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t h e i n v e st i t u r e o f t h e f o u rt h p r e s i d e n t o f y e s h i va u n i v e r s i t y

Richard M. Joel
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From the President: A Journey Worth Taking Fantastic Voyages
Life imitates art in cutting-edge research by Dr. John Condeelis that offers astounding insights into “inner space.”

Science and the Ethics of Genetic Screening
Dr. Susan Gross says improving education on genetic diseases is key to preventing human heartache.

Torah and Big Bang
Science and religion are the twin engines that power Dr. Carl Feit’s intellectual pursuits.

Catch Me if You Can: Einstein at the Frontiers of Global Health
Infectious diseases cause most of the world’s health problems, yet they attract only a fraction of medical research funding. Albert Einstein College of Medicine is the rare exception, where studies of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria receive high priority.

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Compassion and Controversy: Exploring Medical Ethics
Two leading YU scholars who have spent years discussing and analyzing society’s most contentious ethical debates compare notes.

Pathways to a Career: Undergraduates Excel in Research
YU science majors, among the most motivated YU undergraduates, successfully compete with top students nationwide for seats in highly selective graduate programs.

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ALUMNI PROFILES:

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Solving the Puzzle of Genetic Disease
LISA EDELMANN ’96A

“When you do basic research, you look to answer a specific question, address a basic scientific problem. In the kind of work I do now, you ask the question in a way that will aid in the diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of genetic disease.”

At the Crossroads
SAMUEL SAFRAN ’73Y

“One must get involved and ‘do science’ to understand how it works, just as one must get involved in learning [Torah] to fully appreciate its philosphical beauty.”

Departments:
35 Bookshelf 38 Alumni News 43 Classnotes

from the president
Y E S H I VA U N I V E R S I T Y

REVIEW
Y E S H I VA U N I V E R S I T Y
R O N A L D P. S TA N T O N
CHAIRMAN, BOARD OF TRUSTEES

A Journey Worth Taking
a magnifying glass, and a kaleidoscope for viewing the life and rhythm of Yeshiva University. It has provided me and my family with a way of staying connected to an institution with which we all have special and often deliciously complex relationships. As I assume Yeshiva’s presidency, I’m thrilled to see it up close—not just as an observer, but as part of the team that will move it into tomorrow. You are a part of the family. As such, we share our story and our pride, and thus I welcome your comments. This issue of YU Review is both intellectually stimulating and illustrative of our ranking as a leading academic research institution. A case in point is the opening story, “Fantastic Voyages,” which documents how scientists at our Albert Einstein College of Medicine pursue revolutionary research that not only uncovers insights into “inner space,” but also strengthens our bonds to the global community. And while our emphasis on scientific successes crosses all academic levels, the research we support has a moral underpinning. Stories on genetic testing and medical ethics in this issue exemplify our institution’s raison d’etre—to marry the wisdom of faith with the need to explore our universe’s mysteries. What emerges from these pages is the degree to which YU students and graduates are transforming the world, be they young researchers whom we nurture at Yeshiva College and Stern College for Women or the scientists and professors we profile in these pages. Together, they define success not just by academic excellence, but also by applying that excellence to advance the quality of life, turning wonder into intellectual growth, creativity, and accomplishment. Science at YU represents the best of what we have to offer as a premier learning institution, whose traditions and vision hold the promise of a better future, a better tomorrow.
Y U R E V I E W H A S S E R V E D A S A W I N D O W,

RICHARD M. JOEL YH’68
PRESIDENT

D A N I E L T. F O R M A N
VICE PRESIDENT FOR DEVELOPMENT

PETER L. FERRARA
D I R E C T O R O F C O M M U N I C AT I O N S A N D P U B L I C A F FA I R S

YU REVIEW
JUNE GLAZER
EDITOR

NORMAN EISENBERG
MANAGING EDITOR

JUDY TUCKER
C R E AT I V E D I R E C T O R

CONTRIBUTING TO THIS ISSUE:

K E L LY B E R M A N ESTHER FINKLE ’98S G A RY G O L D E N B E R G D AV I D H I L L S T R O M L I N D A N AT H A N A. WESSON
PHOTOGRAPHY Y U S TA F F P H O T O G R A P H E R S :

