bolnyth. or branch. byl (Bosworth) or perhaps it should rather be byle. 431. L. H. tonic baltha iii. 80. beald. BODICE. fl' Thus q. [*] likely.' the sense of side of a ship is intended but it is merely a different use of the same word . and not derived from F. so that bogach is fonned animal. (C. + . 20. beule). bug-bear.A. Holland has spindles or bobins F. Plowman. 622. coarse woollen cloth. H. a lad. p. ix. p. i. blast . ' ' . A. short pieces of thread Gael. stays for women. vain-glory. carry. to swell bolni]>. buffet. Irish bolg. Hab. iii. W. . . [If not actually E. to swell pp. . C. bog. boste. bodhNightingale. bosd. -f. Kick. See Bowl. bog. a cluster of cherries. rim. buile. C. BOLT. 4908. bbsd. Icel. a lad.Ais. 76. or silver thread Cot. No doubt so named from its round shape. boda.) M. an animal.. Cf.Goth. . boilen also to break forth or boil.' over board. Gael. (E. bdla. a tassel. the bondage ol Der. fire. from the notion of scaring or terrifying. Icel. A. a table. Allit. iv. Cf.Com.) bine. bodi. -f. G. Grammatik. On the contrary. for bolle]>. a bubble. C. 31. edge (G. ?) Sometimes assumed to be It may be an old British word. boost. boost. B. 0. swollen. E. 3892.-L. a bolter means to sift through coarse cloth. pp. The pi. boat-swain where swain is A. whence the various readings Dan. iv. le bulte. boastboast. imperfectly preserved. Cf. holla in the compounds heafod-bolla. log. babag. bagad. p. orig. biddan. 362. burrus. daring. Layamon. A. bull. ferocious an adj. E. passively.. announce. hard. Cf. a tassel. soften ning of compound words. 333. bain (F. Plowman. E. boll is co-radicate withyfre. Owl and Gael. 1141. v. Cf. 480. bdlgnadr. at the beginshake. beer. H. dirk. swollen. (E. and a shell or see it husk. Lat. [t] Winter's Tale. O. bolster. (E. Gk. a piece of soft ground a quagmire. 83. of . BOLD. a goblin bwgwl. A. to threaten bygylus. bard. (C. (C. a board. B. ' . 1. id. a cudgel. a bubble . F. E. But it is a corrupted form. balths *. bata. E. Icel. in deriv. 3. 155. See Bog. Gael. Plowman. O. See Bolster. Eng. a M. e. gava (=go-a). O. W. also a swelling pimple. to bend i. bodi-less. frequently. bat. conceiving it to be confined in bandlia. Irish bogaighim (stem bog-). a stick. Grein. to swell. and Cornish . .BOA.' Uisig. with Icel. 3. Dan. I'almer. Bag. boast-ing. a threat bwgwth. boistous. a boast. a head-ball). body also. windy Swed. and Boiled.to boult meal (Cotgrave) . Boiled. 131. a quil for a spinning wheele also. M. used as a pi. I. p. Skt. E. also written per.abull. . BOAST. . but is also the name of a monkey. term the living soul prisn. bonst-ing-ly. to bend (Grein). a tapering Gael. See Bid (2). E. Chaucer. i. [t] BOLT. to ' See Bear. buyle. bulla. bostiau. G. q. to the effect that 'the Mda sect of the Hindus.

Du. cultivate. and Fletcher. O. Hen. ban. bommen. (F. BOMBAZINE. book. Span. ignis ossium' occurs in Cathol. tr. Cot. bonne. &c. which is the Welsh form see (2). . Swed. BOOBY.'a kind of tunny. Goth.' C. book-worm. cotton. . BOMBARD. to till. Port. or gunner that useth to discharge murthering peeces 1715. Grein. S. The name probably arose among the Spanish sailors. Chaucer. buandi. Eng. and suffered our men to take them. (E. [In Mid. 2. a bonze. a fabric. or murthering F. 1551. Chaucer. an animal so very simple as becomes a proverb. 2. and may have been borrowed from English. BONITO. + + ' . a kind of tenure. + BOOK. (2) W. good. e. August). This makes it (2) a boon ' bone-fire. See Bounty. dolt a word in very common use. bommen. buch. baube. BONE. and to O. bhu. RichDer. (Span. Bombard. S..) (F. hand. a tie. silk. Dei. The origin is somewhat uncertain. A. A. a bonfire.) ' ' also Bombard. Temple. . . . also. . instead of ^f After writing the above.. or any kind of stuffe that's made of Low Lat. 69 also. to hum. but found in the Laws of Ine. S. Low G. a trumpet. shew the same spelling. Cotgrave has: 'Bombardier. A ' . to hum. a bonito.' the word is wholly the F. puwan. ' ' BOOM ' . B. where it rimes with /iof/ = hand. such as bobon. Pers. a part of the skeleton. Lat. Icel. The original sense is rather to dwell. 2271. E. but the Scotch bane means a bone only. in German. which comes nearest to the English. of Brunne. the phrase chapel de bonnet [cap a stuff . 'a bumbard.'] Low Lat. See Bomb. or of cotton and linnen. bone means (i) a bone. fine cotton . e. S. [Brachet says it was originally the name of ' there were robes de bonnet . iii. ^f Cf. Anglic. 161 Benfey.-Low L. facetus. we find arm of our ship. scitus. lit. spelt beuir. discussed in Koch. A. q. . a sort of cotton or ' fustian . to cultivate. H. a tiller of the soil see the quotations in R. which Cotgrave exL. bdn. bombus. ' plains by the stuffe bumbazine. Port. (Ital. and Swed. book-ish. which again is borrowed from Gk. Prol. 609 a. P' 82. Dan. bog. BOND. Du.' with which it has but the initial letter in common. piece . Diez quotes a Milanese form bombds. 312. That the word bondage has been connected boor. ' ' . a great blockhead. BONDAGE. bdkstafr properly meant a beech-twig. 393. generally. n. beinn.. with numerous derivatives. ardson's Pers. bonnet. Hind. 7. (Dutch.) Fabyan (con. . a butt. butle. inarticulate. Cf. (Brachet marks F. leg. tiller of the soil. E. T. 203. Temp. pole. ii. to make a noise like a bittern. Gk. Du. 1715. buah. ion. O. 166:. 275. q. Arab. In older authors. just as baube does to balbus. a Japanese priest.' Cf. The Lowland Scotch is banefire. ian. 'I (i). [Note that the vowel shews the word to be Scandinavian in form. to talk foolishly. 8 for causing all tie bones of Becket to be burnt. M. A. + : + + + ' + Icel. ' ' . with suffix -ard. S. 9. cf. cognate with A.) Spelt bonzee in Sir T.) In Chaucer. the name of a stuff.wadding. jib-boom. made of the cotton.) M. i. stuttering (Cotgrave). E.] to till. 358. Lieutenant. p. nor bond-age see Bondage. very strange. Anglicum. book-keeping. Der. quod de Monast. 71.. ' At which time some boobyes pearcht upon the yardp. spanker-boom.] Span. . T. pdhhd. is a borrowed word . favour. See Bomb. book-case. I noted making it a clumsy hybrid. ii. a beam or pole. The O. H. boek. busso. H.' Low Lat. Icel... E. A BONZE. See Bombard. butte. buzz. The old boots were often large and ample. poah. &c. i. H. a petition. Ital. Grein. 06f^v(. to shoot bombs into a place gun. 'a beaver' for 'a beaver hat. it is a sb. good. xliv. bok. Low Lat. de 1'Acade'mie. bommen meant to sound a drum or tabor and O. S.) (F. (Span. 1674. ban iii. ben.. Chaucer. fair. W. ed. bombe. cotton. ionzo. meaning a cannon or great gun and. E. carded cotton bandak. V. . Diet. and points to a confusion with F. 18 . is only used of the bird. handsome. . or P. Cf. boor-ish. a silk-worm. which merely meant a B. E. C. (F. but it is found. from very early times with the word bond. the A. See Be.. a tiller of the soil.' ' stuff called bombax. not A. a covering for the leg and foot. good. a beacon. . mentioned A. 107. ' . v. a fire to celebrate festivals. servitude. Perhaps Hindee cf. bardier. See Errata.' The Romish Horseleech. silk. ed.' and the word is closely related t the word be. lit. 2 par. been. as compared with O. a beam. E. Gk. a cap Cot. bombyx. . BOMBARDIER. a book. H. of ion. balbutire. the phrase a ioon companion. Japan. Gk.' 'Bomoriginally. (E. + + A + + + + . Du. e. . bonus. Icel. pitifully complains of the cruelty of K. Fletcher. 6). See Beech. qu. H. H. . but perhaps not bond-man. and in Latin (which has the form bombus. parison of the word with such others as bellibone. BONNET. pp. bobo. bonnilasse (all in Spenser. Herbert's Travels. bobote. (E. puachd. 187 and it forms a part of the word neigh-bour. BOMB. the word is even extended to mean the luggage-box of a coach. inarticulate. buch. Bump BOOM + BOON. but yet O. bua. Hum. a short form of See Boor. peini. botte. to till. and this explanation leaves the whole word native English. boom. a letter. Rich. putin.. In late. balbus. 3096. C. baynis. boer (pronounced ioor). dry stalks (prov.-L. the latter of which points back to Lat. e. From^BHU. (i). Diet. (E. H. See Ban. a beech-tree (Grein. bombax. bombasin. In older writers. 3.) In Sir T.' but afterwards a letter. i. a stupid fellow. G. F. A.) and. a large drinking vessel . M. . ^[ Probably Eastern cf. buah. Group. cotton. bobe). boubie.) bomme as a bombyll [i. &6fji@os. mere variation of band. bonus. S. G. iii.. bombacynus. iii. E.' So. peculiar use of A. O. ioio. Fick gives a supposed Teutonic form bdna. G. blaze . it is called a bumbard or bombard. . bombard-menl. bobu.?-Gk. and Du. ^f That the word begins with b both in O. ' a cap. D. boor-ish-ly. covering the whole of the lower part of the O. 32. Der. v. [t] 1483. explained by = Roquefort as vilaine tenue. See Beam. v. i. gebur (rare. stammering. a householder. cotton . buoch. T. of stuff] is several times found . bom meant a tabor Oudemans with which compare the A. bonda having been borrowed from Icel. G. Borrowed from F. perhaps onomatopoetic. bondman. S. . Levins has: Bcnye. lisping. of Langtoft. which does not answer to the spelling bonefire . The sense of favour is somewhat D. vb.) and bonny Much Ado. fSap[Cf. BOMBASINE. 1555. Origin unknown. bombe with origin unknown. affected language . to be Fick. a volume a written composition. bondage. Herbert's Travels.) bast. B. Fick suggests a connection with honde. But. o/i/St>. bonni-Iy. in the sense of to ask.) In Beaum. ' ' . A. a simpleton. a peasant. (E. the term is very rare.41. [t] a peasant. bouwen. cotton cleansed of the seed . Antiquse. a petition. this was abridged into un bonnet. F. ' Der. BOOT . Rob. bone. silk. a humming or buzzing noise .'] Lat. to sound like an empty barrel. ed. BONNY. ion. hoc. Du. (Scand.-O. to stammer. C. . Du.). S. i. S. ' the bonny beast 2 Hen. a husbandman.' i. . Rich.-L. see Shak.. v. bonneta. a tiller of the soil from Icel. bondagium. (Dutch. Dan. a mimic. G. C. cotton. 21. which can hardly be an old word. ' ' ' . Der. comVI. M. Der.') 'To Bombard or to attack with bombs. as the fuller form. a corruption of Lat. bambagio. the cotton-plant growing in Asia. a corruption of Lat. A See Band. . ' . an. Lat. bumble-bee] dothe or any flye Palsgrave. . (F. bondage. and how his arms should escape that bone-fire is . Arab. 12. in Reliquia. a pious man according to Mahn's Webster. more BOMBAST. 290. fern. y. Shak. bonito. It is equally certain that this etymology is wholly false. pein. and made bonefires . servitude. also. The M. Beggars' Bush.Gk. i. Several other quotations hi R. silly speech. and see below. and the ashes scattered in the winds . F. 134.Arab. or in earlier times bonde. C. we have O. buoch. See a bomb. buoche. a tub.Scand. bombax. ian. in the Supplement to the Diet.' [The F.) In Beaum. i. G. 546. E. woollen cloth. In Sir T. bombard-ier.. F. Lat. p. boka. Der. esp. which he connects with the root ban. and (2) a boot. F. a trumpet Gower. In Kersey's Diet. banffagl. (Port. Boom occurs in North's (2). lofty .. p. ben. 292. S. cf. tree. bdkn. bombe. A. The Icel. a humming noise. and the verb to bind is certain hence its sinister sense of servitude. a book. ion. iii.] B. M. 1665. a petition. (3) a fire of buns. bonibell. Herbert's Travels.] See Barbarous.) M. (F. been. pt. See Boom.70 BOMB. G.' Kersey's Diet. .) M. perhaps bon-fire. in fact. H. Eng. just as Chaucer has londe..' 102. a silk-worm. 190. Japanese. bombard. . byme. ' ' ' ' BOOR. to give out a hollow sound. bitten. G. in Acts of James VI (Jamieson). Lat. bandash. boute. H. 394. [In Eng. See above. as in de toto tenemento. O. bonds-man. shews at once that it is a corruption of F. Low G. a humming).) M. .Hindee?) Lynnen bonneltes vpon their heades. [Related to F. G. cited by Littre (s.. bonus II Wedgwood suggests (i) Dan. v. G. a beech-tree. in ipso tenet in bondagio holder under this tenure was called a Blount's Nomo-lexicon. any gunner. This seems more likely than to connect it with the verb bid. 197. a blockhead.D. bombyx. shewing that it was once an English word as well as a Dutch one. buffoon. ' the following passage. bon-y . B. G. beam. bandt.] . Span. Skinner suggested F. Icel. a shell for cannon. Ezek. bombarde. G. a kind of great Bomb. iii. a bomb . fol. bondi. Not recorded in A. S. Engl. M. Kersey's Diet. is due to the fact that it is imitative. (F. ed. bond-ed. meaning (i) a sort of barrel.. bobear. and so iii A. Kal. bobada. v. . Queene Marie. bdk. Prol. Gk. straight BONFIRE. appearing in our E. of silk and worsted. Man. The mod.' Bible. bombast-ic. Closely allied to bump.) Chaucer has boles. the quotation from Sir W.L.) Du. boor-ish-ness. cotton. s. tinued) has they sang Te Deum. .) Examen (R. : . P. i. Shep. O. G. beech. a bum(F. the entry 'bane-fire. and yet Pope Paul the Third . BOOT. i'n. p. Papos. has ' ' blithe .' as being the only form that agrees with the evidence .. for land. Dan. ioon.. &c.. forms are buche. fair ' blithe. bonda. jocularly. cf. The English nuns at Lisbon do pretend that they have both the arms of Thomas Becket . Grammatik. 201. hoc. a petition.. Many of our sea-terms are Dutch. + + . a tenure of a lower character Low Lat. boone. baun. 1 300. broad cloth . Swed. A. Diet. 1 34) because the original books were written on pieces of beechen board.F.

