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edu / 303.871.2061 / BCH 208D
BLACKBOARD http://blackboard.du.edu/webapps/blackboard/execute/courseMain?course_id=_160092_1 OFFICE HOURS TUESDAY/THURSDAY 12-2PM OR BY APPT Objectives and Overview Migration is a fundamental feature of our lives. Indeed, every aspect of our civilization and our self-conception is shaped by the exodus of all humans from our origin as a species in Southern Africa 200,000 years ago. In our own era, the aging of western populations, the rise of new economic powers, and dramatic improvements in human capital have given rise to an era of labor migration unparalleled in magnitude and diversity, though not entirely unique. New technologies have risen to facilitate further migration, enable the transmission of resources and knowledge across borders, and create new transnational patterns of residence and livelihood that challenge our notions of nation, identity, and even the very meaning of the term migrant. To put it simply, migration is the human face of our modern era of globalization, entailing incredible costs, risks and returns for migrants along with important impacts for host societies, sending societies, and the global system. Migration comes in many varieties in terms of destination, permanence, and level of coercion, yet common theoretical, empirical, and policy unite these different forms of mobility. This course offers an holistic view of the migration process from multiple perspectives, at multiple levels of analysis, and on multiple aspects of our world today. As with globalization more generally, it is difficult to specify the exact meaning and impact of migration in comparison to that of a targeted program or policy. This course will map out and model these pathways as they relate to specific outcomes of interest such as development, environment, security, and identity. Migration also carries a raft of intended and unintended consequences, both for good and for ill, that constitute a continuing theme of the course. Furthermore, we often find that the cultural resonance or other perceptions of migration can be as important in shaping the world as the actual activities of migrants themselves. Each of these issues will be explored in weekly lectures and readings. Learning objectives for the course include 1) Understand, interpret, and manipulate migration data and key concepts 2) Familiarity with major migration systems and what makes them a "system" 3) Understanding key theories of migration process at the global, state, community, household, and individual levels and their relevance to migration policy, control, and promotion 4) Ability to synthesize actual and potential impacts of migration on migrant, receiving, and sending populations via economic, social and cultural pathways 5) Appreciating and applying the critical role of migrant selectivity in driving impacts
Grading Problem set (10%): Because migration is above all a demographic event, we must build upon a basic understanding of quantitative measures of migration. The problem sets will not require prior understanding of demographic methods. Problem set will be due October 11 along with your migration systems presentation. Migration Systems Presentation (20%): October 11, student teams will lead presentations on specific migration systems. These will provide an opportunity to explore the determinants and some impact of migration, to leverage migration statistics, and to explore the meaning of a migration system through your own presentation and through comparison across presentations. Your presentation should last no more than 15 minutes with time for questions afterwards. You should include an organized, well-prepared presentation including visual aids (audio is welcome as well, within time constraints). At minimum, your presentation should describe (1) major sending and receiving countries; (2) history of the system including its economic, political , and cultural genesis; (3) current migrant rate and remittance data; (4) prevailing conditions of migration costs, physical movement, legalization, tenure, and naturalization; (5) evidence on the role of the state in emergence, perpetuation, or control; and (6) forces of selectivity including regional, political, cultural, socioeconomic, or biophysical factors. Please limit your discussion of migration impacts, outcomes, or perceptions, which you will cover in your final paper. Migration Systems Paper (30%): As a follow-up to your migration systems presentation, you will be asked to write a brief paper exploring one or more impacts of the migration system in the sending and/or receiving countries. These papers should build explicitly on your understanding of the migration system itself, including forces of selectivity and the conditions of migration, but move forward to explore some of the specific impacts raised in the later weeks of the course. It should draw on specific theories and pathways of migration impact. The paper should incorporate data and synthesis of original research from the syllabus, from your own literature searches, and from consultation with your professor. Your paper should be about 6-8 pages unless you receive prior consent to do something longer. By moving from general data analysis and systems overview in weeks 1-5 to a study of impact at the end of the course, I hope that the preceding assignments will offer a chronicle of your learning experience and a platform for exploration in future courses or work. Take home Final Exam (40%): Because the class is mostly conceptual in nature, it is essential that you be tested on your core understanding of migration theory, methods, and empirical literature. You will receive a take-home final examination at the end of the final class, November 15. You will answer two essay questions (out of a total of four options). Your answers will need to be thoughtful, concise, and informed by the course readings and lectures. The exam must be returned by Friday November 19, 5pm. The exam should take about 10 hours of your time.