NORMAN GOLDBERG PETER ROBERTSON V. J A N E W I N D S O R R O B E R T R . S A LT Z M A N
UNIVERSITY DIRECTOR OF A L U M N I A F FA I R S

Yeshiva University Review is published twice each year by Yeshiva University, Department of Communications and Public Affairs. It is distributed by mail to alumni and friends of the University and on campus to faculty and administrators. Paid subscriptions are available at $15 per year. Editorial contributions and submissions to “Classnotes” are welcome, but the publication cannot accept responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or photographs. All submissions are subject to editing. Opinons expressed in the Review are not “official” University policy. Send mail to: Yeshiva University Review, 500 West 185th Street, New York, NY 10033-3201. Phone: 212-960-5285. Email: glazerjb@ymail.yu.edu.
© Y E S H I VA U N I V E R S I T Y 2 0 0 3

RICHARD M. JOEL

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With a new technique called intravital imaging, pioneered at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, scientists can for the first time observe the behavior of individual cells deep within living animals. These unprecedented views are yielding novel insights into how cancer cells spread throughout the body— and how they can be stopped.

FANTASTIC VOYAGES
B Y G A RY G O L D E N B E R G

“We’re going to see things no one ever saw before. The actual physical process of life itself—not something under a microscope. Just think of it.”

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ci-fi fans may recall these words of Cora Peterson, a medical assistant in the kitschy cinematic classic “Fantastic Voyage.” It’s 1966, the height of the Cold War. A leading scientist defects to the West and is shot before he can divulge his secrets. The only way to save his life is to inject a miniaturized submarine into his bloodstream to seek out and destroy a clot lodged deep within his brain. The surgery takes place at a top-secret military hospital, where the submarine Proteus and its crew are reduced to the size of a microbe and injected into the scientist’s carotid artery. It’s not

long before they are attacked by voracious antibodies and tentacled macrophages, but nothing diminishes their awe of the complexity and beauty of life at the cellular level. John Condeelis, PhD, and Jeff Segall, PhD, professors of anatomy and structural biology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, know the feeling well. For several years, they have been voyaging among the cells of live animals, not in a tiny sub, but with a tool called “intravital imaging” (IVI). An amalgam of advanced light microscopy, genetic engineering, and computer processing, IVI is fundamentally changing the way scientists view “inner space.” Using this technique, Drs. Condeelis and Segall and their colleagues have achieved the first high-resolution images of individual tumor cells in a living animal, unearthing invaluable clues as to how these cells metastasize, the leading cause of death in cancer patients. The scientists are now searching for substances that might be used to inhibit the wanderlust of cancer cells.

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Dr. John Condeelis studies a monitor image of a breast cancer cell stained for cofilin (green) and f-actin (red).

The voyage begins
Their fantastic voyages began about a decade ago when they were studying slime molds in order to decipher the molecular mechanisms that govern cell movement. Using genetic engineering, they would knock out or overexpress individual genes in these single-celled protozoans and then examine the consequences under the microscope. The setup was far from ideal because changes in cell motility and behavior are difficult to observe with conventional microscopy. Furthermore, the cells were being observed in an artificial environment. “By watching cells in vitro you get a skewed, if not artifactual, view of how cells move in a body,” Dr. Condeelis explains. With colleagues at Einstein, Dr. Condeelis began searching for new ways to study cell movement. Electron microscopy (EM) was no help; EM yields highly detailed images, but only of inanimate specimens. It’s just the opposite with CT and MR scanning, which can produce images of living things, though not at the cellular and molecular levels.