is older ' . to perforate. poron (G. and G. (E. Rich. spoil. ' Plowman. busse. spoil. <f>ap-vy. pitcher. profit bdtjan. or green earth 'araq. The spelling bocches is in P. y. a billow caused by wind. B. biirdq (better buraq). burh. bourrache. Pers. sense were body. bos. a hump. S. root which . Span. G. . botanique. . upwards O. w) the lit.) . and Dan. forming byrig in the Du. castle. is derived from the verb byta. A. G. Lithuanian brttkii. and 'araq. bossa Ital. A. Chron. E. G. to build Polish buda. Wedgwood cites also Bohem. Pers. botch (2). betan.) (2). Boppas. B. A. botch-er. A. p. abu a sudorific plant from abu. F. make spoil of. of borrago . remedy. profit. itself. Curate. botsen). botanic-al. ' clearly shews that a knob.O. 3. booth. (E. . form shews that -th (in bo-th) does not mean two. a form which appears in Cotgrave. exchange. toule). baade. cf. borgian. now superseded ^f The connection (from the O. boote. rough. still used in Scotland in the sense of to mend a fire (A. divide. M. opos. Low Lat. has only the shorter form bd. The Goth. 18. + + Icel. 308 Will.' case common in the A. as Bailey oddly supposes and. 50. bosm. ' as in Cotgrave. See Butt (2). Referred by Fick. I feed myself. 38. + rounded. in early authors. beorgan. M. Cf. Chiefly preserved in the adj. 180. Irish both. Ital. shop. bar. ' . Lat. Der. proof that the word is of any great antiquity in English. i.. burg). [t] of a whitish colour. . G. and Beat and see below. directly minerall. fiom infm. border. advantage. + BORE ' : ' BORE a Regicide Peace. boce. 9888. to harass an embarrassment. Icel. Botch BORAGE. tr.G. from the pp.) also borwe. bohren). borg. atonement sb. biborate of soda Arab. for. (i). 563) suggests the appears in E. forare. S.-Gk. a plant with rough leaves. cure Dan. O. .+ Swed. pierce. and see further under BOSS.' Hen. . ace.H. which seems to bothe. M. Lat. Mr. 197. borraginem.-O.G. as if the orig. baii. ' . Mr. 128. bote. Du. v. of borg. ' ' : BOTH. to build with the remark that in the Slavonic languages. spelt botie. whence plant from its roughness (?) F. from bhu. a house. penitence boeten. 1680. . dual O. bairgan. Luke. S. advantage. bdoi. (F. Thus botany is shor for botanic science. C.G. BOTCH . 5. Chaucer. bdt. + + + + . E. gen. O. p. border-er. Merely a metaphorical use of Shak. . S. (cf. S. improve. borcn. (E.' F. a margin .E. preserve. bod. beute. pede (G. to bore. kindle. One of the prey. . but] directly from the O. the latter meaning ' short wool. Curtius. borgian landic. Skt. . Swed. 15187. both cf. Gk. and sb.. to borrow. feed (stem 0o-). the north wind. or belonging to herbs.Gk. a toll-house. An old prov. bosse. BOTCH (i). (Scand. 'at this instant He bores me with some trick . (of flax) seems to be agreed that (just as E.' a worm that perforates wood. borrow-er. 14 (R. biissea. Plowman. origin. for . 'my head you so bother. to kindle). to cut Fick. to perforate. borg. H. of Boethius. typaaativ. bdzen.. barter. in the form bulin (Cotgrave). take in war. girt. tt-bha. burie.^266. (F. to See Borough. See Fick. cot. borien. 635) suggests a connection ' . a hut. a pledge. tola slight building. H. ' ' 71 by bull BOOT (2). P. 107. borwe. atone bati. 9 occur first in the Ormulum. pron.' than the verb. p. Dan. prey. the boss of a buckler. boith. H. Matt.] P. a swelling. S.y^BHARGH.) M. Beaum. of boot and butt with bottle is sometimes asserted. of.' the Eng. the north wind. . of Paleme. (Scand. cure to mulct. bod. Used by Burke. brim. adj. the allied verb takes the form to beet. is merely borrowed. ready. bosse of a bokelere' Chaucer. who gives Bourroche. blains. ' + + + + + Zend bar. bank . iv. borax . Swed. botan-ise. a bottle. *PAK ( = bhrak). sweat (Littre.E. bai. H. prize bait maken. See Bottle (i). Du. buit. to make Vigfusson says The solution is easy all these words are from the BHU. borian. a swelling. Gk. in fact. Grein. to strike. 83. borgh. two together. and boras as the French a hard and shining spellings.) There is no . a botch. tent Swed. vi. trip up bore. puoza. lift. amend. to strike with its variant The butsen. bar. G. bauda. M. BOOTY. p.' Borax is Arab. a swelling. . as shewn by its unaltered form. boran. Du. v.. . S. to patch mend. iii. Grein. botanic. BORROW.' Gk. Swift uses pother in the same poem. the phr. Fick (ii. &c. to bow. bdra. both two. ^ and see Burgess. C. E. BOTANY. 10. a herb. i. ii. protect.) Cotgrave gives borax. Cotgrave has boce as another spelling of F. according to Curtius. beorgan. booty. bozza. bhavana. M. vex. BORAX. for a boil. a boil. adj. . Low borax (Vullers). the north wind. (C.' + . laws. (F. Arab. to mend. Parv. Benfey See below (p. to cut. BOROUGH. as to prey. . Icel. Curtius.) is a deriv. H. in par.). dial. Goth. of Scand. 1. Baffled and bored. p. Boss.) bordtire. bathe. I eat (stem wa-) see (i). VIII. . (L. beat cognate with E. a hut. p. burrow). G. . traP.. . 135 whence A. a Low-Latin spelling. borrago to be taken from the F. where Dan. bosom. bddir. g to M. edge. cf. Ayenbite of Inwyt. a place of shelter fine. which is. From baurgs. and Danish. . brihant. i. I feed myself. . with suffix -ura. which is cognate with A. E. Dutch boezem. so is the botch. G. puruc (G.- ^ BIIAR. botanic-al-ly. Chaucer. . Borrowed [not like the sb. a pledge. Der. Swed. Bohche. busen. bk. security. S. hut. (E. a bunch. lit. a^-ifeu and -bha in Skt. to overreach. A. share or dividend.) i. E. Oudemans gives botsen (mod. btirah. of A. . profitless. botche. (In all these the ' From the root of Better. see Koch. Diet. i. See Boss. and (2) to repair. booty. whence the modem E. .) earliest examples is in Hall's Chron. q. E. bade.) Not formed from A. bajoths. word. a tidal surge in a river. bola. 371. to help. + + + + .' P. beide). an advantage it is not a verb. For numerous examples of various forms of the word. F. G. H. ^f Oudemans gives butse as O. a booth or shed.' Here tch is for cch or ch. : ^ from (unauthorised) Arab. amendment bode. the mountain-wind . a town. security. in the sense M. .-O. 494. hard in some of its senses. Dan. biitte bytta. 42 (by usual Chaucer.. has: sore ulcus. to . bail. a castle. puos134. exchange. to mend. burg. O. a fort. The word the science treating of plants. Der.' . G. with other similar instances) the root of the word is to be found in the O. Bosworth. is probably cognate with Lat. a cottage. Du. notion of repairing in a rough manner follows at once from that of The root is the same as that of beat. bnd/ta. to yElfric's Glossary . Gk. Not in very early use. Strephon and Flavia (R. T. neut. bordura. to bear. The word was also taken into F. a shop. byti. booty. i. M. bury. ^f The phrase to boot means in addition.) BORE + . with Skt. W. Ducange also gives the form boracum. and is explained by herball. a hill. to worry. and dat. to be.' The mod. xx. the pharynx. 163.. 66.Gk. pdssen. to Teutonic + a patch. botanique is both adj. (Scand. but it is not clear = Gk. common + Du.). 202. b'dta. a booth. a town. and (2) a hump. The Prompt. Grimm (Diet. Gram. Low Lat. get booty. Henry VIII. hurra. Thus bore is co-radicate with perforate and pharynx. S. i. or skill in herbs. [*] that G. hide. 147. to bore. boot-less-ness. but 1 [t] rather in the sense of ' constant excitement.) Formerly bourage.f. Wyclif. it meant. exchange. to bootehale. letters 3 and 4 (R. barter. meaning being to give a change A. secure.BOOT. S. .] to divide into portions.) also bo]>e. farcire. stall. 295. v. Low German. E. C. T. a bunch. i. to be cf. .. mound Rietz. reburrus. G. borrais. . spoil. mountain-wind.' &c. bury. .) T. Boreas. cf. exchange. buoza. burg. nor is it easy to explain it. a fort. Grein. a bundle. board. 2 229. bulk. 1 1. help. large. to stuff. i. a place to be in.) bootless. buzen. rt Gk. Low German cf. deal out. bd two. and Fletcher. byte. i. bootless. ' ' . G. to protect. it is Icel. . to carry. empor.' that Icel. Gk. y' BHAR. bora. 694. botan-ist. Lowbutu. an edge. The latter is the more correct form. See Beat.. but. am-bo -<j>ai in Gk. Cf. vb. z bottle. i. F. to get spoil. [The G. S. tent. 6020. q. (E. endowed with). byti. -j. goat's hair. E. Der. a shop. both cognate with Goth. to receive money on trust. castle. to press hard. pr. . See Board. borg. (Low L. has it in the sense. St. Icel. originally. . ffovrtt. BOTHER. See Burr. a bundle whence was also borrowed Du. O. betan.) In Shak. Lat. formed from Horavr). borg. with a ref. gullet . + O. a father (hence.) Used by Milton. constrain. On (3). spelling was affected by confusion with boot. biid is not derived from bua. borra . <pap-. in <f>ap-a. butth. C. beat. to defend. Du. biid. to botanical. signifying to build seems a derivative rather than a root. and taken from the Arabic. he also quotes wyrm }>e flora's treow. advantage. borra. 06aKfiv. Fick. The Icel.) being derived from the F. 38. borra. 421) gives + + + + + ' ' ^ + + + + BOOTH. Der. to ii. protect. (F. batta. more frequently spelt bork in the nom. Matt. Ital. p. F.) ' .' Remoter origin unknown. Prov. Perhaps montana. formed. to bate is in Langtoft. B. xii. a ravine. cowOr hair. (Scand. ix. xxxiv. See fastening by beating. ' burgh. booty. ' (buckler). bdda. to profit. is ill-formed. Der. a name given to the Low Lat. or a swelling. make fast.E. an. (Merely a borrowed word in IceThus A. 376.. E.+ Swed. boot-less-ly. ' . am ' G. ii. border. F. (F. The earliest quotation seems to be one from Swift. + .). adj. 2543. Skt. plant. 434. pillage. whence M. profit. 483. S. S. bourre. bore. bump means (i) to p. uescor. . a swelling. bor-er. L.). -60 in Lat. Low G. a part of the 7575. H. budowati. Bourrache. v. purjaa. through the French.) Wyclif has bocchyn. BOREAS. of A. BOTHER. pledge. botches and (2). BORDER. Layamon. G. borwen. 1. H. rough hair. to shut in. H. S. Low Lat. a booth. in comp. meaning both (i) to strike or beat. Der. but borrowed from the Scandinavian land Scotch baith spelt ba]>e and befre in Havelok. Swed. It strike. botch-y. bourage. 4525. to mend. pdzo. Goth. 1889. . Du. Gael. rugged. Troil. The Goth. sing. 2168. -J. Engl. G.. boete. borg. The middle voice f36oKOfuu. + M. G. i. to A. to live. and Cotgrave's explanation of butiner lit. S. Grein. with the excellent example in an old proverb Naar den val de butse = as is the tumble. bod. Icel. 3553. budowae. Icel. Koplas. 1. bytte. the word " " y. O. + Goth. from O. (O. keep. to atone for. so that the original sense of booty is ' share. to lift up. bosse thus botch is a doublet of 6oss. + + BOSOM. Cf. bordt/re (Cotgrave). (E. Dan. bitte. A. and perhaps also in Swed. H. S. bot. distribute. borea-l. with the sense borax. a mountain . borewe. . ftoTaviictis. who thinks the Low Lat.

Du. Lear.. O. bog. botm. (O. bottom-less.) i. [The sense is peculiar to ' English . to rage (Wedgwood). K. boun. Dan. a well. bow-man. to sulk. Low Bessy. . kind of vessel (Brachet). ready. (i) The word may be Celtic. to bend. i. prol. bonn. See Box. a bound. forms which look as if borrowed from French yet bourda. 14193. bothem. But I may add that |3. + Swed. bogen. strong. B. ambages. large. bonna. See Bound (2). to fall. (3). . rifle-barrel. . i. a nosegay. botte a bundle of hay.-O. iii. a bound. Bret. disturb. iii.) . This would link bound with bottom. 'borne. cf. O. . grieve. pirns. bonne. rebound. BOOZE. The root is (G. as bough. F. IV. and intr. O. a game. T. limit.) 4 the ship is bound for Cadiz/ the word bound means * ready to go formed. i. ^EHVGH. from O. turmoil.) Chaucer has bovntee. i. bua. [t] (i). bottom . C. boudoir. . (F. fugere. i. ' BOTTOM. turning. <pptap. of the See Bind. P.v. The connection is seen at once by the comparison of a bubbling well to boiling water . a tube. shoulder. cf. F. poac (G. bottome also bothom and the Grene Knight. fountain. BOUZE. prunno Gk. Oudemans. Icel.) M. in contrast to klappersteen. 133. bouquet. a small BOUGH. Chaucer. bound is a doublet of bourn. . C. (2). bolym. spring. 378. bhuj. i. E 157. a well. which cannot be separated from Du.) small Shak. is preserved. bog.Prov. (E. good . . a boundary. i. See Boom (i). see Brachet. G. K. a stream. B. (2) On the other hand Burguy takes O. Skt.podam (G. or an extension of ^/ BHU. T. a 677). bourd.'] Icel. buirt. [t] = bow-er. or game. (E.. and Bourn (I). and cognate with E. not to ball. intransitive). beat and hurdle respectively. a foundaboundary-stone (where men = stone). 15. buisen. (F. bi'a. a bundle of flax. bounce. a B. a place to sulk in. a wood. disturbance. 304. bound-less. 'She was boun to go. p6zo. to burn Curtius. bondir. depth. a box. G. 2. probably A.) F. good. to bow. to jump up to bounsen. + Skt. G. H. sense of little French. well. boden. buwen. bullersten. 627. . . goodness. Cf. . brunnr. flecto. Lat. puac. see Brachet. L" Allegro. M. bombus. G. a mock tourney. worm boiteag. Plowman. E. lit. II. 0. (C. F. 3. the same word 162. E.. (E. Thus bourn is a doublet of bound. BOUNCE. jest . burne. a spring. &c. II. annoy. Boorde. A. Dan. dimin. worms found in i Hen. a box.' BOTTLE. to bow. Fick. See Boss. tumult. T. Bow BOUGHT. (2). distract.S. and intr. Gaelic buaidheart (obsolete). provoke.-L. . q.) M:E. iii. bound-ary. boundary.+ Swed. T. S. bombitare. ' ' Used by Holinshed. Bailey has Bouds. vb. buscum. ' verb. bow (a weapon). ' a boundary. a cluster of trees (used as a boundary). Benfey. A. C.' 217. Grein. + Gk. BOTTS.' Gower. Point. 11807. (F. bolder. bahu. to bound. F. affliction . O. a wood. 22. bourde. Bret. bush ' makes good a .-L. derived from buair. Well known from Shak. See Bush. The word appears also in Celtic cf. boh. | BOW. 6. The last word (like G. of which the pp. boundary. prepared. BOULDER. Muller (from Heyse) . .. used also as an Cf. ed. brunna. ' ' the dimin. bohorder. G. See (i). ed. a bend. F. ground either ^ BHUDH. to turn -f Skt. of butica. bow of a ship. a bounce.(i). Der. 11.. 134. Very common. mBu. bought . E. Lat. bulderen. . Skt. cf. biiie. O.+Goth. a blow. Auban. bending. bullra. G. p. + Gk. to leap. . Norm. from sb. a spring. p. H.' In the particular phrase ready to go. to beat. to drink deeply. beygja. a jest. Minn. a boundary. F. ii. Mere BOTTLE A . pipe) is equivalent to the E. Lear. bonus. a wood . bow-yer bow-maker). ( Der.. bounte-ous. a form cited in Webster and by E. bus. ban.. boden). Du. Gawain botun. jar. ' : modern Du. 214. A. (F. bugne. pot. to bend (intr.) Chaucer. as in men-bonn. the bight of a rope. bug). . See and Bight. 2145. bow-string. . C. See Bellow. box. a turn. a gulf. M. BOUND Bump . curvo ' . boter. a. supposed by Diez to stand for hot-horde.. foundation. p.72 BOTS. butuille. BURN ' + + + + . C. the shoulder of an animal . 8. a stream. and is remarkably exemplified in the words well and torrent. a humming sound. (Danish puts Id for The word is related. ready to go. The Gael. bonitatem. the fore-arm. bent. to rebuzz. BOUQUET. Du. 1. Lat. allure. 164. 'to be. maggots in barley. biugan (tr. knock. . to tourney. give way.. the intestines of horses. BOUND Icel.' as if the root is the place of growth (Curtius. boire. as in sound from F. S. vex. behort. as in 2 Hen.) . the small ones. burl. . Bull. to drink deeply . bowen. 1. Dan. S. p. ludus. bousquet. paille . From Dan. 415.. dial. iv. byrnan. H. of F. C. + + + Lat. Roquefort. bonzen. properly a little wood . bourde. to tempt. a large round stone. biugan. to grow. as in bounden duty. see Burgeon. A. Der. Irish bonn. F. [t] ' . Grein. I incline to Gamett's solution (Philolog. plica. liberality. Du. T. IV. used in a great variety of senses. (Scand. bund. . from the same root as Boor. a bourn. and horde. Lat. . 46. Dan. Prompt. to bounce. Q. v. bolum. ' : to vex. stem. 171). Goth. B. as in/aide. limit. bdgr. buyse. (E. tion. 7922. buigen. de Sevigne. bounte-ous-ness. bounde. From Swed. bend.). bohort. . bjuga *. 634 Fick. See Curtius. stock. where he refers us to Irish buaidhirt. a limit. n. bonteit. (F. Gael. . s. hence to amuse oneself. 188. to jest. Bremen Worterbuch. Mr. BOUNDEN. . At any rate. to beat. buchse. and see Rietz.). I6963--O. to make to bend. joust with lances. (F. boja. T. &c. p. bodina. bottom-ry. ' a bouzing-c&n = a drinking vessel . a bend. BOTS. ^ Note that the bow of a ship is + + + + bound. the original sense of A. and mere French. march the end or furthest compass of a thing Cot. two theories.H. One year he languished for one hand And next year for another.G. (F. 1. trouble. to bend. for a lady. a spring. the ' shoulder of an animal. B 1647. immediately (Rietz) G. conduit. hum. barrel of a gun. 314. O. the lower part.G. Deutsch M. according to Brachet. bosquet. i. O.. bough.) iii. ' a nosegay or posie of flowers O. base. distraction . F. base. pp. cf. bound.Low Lat. hots. Proven9al bosc (O. and also appears to be a contracted form. sole. . the bow of a ship. beat. i. The difficulty is to decide between origin. bdhus. + O. goodness. mockery Irish buirt. with excrescent d. All's Well. Du. Swed. T. i. botus. uproar. 'The maister schipman made him boune And goth him out. just as the root of the Goth. Grein.C. and intrans.) quickly.. foundation. to bend. born. has a remarkable resemblance to this Breton word. 'botelle. P. bonitas. to flee. A. buticula. Du. BOURD. taunt Gael. well. clearly the same word as the ' BOURN. O. E.' See his article. bo$cum. to bend (tr. ! + buis. also sometimes spelt bodne (which see in Burguy). F. i. bumps. F. Swed. Trans. Dan. I. to bend. vy(iv. Spenser has (Dutch. F. channel. The verb is used by Chaucer. bops. (F. burna. 67. ' . Chaucer. hotel Chaucer.) F. iii. bodem.) The old pp. well. buirte. a lost verb. dial. Parv. bugne. 149. p. Goth. buaidhrim. used of knocking at a door . to make to bend. bugda.) see Nares. a belly. Of unknown B.S. S.' Chaucer. also. thick . see Prompt. buldre. [f] Origin a branch of a tree.E. crash. son . to rattle bidder. pipe. by excrescent d. (F. madden Irish buair. O. brunn. [t] Come o'er the bourn. goodness. Modern. bugt. a boundary. botte de loin ou de ' dimin. Corrupted from O. + Lat. duonus. throw. interjection. Plattbunsen. to thunder. to me . sound. private room. Group ace. boarder to be a contraction of O. bounli-ful. a hollow vessel. to make a loud noise. Grein. beiigen. to bugan. see Bout. botn. a serpent's coil (the sense in which Spenser uses bought). bog was an arm esp. Lat. M. as = bounce went the door Icel. of vb. + Icel. (i). Levins has: 'Bought. Shak. bugen. the shoulder of a quadruped . from nom. Swift may easily have taken the word from the Irish. BOUDOIR.+ F. e. of England. we also find Gael. from M. . disturbed. See BOUND properly. + + BOURGEON.fundus. obsolete. (Scand. &c.Scand. fund-ament. brunnen). Q.+ O. + Dan. of bois. boorde. jocus . who quotes from Mme. See (4). trouble. confusion buaidheirthe.) (i).' (E. the arm. but orig. a play with lances.E. verb to bind. fountain. fiocan. limit. bump in bumps ging die Thur C. bourne. F. a flask. 327). turn also. pp. to get ready . thump Swed. Icel. the excrescent d is due to a Danish pronunciation cf. bump. the sole of the foot . I vex. 45 . Bret. &c. see Fick. BOUNTY. bans. i.Low Lat. to burn. E. a gibe. Low Lat. imitating the sound of a fall. has bound.Gk. Gaelic bonn. bos). the larger kind of pebbles.). 57. ' till. .) Formerly Milton has bout. BOUSE. bow of a ship. ' . F. to q. dial.H. bounti-ful-ness. which is quite conclusive . Hamlet. bight (as a naut. botel. G. Ancren Riwle. a gibe. Morris. botel. but to bellow. bums. The word is probably imitative. From signifying to fathom (see budh in Benfey). bonne. bonn. From the same root. (Vedic) btidhna. I . and is unrelated. W. Bottom. 240. Parv. . bong. 6. term). bay. bend. bunsen. 129. disturb. who uses bouquet in the old sense. meere. E." ' Klappersteen means a stone that claps or rattles. 322..) M. | not at all sure that the words are the same and instead of seeing any connection with Du. the shoulder of an animal. 1982.o.) ' . strike suddenly. iii. a Icel. to wend was alle bone Langtoft. &c. . BOOSE.T]V. Cf. i. Low Lat. taunt. 75 1 3. make a loud resounding noise. limit. From a base bhdghu. Wedgwood says: 'Swed. esp. H. E. Prompt. See Burn. Bouyn. a well. to turn to flight. ' sense still.) M. 44. See Boot (i).) Marked by Jamieson as a Perthshire word chiefly used in Scotland and the N. boginn. bouder. jrijx"s. esp. Icel. brunna is the Goth. (2). C. bov.. . + + Bow + BOW(l). 99. Parv. a bottle (note to Vie de Seint Low Lat. am With every lady in the land Soft Strephon kept a pother . BOURN i. Atkinson. Cotgrave uses bouse to translate F. buize. urn.Gk. F. Old Der.E. agitated buireadh. + + + + . a bundle of hay. has . brinnan. (Scand. C. ^f The lit. Cotgrave.) M. 79. a hurdle words borrowed from M. F. Gk. to play. 31. p. a drinkingbitysen. to resound. [t] and intended to represent the sound of a blow. Drayton. 139 Spenser has bought. a beating against the hurdles or barrier of the lists. The word is clearly connected with bounce. 4. a maggot. unknown (Brachet). aside. bourder. BOUT. vessel with two handles (Oudemans) . to jest . bend (both trans. to roar. i. H. 'Whan he ' sauh that Roberd . Du. to bend (gen. batten. brand.