Course Materials We will use a mix of textbooks and readings available electronically. The books have their merits and weaknesses, but they are highly complementary to one another and will be helpful additions to your bookcases. In the schedule I refer to texts by the name of the first author, shown in bold. Castles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller. 2009. The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. Fourth Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Also check out their website: http://www.age-of-migration.com/na/index.asp Massey, Douglas S., Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and J. Edward Taylor Massey, D.S. et al. 1998. Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millenium. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fix, Michael, Demetrios G. Papademetriou, Jeanne Batalova, Aaron Terrazas, Serena Yi-Ying Lin, and Michelle Mittelstadt. 2009. Migration and the Global Recession. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute, Report Commissioned by the BBC World Service. If you seek a poetic and thought-provoking break from the realities of academic life, I strongly urge you to read the following novel: Salih, Tayeb. 1969. Season of Migration to the North. New York: NYR Books. Electronic readings are available through direct WWW links from the on-line syllabus (you must be on the Virtual Private Network), through a standard literature search, or directly from me. If you bring your thumb drive to the first class I will give you a soft copy of every reading.
September 14: Migration History, Significance, and Key Concepts
How do we define a migrant or a migration? What key concepts are required to define a migrant or to classify different forms and modes of migration? What is the shape of migration over human history, including modern times? How and why is migration important today? How does migration affect different impacted groups at different levels of analysis? What does it mean to be a migrant in terms of economic, social, and political well-being? Castles, Chapter 1: Introduction Massey, Chapter 1: New Migration, New Theories Hessler, Peter. Go West: Scenes from an American Homecoming. New Yorker, April, 19, 2010. The Economist, 17 December, 2010. Being Foreign and Greener Grass.
September 21: Migration Theory, Globalization, and Development
Why do people migrate? What role does globalization play? How does migration differ from other forms of globalization? What factors drive global demand for migrant labor? What drives the supply of migrants at the national, community, household, individual levels? What perpetuates flows of migration within a system? How might migrant selectivity affect migration impacts? Castles, Chapter 2: Theories of Migration, Chapter 3: Globalization, Migration, and Development Massey, Chapter 2: Contemporary Theories of International Migration Castles, Stephen. 2003. The International Politics of Forced Migration. Development 46(3): 11-20.
September 28: Migration Measurement, Concepts, and Systems
How do we measure the current flow and accumulated stock of migrants? How do these measures differ when looking at a sending or receiving society? How do we measure financial and social remittances? What are the key migration systems today and how are they changing? Can we easily differentiate between a sending and receiving society? Batalova, Jeanne, Michelle Mittelstadt, Mark Mather, and Marlene Lee. 2008. Immigration: Data Matters. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute and Population Reference Bureau. Haupt, Arthur and Thomas T. Kane. 2004. Population Handbook, 5th edition. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, 35-38, 41-42. Fix, Chapters 1-2 Hand out Problem set, due October 11 with your migration systems presentation. Presentations can use relevant chapters in Castles, Massey, and Fix; resources shown in Batalova et al., stats from MPI data hub (http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/), and your own searches.
October 5: Migration and the State
What role can and does the nation-state play in encouraging or discouraging immigration, outmigration, and internal movement? What are some of the unintended consequences of migration policy? What policies could influence migrant assimilation, adaptation, and acculturation? Castles, Chapter 8: The State and International Migration: The Quest for Control Fix, Chapter 4 Massey, Douglas S. 1999. International Migration at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century: The Role of the State. Population and Development Review 25(2): 303-322. Neumayer, Eric. 2006. Unequal Access to Foreign Spaces: How States Use Visa Restrictions to Regulate Mobility in a Globalised World. Transactions of British Institute of Geographers 31(1): 72-84. 4
October 12: The Migration Industry and how people migrate
How do social networks, transnational communities, and migration-centered businesses promote the flow of migration and ensure the safety of migrants? What risks do they present? How can states either control or harness the activities of such systems? The first half of class will be devoted to your migration systems presentations Portes, Alejandro and Julia Sensenbrenner. 1993. Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social Determinants of Economic Action. The American Journal of Sociology 98(6): 1320-1350. Sadiq, Kamal. 2009. Paper Citizens: How Illegal Immigrants Acquire Citizenship in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, Chapter 1.