Instead, the solution would come from a convergence of technologies, including genetic engineering, fluorescence microscopy, and computers. Genetic engineering played a major role, as it does in most of the current biological research, allowing the team to render cancer cells highly visible. The key ingredient was a jellyfish protein called GFP (green fluorescent protein). In 1994, scientists at Columbia University discovered how to attach the gene for GFP to any gene in a foreign organism. When the target gene is expressed, the protein it produces shines like a Day-Glo stick at a rock concert, providing a highly visible and specific marker of gene activity in individual cells. In search of suitable animal models, Drs. Condeelis and Segall turned once again to genetic engineering. “You can take cell lines derived from a human cancer, inject them into animals and cause a tumor, but the tumor doesn’t look anything like what you would see clinically,” says Dr. Condeelis,

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who is scientific director of Einstein’s Analytical Imaging Facility, which offers advanced light and electron microscope imaging services to the entire medical center. “We solved this problem by implanting human oncogenes, like HER2neu, the gene for breast cancer, into mice. Then we crossed those mice with a strain of mice whose cells express GFP and they become cancerous.” Next, the team needed a way to visualize GFP, which is where fluorescence microscopy came into play. But the standard technique would not suffice. “To excite molecules deep inside a living animal, you have to push an intense amount of laser light through tissue,” says Dr. Condeelis. “This causes tremendous phototoxic damage.” The solution was found

tion, you can see these cells crawl along on these collagen fibers,” he says. “This had never been seen before. You could not have anticipated this in culture.” He clicks the computer mouse again, launching another movie of tumor cells mingling with macrophages (immune system scavenger cells), which cluster along blood vessels that feed the tumor. It turns out that these clusters are where tumor cells enter the blood vessels, which they use as expressways to distant parts of the body, in a process called intravasation. Dr. Condeelis’ studies also show that only tumor cells and macrophages are able to enter the tumor’s blood vessels, and they do so in tandem. Clearly, the two cell types are commu-

“IVI has led to astounding new insights that we couldn’t have imagined by looking at these cells in culture.”
in a quantum mechanical effect called multiphoton excitation, which holds that a single full-strength laser beam can be replaced with two synchronized half-strength laser beams. Each half-strength beam is too weak to cause phototoxicity, yet together they are strong enough to excite the target molecules. Finally, computers were employed to control the microscope and take digital snapshots of slices of the target tissue, which were then combined to make short movies. The latest innovation, unique to Einstein, was to take multiple image slices at each position, allowing the researchers to follow the cells in three dimensions. nicating, with tumor cells getting the upper hand. But how? Clues would come from a laboratory technique called “gene expression analysis,” which can detect the presence and expression levels of thousands of genes at a time. From this data, researchers were able to explain the signaling pathways that govern tumor cell-macrophage interaction. “A lot of papers in the past 10 years said that intravasation didn’t play any role in metastasis. People started to look elsewhere for potential therapeutic interventions. Our work has completely turned this around,” reports the researcher. One possible target for intervention is the pseudopod, the cell’s steering wheel, which is controlled by five different biochemical pathways. “We’ve learned that in the most invasive tumors cells, the genes that control pseudopods are overexpressed. As a result, these cells are hyper-pumped, like little Arnold Schwarzeneggers. With IVI, you can see them move more than 10 times faster than the cells from which they were derived just a few generations ago. It’s an amazing transformation,” says Dr. Condeelis.

Seeing is believing
For the generation brought up on the eye-catching graphics of GameBoy or PlayStation, IVI’s relatively murky images may be a disappointment. But for biomedical researchers, the technique is nothing less than revolutionary. “IVI has led to astounding new insights that we couldn’t have imagined by looking at these cells in culture,” beams Dr. Condeelis, sounding much like the mesmerized scientists aboard the Proteus. To demonstrate, he clicks on an icon on his computer monitor, launching a brief movie of a tumor cell as it inches toward a blood vessel, thrusting out one pseudopod (foot-like projection) after another. “At high magnifica-

What are they thinking?
The next goal is to conduct gene expression analysis directly inside a living cell, which would allow the researchers to watch the cell “think.” Gene expression analysis is currently done by extracting