s. Icel. s. of ' O. P.) or femebrake. E. v. slap. Note also Gael. bage. bracco is unknown some take it to be from the root seen in Lat.v. ed. Icel. See Burguy. btian. which see in boy. brackish water. q.' O. to confound. e.. Grein. From the borne [bend] of the ryuer of (2). a term of affection for a boy .) ' ' Errata. &c. E. because the Dictionaries never tire of asserting it to be an inLeechdoms. B. G. but belong to E. v. brache. The difficulty is to account fairly for prefixed b. fragrare. F. S. boga. a form bars. : . O. ptipus. a kind ' ' of dog . brok. (i) is also braccan. rache. and Branch. a bowl. s. Der. The derivation is from A. (E.) (4). bos. prort means the fore part of a ship. brabbellaal. many a bloody boxe . Du. John. brachile. which can hardly be disconnected from O. so salt and brackish as no man can drink it . H. p. [t] an ornament for the wrist or arm. has brack. with the remark correct form of bay-window. (Scand. flog. bouele. buxus. a box. also brakyn. mering.S. G.\lon>. BRACKISH. a bend. : ' . pi. holla. A ' . a round ball of wood for a game. 802. (O. a youngster. youngling (Oudemans) . braclte (G.) . v. Morris. a lady's apartment.. bregne. BRACK. a knave. boef. -J. &c. 2. briny. is a mere derivative from brack. to dwell. C. Icel. (Dutch. The Icel. brackish. boban. to vomit with which cf. beat . North's Plutarch. Probably connected with the root of break . and. (L. Fick suggests. bou-line.or be-.. Compare Blab. Gascoigne. G. Lat. practically. B. boy Koolman. bracce. spelt brode in sometimes used in a derogatory sense. T. place of a dimin. Matt. -f Icel. Thus Kick.. bollen. an armlet or defence for the arm. The Lowland Scotch byre. a boy. ftfaxiaf. naut. Poems. A. quotation under Bowline. Gower. V. Der. thwack bask. a place to be in. S. these words with Lat. Allit. a bowl Grein. or Prompt. ^fa. in this sense. that which holds firmly. ^[ is another form oipash. bracel (Burguy only gives brachel). + BOWLINE. long nail. a case of is not clear. of Icel.E. BOWER. Du. sb. to run. Plowman. a larder. O. ?. a modem a small leaf or scale on a flower-stalk. Gloss.' The spelling with aw points to the old sound of ou (as in soup). preserved in East Friesic boi. TTU^I'S. as the O. iii. Chaucer. Parv. O. thus. of brachium. 132. Icel. buobe. a knave. (L. H. a frost-nail. BOY. 46 . (Dutch. breach. drub. See below. i.S. a thin. boy. ioS. brack). thwack. Icel. ed Morris.. . Havelok. and Babble. K. see basa in Ihre and Rietz. G. sense is a dwelling-place. cf. ftpa-xiwv meant the upper arm. cf.) I spie a bracelet bounde about mine arme . refuse. boc. BRACT. Der. (i). for feme). Cockayne's Leechdoms. a cage. See further Thus there is no immediate connection between under Bristle. S. to strike. box-er. (F. q. boglina. H. braich. 889 . ' M. i. a fem. George. and brabbler. 1675. H. Du. that ' . vb. See (i). Lat. ' ' Water . B. Lat. Further. have 'Brake. no doubt the same word which . ball. a box-tree. Grein. (2) a box at the theatre . 215. + + . (For change of si to x.' Jamieson . the arm. buxum. the claws of a crab .E.-L. G. Chaucer. bur. intestine. Lear. BOWL . Tw. E. S. Prom A. bowl. brodde. the box-tree. C. Bough. of it. (F. 1384. brabbl-er. parran. 237. to beat. Parv. cf. 315 .' p. 237. G. O. to play with . bracco. See Box (i). S. a stud See Bull (2).) M. (F. Low German source. boog. iii. boy. C. a kind of mortaise. G. 265. Certainly from an Prompt. see Break. to bend. . Gk. boef. stimulate Com.. -L. and Cotgrave has Brogue. 1. mans. brosda. Dan. fem. Der. Der. burkni may be considered as a deriv. . Swed. brackish. box. the arm. bolle. G. S. C. boy-hood. Often wrongly defined. But Hence flow a great many meanings in English .) M. boy-ish-ly. brnbbelen. 406. bur.) Humber anon to the ryuer of Teyse [Tees] . .) whipping . shorter. Cot. 60*. It is certainly regarded in English as supplying the box-wood. the fuller form being exM. 162. ii. 363. a bristle boy. bofi. xxvii. ' King John. a word used by Shak. F. of brace. T. * a blow. 394) thinks that Fick is quite right in further connecting a stammerer. Parv. bogi. where it is explained as 'a hedlese nayle. Swed. 3367. a spike or spire or blade of grass. a the Bret. 1142. bractea-l. 471 (R. seen in Gael.Gk. Parv. bow-sprit. the arm. to stammer . Filix . G. pantry. see Bay (3). brodd. a projecting point. a ball . originally a measure ' of five feet. Confusion was inevitable.. BRACE.) M. dd stands for rd. but this is remarkably . unless it appears in Breath. Vomo. It is therefore co-radicate Bosworth . Ultimately. 4. braccan. brachium is borrowed from Gk. stamand perhaps even with Gk. nonsensical discourse. 3 1 5.) 1 A. a bur. formed by the extended arms . It seemsto have been taken rather from some dialectic form of French. immediately from the L. a bubble.) Discredited in litera.'X 73 Mandeville's Travels. a is a variant of A. ' BOX : . anything made of box-wood. ' F. breach or Lat. 360. a fellow. Irish brae.) M. Curtius (ii. (3) a shooting-fto* (4) a Christmas box brachium). bogr. hue. refuse. 46 pley wythe bowlys. (3). See Brief. a chamber often. Swed. v. Bret. Closely related to E. ' BOWEL. which well be a distinct word. see from rubbish. H. Du. O. (Not a native word. 87. tr. (Not a native word. . (E. Der. p.) (2). to bend. or bade. a bowl. Der. aupKaarov. a drinking-vessel. p. ' drum is ready brac'd . Nt. brache (Lat. Swed. of brace. ii. 1 BRAD. A. sedge. a quarrelsome fellow. Dan Bartholomewe's Dolorous Discourses. racka. There absent from Teutonic. to excite. . a quarrel. ' The brace of Seynt on the strength of the O. a sharp point. has brabble. and explains as ' fit to be thrown away . diminutive.). said of water. L 25. herbe. evomo G. to stand stiffly out. a chest.) . p. term. Braques. bash. See Brace. 207. the name of a tree. brak. used as synonymous with fem . T. brasse. ^f Kot from Bow(i). F. boy-ish. Swed. to Cockayne's ' the termination is that of ture. brache (F. the word is French. p. store-room. braCf. bolli. The origin of O. botellus. 72. Lat. . shape. . fern. . and called bowl from its rounded Prompt. brabbeling. H. boule a bowle. a bowed window. box-tree. brackish-ness. trash. v. bractea.' Prompt. boy-ish-ness. [t] Hale the boweline Pilgrim's Sea Voyage. E. has p. 126. a weapon to shoot with. Kilian spells brack. as the Teutonic root. a kind of hunting-dog. Miiller).' y. Thus A. Lat. such as (i) a chest . [*] to whip. is a remarkable similarity in sound and sense to M. brace. fastigium (for frastigium). a blow. often The etymology is from bow (i). A . &c.) lated to that of Bowl. From the verb above. See 304. brord. 169. F. Gawain Douglas has brake = brackish. whence brabbelaar. or from O. Roquefort gives (. a thin plate or leaf of metal. brad. we M. bowl-ing-green. adj. BRACKEN. The Icel.)+Swed. it is. Low Ger. W. to clear see Boulder.) modem technical word. O. to fight with fists Box. BOWLDER . bmtr. bras.A. p. bowl-er. E. G. palld.S. BRABBLE. E. term. boel (see boyau in Brachet). cow-house. filicelum. (E. P. a case to'put things in.-L. brackwasser. or buffet .. braque). O. to hold firmly. . A. Oude' A. i. O.) M.-G. 1 Shak. H. a bristle. perhaps Gk. a chamber.' and is the same word with Gk. dimin. Lat. (Scand. a dog who hunts by the scent. basa.BOW. H. a term of affection or familiarity . or castyn. F. +Gk. broken. intestine an arbour. a Icel. that is an arm of the see (Lat. Gawain and the Grene Knight. bracliishness in the same work.-L. a stroke. a house. s.) D. bulla. Chaucer. [t] Shak. and not a mere corruption of it. B. brack. The G. 68 . bow-window is one of semi-circular form. Prol. or spewe. biigan.' and see Way's note. and brachia. A. Brake (2). raclia. bowline.. ii. a sausage dimin. the See Icel.) . hour. p. (L. not the original (E. : A + + A BOX BOX + BRACKET. pi. as being closely related. byrst. like knave. Trevisa. 610. Chaucer. bower-y. broken. hibited in A. with that sense. rightly gives the Teutonic forms to quarrel a quarrel.. i. ^f Perhaps lat. chium. See Pash also Baste. iriifos. It is suggested in Curtius. the word of which bristle is a tion here. bolus Bowlyn. a spike. Dan. a cramping-iron. Parv. B. p. 4392. Boil ( 1 ). or ferme (sic . a ball to play with but the word is English.) a seat in the front of a coach (with a box under it formerly) . bras . baywindow is a window forming a recess in the room . braking. % ! BOW-WINDOW. gen. Furnivall. C. See Ball. a hunting-dog. E. B. . (F.) (3). a sting. Dan. and borsta. The spelling has been assimi(2). as a naut. of botulus. H. Cf. and Bark (3). Yet it may very the oblique cases. a cage (see quotation in E.B. a cage.) and again Bowie. puking. in the Prompt. ed. also. 53. a corbel. It is probable that box botanical term. Du. 132. the dimin. bogo.brasd or brast. The history of the introduction of the word Lat. + + + + BRACH. JEneid. ' BRAD. bollr. p. (Scand. fem.. and the second r in brord stands for orig. is merely another spelling and application of the same word the orig. O. a lapdog . The (i). iii. bog. See bow of a ship. Der. with pupil and puppet. (E. + + + . the curved stem of a ship. &c. confusion. bur. Dan. in its senses of prop ' or ' clamp. Lat. buxus. hound. ' ' polio. see Cotgrave.. broken. rough grass. fipaxv** short. a sausage. a bitch. form. 1. C.) Swed. as was said. also. Chaucer has bowe.) M. 6.' Or of the nom. B. bros. brachium sancti Georgii) BOW + BOW BOW Bow + + ' + + BRACELET. . (E. it cannot be derived directly from brace. and shews that. Icel. 1 50. M. are words that have no rela. a ball. Du. ' also ' Brakebushe. M. bobtig. bracelet). closely related to brist. bracelet (Cot. broddr. ( 2) burkni. brosdaich. a metal ball affixed to a papal bull. ask with a*e. to translate salsos. an armlet (see Brachet. brack. (F. bube). G. pogo. Swed. BOWL ' : . les serres d'uue ecrevisse. . ' alapa. a rogue. M. bolo. See Boor. retching. filicarium . a villain. brachium. the arm. a chamber. See Babe. v. 47. The orig. of Higden.-L. ' somewhat salt. Brachet. M. fem. (F. (E. i. box. slap. v. bov. iii. ratki. a frost-nail. form is clearly brake. v. E. and later. bolle. a dog. H. piibe (G. Good or joining of peeces together. the source is clearly Women. pi.' i. Lat. See below. Layamon. H. 7. the comparative of Gk. Dan. bracken. A ' . S. From bow (4) and line cf. a Dan. Thus box is co-radicate with pyx. brord and brad really represents a form f\ The Gael. S. by Saxon grammar. F. babe. Icel.

vlasbraak. V BRAMBLE. breaking. + Irish bragaim. See Brindled. H. branca. through French. O. Borrowed from O. 7 . brae. The prefix is either of English. breghe). + + a burning piece of wood a mark made by fire . a cincture for fastening up breeches . 2. 142 (A. Plowman. to weave. iii. branche. brangus.+Du.Corn. breowan. fermented grain. A. V BHRAG. to brandish a sword Will. v. of Scandi. Jamieson's Scot. word Breath. Max as explained by ' . meaning to swing. vii. and spices Irish bracat. to means to whirl. to Macb. to shake. esp. 91. 3). brandissant). p. perhaps E. S. from the former of which brandy was formed by dropping the last syllable. the burnt tail . pt. a rough prickly shrub. bragg-er. q. So also to crack is 'to boast. a kind of ligature. B. G. brember . . BRAKE Shak.) M. ' E. It is almost certainly connected with Du. turn about. Layamon. B. T.. Icel. root prob. vi.) = F. A. to be rolled up toge' ' ' M. . [The sense is (i) a burning (2) a fire-brand . . a sword. the brahmanical caste essence of the world. Wallachian bre'nce. Parv. F.) + + . from which source also comes the F. honey. breken. 242 (8th edition). a name of various (i). from its brightness. S. branche. a branch. land broken up. is the same bran. a flax-brake. bhri. BRANCH. ' Brayde lacys. brein. p. brack and brache in Grimm's WorterB. E. Diet. a sword. 21 A. entwine. the first deity of the Hindu triad Benfey. . G. . Du. O. xliii. Brand-wine occurs in Beaum. Parv. E. E. a burning. again is from the Breton brenn. brancicare. In the Latin original. spelling. braiden. brand. Low G. borrowed from O. braundisen. compared with A. branderij. bright. burning wood. 3261. a fire-brand. with Du. burnt wine Beggars' Bush. to bum. is not in Macleod's Diet. the coat i. break. brand. brandgas. He does not give the root . F. explosion . compared with braga. e. is a mere variant of Du. Gael. (C. (E. whence E. ablackberry. ' ' . vibra. ii. a blackberry. ' . Some connect is a derived one it with Gk. orig. a boast. .74 BRAG. which. G. A. Supposed to be derived from Skt. The notion seems fem. brag' gard . bragd. brand. It is difficult to determine whether our word was borrowed directly from the Welsh. Eccles. to break flax. The A. Fick gives the Teutonic base as bragd. a Brahman. to grope. a distillery hence the sense is really distilled wine. brandir (pres. i. 3. and Fletcher. bran. splendid (E.E. also meant to distil. O. brambter. a distiller. 5. + breagh. gebrandt (full form geburnt and wijn. also in the BRAN. &c. Auban. brembel. E. i. Cotgrave. A. E. bregen (Bosworth). to brandish. . See Break. The word seems to be the same as Brand. S. 215.) (F. bowes pinsella. a liquor made of ale. with which cf. a brah. brand. E. . see Curtius. an instrument for holding by the nose (Oudemans). gallant. Gloss. Vocab. brant. Grein. BRANDISH. (F. BRAND. H. bragio. C. 2332. a sword. properly a Norman F. Parv. man. cited in E. Weber.' we were born in Brahman-land Romance of Alexander. Brahman. braich is a derivative of the verb brack. 11. form brdmal. who suggests that the Low Lat. a bough of a tree. (F. to bum. BRAGGET. the divine cause and brahman. and Dan. 1. . brake. of . to flicker. The latter is more likely. 293. manie bred. Q. rastellum of brake. Rob. p. At. signifying possessed of. BRANKS. braiideler. The mod. husk. which p. a machine for breaking hemp. appears in the Gael. brag.] find also a M. 1838. bregfia. bren. braich. first conferred from some notion of redness or brownness. more likely. bragat. a bramblebush. Of Scandinavian origin: see p. red-tail) is sometimes called the brantail. BRAHMAN. a kind of mead. to break flax. to bear. 1499. boastful. Swed. to go astray. p. Skt. brom-bar. a cincture.' brandy being obtained from wine by distillation. braggart in Shak. brein. i. Wright's 201. termination -el the stem being brain-. F. bragaireachd. a sword-blade. (3) a sword-blade. brander. B. orig. But the older form is braggere. Du. W. Low G. gay. &c. bran. brembil. 1234. it means a rope employed to haul up the comers of sails. Prompt. [t] to boast. a sword . ' Miiller. i. -f. braget. form. (Welsh. e. the Lowland Sc. E. ii. iii. branler. start. B. to brag is to be regarded rather as Gael.-Scand. or as a prefix. We also find Skt. p. fuel (cf. has sense of ' ' See Break. breun. fallow. . bremel. The redstart (i. bren. braid. but surely it is not difficult to find. brain-less. iii. Cf. ' vol. a braquer. H. . ^f The idea is ' difficult to follow . and the termination is the common dimin. dung. branc. H. a sword. G. H. were in BragBut the word appears early in Middle English. for which the Swedish name is brandraf. and appears in ' Brake. to ferment which can hardly be otherwise than cognate with A. notwithstanding the likeness in form and sense. 3294. be confused. a goad. Celtic than French. weave . note 3. also. Bret. brandy . an ardent spirit. to stink . 1. C. occurs in brant-fox. brettan. answering to the Leechdoms. liness for which see Breese. + + ther.) [The sb. i. a blackberry. the seat of intellect. support. T. Wyclif. [t] (2). One of the meanings is a contrivance for confining refractory horses connecting it at once with O.] See Burn. Irish B. Nt. bhrdj. brombeere. cease. mechanical contrivances. and the vb. . ' ' . wine. brad. lit. which. 132. receipts for making bragot. iii.) Described in Jamieson's Diet. E.. it are given hi Wright's Prov.Du. explained by Prompt. brand. brack. 189. 8. Also in brentThe names were probably at goose or brandgoose. . marcher d'une ' B. or performing. as bren is the more usual form in early writers. G.) hawthom-iraie . as shewn by the Ital. Du. Irish bran. the unknown god also (personally) I. braak. brand. in the Bremen Worterbuch. priest. a burst. to draw. The maniere fiere.] W. viz. braambosch. (Dutch. I sometimes written brandtwijn. fire. Dan. Used now as a nautical term. + Breton braga. branch-less. . M. lit. an instrument for breaking flax Thus the word broken. BRANDY. ' ' . 138. (C. Comparison of Du.origin unknown.. 7. an arm. But Brachet accepts the above derivation of brandir . xxi. chaff.S. see also G. ' We . 193. change. braid. bregdan. Miiller and Webster. brandewijn. Le Gonidec. brayne. a sudden movement.) leather to tie up a hawk's wing.) Chaucer. . vb. . weave. . a clog or fetter for the neck braecke. claw of a bird or beast of prey. to cast or hurl with violence. F. fastened in the mouth. F. the W. malt. It may then be referred to the prolific BHRAG.) Formerly called brandywine. from *J BHRAG. 156). C. se parer de beaux habits . form is The F. braam. brein (O. H. of an arm. The Icel. 1468. See Bear (i). brache. a brand. restrain. malt. Fick. to brake hempe breach. Dr. BRAID. form it occurs in Vie de St. derivatives brancare. Chaucer. brail was a piece of BRAIL. according to Brachet. BRAG. bragh. brandef). bran. fine. bretten. In the . ^[ The Lowland Scottish bragwort is a corrupt form. 49. and 77. O. 47 brain. &c. to brandbredan. S. brandish. Low G. branch-y.. See Bracelet.) M. bragg-art. turn about. 636. . or indirectly. 47. M. the ' Bracken. breegen. M.Swed. a claw. 135. brdcha. shews that broken. suffix -el from F. E. to brew. word comes near the Skt. E. Cf. a frequentative form ofbrander. v. which. stinking refuse and an older sense appears in the Gael. ' word is English. bear. fallow. branch-let. to Cockayne's . BRAHMIN. 1 75. a person of the upper caste among Hindoos. breiden. p. i. vainglory . P. a fire-brand. 1244. brand-wine. brahmana.. brinnan. (E. ^ BHRAM. because brandish is so closely connected with the idea of sword. braid. S. Miiller cites an O. I. to shine . Platt-Deutsch brake.) M. or the colour of burnt wood. and Brave. perhaps the reference is to the straggling or ' tangled character of the bush. Ppexfws. torqueo Prompt. the word is O. bregda is allied to the sb. v. braich. brad and Irish and Gael. Du. a forefoot. ^f See Diez. 131 (E. (Skt. See Brew. brombeerstrauch. 2. Will. to brandish . word . ' BRANKS. (O. gives a stem brag-. powerful prayer. brandr. see In any case. to break from p. P. but unsown. where the colour meant is of course red. on Sc. M. see F. brangas kinson. buch. a branch. unploughed. See Brawl (2). ii. W. formed by dimin. e. The Gael. ^[ I think we may rest content with this. Dutch or Platt-Deutsch. From W. BRAND- BRANT-. brachium. a cognate with E. ed. The country is called Bramande King Alisaunder.) M. braich. Dutch brake. to glance BHRAG. + . and by the Wallachian form. &c. 144. of the same origin as the E. 5916. whence Du. P. E. Der. branch. or. to shake. a kind of Swedish fox. of a grain of wheat. q. -f. to brag . + . ed. ' ' ' . a bramble-bush. Fries. and Littre treats branler as equivalent to O. Lat. of Palerne. ' (Much Ado. braak. malt. Icel. S. F. Breeches. navian origin. Cot.C. F. M. G. an arm. Some see a reference to the prickAnd see Broom.H . Grein. +Swed. The Dutch branden. S. or. the upper part of the head on which Der.' at least. malt liquor.. the original sense is refuse. 7. + + . &c. Glouc. an iron instrument used for the punishment of scolds. . i. hold. M. branca is probably a very old word in vulgar + + Latin. The difficulty is. 1303. Gael. empty pride. Plowman.) In Shak. necto. C. Brahmans. to assist in furling them. [The Gaelic bran. shake a sword. (E. bragg-adocio (a word coined by Spenser . weidenbusch = willow-bush. Low Lat. Miiller). O. braie. fallow. stench. due to an attempt to explain the Welsh suffix -ot. Cotgrave. brank means to bridle.) The mod. that there exists also F. Brand. the men are called Bragmanni. thicket . a sword. J. Du. bran. in Cotgrave. or broken ground. M.. shews that the second b is excrescent . is O. G. to grip. B.' cross-bows worked with a winch. C. fem. . 1340. S. from the Breton. in Sanskrit. C. (O. ' . p. + We . a blackberry . . brave). v. to evidently from shine. Cf. brand. i. bracce . of unknown origin. bragot. which is another form ofbrandir. ^ A BRAIN. form bren. From A. a bush. bremel. to break. 152. Ppe-y^a.) M.G. q. with the over-growth that Cf.. a kind of mead. F. of Lang. E. The more usual O. breeches. Oudemans). Skt. like the English. lit.+Dan.' Lect. brandr. braake. brant answers to the O. se pavaner. to break . brak. -j. I boast. Bremen Worterbuch. (E. a branch. &c. (C. ish. Diet.' See Break. form from a stem brag. a burning. bregaud. G. to be that of rough. fallow land springs from it. BRAKE Paleme. bragard. Der.