Randall Kuhn. 2003. Identities in Motion: Social Exchange Networks and Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh. Contributions to Indian Sociology 37: 311-337.
October 19: Migration and Livelihoods
What role do migrants play in the host economy and what are their effects on economic outcomes and labor markets? What role does migration play in the economic and livelihood strategies of their families and communities? Castles and Miller, Chapter 10: Migrants and Minorities in the Labour Force Fix, Chapter 5 and 6 Congressional Budget Office. 2005. The Role of Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market. Series on Immigration, Washington, DC. Kuhn, Randall. The Logic of Letting Go: Family and Individual Migration from Rural Bangladesh.
October 26: Impacts on Development, Health, and Environment
How does migration affect health, development, and environmental outcomes in sending and host societies? To what extent are these effects explained by remittances or other pathways? Are effects mostly positive or negative? Does migration benefit the poorest? How does brain drain really impact sending nations? What role does migration play in feedback loops that may heighten ecological decay? What, if any, state policies can address best address these issues? Massey, Chapter 8: National Development and Chapter 9: Community Development Portes, Alejandro. Migration and Development: A Conceptual Review of the Evidence. working Paper, Red International: Migracion y Desarollo. Curran, Sara. 2002. Migration, Social Capital, and the Environment: Considering Migrant Selectivity and Networks in Relation to Coastal Ecosystems. Population and Development Review, 28, Supplement on Population and Environment, 89-125. 5
November 2: Migration and Social Transformation
How does migration transform the social and cultural landscape of both sending and receiving society? How does migration break down the very distinction between here and there? How do these processes play out at the levels of global discourse, group identity, and individual behavior? Castles and Miller, Chapter 11: New Ethnic Minorities and Society Portes, Alejandro. 1996. Global villagers: The rise of transnational communities. American Prospect 25: 74-77. Gardner, Katy. 1993. Mullahs, Migrants, Miracles: Travel and Transformation in Sylhet. Contributions to Indian Sociology 27: 213-235. Hollinger, David A. 2006. From Identity to Solidarity. Daedalus 135(4): 23-31.
November 9: Security, Politics and Conflict
What role does international migration play in threatening global security and in the national security of sending and receiving nations? How can these concerns be managed without compromising the benefits of migration? How do selective state policies governing international migration rights and internal migration incentives exacerbate ethnic conflicts? What role do migrants, including forced migrants, play in domestic politics and international advocacy? Castles, Chapter 9: Migration and Security and Chapter 12: Migrants and Politics Adamson, Fiona B. 2006. Crossing Borders: International Migration and National Security. International Security 31(1): 165-199. Salter, Mark B. 2004. Passports, Mobility, and Security: How smart can the border be? International Studies Perspectives 5(1): 71-91. Hartmann, Betsy. 2010. Rethinking climate refugees and climate conflict: Rhetoric, reality and the politics of policy discourse. Journal of International Development 22(2): 233-246.
November 16: Charting a new path
What are the major upcoming trends in global migration systems, patterns, and practices? What new legal and policy frameworks are on the horizon? Warnes, Tony A.M. 2009. International Retirement Migration. Chapter 15 in Dudley L. Poston and Peter Uhlenberg (eds.), International Handbook of Population, Amsterdam: Springer. Koslowski, Rey. 2008. Global Mobility and the Quest for an International Migration Regime. In Joseph Chamie and Luca Dall'Oglio (eds.), Migration and Development, Continuing the Dialogue: Legal and Policy Perspectives. Geneva: International Organization for Migration. 6
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