BEAN-NEW.
(formerly spelt brancas), an instrument used for punishing petty a sort of pillory ; Gael, brang, a horse's halter ; Irish Du. pranger, pinchers, barnacle, collar. -J- G. brancas, a halter. The root appears in Du. prangen, to pinch ; pranger, a pillory, ft. cf. Goth, ana-praggan, to harass, worry (with gg sounded as ng) perhaps related to Lat. premere, to press, worry, harass. See Press, = G. p in some cases, cf. Gael, hoc, a pimple, with ^f For the Gaelic 6
offenders,

BREAM.
brag; if so, brawl = braggle, frequentative of brag. Brag, and Bray (2). Der. brawl-er, brawl-ing.

75
See Broil
(2),

+

;

G.pockfn, small-pox. new from the fire. (E.) corruption of brandnew, which occurs in Ross's Helenore, in Jamieson and Richardson. The variation brent-new occurs in Burns's Tarn O'Shanter: 'Nae cotillon brent-new frae France.' Kilian gives an Old Dutch brandnieuw,

BEAN-NEW,
still
'

A

In Shak. Love's La. Lo. iii. (2), a sort of dance. (F.) It is a corruption of the F. bransle, 9, we have a French brawl.' also a explained by Cot. as a totter, swing, shake, shocke, &c. brawle or daunce, wherein many men and women, holding by the hands, sometimes in a ring, and otherwhiles at length, move all together.' F. bransler, to totter, shake, reel, stagger, waver, tremble (Cot.) now spelt branler, marked by Brachet as of unknown origin. B. Littre, however, cites a passage containing the O. F. brandeler, from which it might easily have been corrupted; and Cotgrave gives
'
'

BRAWL

;

;

brandiller, to

wag, shake, swing,

totter

;

as well as brandif, brand-

Du. vonkelnieuw, lit. spark-new, from vonltel, a spark The brand is the fire, and brand-new, equivalent to fire-new of fire. (Shak.), is that which is fresh and bright, as being newly come from the forge and fire Trench, English Past and Present, Sect. V. See
find
' ;

and we

Brand.
a pan to hold coals. (F.,-Scand.) Evidently formed from F. braise, live coals, embers. Cotgrave gives braisier, but only in the same sense as mod. F. braise. However, braisiere, a camp-kettle, is still used in mod. French; see Hamilton and Legros, F. Diet. p. 137. Not of G. origin, as in Brachet, but Scandinavian, as pointed out by Diez. See Brass, and Braze (i). BRASS, a mixed metal. .(E.) M. E. bras (Lat. s), Prompt. Pair. p. 47 Chaucer, Prol. 366. A. S. braes, ^Elfric's Grammar, ed. Icel. bras, solder (cited by Wedgwood, but not in Somner, p. 4. Cleasby and Vigfusson's Dictionary). Cf. Gael, prdis, brass, pot-metal Irish pros, brass Vf.pres, brass all borrowed words. B. The word seems to be derived from a verb which, curiously enough, appears in the Scandinavian languages, though they lack the substantive. This is Icel.irasa, to harden by fire Swed. brasa, to flame Dan. brass, to fry. Cf. O. Swed. (and Swed.) brasa, fire and perhaps Skt. bhrajj, to fry. Der. brass-y, braz-en (M. E. brasen, P. Plowman, C. xxi. 293 = A. S. brazen, JElf. Gram., as above), braz-ier; also braze, verb, q. V.,

BKASIER, BRAZIER,
spelling
is

The former

better.

original brawl have been a swnrd-dancel See Brandish. muscle boar's flesh. (F..-O. H. G.) M. E. braun, muscle, Chaucer, Prol. 548 braun, boar's flesh, P. Plowman, B. xiii. O.F. braon, a slice of flesh; Provencal bradon. O. H.G. 63, gi. brdto, prdto, accus. brdton, M. H. G. brdte, a piece of flesh (for roastO. H. G. prdtan (G. braten), to roast, broil. See bhrat*, to ing). from BHAR, to boil whence also seethe, boil, in Fick, i. 696 brew. ^f The restriction of the word to the flesh of the boar is
ishing, shaking, flourishing,
lively.

Can the

BRAWN,

;

;

;

^

;

;

+

;

;

;

;

;

;

and

brasier, q. v.

a contemptuous name for a child. (C.) The orig. sense a child's bib or apron hence, in contempt, a child. Chaucer has bratt for a coarse cloak, a ragged mantle, C. T. 16347 (ed. Tyrwhitt); some MSS. have bat, meaning a cloth to cover the back, as in P. Plowman. W. brat, a rag, a pinafore. Gael, brat, a mantle, cloak, apron, rag brat-speilidh, a swaddlingIrish brat, a cloak, mantle, veil cloth. 5T The bratog, a rag. O. Northumbrian bratt, a cloak, a gloss to pallium in Matt. v. 40, was probably merely borrowed from the Celtic. BRATTICE, a fence of boards in a mine. (F.) M. E. bretage, bretasce, brutaske (with numerous other spellings), a parapet, battlement, outwork, &c. Rob. of Glouc., p. 536. Belrax, bretasce, bretays of a walle, propugnaculum Prompt. Parv. p. 50. O. F. breSee further under Buttress. tesche, a small wooden outwork, &c. a vain boast. (Span.,-C.) It occurs in Burton, Anat. of Melancholy, To the Reader; ed. 1845, p. 35 (see Todd). An E. substitution for bravado. Span, bravado, a bravado, boast, vain ostentation. Span, bravo, brave, valiant ; also, bullying cognate with F. brave. See Brave, [f] Shak. has brave, valiant, showy, valiant. (F.,-C.)

BRAT,

was a

rag, clout, esp.

;

+

;

+

;

accidental ; the original sense is merely muscle,' as seen in the derived word. Der. brawn-y, muscular; Shak. Venus, 625. M. E. brayen, brayin; (i), to bruise, pound. (F., G.) ' O. F. brayyn, or stampyn in a mortere, tero;' Prompt. Parv. p. 47. M. H. G. brechen, to break; breier, brehier (V.broyer), Roquefort. The F. cognate with A. S. brecan, to break. See Break. ^[ word supplanted the A. S. bracan, to bruise, pound (Levit. vi. 21), from the same root. M.E. (2), to make a loud noise, as an ass. (F.,-C.) ' brayyn in sownde, barrio ; brayen, brayin Prompt. Parv. p. 47 ; ' where Way quotes from Palsgrave : To bray as a deere doth, or other beest, brayre.' O. F. braire. Low Lat. bragire, to bray, braFrom a Celtic root cf. W. bragal, gare, to cry as a child, squall. Like bark, it is deto vociferate ; Gael, bragh, a burst, explosion. rived from the root of break. See Bark, Break, and Brag. Shak. has brazed, hard(i), to harden. (F.,-Scand.) ened, Hamlet, iii. 4. 37 ; Lear, i. i. ii. Generally explained to mean hardened like brass ; but it means simply ' hardened ; being the verb from which brass is derived, instead of the contrary. Cotgrave says that 'braser 1'argent' is to re-pass silver a little over hot embers F. braser, to solder ; Roquefort has Braser, souder le (sur la braise). fer.' Icel. brasa, to harden by fire. See Brass, and see below. Used by Chapman, Homer's (2), to ornament with brass. Odys. xv. 113. In this sense, the verb is a mere derivative of the

'

BRAY

BRAY

'

;

;

BRAZE

'

'

'

'

:

BRAZE

'

;

'

;

BRAVADO,

;

BRAVE,

splendid ; brave, vb., to defy, make fine ; brave, sb., defiance; bravery, display of valour, finery; see Schmidt's Shak. Lexicon. -F. 'brave, . brave, gay, fine, . valiant, hardy,' &c. ; proud, braggard, Cot. Bret, brav, brad, fine ; braga, to strut about (see under Cf. Gael, breagh, fine. B. Diez objects to this derivaBrag). tion, and quotes O. Du. braiiwen, to adorn, brauwe, fine attire (see Oudemans or Kilian), to shew that the Bret, brad or brav, fine, is borrowed from the O. Dutch. But the root brag is certainly Celtic, and suffices to explain the O. Dutch and other forms. C. It is remarkable that braf, good, excellent, occurs even in O. Swedish whence Swed. bra, good, and perhaps Lowl. Scotch braw, (Hire) which is, in any case, only a form of brave. Der. brave-ry ; also bravo, bravado, which see below and above. a daring villain, a bandit. (.Ital., 'No bravoes C.) here profess the bloody trade;' Gay, Trivia. Ital. bravo, brave, valiant as a sb., a cut-throat, villain. Cognate with F. brave. See
. . . ;

See above, [f] a fracture. (E.) M.E. breclie, a fracture, Gower, C. A. ii. 1 38. A. S. brece, which appears in the compound hldf-geThe more brece, a fragment of a loaf, bit of bread Grein, i. S i usual form is A. S. brice, breaking in the phr. on hlafes brice' in the breaking of bread, Luke, xxiv. 35. [The vowel e appears in the O. Dutch brec or breke (Du. breuk) see Oudemans and in the A. S. gebrec, a cracking noise = Lat. fragor, with which it is cognate. The vowel in A. S. brice appears again in the Goth, brikan, to A. S. brecan, to break. See Break. break.] BREAD, food made from grain. (E.) M. E. breed, bred, ChauA. S. bread, Grein, i. 140. Icel. Du. brood. cer, Prol. 343. brauS. Swed. and Dan. brad. O. H. G. prdt (G. brod). p. Not found in Gothic. Fick suggests a connection with the root seen in our verb to brew, with a reference to the formation of bread by fermentation see Fick, iii. 218. wideness. (E.) This is a modern form. It occurs
sb. brass.

BREACH,

;

.

'

;

;

;

i

+

+

+

+

;

BREADTH,

P.

BRAVO,
;

Brave. p. The in the vocative case.

word bravo

I

well done
(C.)

!

is

the

same word, used

BRAWL
,

(I), to quarrel, roar.

M.
'

Brawlere litigator; brawlyn, litigo, jurgo ; Prompt. Parv. p. 48. Braulyng, P. Plowman, B. xv. 233. W. brawl, a boast; brol, a boast; to brag, vaunt broted, vaunting ; brolio, bragal, to vociferate ; cf. Irish braighean, a quarrel bragaim, I boast, bounce, bully. [We find also Du. bratten, to brag, boast Dan. bralle, to jabber, chatter, prate.] p. The W. bragal, to vociferate, appears to be from bragio, to
; ; ;

'

E. brawle, to quarrel.

tr. of Froissart, spelt bredethe, vol. i. c. 131 (R.) In older authors the form is brede, as in Chaucer, C. T. 1972. A. S. brcedu, Grein, i. 137. y. Other languages agree with the cf. Goth, braidei, Icel. breidd, G. old, not with the modern form breite. The Dutch is breedte. See Broad. to fracture, snap. (E.) M. E. breke. Chaucer, Prol. A.S. brecan, Grein, i. 137. Du. breken. Icel. braka, to 551. Swed. braka, brdkka, to crack. creak. Dan. brakke, to break. Goth, brikan. O. H. G. prechan (G. brechen). Lat. frangere, to break from FRAG. Gk. finvwat, to break from fPAT Curtius, ii. 159. [Perhaps Skt. bhanj, to break, stands for an older form bhranj; in which case it is the same word as break; Benfey, p. to break; Fick, i. 702. See Brake. 641.] ^[ The cf. Lat. fragor, a crash original sense is to break with a snap Gael, bragh, a burst, explosion Swed. briikka, to crack. Der.

in

Lord Berners'

;

BREAK,

+

+

;

^

+

+

+
;

+

+

+

^

;

^BHRAG,
' ;

'

;

;

;

breach, q. v.

a fish. (F..-O. H. G.) M.E. breem, Chaucer, Prol. O. F. bresme, a bream. O. H. G. brahtewa, M. H. G. brahsem, 350. G. brassen, a bream (E. Muller). Here O. H. G. brahs-ema has the

BREAM,

break-age, break-er. break-fast, break-water.

76

BREAST.
breviate, little writing,' &c.
;

BRIDGE.
Also
brev-i-ar-y, brev-i-er, brev-i-ty.

stem brahs-, equivalent to E. barse, bass, with a suffix -ema. p. Simithe O. F. bresme has larly, in brea-m, the final -m is a mere suffix See Bass (2). the stem bres-, equivalent to E. barse, bass. BREAST, the upper part of the front of the body. (E.) M. E. Du. borst. A. S. breast, Grein, i. 141. bresl, Chaucer, Prol. 115. G. brust. Dan. bryst. Goth, brusts, Icel. brjost. Swed. brost. p. The O. H.G. prust means (i) a bursting, (2) the breast; from The ori0. H. G. prestan, to burst. Chaucer has bresten, to burst. ginal sense is a bursting forth, applied to the female breasts in particular. See Burst. Der. breast, verb breast-plate, breast-wort.

See

Brief.
to concoct. (E.) M. E. brew, pt. t., P. Plowman, B. v. 219 brewe, infin., Seven Sages, ed. Wright, 1. 1490. A. S. breowan of which the pp. gebrowen occurs in Alfred's Orosius see Sweet's A.S. Reader, p. 22, 1. 133. Du. brouwen. + O. H. G. priiwan (G.
;
; ;

BREW,

+

+

+

+

+

+

;

BREATH, air respired. (E.)
ire/Ae, Chaucer, Prol. 5.

A.

M. E. breeth, breth ; dat. case breethe, S. br<k$, breath, odour; Genesis, viii. 21.

+ O. H. G. pn'idam
lation
;
;

G. brodem, broden, brodel, steam, vapour, exhaP. Perhaps allied to Lat. frag-rare, to FHigel's G. Diet.
; ;

emit a scent frag-um, a strawberry but this is uncertain see Kick, See Bran. Der. breathe, breath-less. 1. 697. M. E. brech, breech, the hinder part of the body. (E.) in properly the breeches or breeks, or covering of the breech Chaucer, C. T. 12882, the word breech means the breeches, not the breech, as is obvious from the context, though some have oddly mistaken it. Thus the present word is a mere development of A. S. brec, the breeches, pi. of broc. So in Dutch, the same word brack signifies both breeches and breech. See Breeches. a garment for the thighs. (E. perM. E. breche, or brfke, braccae, plur. Prompt. Parv. haps C.) and see Way's note. Breeches is a double plural, the form p. 48 as feet from foot, so is breelt from brook. breek being itself plural A. S. broc, sing., brec, plural (Bosworth). -f- Du. broek, a pair of Icel. brok breeches. pi. brcekr, breeches, -j- O. H. G. prdh, pntah, cf. Gael. M. H. G. bruoch, breeches. Lat. braccce, of Celtic origin br6g, a shoe briogais, breeches. Closely related to Brogues, q. v. the ^f Perhaps it is only the Latin word that is of Celtic origin other forms may be cognate. Besides, the Lat. word braccce does not answer so well to the Gael, briogais as to the Gael, breacan, a tartan, a plaid, which was so named from its many colours, being a derivative of Gael, breac, variegated, spotted, chequered with which cf.W. brech, brindled Irish breacan, a plaid, from breacaim, I speckle, chequer, embroider, variegate. to produce, engender. (E.) M. E. breden, P. Plowman, B. xi. 339. A. S. bredan, to nourish, cherish, keep warm ( = Lat. Du. broeden, to brood fonere), in a copy of ^Elfric's Glossary (Lye). closely related to broeijen, to incubate, hatch, breed, also to brew, foment, -J- O. H. G. pmatan (G. bruten), to hatch cf. M. H. G.
;

BREECH,

;

[Cf. Lat. Gk. ppvTov, a kind dejrutum, new wine fermented or boiled down of beer (though this seems doubtful).] to brew ; BHUR, to boil Der. brew-er, brew-house, brew-er-y. Fick, i. 696. a prickly shrub. (E.) M. E. brere, Chaucer, C. T. 9699. A. S. brer, Grein, i. 140. Gael, preas, a bush, shrub, briar gen. sing, prearis. Irish preas, a bush, briar ; the form briar also occurs in Irish. P. As the word does not seem to be in other Teutonic tongues, it may have been borrowed from the Celtic. Both in Gael, and Irish the sb. preas means also a wrinkle,' ' plait,' ' fold ; and there is a verb with stem preas-, to wrinkle, fold, corruIf the connection be admitted, the briar means the wrinkled gate. shrub.' Der. briar-y. Doublet, (perhaps) furze, [t]
braiten).

+ Icel.

britgga.

+ + Swed. brygga. + Dan. brygge.
;

yBHRU,

;

BRIAR, BRIER,
;

+

+

'

'

'

BRIBE,
bribe, brybe
'

esp.

an undue present, for corrupt purposes. (F., C.) M.E. Chaucer, C. T. 6958. -O.F. bribe, a present, gift, but a peece, lumpe, or cantill of bread, given unto a begger
; '
;

BREECHES, BREEKS,
' ;
;

;

'

+

Cot. [Cf. bribours, i. e. vagabonds, rascals, spoilers of the dead, P. Plowman, C. xxiii. 263. The Picard form is brife, a lump of cf. Welsh Bret, breva, to break bread, a fragment left after a feast.] = briw bara), broken bread, from W. briwn, briw, broken, briwfara ( to break. p. The W. briwo is clearly related to Goth, brikan, to break, and E. break. See Break, and Brick. Der. bribe, verb
; ;

;

brib-er, brib-er-y.

+

;

;

;

In Fabyan's lump of baked clay. (F., - O. Low G.) Chron. Edw. IV, an. 1476 and in the Bible of 1551, Exod. cap. v. F. brique, a brick ; also Spelt brique, Nicoll's Thucydides, p. 64 (R.) a fragment, a bit, as in prov. F. brique de pain, a bit of bread O. Du. brick, bricke, a bit, fragment, piece; also brick, (Brachet). Du. breken, to break, cognate with E. break. brijck, a tile, brick.

BRICK,

a

;

;

See Break.

Der.

brick-bat, q. v.

;

brick-kiln, brick-lay-er.

;

BREED,

+

;

From brick of brick. (F. and C.) and bat. Here bat is a rough lump, an ill-shaped mass for beating with it is merely the ordinary word bat peculiarly used. See Bat. a wedding ; lit. a bride-ale, or bride-feast. (E.) M. E. bridale, bruydale, P. Plowman, B. ii. 43 ; bridale, Ormulum, 14003. Composed of bride and ale the latter being a common name for a

BRICKBAT, a rough piece
;

BRIDAL,

;

;

briiejen, bruen,
;

to singe, burn.

p.

The notion

is

'

to hatch," to produce

by warmth and the word is closely connected with brew. See Brood, and Brew. Der. breed-er, breed-ing, [f] BREESE, a gadfly. (E.) Well known in Shak. Troil. i. 3. 48 Oestre Iimonique, a gadAnt. and Cleop. iii. 10. 14. Cotgrave has The M. E. form must have bee, horse-fly, dun- fly, brimsey, brizze.' been brimse. A.S. brimsa, a gadfly (Bosworth, Lye); the form briosa is in Wright's Voc. 281. +Du. brems, a horse-fly.+G. bremse, a gad-fly = brem-se, from M. H. G. brem, O. H. G. bremo, a gadfly, so named from its humming cf. M. H. G. bremen, O. H. G. breman, G. brummen, to grumble (Du. brommen, to hum, buzz, grumble), cognate with Lat. fremere, to murmur. Skt. bhramara, a large black
; '
:

(There were leet-ales, scot-ales, church-ales, clerk-ales, bid-ales, and bride-ales. See Brand's Pop. Antiquities.) The comp. bryd-ealo occurs in the A. S. Chron. (MS. Laud 656), under the date 1076. but bridall ^j It is spelt bride-ale in Ben Jonson, Silent Woman, ii. 4 See Bride and Ale. in Shak. Oth. iii. 4. 151. BRIDE, a woman newly married. (E.) M. E. bride, bryde, Prompt.
feast.
;

Parv. p. 50

;

Thornton Romances,

also birds (with shifted r), Sir Perceval, 1. 1 289, in the Older spellings, brude, burde ed. Halliwell.
; .

Layamon, 294, 19271.

;

+

Du. bruid. A.S. bryd, Grein, i. 147. O. H. G. prut Swed. and Dan. brud Goth, bruths. Icel. brudr. Teutonic (theoretical) BRUDI, Fick, iii. 217. Fick (G. braut). The W. priod, suggests a connection with Gk. Ppixiv, to teem. In Webster's Bret, pried, mean a spouse,' whether husband or wife.

+

+

+ + %

+

'

bee from Skt. bhram, to whirl, applied originally to ' the flying about and humming of insects;' Benfey, p. 670. SeeFick,i.7o2. [fl (i ), a strong wind. (F.) a. Brachet says that the F. brise, a breeze, was introduced into French from English towards the end of the 1 7th century. This can hardly be the case. The quotations in Richardson shew that the E. word was at first spelt brize, as in Hackluyt's Voyages, iii. 661 ; and in Sir F. Drake's The Worlde Encompassed. This shews that the E. word was borrowed from French, since brize is a French spelling, p. Again, Cotgrave notes that brize is used by Rabelais (died 1553) instead of bise or bize, signifying the north wind. Port, briza, the Span, brisa, the N. E. wind. N. E. wind. Ital. brtzza, a cold wind. Remoter origin unknown.
;

BREEZE

Der.

Breeze is a name given, in London, (F.) instead of coal for brick-making. It is the F. iris, briss, dust, rubbish (Halliwell). breakage, fracture, fragments, rubbish, a leak in a ship, &c. ; Mr. Wedgwood cites (s. v. Bruise) the Proven9al brizal, dust, fragments brizal de carbon, du bris de charbon de terre coal-dust.' F. briser, to break. Cf. F. debris, rubbish. (Wrong see Errata). [*] a short note, in music. (Ital.,-L.) [As a fact, it is now a long note and, the old long note being now disused, has become the longest note now used.] Ital. breve, brief, short. Lat. Breve is a doublet of brief, q. v. Der. From the Lat. breuis, short. breuis we also have brev-et, lit. a short document, which passed into English from F. brevet, which Cotgrave explains by a briefe, note,

+ + breez-y. BREEZE (2), cinders.

+

and cinders used same as the Devonshire
to ashes

'

;

;

;

BREVE,

;

a connection is suggested with Skt. pravdhd, fern, of prau&ha. of which one meaning is married,' and another is ' a woman from VAH, to draw, carry, bear see 30 years of age to 45 ;' from Benfey, Skt. Diet. s. v. vah, pp. 828, 829. This ill suits with Grimm's law for Skt. p = Eng./ (as in pri, to love, as compared with E. friend, and Skt. pro- answers to Eng./or-. The suggested conloving) nection is a coincidence only. Der. brid-al, q. v., bride-groom, q, v. a man newly married. (E.) Tyndal has bridegrome John, iii. 29. But the form is corrupt, due to conIn older authors, the fusion of grome, a groom, with gome, a man. spelling is without the r we find bredgome in the Ayenbite of Inwyt, ed. Morris, p. 333, written A. n. 1340; so that the change took place between that time and A.D. 1525. A.S. bryd-guma, Grein, i. 147. Dan. Du. bruidegom. Icel. briidgumi. Swed. brudgumme. B. The latter 6. H. G. brutegomo (G. briiiitigam). brudgom. part of the word appears also in Goth, guma, a man, cognate with this Fick denotes by a theoretical ghaman *, a Lat. homo, a man son of earth from y' GUAM, earth, appearing in Gk. x<V-ai, on the ground, and in Lat. hum-its, the ground. See Bride, Homage. M. E. brigge, a structure built across a river. (E.) also bnigge, Allit. Chaucer, C. T. 3920; brig, Minot's Poems, p. 7 Poems, ed. Morris, B. 1187; brugg, Rob. of Glouc. p. 402. A.S.
Diet.,
'

^

;

;

;

BRIDEGROOM,
;

;

+

+

+

+

+

;

;

BRIDGE,

;

'

Swed. Icel. bryggja. i. 145. Du. brag. -f- O. H. G. prucca, G. brygge, a pier. B. The word is properly dissyllabic, and a diminutive. briicke. The original appears in Icel. bru, a bridge Dan. bra, a bridge
brycg, bricg (ace. bricge), Grein,

brygga.

+ Dan.

+

+

+

;

;

BRIDLE.
0. Swed. bra, a bridge. The Old Swed. bra means not only a bridge, but a paved way, and the Dan. bro also means a pavement. Fick, ii. 420, connects this with Icel. briin, the eye-brow ; cf. the phrase brow of a hill." Perhaps it is, then, connected with Brow. a restraint for horses. (E.) M. E. bridel, Ancren Riwle, - A. S. bridel, Grein, i. 142. Du. breidel. O. H. G. priddel, p. 74. M. H. G. britel ; the F. bride being borrowed from this bridel, brittil G. bridel. B. The M.H.G. britel or brittil appears to be formed from the verb brlten, bretten, to weave, to braid, as if the bridle was originIf this be so, the A. S. bridel must be simially woven or braided. larly referred to the verb bredan, to braid, Grein, i. 138, which is a shorter form of bregdan, to brandish, weave, braid. See Braid.
'

BRISTLE.
BRIM,
edge, margin. (E.)
lake, or sea; Allit.

77

Poems,

M. E. brim, brym, margin of a river, ed. Morris, A. 1072; the same word is

BRIDLE,
;

+

+

(i), short. (F..-L.) Spelt brief in Barnes' Works, p. 347, In older English we find href, breef, P. Plowman, col. i, last line. C. xxiii. 327 ; with the dimin. breuet (brevet), P. Plowman, C. i. 72.

BRIEF

F. brief (so spelt in Cotgrave); mod. F. ire/. Lat. breuis, short. Gk. Ppax<J*, short. Perhaps from a root BARGH, to tear ; see Fick,

+

constantly used in the sense of surge of the sea, surf; also, ocean, waves of the sea. A. S. brim, surge, surf, sea, flood; Grein, i. 142; the alleged A. S. brymme, a brim (Somner), being merely the same Icel. brim, surf. G. brame, brume, the word, and not a true form. The latter is outskirts, border ; M. H. G. brem, a border, brim. derived from M. H. G. bremen, meaning (i) to roar, (2) to border; with Lat. fremere, to roar, and Skt. bhram, to whirl. cognate Similarly, Skt. bhiimi, a whirl-pool, is from Skt. bhram, to whirl. The brim of the sea is its margin, where the surf is heard to roar. See Max Miiller, Lect. on Science of Lang., 8th ed. ii. 241. See Breese. Der. brim-fid, brimm-er. Lit. bum-stone.' M. E. brimston, sulphur. (E.) brymston bremstoon, Chaucer, Prol. 629 (631 in some edd.) ; also brun-

+

+

BRIMSTONE,
;

i.

brimstone.

684

;

BRIEF (2), a letter, &c. (F., - L.)

Curtius,

i.

363.

Der.

brief-ly.

Cotgrave has

:

Brief,

or brief; a short

mandamus, injunction, commission,
Briar.
See Brigantine.

&c.'

m. a writ, See above.

Wyclif, Gen. xix. 24 ; Deut. xxix. 2 3 ; cf. Icel. brennisteinn, bren-, burning (from the vb. brennen, to bum) ; So also the Icel. brennisteinn is from Icel. and stoon, a stone. (3. See Burn and Stone. brenna, to bum, and steinn, a stone.
ston, brenstoon,

M. E.

Der.

BRIER
BRIG,
ii.

brief-less.
;

see

- Ital.) Milton has brigads, (F., Ital. F. 'brigade, a troop, crue, or company;' Cot. 532. Ital. brigare, to quarrel, fight. See brigata, a troop, band, company.

a ship.

BRIGADE, a body of troops.

P. L.

Shak. streaked, spotted. (Scand.) has brinded cat Macb. iv. I. I brindled being an extended quasidiminutive form. Icel. brand-, in the comp. brondottr, brindled, said of a cow, Cleasby and Vigfusson's Diet. App. p. 772. We also find Icel. brand-h-osdttr, brindled-brown with a white cross on the forehead. Icel. brandr, a brand, flame, firebrand, sword. Icel. brenna, to burn. ^f Thus brinded is little more than another form of
'
' ;

BRINDLED, BRINDED,

;

Der. brigad-ier. Borrowed from F. a robber, pirate. (F.,-Ital.) who also an armed foot-soldier, which see in Cotgrave brigand, and Brigandage, a robbing, theeverie.' gives Brigander, to rob Ital. brigante, a busybody, intriguer and, in a bad sense, a robber,

Brigand.
'

branded; the letter

i

appears again in

Brimstone,

q. v.

And

see

BRIGAND,

Brand, and Burn.
M. E. brine, bryne. Prompt. pickle, salt water. (E.) A. S. bryne, salt liquor, ^Elf. Gloss. (Bosworth) ; a Parv. p. 51. particular use of A.S. bryne, a burning, scorching; from the burning A.S. brinnan, byrnan, bcernan, to bum. taste. O. Du. brijn, brijne, See pickle, sea-water (Oudemans) ; whence Du. brem, brine, pickle.

;

BRINE,

'

'

;

;

pirate.

Ital. brigante, pres. part,

of the verb brigare, to strive

after.

+

Ital. briga, strife, quarrel, trouble, business; which see in Diez. B. Diez shews that all the related words can be referred to a stem

Burn.
pt.
t.

Der.

brig- easily comes from brik-, which brig-, to be busy, to strive. at once leads us to Goth, brikan, to break, with its derivative brakja,

Now

to break; Fick, contention, struggle, wrestling. 702. ^f No connection with W. brigant, a Highlander, from Der. brigand-age and see below. brig, a hill-top. a kind of armour. (F.) Brigandine, a kind of coat of mail, occurs in Jerem. xlvi. 4, Ii. 3, A. V. ; see Wright's Bible Word-book. F. brigandine, a fashion of ancient armour, conCot. So called besisting of many jointed and skale-like plates ; cause worn by brigands or robbers ; see Brigand. Ital. fl' The form is brigantina, a coat of mail.
strife,
1.
;

^BHRAG,

BRIGANDINE,

M. E. bringen (common). -A. S. bringan, brang, pp. gebrungen, Grein, i. 143 ; also brengan, pt. t. brohte, pp. broht; the former being the strong and original form.+Du.6ri. Goth, briggan (with gg sounded as ng) pt. t. brahta. O. H. G. BHAR, to bear, carry ; pringan (G. bringen). An extension from cf. Skt. Wai, to bear Benfey, p. 665. See Bear.

BRING,

brin-y. to fetch. (E.)

+

;

^

+

;

'

'

BRIGANTINE, BRIG,
is

merely short for brigantine. F. brigantin. Ital. brigantino, a brigantin, which he describes. Ital. brigante, an industrious, intriguing man; also, a pirate-ship. robber, brigand. See Brigand. M. E. bright, Chaucer, C. T. 1064. clear, shining. (E.) A. S. beorht (in common use). Old Sax. berht, beraht (Heliand). Icel. bjartr. O. H. G. peraht, M. H. G. berht, +Goth. bairhts. B. In the Goth, bairhts, the s is the sign of the nom. shining. case, and the t is formative, leaving a stem bairh-, signifying to shine cognate with Skt. bhrdj, to shine, and with the stem flag- of Lat. flagrare, to flame, blaze, burn; whence the sb. flag-ma, i.e.flamma,

a two-masted ship. (F., Ital.) Brig Cotgrave has it, to translate the F.

BRIGHT,

+

+ +

;

a flame.
152.

From t/ BHARG,

or

BHRAG,

to blaze, shine

;

Fick,

i.

Hence

margin; but properly, a slope. (Scand.) M.E. brink, edge of a pit, Chaucer, C. T. 9275 a shore, Wyclif, John, xxi. 4. Dan. brink, edge, verge. Swed. brink, the descent or slope of a hill. Icel. brekka ( = brenka), a slope, also a crest of a hill, a hill bringa, a soft grassy slope, orig. the breast. in Swedish, bringa ft. So, too, is the breast, brisket and Dan. bringe is the chest. Add prov. G. sward a grassy hill (Fliigel). We saw, above, that the brink, y. The same relation orig. sense of Swed. and Icel. bringa is 'breast.' in Celtic. We have W. bryncu, a hillock, from W. and Corn. appears and (just as the W. brynti, filthiness, is derived from W. bryn, a hill bront, filth) we may at once connect W. bryn with W. bron, the breast, pap, also, the breast of a hill. So, in Cornish, bron means a round S. This points back to an protuberance, breast, the slope of a hill. older conception, viz. that of roundness,' which appears, perhaps, again in the Irish bru, the womb, belly, with the remarkable word bruach, lit. great-bellied, but also meaning a border, brink, edge, Further back, we are clearly led to the bank, mound O'Reilly. BHRU, to swell, boil; see Fick, i. 696. See Bride, Brew.
;

BRINK,

+

+

;

;

;

;

'

'

'

;

bright is co-radicate

with flame.

Der.

bright-ly, bright-

ness, bright-en

(Goth, gabairhtjan).
;

BRILL, a fish Rhombus vulgarls. (C.) word as the Cornish brilli, mackerel, the
1

BRISK, nimble, lively, smart, trim. (C.) Not in early authors; used by Shak. and Milton. W. brysg, quick, nimble ; cf. brys, haste,
leap for joy ; also Irish briosg, a start, a bounce. B. If in this case, the initial Celtic 6 stands for an older p, then ' The English brisk, perhaps brisk is co-radicate with fresh, frisky. frisky, and fresh, all come from the same source ;' Max Miiller, Lect. on Science of Language, 8th ed. ii. 297. See Fresh, Frisky.
brysio, to hasten. start with surprise,

^

Most
lit.

' spotted fishes ; the brill being minutely spotted with white ; In this view, brill stands for brithel, Engl. Cycl. S. v. Pleuronectida:. formed by the dimin. suffix -el from Com. brith, streaked, variegated,

little

'

likely, the same meaning of which is
'

+ Gael, briosg, quick, alert, lively

;

cf.

briosg, vb., to

pied, speckled ; cognate with Gael, breac, brych, freckled, Irish treac, speckled, a very common Celtic word, seen in the E. brock, a conbadger, q. v. Cf. Corn, brithel, a mackerel, brithelli, and
pi.

W.

Der.

brisk-ly, brisk-ness.

So in Irish and Gaelic, breac means traction) brilli. and a trout ; and in Manx, bract means both trout
'
'

'

both and mackerel.'
'

'

(by spotted

'

BRILLIANT,
Dryden has
to glitter, sparkle.

shining.

brilliant, sb.,

Not in early use. (F.,-L.,-Arab.) meaning 'a gem;' Character of a Good

F. brillant, glittering, pres. pt. of v. briller, Lat. beryllare* (an unauthorised form), to Low Lat. berillus, sparkle like a precious stone or beryl (Brachet). see Diefenbach, Glossarium Latinoberyllus, a gem, an eye-glass

Parson, last line but one.

Low

;

Germanicum

an eye-glass, brillum, an eye-glass, in Ducange. ^[ This etymology is rendered certain by the fact that the G. brille, spectacles, is certainly a corruption of beryllus, a beryl see Max Miiller, Lectures on the Science of Language, ii. 583 8th ed
;

cf. berillus,

;

;

1875.

See Beryl.

Ben part of the breast-piece of meat. (F.,-C.) Jonson has brisket-bone; Sad Shepherd, i. 22. O. F. brischet, a form given by Brachet, s. v. brechet, but bruschet in Littre however, Brichet, m. the brisket, or breast-piece. Cotgrave has Wedgwood gives the Norman form as bruchet. Bret, bruched, the breast, see the word hi Le Gonidec, who chest, claw of a bird (Wedgwood) notes that in the dialect of Vannes the word is brusk. Brachet gives the W. brisket, a breast, and Webster and Littre the W. brysced, the breast of a slain animal I cannot find either form. However, the word is most likely of Celtic origin, and ultimately connected with E. breast. See Breast. BRISTLE, a stiff hair. (E.) M. E. bristle, berstle, Chaucer, Prol. A.S. byrst, a bristle, Herbarium, 52. 2 (Bosworth); with 556. dimin. suffix -el. Du. borstel, a bristle. Icel. burst, a bristle.
;
' :

BRISKET,

;

;

+

+

+

78
Swed.
borsl,

BRITTLE.
a
bristle.

BRONZE.
F. 'broder, to imbroyder,' Cotgrave; a word more usually spelt border, also in Cotgrave, with the explanation to border, gard, ' welt also gives also, to imbroyder,' &c. Bordeur, an imCf. Span, and Port, bordar, to embroider. The lit. broyderer.' sense is 'to work on the edge,' or 'to edge.' F. bord, explained by
v. 30.
' ;

+ G. borste, a bristle. + Skt. hrith (orig. bhrish),
;

Skt. sahasra-brishti, having a thousand points; Benfey, pp. 666, 1121; Fick, i. 159, iii. 207. B. This word is closely connected with Brad, q. v. Fick gives ' borsta as the Teutonic form for bristle,' and brosda as that for brad.
cf.

to bristle, to stand erect, said of hair

He

:

Der.

bristle,

verb

;

bristl-y, bristl-i-ness.
;

M. E. britel, brotel, brute! Chaucer has Formed by adding the brotel. Leg. of Good Women, Lucr. 206. suffix -el (A. S. -of) to the stem of the M. E. brutten or britten, to break. On the suffix -el (-o/) see Koch, Gramm. iii. 49. The M. E.

BRITTLE,

fragile. (E.)

Icel. brjdta, Grein, i. 142. Dan. bryde, to break. to break, destroy. Swed. bryta, to break. From a Teutonic stem brut, Fick, iii. 218 evidently only a variation of the stem brak, to break. ^f The M. E. has also a form brickie, used by Spenser, F. Q. iv. 10. 39, obviously from A. S. brecan, to break. The Latin fragilis (E. fragile, frail) is from the same root.

brutten is

from A.

S. breotan, to

break

;

+

+

+

;

See

Break.

to tap liquor. (F., L.) The M. E. phrase is setten on broche, to set a-broach, to tap, Babees Boke, ed. Fumivall, p. 266. Imitated from the F. mettre en broche, to tap a barrel, viz. by piercing F. broche, a broach, it ; from F. brocher, to broach, to spitt ; Cot.
' ' '

BROACH,
'

spitt

;

Cot.

See

BROAD, adj.,
A. Dan.

Brooch, Abroach. wide. (E.) M. E. brod,

brood, Chaucer, Prol. 155.

S. brad, Grein, i. 1 36. Goth, braids. bred.

+

+ Du. breed. + Icel. breidr. + Swed. and + O. H. G. preit (G. breit). B. The
also breadth, q. v.

the welt, hem, or selvedge of a garment ; whence also See Border, [f] M. E. broilen. (i), to fry, roast over hot coals. (C.) Brolyyn, or broylyn, ustulo, ustillo, torreo Prompt. Parv. p. 53. See Chaucer, Prol. 385. p. Origin doubtful but it is probable (as is usual in words ending with / preceded by a diphthong) that the word was originally dissyllabic, with the addition of-/ (M. E. -len) to render the verb frequentative cf. crack-le from crack. y. If so, the root is to be sought by comparison with Gael, bruich, to boil, seethe, simmer sometimes, to roast, to toast. Cf. Irish bruighim, I seethe, boil. Thus it is from the same root as fry; cf. la.t.frigere, to fry Gk. <t>pvyftv, to parch Skt. bharj, to parch, bhrajj, to parch, roast. See Fry. ^f Certainly not F. bruler, to bum; which = Lat. peruslulare. But see Errata. [*] - C.) Occurs in Shak. (2), a disturbance, tumult. (F., I Hen. VI, i. 1. 53 iii. I. 92. Spelt breull in Bemers, tr. of Froissart, vol. ii. c. 140. F. brouiller, explained by Cotgrave by 'to jumble, trouble, disorder, confound, marre by mingling together to huddle, tumble, shuffle things ill-favouredly to make a troublesome hotchpotch to make a hurry, or great hurbyburly.' p. Probably of Celtic

Cot. to

mean

'

'

E. border.
'

BROIL

*

;

;

;

;

;

;

BROIL

;

;

;

;

suggested connection with Gk. irXarus and Skt. prath, to spread out Some (Schleicher), can hardly be right, and is ignored by Curtius. see a relation to the sb. board, which is also doubtful. Der. broad-ly,
broad-ness, broad-en, broad-side
;
' brocade waistvariegated silk stuff. (Span.) coat' is mentioned in the Spectator, no. 15. Span, brocado, sb., brocade also pp., brocaded, embroidered with gold which explains the use of brocade as an adjective. [The Span, form is much nearer than F. brocard (brocar in Cotgrave), or the Ital. broccato the Port, form is, however, brocado, but it appears to be only a substantive.] Brocado is properly the pp. of a verb brocar, which no doubt meant 'to embroider,' answering to F. brocher, which Cotgrave explains by to broach, to spit also, to stitch grossely, to set or sowe with a broach, or der. from F. broche, explained by great stitches
; ; ; '
;

BROCADE, a

A

cf. Gael, broighleadh, bustle, confusion, turmoil ; origin broiglich, Also Welsh broch, din, tumult, noise, bawling, confusion, tumult. The word is not unlike froth, foam, wrath; brochell, a tempest. brawl (i), q. v. ; and the two words may be ultimately from the same root. Cf. Lat./rag-or, noise and see Bark, to yelp as a dog; also Brag, Imbroglio. But see Errata. [#]
; ;

BROKER,
M. E.
brokers in

an agent, a middle-man
a

in transactions

= brocage commission on

broker, brocour, P.

We also find Plowman, B. v. 130, 248. sale, P. Plowman, ii. 87. The oath of the

of trade. (E.)

'

'

;

spit; also, brocad-ed.

a great

stitch.'

See

Brooch.
'

Der. brocade, verb;
(Ital.,

London is given in Liber Albus, ed. Riley, p. 273. Their ' business was to bring the buyer and seller together, and lawfully ' witness the bargain between them ; for which they were allowed a commission on the sale, called a brocage, or, in later times, brokerage. These latter terms are merely law terms, with the F. suffix -age ; but the word is English. Webster is misled by the corrupt spelling
and from Mr. Wedgwood's elaborate explanation I disthe sb. broker from the M.E. vb. broken, meaning (i) to have the full and free use of a thing, and (2) to digest (as in Prompt. Parv. s. v. brooke) ; now spelt brook, to put up with. The only difficulty is to explain the sense of the word, the/orm being quite correct. Perhaps it meant manager,' or transactor of business.' 7. The verb broken (A.S. brucan = G. brauchen) was used, as has been said, in various senses and the sense of to manage,' or conto settle,' is not very widely divergent from the trive,' or perhaps known uses of the verb, viz. to use, employ, have the use of, digest besides which the derived A. S. sb. bryce meant use, (meat), &c. and the secondary vb. brycian meant profit, advantage, occupation to do good to, to be of use to (Beda, v. 9); and the adj. bryce meant The Dan. brug means use, custom, trade, business, whence useful. brugsmand, a tradesman. See the numerous examples of the M.E. broken or bruken (s. v. bruken) in Matzner's Worterbuch, appended to his Altenglische Sprachproben. Cf. Every man hys wynnyng brouke Amonges you alle to dele and dyght = let every man possess his share of gain, to be divided and arranged amongst you all Richard Coer de Lion, ed. Weber, 1. 4758. See Brook, vb. [f]
brogger;
sent, p.

BROCCOLI,
Properly, the

a vegetable resembling cauliflower.
;

L.)

We cannot separate

word is plural, and means sprouts.' Ital. broccoli, sprouts, pi. of broccolo, a sprout dimin. from brocco, a skewer, also, a shoot, stalk. Brocco is cognate with F. broche, a spit, also a
brooch.

See

Brooch.
Mere French. F.
brochure,

'

'

BROCHURE, a pamphlet. (F..-L.)
a few printed leaves stitched together.

F. brocher, to stitch.

See

'

'

;

Brocade.
Used by Ben Jonson, Sad Shepherd, cf. Plowman, B. vi. 31 Prompt. Parv. p. 53. A. S. broc, a badger (Bosworth), but the word is of W. broch; Com. slight authority, and borrowed from Celtic.
a badger. (C.)

'

BROCK,
i.

Act

sc.

4.

M.

E. brok, P.

;

;

;

the Bret, broch broch Irish, Gaelic, and Manx broc, a badger B. It is most probable, as Mr. Irish has also the form brech. Wedgwood suggests, that the animal was named from his white; ; ;

streaked face

;

just as a trout
is,

is,

in Gaelic, called breac, i.e. spotted,
i.

'

and a mackerel

in Cornish, called brithill,

e.

variegated

;

see

'

Brill. (It is also remarkable that the word broc for badger exists in Danish, and closely resembles Dan. broget, variegated.) Cf. Gael. brucach, spotted, brocach, speckled in the face, grayish, as a badger C. Hence, brock freckled, speckled, particularly in the face. Welsh is from Gael, and Irish breac, speckled, also, to speckle; brech, brindled, freckled ; Bret, briz, spotted, marked, brizen, a
;

;

BRONCHIAL, relating to the bronchia or bronchia.

(Gk.)

The

bronchia: are the ramifications of the windpipe, passing into the lungs. Bronchia is the scientific form ; but the more correct form is bronchia, neut. plural. Gk. /3/x>7X' a . neut. pi., the bronchia, or ramifications

of the windpipe. Gk. Ppoyxos, the windpipe, trachea. Cf. Gk. deer two years old. (F.) corruption of F. fSpa-fX' a neut. pi., the gills of fishes ppayx *' a giM> also, a sore ' sometimes spelt flapayxos, brocart. Brocart, m. a two year old deere which if throat, and (as an adjective) hoarse Cotgrave has it be a red deere, we call a brocket ; if a fallow, a pricket ; also a Curtius, ii. 401. p. Allied to Gk. flpdxfw, to roar, shriek only used kinde of swift stagge, which hath but one small branch growing out in the aorist tffpaxov, roared, shrieked, rattled. Cf. Skt. mih, orig. of the stemme of his home." So named from having but one biih, to roar; also spelt viimh, orig. brimh; Benfey, p. 888. The tine to his horn. F. broche, a broach, spit ; also, a tusk of a wild Skt. barhita means the trumpeting of an elephant ; Fick, i. 684. inflammation of the bronchial membrane. (L., boar hence, a tine of a stag's horn ; see Cotgrave. See Brooch. In Shak. Cymb. iv. 2. coined Lat. form bronchitis, made from Gk. ppo-tx os the stout, coarse shoes. (C.) Gk.) See above. Gael, and Irish brog, a shoe. See Breeches. windpipe. 214. In the an alloy of copper with tin, &c. (F.,-Ital.) to adorn with needlework. (F., - O. L. G.) Not in A. V., Ezek. xvi. 10. This form of the word was due to early use. In Pope, Dunciad, ii. 10; iii. 199. F. bronze, introd. in Bible, Ital. bronzo, bronze; cf. 06confusion with the totally different word to broid, the older form of l6th cent, from Ital. bronzo (Brachet). In I Tim. ii. 9, broidered is actually used with the sense of bronzare, to scorch, roast, parch. P. Diez connects it with Ital. bruno, braid. See Braider in Eastwood and Wright's Bible Wordbook, brown, whence brunire, to polish, burnish, brunezza, swarthiness, braiiledl The older spelling of braider is broder; thus we find 'a spoyle of brown colour; and he says that, in the Venetian dialect, the word dyuerse colours with brodered workes in the Bible of 1551, Judges, ^bronze means 'glowing coals.' Mr. Donkin says: 'the metal is so
freckle.

BROCKET, a red

A

>

;

:

;

;

;

'

'

;

BROGUES,
BROIDER,

BRONCHITIS, A

,

BRONZE,

:

'

BROOCH.
called

BRUIT.

79

from being used
coals."

glowing brown is
to the

an operation performed over The word bnmst, a burning. itself from the root of burn, so that either way we are led
in soldering,

Cf. also

M. H. G.

same

root.

See

Burn, and Brass.
(F., broche,

BROOCH, an ornament fastened with a pin.
;

L.)

So named

to bite, suggested by Fick, ii. 1 79, is unlikely see Curtius, who BOP. connects Ppiixeiv with pippaiaitdv, to eat, Lat. Harare, from Gk. But the Lat. broccus is obviously related to Welsh procio, to thrust, stab, prick (whence prov. E. prog, to poke) ; and to Gael, brog, to whence Gael, brog, sb., a shoemaker's awl. spur, stimulate, goad Cf. Irish brad, a goad, brodaim, I goad ; prov. Eng. prod, to goad. C. Hence the sense of brooch is (i) a sharp point; (2) a pin; (3) an ornament with a phi. that which is bred. (E.) M. E. brad, Owl and NightinA. S. brud, a form gale, 518, 1633; Rob. of Glouc. p. 70, 1. 16. given in Bosworth, but without authority ; the usual A. S. word from the same root is brid, a young one. esp. a young bird ; Grein, i. 142. M. H. G. bruot, that which is hatched, Du. broed, a brood, hatch. Cf. W. brwd, warm also heat whence G. brut, a brood. brydio, to heat. p. The primary meaning is that which is hatched, or produced by means of warmth. See Breed, and Brew. Der. brood, v. [t] M. E. brouke, which (i), to endure, put up with. (E.) ' ' almost invariably had the sense of to use,' or to enjoy ; Chaucer, C.T. 10182 ; P. Plowman, B.xi. 117; Havelok, 1743. A. S. bnican,
flpiiKtiv,
;

a pin, peg, spit, from its being fastened with a pin. M.E. Prompt. Parv. p. 5 2 also a jewel, ornament, id. ; cf. Chaucer, Prol. 158; Ancren Riwle, p. 420. O. F. broche, F. broche, a spit; also, Low Lat. brocca, a pointed stick; the tusk of a boar (Cotgrave). from Lat. broccus, a sharp tooth, a brochia, a tooth, sharp point B. The connection between Lat. broccus, and Gk. point (Plautus).
;

are from the vb. dbreolSan, to perish, come to the ground, become vile; connected with breillan, to break, demolish, Grein, i. 13, 142. The Teuy. From the same root is Icel. laga-brjotr, a law-breaker. 8. Thus brothel, tonic stem is brut-, to break see Fick, iii. 218. a breaker, offender, and brittle, adj., fragile, are from the same sb., See Brittle. B. But, of course, a confusion between source. brothel-house and the M. E. bordel, used in the same sense, was inevitable and immediate. Chaucer has bordel in his Persones Tale (see
;

^

Richardson), and Wyclif even has bordelhoas, Ezek. xvi. 24, shewing that the confusion was already then completed though he also has bordelrie = a brothel, in Numb. xxv. 8, which is a French form. O. Fr. bordel, a hut dimin. of horde, a hut, cot, shed made of boards. - O. Du. (and Du.) bord, a plank. See Board. M. E. brother, a son of the same parents. (E.)
; ;

BROTHER,

;

BROOD,

Du. broeder. Chaucer, Prol. 529. A. S. brdlSor, Grein, p. 144. Icel. brofiir. Goth, brdthar. Swed. broder. -f- Dan. broder. Gael, and Irish brathair. W. brawd, O. H. G.pnioder (G. bruder). Russian brat'. Lat. frater. Gk. Qpdrrjp. -} Churchpi. brodyr.+ Slavonic bratru. Skt. bhrdtri. B. The Skt. bhrdtri is from bhii, to bear. Der. to support, maintain; orig. to bear.

+

+

+ +

+

+

+

+

+ +

^BHAR,

brother-hood, brother-like, brother-ly.

+

+

;

;

BROOK
+ +
i.

'

Icel. brulta, to to use, enjoy, Grein, i. 144. Du. gebruiken, to use. O. H. G. pruhhan (G. brauuse. Goth, brultjan, to make use of. Lat. frui, to enjoy cf. Lat. fruges, fructus, chen), to use, enjoy. Skt. bhuj, to eat and drink, to enjoy, which fruit. probably stands to enjoy, use ; for an older form bkruj ; Benfey, p. 656.

+

+

+

+

M. E. browe, Prompt. (E.) i44.-}-Du. braauw,in comp. Icel. brun, eye-brow ; bra, wenkbraauw, eye-brow, Goth, brahw, a twinkling, in phr. in brahwa auxins in the eye-lid. O. H. G. prdwa, M. H. G. bra, twinkling of an eye ; I Cor. xv. 52. the eye-lid. Russian brave. Gael, bra, a brow abhra, an eye-lid. Bret, abrant, eye-brow. Gk. otypvs, eye-brow. Pers. abru. Skt. bhru, eye-brow. */ BHUR, to move quickly; see Fick, i. 163. ' The older sense seems to have been eye-lid,' and the name to have been given from its twitching. Der. brow-beat ; Holland's Plutarch,
;

BROW, the eye-brow
A. S. bru,

edge of a

hill.

Parv. p. 53.

pi. brua,

Grein,

i.

lit.

wink- brow.

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

;

+

+

p. 107.

[t]

;

co-radicate with fruit, q. v. M. E. brook, Chaucer, C. T. (E.) Du. broek, a marsh, a pool. 3920. A. S. broc, brooc, Grein, i. 144. B. Even in prov. O. H. G. pruoch (G. brack), a marsh, bog. Brooks, low, marshy, or moory ground Pegge's Eng. we find Kenticisms (E. D. S.) at Cambridge, we have Brook-lands, i. e. lowThe G. bruch also means rupture ;' and the lying, marshy ground. notion in brook is that of water breaking up or forcing its way to the Der. brook-let. surface from the root of break, q. v. M. E. brom, the name of a plant a besom. (E.) broom, the plant Wyclif. Jerem. xvii. 16. A. S. brdm, broom, Gloss, B. The to Cockayne's Leechdoms. Du. brem, broom, furze. confusion in old names of plants is very great ; broom and bramble are closely related, the latter being, etymologically, the diminutive of broom, and standing for bram-el; the second b being excrescent; C. Max Miiller connects cf. Du. braam-bosch, a bramble-bush. broom and bramble with Skt. bhram, to whirl, to be confused, to be rolled up together;' Lect. on Science of Language, 8th ed. ii. 242.

Fick,

BROOK (2), a small stream.
' : ;

701.

Brook

y BHRUG,

is

+

+

'

;

'

;

BROOM,

;

;

+

'

the name of a darkish colour. (E.) M. E. broun, Du. bruin, brown, Chaucer, Prol. 207. A. S. brun, Grein, i. 145. G braun. B. The Icel. brunn. -f- Swed. brun. Dan. bnnm. bay. close connection with the verb to burn, has been generally perceived and admitted. It is best shewn by the Goth, brinnan, to burn, pp. brunnans, burnt, and the Icel. brenna, to bum, pp. brunninn, burnt ; so that brown may be considered as a contracted form of the old pp. Der. brown-ish. Doublet, bruin. signifying burnt. See Burn. a coarse bread. (E.) The word is, of course, explicable as it stands ; but it may, nevertheless, have been a for bran-bread. In Wright's Vocabularies, i. 201, we find corruption Hie furfur, bran and at p. 198, ' Panis furfurinus, bran-bread.' to nibble ; said of cattle. (F., - M. H. G.) Occurs in Shak. Wint. Tale, iii. 3. 69 Antony, i. 4. 66; Cymb. iii. 6. 38 ; but F. brouster, scarcely to be found earlier. corruption of brousl. also brouter, explained by Cotgrave by to brouze, to nip, or nibble ' off the sprigs, buds, barke, &c. of plants ; a sense still retained in prov. Eng. brut (Kent, Surrey), which keeps the t whilst dropping the ' s. O. F. broust, a sprig, tendrell, bud, a yong branch or shoot ; M. H. G. broz, a bud (Graff, iii. 369) Bavarian brass, brosst, a Cot.

BROWM",

+

+

+ +

BROWN-BREAD,
' ;

:

'

BROWZE,

;

A

'

'

;

See

Bramble.
;

BROSE,
M. H.
G.). brewis, for

a kind of broth or pottage (Gael.) (F.,2. An allied word is 1. Erase is the Gael, broihas, brose. which see Nares and Richardson. In Prompt. Parv. we

BREWIS

Adipatum;' and see Way's note, where browyce O. F. broues, in the Roman de la Rose, cited where it is used as a plural, from a sing. brou. Low by Roquefort, Lat. brodum, gravy, broth. M. H. G. brad, broth cognate with E. broth, ^j It is no doubt because brewis is really a plural, and because it has been confused with broth, that in prov. Eng. (e. g. Cambs. ) broth is often alluded to as they or them.' See Broth, and Brew. BROTH, a kind of soup. (E.) M. E. iro'A, Rob. of Glouc. p. A. S. brtiS (to translate Lat. i'), Bosworth. Icel. brod. 528. 1. 2. + O. H. G. prot M. H. G. brut (G.gebrdude). From A. S. brei',wan. to brew. See Brew, and Brose. a house of ill fame. (E. confused with F., - O. Low a. The history of the word shews that the etymologists have G.) It was originally quite distinct from entirely mistaken the matter. The quotations from Bale M.E. bordel ( = Ital. bordello). ft. (Votaries, pt. ii), and Dryden (Mac Flecknoe, 1. 70) in Richardson, shew that the old term was brothel-house, i. e. a house for brothels or for the M. E. brothel was a person, not a place. Thus prostitutes Gower speaks of 'A brothel, which Micheas hight' = a brothel, whose name was Micheas; C. A. ed. Pauli, iii. 173; and see P. Plowman,
find: 'Browesse.browes, is cited from Lydgate.
; ' ' '

browze; broust, a thick bush brous, brons, a bud, shoot. A collection of shoots or sprigs is implied in E. brushwood and from the same source we have brush. See Brush. a bear. (Dutch.) In the old epic poem of Reynard the , Fox, the bear is named brown,' from his colour the Dutch version The spells it bruin, which is the Dutch form of the word brown.' proper pronunciation of the word is nearly as E. broin, as the ui is a diphthong resembling oi in boil but we always pronounce it broo-in, See Brown. disregarding the Dutch pronunciation.
;

bud (Schmeller).

B. The word

is

also Celtic;

cf.

Bret, brousta, to

;

BRUIN

'

;

'

;

+

;

BROTHEL,

M.E. pound, crush, injure. (F..-M. H. G.) briisen, Joseph of Arimathie, ed. Skeat, 1. 500; but more commonly also broosen, id. spelt brissen or brisen, Wyclif 's Bible, Deut. ix. 3 Numbers, xxii. 2=;. O. F. bruiser, bruser, briser, to break; forms which Diez would separate; but wrongly, as Miitzner well says. M. H. G. bresten, to break, burst; cognate with E. burst. See
to
;

BRUISE,

;

Burst.

Der. bruis-er. ^f Diez, E. Miiller, and others are puzzled by the 'A. S. brysan, to bruise,' which nearly all etymologists cite. The word is, however, authorised ; see further in Errata. The Gaelic bris, brisd, to break, seems to be a genuine Celtic
word,
[t]
'
.

;

Crede. 772.
also find

from the
tense

Cf. 'A brothelrie, lenocinium;' Levins, 103. 34. M. E. brethel, a wretch, bretheling, a beggarly fellow same root, the A. S. dbro'Sen, degenerate, base and the
;
;

We

and, past

dbnf&on, they failed. A. S. Chron

an.

1004.

These forms

a nimour; to announce noisily. (F., C.) Occurs in Shak. Much Ado, v. 1 65 Macb. v. 7. 22. F. bruit, a bruit, a great sound or noise, a rumbling, clamor,' &c. Cot. F. bruire, to make a B. Perhaps of Celtic origin cf. Bret, bruchellein, to noise, roar. roar like a lion; W. broch, din, tumult; Gael, broighleadh. bustle, the guttural being preserved in the Low Lat. confusion, turmoil Cf. also Gk. tfpvx<i<>nai, I roar; which brugitus, a murmur, din. Curtius considers as allied to Skt. barh, to roar as an elephant, which
;

BRUIT,

;

;

;

80

BRUNETTE.

BUDGE.
i

is from the Indo-Eur. BARGH, to roar (Fick, i. 151). Bruit seems to be from the same source as Broil, a tumult, q. v. a girl with a dark complexion. (F..-G.) Mere French but it occurs in the Spectator, No. 396. [The older E. equivalent is nut-brown,' as in the Ballad of The Nut-brown Maid.] F. brunette, explained by Cotgrave as 'a nut-browne girle.' F. Cot. Formed, with brunet, masc. adj., brunette, fern, adj., brownish M. H. G. brun, brown cognate dimin. suffix -et, from F. brun, brown. with E. brown, q. v. the shock of an onset. (Scand.) Seldom used except in the phr. brunt of battle, the shock of battle, as in Shak. Cor. ii. 2. ' ' the heavy brunt of cannon-ball However, Butler has 04. Hudibras, pt. i. c. 2. M. E. brunt, brant. 'Brunt, insultus, impetus;' Prompt. Parv. p. 54. Icel. bruna, to advance with the speed of fire, said of a standard in the heat of battle, of ships advancing under Icel. bruni, burning, heat. Icel. brenna, to burn full sail, &c. ^f The form of the sb. is cognate with E. burn. See Burn. illustrated by Dan. brynde, conflagration, heat Goth, ala-brunsts, a whole burnt-offering. The sense of heat has partly given way to ' ' that of speed,' shock but the phrase heat of battle is still a

y

familiarity, like E. old buck.' + Dan. buk, a he-goat, ram, buck.

'

Swed.

bock,

BRUNETTE,
; '

|

W. bwch, a buck ; bwch gafr, a he-goat. -Jhe-goat, battering-ram. Gael. toe, a buck, he-goat. Irish hoc, a he-goat. B. The root is uncertain ; the G. form seems as if allied to M. H. G. bochen, G. pochen, to strike; with a supposed reference to butting; but the word

+

+ O. H. G. poch (G.

a buck, a he-goat.
bock),

-f-

a buck,

+

;

;

biiza,

seems too widely spread for this. Fick (i. 162, 701) cites Zend a goat, Skt. bukka, a goat (Benfey, p. 633), and suggests

BRUNT,

1

:

;

to eat, to enjoy (Skt. bhuf). wash linen, to steep clothes in lye. (C.) Shak. has bud-basket, a basket for washing linen, Merry Wives, iii. 3. 2. M. E. bouken, to wash linen ; P. Plowman, B. xiv. 19. Of Celtic origin.

-V/BHUG,

BUCK

(2), to

;

;

'

'

'

'

'

;

Gael, buac, dung used in bleaching ; the liquor in which cloth is Irish buac, lye; ; also, linen in an early stage of bleaching. buacachan, buacaire, a bleacher; with which cf. buacar, cow-dung. [The remoter origin is clearly Gael. b6, W. buw, buwch, a cow Hence also the very widely cognate with Lat. bos. See Cow.] spread derived verb, viz. Swed. byka, Dan. byge, O. Du. buiken, G. beuchen, O. F. buer, to buck-wash ; a word which has given great trouble ; Rietz suspected it to be of Old Celtic origin, and he is not

washed

+

;

^

good one.

wrong.
brushwood, underE. brusshe, in the phrase 'wyped
cf.
' ;
:

Der.

buck-basket.

BRUSH, an implement for cleaning clothes;
'
;

M. wood. (F., LowLat., G.) it with a brutshe P. Plowman, B. xiii. 460 also Brusche, bruscus," O. F. brace, brocne, brosse, brushi.e. brush-wood, Prompt. Parv. small wood F. brosse, a bush, bushy ground, brush (Cotgrave). wood, Low Lat. brustia, a kind of brush, bruscia, a thicket. Bavarian M. H. G. broz, a bud (Graff, iii. brass, brosst, a bud (Schmeller) 1T See Brachet, who explains that the word meant 3^9)' a branch of broom used to heather, broom," then originally sweep away dust.' Cf. F. broussailles, brush-wood, and note the double sense of E. broom. See further under Browze. Der.
; ; '
'

M. E. boket, Chauperhaps C.) a pitcher, glossed by 'lagena,' and occurring also in Judges, vii. 20 (Bosworth) with dimin. suffix -et. P. The addition of the suffix appears in Irish buicead, a bucket, knob, boss Gael, bucaid, a bucket, also a pustule. y. It seems to have been named from its roundness from Gael, and Irish hoc, to swell.
(E.
;

BUCKET, a kind of pail.
Kn. Tale, 675.
A.

cer,

S. hue,

;

;

;

brush-wood.

BRUSQUE, rough
Henry Wotton,
d.

in

manner.

speaks of giving a brusk welcome -a rough one. F. brusque, rude; introduced in i6th cent, from Ital. brusco (Brachet). Ital. brusco, sharp, tart, sour, applied to fruits and wine. B. Of unknown origin ; Diez makes it a corruption of O. H. G. bruttisc, brutish, brutal, which is clumsy. Ferrari (says Mr. Donkin) derives it from the Lat. labruscus, the Ital. dropping the first syllable. This is ingenious ; the Lat. labruscus was an adj. ^f The notion of connecting applied to a wild vine and grape. brusgue with brisk appears in Colgrave ; it seems to be wrong. a dumb animal. (F., L.) Shak. has brute as an adj., Hamlet, iii. 2. no; and other quotations in Richardson shew that ' a brute beast.' F. brut, masc., it was at first an adj., as in the phr. brute, fern, adj., in Cotgrave, signifying 'foul, ragged, shapeless,' &c.

1639 (R.)

He

(F.,

- Ital.)

Spelt

bruslc

by Sir
'

BRUTE,

bowl (2), q. v., is of similar formation. a kind of fastening; to fasten. (F..-L.) The sb. O.F. bode (F. boucle), the bokeling occurs in Chaucer, C. T. 2505. boss of a shield, a ring from the latter of which senses ' buckle ' has been evolved. Low Lat. bucula, the boss of a shield, as explained by Isidore of Seville (Brachet). Ducange also gives buccula, meaning (i) a part of the helmet covering the cheek, a visor; (2) a shield ; The original sense of Lat. (3) a boss of a shield ; (4) a buckle. buccula was the cheek ; dimin. of bucca, the cheek. See Buffet. a kind of shield. (F..-L.) Chaucer has bokeler, Prol. 112; the pi. boceleris occurs in King Alisaunder, ed. Weber, O. F. bocler (F.bouclier) ; so named from the bode, or boss in 1189. the centre. See Buckle. a coarse cloth. (F..-M. H.G.) M.E. bokeram, cloth; Prompt. Parv. p. 42. O. F. boucaran (F. bougran), a coarse kind of cloth (Roquefort). Low Lat. boquerannus, buckram. Low Lat. boquena, goat's skin. M. H. G. hoc, a he-goat ; cognate with E.
^[

The word

BUCKLE,

;

BUCKLER,

BUCKRAM,

Lat. brutus, stupid. brut-ish-ness.

Der.

brut-al, brut-al-i-ty, brut-al-ise, brut-ish,

a kind of plant. (L., - Gk.) In Levins also The Vision of Delight. Lat. bryonia. Jonson, Masques

BRYONY,

;

in

:

Ben Gk.

tfpvajvia.

Gk. fip'vtii', to teem, swell, grow luxuriantly. small bladder of water. (Scand.) Shak. has the to rise in bubbles,' sb., As You Like It, ii. J. 152 ; also as a vb., Macb. iv. I. ii. Not found much earlier in English. [Palsgrave has ' Burble in the water, bubelte,' and the same form occurs in the Prompt. Parv. p. 56; but this is probably a somewhat different word, and from a different source cf. Du. barrel, a bubble.] Swed. Dan. boble, a bubble ; to bubble. Du. bobbel, bubbla, a bubble. B. The form of the word is clearly a bubble bobbelen, to bubble. a diminutive ; and it is to be regarded as the dimin. of blob, a bubble; it is obvious that the form blobble would give way to bobble. In the same way babble seems to be related to blab. See Blob, Bleb. a pirate. (F.,- West-Indian.) Modern. Borrowed from F. boucanier, a buccanier, pirate. F. boucaner, to smoke' to Cotgrave, to broyle or scorch on a woodden dry ; or, according F. boucan, 'a woodden gridiron, whereon the cannibals gridiron.' ' broile pieces of men, and other flesh ; Cot. 0. The word boucan is said to be Caribbean, and to mean a place where meat is smokeMr. Wedgwood says The natives of Florida, says Laudondried.'
also ftpvuvrj,

BUBBLE, a
:

'

;

+

+

;

BUCCANIER,

See Buck. fl" This etymology is sufficient, as names of were very loosely applied. Webster makes buckram a variation of barracan, the name of a stuff resembling camlet, and derived, according to Diez, from Pers. barak, a stuff made of camel's hair; Rich. Diet. p. 263. Diez himself inclines to the derivation of the present word from M. H. G. hoc. the name of a plant. (E.) The Polygon-urn fagopyrum. The word buckwheat means beech-wheat, so called from the resemblance in shape between its seeds and the mast of the beech-tree. The same resemblance is hinted at in the term fagopyrum, from Lat. fagus, the beech-tree. The form buck for beech is Northumbrian, and nearer to A. S. hoc than is the Southern form. Du. boekweit. G. buchweizen. See Beech. BUCOLIC, pastoral. (Gk.) Elyot has bucolickes The Govemour, bk. i. c. 10. Skelton has bucolycall relations ;' Garlande of Laurell, Lat. bucolicus, pastoral. 1. 326. Gk. &OVKO\IKUS, pastoral. Gk. B. The derivation of ftovxoXos is not clear; fliivKnXoi, a cow-herd. the first syllable is, of course, from Gk. tfoCs, an ox (from the same root as beef, q. v., and cow, q. v.). 1. Curtius best explains jSouxoXos as cattle-driver,' from Gk. KEA, to drive cf. Skt. kal, to drive, Gk. a race-horse, Lat. celer, swift. 2. Fick refers -KO\OS to the root KtXrjs,
buck.
stuffs

BUCKWHEAT,

+

+

;

'

'

^

;

kar, to run

'

'

:

Skt. char, to go, Lat. currere, to run. 3. Liddell ; and Scott suggest a connection with Lat. colere, to till. a germ ; to sprout. (E. ?) The Prompt. Parv., p. 54, has Biiddun as trees. Gemma.' The word 'Budde of a tre, Gemma' and does not appear earlier in M. E. ; but may have been an E. or Old Low
cf.

BUD,

:

'

:

niere(Hist. de la Floride, Pref. A.D. 1586, in Marsh), "mangent leurs viandes rosties sur les charbons et boucantes, c'est a dire quasi cuictes In Hackluyt's translation, "dressed in the smoke, which a, la fumee." Hence those who established in their language they call boiicaned." themselves in the islands for the purpose of smoking meat were ' Webster adds : The name was first given to the called buccaniers.' French settlers in Hayti or Hispaniola, whose business was to hunt wild cattle and swine.' M. E. biMe, Chaucer, (i), a male deer, goat, &c. (E.) C. T. 3387. A. S. bucca, a he-goat, Levit. iv. 23. +Du. bok, a heIcel. bukltr, a he-goat a he-goat ; also a term of boltlti, goat.

Cf. Du. hot, a bud, eye, shoot batten, to bud, sprout closely related to the O. F. boter, to push, to butt. whence the deriv. baton, a button, a bud this F. word being of Teu' tonic origin, p. Or perhaps to bud is a mere corruption of O. F.
;

German word.
out.

This

is

;

'

boter.

Either way, the ultimate origin
(i).
stir,

is

the same.

See

Button,

and

BUCK +

has budge, to

;

one's place. Shak. F. bouger, to stir; Prov. bolegar, to disturb oneself; answering to Ital. bulicare, to bubble up. Formed, as a frequentative, from Lat. bullire, to boil. See Boil. the facts that the Span, bullii P. This derivation is made clearer by
stir,

BUDGE (i), to

Butt

move from
iii.

(F., - L.)

Haml.

4. 18.

BUDGE.
means not only
'

BUILD.
&
'
;

81

to boil,' but to be busy, to bestir oneself,' also ' whilst the deriv. adj. bullicioso means place to place So also Port, bulir, to move, stir, be active; brisk, active, busy.'

'

'

to

move from

;

bulifofo, restless.

Milton has: ' those budge (F..-C.) Comus, 707 alluding to the lambskin fur worn by some who took degrees, and still worn at Cambridge by bachelors of arts. Halliwell has: 'budge, lambskin with the wool dressed outwards often worn on the edges of capes, as gowns of bachelors of arts are still made. See Fairholt's Pageants, i. 66 Strutt, ii. 102; Thynne's Debate, p. 32; Pierce Penniless, p. n.' Cotgrave has Agnelin, white budge, white lamb." Another sense of the word is a bag or sack and a third, a kind of water-cask Halliwell. These ideas are connected by the idea of skin of an animal which served for a bag, a water-skin, or for ornamental purposes. Budge is a doublet of bag and its dimin. is budget. See further under Budget, and Bag. [f] a leathern bag. (F., - C.) Shak. has budget (old edd. F. 'bougette, a little coffer, or trunk bowget), Wint. Tale, v. 3. 20. of wood, covered with leather . also, a little male, pouch, or A dimin. of F. 'bouge, a budget, wallet, or great budget;' Cot. id. cf. O. Fr. boulge (Roquefort). Lat. bulga, a little bag pouch according to Festus, a word of Gaulish origin (Brachet). Gael, bolg, See Bag. builg, a bag, budget. BUFF, the skin of a buffalo a pale yellow colour. (F.) Buff is a contraction of buffe, or btfffle, from F. buffle, a buffalo. Buff, a sort of thick tanned leather Buff, Buffle, or Buffalo, a Kersey. wild beast like an ox id. The term was applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft, buff-leather, and then to the colour of the leather so dressed Wedgwood. See Buffalo. a kind of wild ox. (Span., - L., - Gk.) The pi. The buffollos occurs in Sir T. Herbert's Travels, ed. 1665, p. 43.
doctors of the Stoic fur
'

BUDGE (2), a kind of fur.
;

with water,' is probable. Cf. Buffer, to puff, or blow hard also, to But the word remains obscure, and the spurt, or spout water on.' various conjectures remain without proof. a jester. Holland speaks of 'buffoons, (F.) Pronounced buffon, pleasants, and gesters ;' tr. of Plutarch, p. 487.

BUFFOON,

;

;

;

For the suffix, cf. ball-oon. f. Ben Jonson, Every Man, ii. 3. 8. bouffon, which Cotgrave explains as '^buffoon, jester, sycophant,' &c. Cf. Span, bufa, a scoffing, laughing at equiv. to Ital. buffa, a trick, which is connected with Ital. buffare, to joke, jest orig. to puff jest out the cheeks, in allusion to the grimacing of jesters, which was a See Buffet (i). Der. buffcon-ery. principal part of their business.
; ; ;

'

:

'

'

'

'

;

;

'

;

;

BUDGET,
'

;

.

.

a terrifying spectre. (C.) Fairfax speaks (i), of children being frightened by' strange bug-beares;' tr. of Tasso, Gier. Lib. bk. xiii. st. 18. Here bug-bear means a spectre in the shape of a bear. The word bug was used alone, as in Shak. Tarn. Shrew, i. 2. W. bwg, a 211. Shak. himself also has bugbear, Troil. iv. 2. 34. Irish puca, an elf, sprite hobgoblin, spectre butgan, a spectre. Gael, (and Irish) bocan, a spectre, apparition, (Shakespeare's PucK). Com. bucca, a hobgoblin, bugbear, scarecrow. terrifying object. connected further with Lithuanian baugiis, terrific, frightP. Probably
;

BUG

BUGBEAR,

+

+

+

;

;

;

ful, bugstu, bugti, to be frightened, bauginti, to frighten (Fick, i. 162) ; which Fick further connects with Lat./B^a, flight, fugare, to put to

flight,

and Skt.
See (2), an

to bend.

;

'

'

'

;

insect. (C.) This is merely a particular application of the Tudor-English bug, an apparition, scarecrow, object of terror. The word is therefore equivalent to ' disgusting creature.' So in

BUG

Bow (i).

bhuj, to

bow, bend, turn

And

aside, cognate with E. bow, see below.

'

'

;

'

;

BUFFALO,

sing, buffalo is in Ben Jonson, Discoveries, Of the magnitude of any fable. Borrowed from Span, bufalo, Spanish being much spoken in

North America, where the name

given to the bison. [But the Tudor Eng. already had the form buffle, borrowed from the has ' Buffle, m. the buffe, buffle, bugle, or wild French. Cotgrave ox; also, the skin or neck of a buffe.'] Lat. bufalus, used by ForGk. 0ov/3a\ot, a tunatus, a secondary form of bubalus, a buffalo.
:

buffalo is (incorrectly, the term was not really new in

perhaps) English ;

buffalo; Polyb.
foolish fellow."

BUFFER (i), a

xii. 3, 5.

Gk.

flovs,

foolish fellow.

The M. E.
balborum]

of

bufferes [Lat. Isaiah, xxxii. 4.

buffer swiftli shal

an ox; see Beef, ft] Jamieson has 'buffer, a means a stutterer.' The tunge
(F.)
' '

M.

E. buffen, to stammer.
;

speke and pleynly Wycl. O. F. bufer, to puff out
;

'

the cheeks, &c. See Buffet (i). p. The word is, no doubt, partly cf. Babble. imitative; to represent indistinct talk (2), a cushion, with springs, used to deaden concussion. (F.) Buffer is lit. a striker; from M.E. buffen, to strike; prov. Eng. buff, to strike, used by Ben Jonson (see Nares). O. F. bufer, See Buffet (i). buffer, to strike. M. E. buffet, boffet, a blow (i), a blow; to strike. (F.) esp. a blow on the cheek or face ; Wycl. John, xix. 3. Also buffeten, boLat. colaphizo, Prompt. Parv. p. 41 Also bufetung, feten, translated by a buffeting, Old Eng. Homilies, i. 207. O. F. bufet, a blow, esp. on the cheek. O.F. bufe, a blow, esp. on the cheek; bufer, buffer, to strike; also, to puff out the cheeks. B. Some have derived the O. F. bufe, a blow, from the Germ, puff, pop also, a cuff, thump ; but the word is not old in German, and the German word might have been borrowed from the French. No doubt buffet is connected with puff, and the latter, at See Puff. C. But the O. F. bufe may least, is onomatopoetic. be of Celtic origin ; the /being put for a guttural. Cf. Bret, bochad, a blow, buffet, esp. a blow on the cheek clearly connected with Bret, boch, the cheek. D. The M. E. had a form bobet as well as boffet; cf. 'bobet, collafa, collafus;' Prompt. Parv. p. 41; 'bobet on ' the heed, coup de poing Palsgrave. Now bobet is clearly a dimin. of bob, a blow, with its related verb bobben, to strike; words in which the latter 4 (or bb) likewise represents a guttural, being connected with Gael, hoc, a blow, a box, a stroke, and prob. with E. box. See E. The Celtic words for cheek are Bret, both, Welsh Box, verb. boch. Corn, boch, all closely related to Lat. bucca, the cheek, which Fick (i. 151) connects with Lat. buccina, a trumpet, and the Skt. BUK, to puff or snort. The original butt, to sound ; from the idea is thus seen to be that of puffing with violence ; hence, cheek and hence, a blow on the cheek. Used by Pope, Moral Essays (2), a side-board. (F.) F. 'buffet, a court (Ep. to Boyie), 1. 153; Sat. ii. 5. cupboord, or B. Cot. also, a cupboord of plate high-standing cupboord Origin unknown (^Brachet). Diez gives it up. That it may be connected with buffeter, sometimes used (see Cotgrave) for to marre a vessel of wine by often tasting it before it is broached, or, to fill it up

BUFFER
BUFFET

;

.

!

;

;

^

find bwg, butgan, bwci, a hobgoblin, bugbear; bucai, a See above. It is a spectre. (C.) In Lloyd's Chit-chat (R.) the word bug, with the addition of W. bw, an interjection of threatening, Gael, bo, an interjection used to frighten children, our boh (i), a wild ox; a hom. (F., L.) Bugle in the sense of horn is an abbreviation of bugle-horn, used by Chaucer, C. T. 1 1565. It means the hom of the bugle, or wild ox. Halliwell has Maunde'Bugle, a buffalo see King Alexander, ed. Weber, 5112 ville's Travels, p. 269 Topsell's Beasts, p. 54 Holinshed, Hist, of 1 7.' No doubt bugle was confused with bvffle or buffalo Scotland, p. O.F. bugle, (see Buffalo), but etymologically it is a different word. a wild ox (whence, by the way, F. beugler, to bellow). Lat buculus, a bullock, young ox (Columella) a dimin. of Lat. bos, cognate with E. cow. See Cow. a. Bugles are (2), a kind of ornament. (M. H. G.) fine glass pipes, sewn on to a woman's dress by way of ornament. Mr. Wedgwood quotes from Muratori, shewing that some sort of ornaments, called in Low Latin bugoli, were worn in the hair by the ladies of Piacenza in A. D. 1388. 0. I think there can be little doubt that the word is formed, as a diminutive, from the M. H. G. bouc, or bouch, an armlet, a large ring, a word very extensively used in the sense of a ring-shaped ornament the cognate A. S. bedg, an armlet, neck-ornament, ring, ornament, and the Icel. baugr, spiral The dimin. ring, armlet, are the commonest of words in poetry. bugel is still used in German, signifying any piece of wood or metal that is bent into a round shape, and even a stirrup. The Icel. bygill also means a stirrup; the provincial Eng. bule (contracted from bugle) means the handle of a pail, from its curved shape. y. A bugle means, literally, a small ornament (originally) of a rounded from the verb bow, to bend, O. H. G. bougen, biegen (G. shape;' beugen), to bend, Icel. buga, beygja, to bend. See Bow(i), to bend, ^f The original sense of roundness was quite lost sight of, the mere sense of ornament having superseded it. There is not necessarily an allusion to the cylindrical shape of the ornament. BUILD, to construct a house. (Scand.) M. E. bulden, bilden, Layamon, 2656 Coventry Mysteries, p. 20 also builden, P. Plowman, B. xii. 288; and belden, P. Plowman, Crede, 706. The earlier history of the word is not quite clear but it is most likely a Scand. word, with an excrescent d (like the d in boulder, q. v.). O. Swed. bylja, Formed from O. Swed. bol, bole, a house, dwelling to build (Ihre). ft. Dan. bol, a small farm. Icel. id/, a farm, abode; Ihre, i. 220, 221. B. In the same way it may easily be the case betli, byli, an abode. that the A. S. bold, a dwelling, house, abode (Grein, i. 132) is not an original word but borrowed from Icel. bul, with the addition of an

Welsh we
maggot.

BUGABOO,

'

'

1

BUGLE
' '

:

;

;

;

;

;

BUGLE

;

'

'

'

'

'

;

;

;

;

+

+

;

;

BUFFET

excrescent d. The introduction of d after / is a common peculiarity of Danish ; thus the Danish for to fall is falde, and the Danish for a ball is bold. [The alleged A. S. byldan, to build, is late there ' to embolden,' being is an A. S. byldan, but it means simply formed from the adj. beald, bold; but see Errata. [#] C. The Icel.
;

'

;

;

'

Dan. bol, O. Swed. bol, a house, dwelling, is probably to be reback (as Ihre says) to Icel. bua, O. Swed. bo, to live, abide, dwell akin to Skt. bhu, to be. Thus to build means to construct a See Be. Der. build-er, build-ing. place in which to be or dwell.
bol,

ferred

'

;

1

82
The Lowland Scotch

BULB.
j,
'

BUMBOAT.
turned into bolas-tre (bullace-tree), as in the Prompt. Parv., and then the tre was dropped, [t] a ball for a gun. (,F.,-L.) In Shak. K. John, ii. 227, ' F. boulet, a bullet Cot. A dimin. of F. boule, a ball. Lat. 41 2. a bubble. See Bull (j). bulla, a stud, knob a brief public announcement. (F.,-Ital.,-L.) Burke speaks of the pithy and sententious brevity of these bulletins ; Appeal from the New to the Old Whigs (R.) F. bulletin, 'a bill, Ital. bulletino, a safe conduct, ticket, a billet in a lottery;' Cot. Formed, by the dimin. suffix -ino, from bulletta, a passpass, ticket. port, a lottery-ticket; which again is formed, by the dimin. suffix Lat. bulla, a seal later, a -etta, from bulla, a seal, a pope's letter. See Bull (2). pope's letter. a stud, a boss; uncoined metal. (F., L.) Skelton has bullyon, a boss, a stud ; Garlande of Laurell, 1165; see Dyce's note. F. bouillon, a boiling ; also, according to Cotgrave, a studde, any great-headed, or studded, nails.' Low Lat. bullionem, ace. of Low Lat. bullbullio, a mass of gold or silver ; also written bulliona. Low Lat. bulla, a seal ; Lat. are, to stamp, or mark with a seal. bulla, the head of a nail, a stud. [In the sense of boiling' or 'soup.' the F. bouillon is from Lat. bullire, to boil, from the same Lat. bulla, in the sense of a bubble.] Mr. Wedgwood shews that the O. F. bullione (Stat. 9 Edw. Ill, St. 2. c. 14) meant the mint itself, not the uncoined metal, which is only a secondary meaning. This See explains the connection with the Lat. bulla, a seal, at once.
bolaster
first

5T big, to build, from Icel. bygtya, to build, is Hence bi-g and bui-l(d) certainly a derivative of Icel. baa, to dwell. only differ in their endings. a round root, &c. (F., L., Gk ) Not in early use. In

was

BULB,

-

-

BULLET,

'

;

Holland's Pliny, bk. p. xix. c. 4; vol. ii. p. 13. F. bulbe. Lat. bulbus. Gk. /3oX/3os, a bulbous root, an onion. Der. bulb, verb bulb-ed, bulb-ous. [f] to swell out. (Scand.) This word, in the sense of ' to swell out,' is very rare except in modern writers. I can find no early instance. Yet btilgja, to swell out, pp. btdgin, swollen, occurs in O. Swedish (Ihre), and in Swed. dialects (Rietz) ; the Icelandic has a pp. bdlginn, swollen, also angry, from a lost verb ; and the root is very widely spread, p. The A. S. belgan is only used in the metaphorical sense, to swell with anger, which is also the case with the O. H. G. M. H. G. b'elgen ; and again we find an O. H. G. pp. Itifolgan, pelgan, inflamed with anger, which must originally have meant swollen.' So we have Goth, ufbauljan, to puff up. Again, cf. Gael, bulgach, protuberant ; obs. Gael, bolg, to swell out, extend, &c. Y. All these examples point to an early base BHALGH, to swell, Fick, ii. 422. Der. The derivatives from bhalgh*, to swell, are very numerous, viz.
is in
;

Holland's Plutarch,

577; and bulbous

;

BULLETIN,
'

'

BULGE,

;

BULLION,

'

'

(a pustule), bowl, bilge, billow, belly, bag, boiled (swollen), a tree), bulk, &c. commonly find bulge in Elizabethan English used in the sense of ' to leak,' said of a ship this is but another spelling of bilge, q. v. [t] M. E. bollie, a heap, (i), magnitude, size. (Scand.) Prompt. Parv. p. 43. Icel. btilti, a heap; bulkast, to be bulky. Dan. built, a lump, clod ; bulket, lumpy. Swed. dial, bullk, a knob,
ball, boil

bole (of

% We

%

;

BULK

+

+

Blount's Nomolexicon.
Littre derives from F.
bille,

O. Swed. bolt, a heap bullhig, bunchy, protuberant (Rietz) B. The Swed. dial, words are connected with Swed. dial. to bulge ; Swed. bulna, to swell. The original idea in bulk is buljna, 'a swelling;' cf. the adj. bulky. See Bulge. Der. bultt-y, bulk-i-ness.
;

bunch ;
(Ihre).

BULK (2), the trunk of the body. (O. Low G.) Used by Shak. O. Dutch bulcke, thorax Kilian. + Icel. bukr, the Hamlet, 95 trunk of the body. + Swed. buk, the belly, -f Dan. bug, the belly. +
ii.

1.

.

;

G. bauch, the
the case with

belly.

The

a noisy rough fellow to bluster. (O. Low G.) Shak. has bully for 'a brisk dashing fellow Merry Wives, i. 3. 6, 1 1, &c. Schmidt. Also bully-rook in a similar sense, Merry Wives, i. 3. 2 ii. I. 200. Mr. Wedgwood cites Platt-Deutsch buller-jaan (bully John), buller-buk, buller-brook, a noisy blustering fellow, from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rook;' see Bremen Worterb. i. 159. These words correspond to Du. bulderaar, a blusterer, bulderbas, a rude

B. The mod. F. word is billon a log; see Billet (2). [t]
;
'

;

which

BULLY,

;

; ;

'

latter

forms have

lost

an original

/,

as

is

Bag.

See

Bag, Belly, Bulge.

B. The Gael.

bulg signifies (i) the belly, (2) a lump, mass; thus connecting bulk, the trunk of the bod