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As Dr. Condeelis is quick to note, IVI has been a group effort from the start, involving specialists in imaging, optics, biophysics, computers, DNA microarrays and transgenic animals, as well as structural, molecular and developmental biology, organic chemistry, and molecular pharmacology. Key Einstein contributors include: Jeffrey Pollard, PhD, Betty and Sheldon Feinberg Senior Faculty Scholar who is professor of developmental and molecular biology and of obstetrics and gynecology and women’s health, and director of the transgenic animal facility; Dr. Segall, the researcher behind the animal models; Dr. Singer, professor of anatomy and structural biology and of cell biology; and Richard Stanley, PhD, the Reneé and Robert A. Belfer Professor and Chairman of Developmental Biology, the discoverer of a critical motility-related receptor on macrophages (CSF-1). Several years ago, the researchers joined to create the Signaling, Tumor Cell Motility and Invasion Group within the Albert Einstein Comprehensive Cancer Center, with major funding from the National Cancer Institute. IVI is not limited to cancer research. Other researchers at Einstein are using IVI to study the function of kidney cells and the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in heart muscle. Says Dr. Condeelis, “With micro-lenses and light pipes—technologies now under development at a number of places—it will eventually be possible to observe cells deep inside the brain or inside the chambers of the heart.” At one point during the voyage of the Proteus, crewmember Cora Peterson exclaimed, “I never … never imagined it could be anything … like this.” Neither did Dr. Condeelis and his crew of researchers. ■

and processing genetic material (RNA) from cells, which is then placed on DNA microarrays (glass chips on which thousands of complementary DNA samples have been deposited in a defined configuration by high-speed robotic printing). By analyzing the resulting pattern of RNA-DNA binding, it is possible to discern exactly which genes are expressed in the sample cells. It’s a powerful technique, though it shows only averages of gene activity across a group of cells. Dr. Condeelis would like to see what is transpiring genetically in a single living cell as it moves and communicates. To do this, Dr. Condeelis and Robert Singer, PhD, inventor of gene expression analysis technique for living cells, are working to tag individual genes with differently colored oligonucleotides (small strands of DNA), which will fluoresce when the genes are expressed. Eleven genes have been tagged thus far.

“A lot of papers in the last 10 years said that intravasation didn’t play any role in metastasis. People started to look elsewhere for potential therapeutic interventions. Our work has completely turned this around.”

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Historically, Albert Einstein College of Medicine stood at the forefront of screening for genetic disease. Its success in Tay-Sachs testing is now prompting doctors at Einstein and elsewhere to expand screening efforts to eradicate other inherited illnesses.

SCREENING
BY NORMAN EISENBERG

Science and the Ethics of GENETIC

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or centuries, Jewish communities lived in fear that many of their babies would thrive through infancy, only to become blind and demented as toddlers and die by age 5. That described the ordeal of Joseph Ekstein, a Hasidic rabbi in Brooklyn. Over three decades, he and his wife lost four children to Tay-Sachs Disease, and their experience was not unusual. Some families were just unlucky. Today, the curse of Tay-Sachs is being lifted—not through better treatment (the hereditary disease is still as deadly as ever)—but rather with advanced genetic screening at YU’s Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

science and ethics

GENETIC SCREENING

In the past, ignorance about the way genetic diseases are passed to

future generations
often meant entire families were stigmatized if one member was afflicted.
“The whole field of genetics has undergone a revolution,” says Harold Nitowsky, MD, director of reproductive genetics at the Montefiore Medical Center, who launched the TaySachs program in the 1970s. Montefiore is Einstein’s university hospital Tay-Sachs is a genetic disorder, common to those of Central or Eastern European Jewish descent, which affects the
GENETIC DISEASES THAT AFFECT JEWS OF ASHKENAZI DESCENT Progressive Neurological Disorders Tay-Sachs Disease Familial Dysautonomia Canavan Disease Mucolipidosis IV Niemann-Pick Disease, type A Other Disorders Gaucher Disease Cystic Fibrosis Fanconi Anemia Bloom Syndrome 1 in 13 1 in 25 1 in 80 1 in 107 1 in 676 1 in 2,500 1 in 25,600 1 in 45,726 Rate of Occurrence Gene 1 in 25 1 in 25 1 in 41 1 in 50 1 in 80 Disease 1 in 2,500 1 in 4,096 1 in 6,724 1 in 40,000 1 in 25,600

central nervous system of infants, causing paralysis, blindness, and eventually death. Dr. Nitowsky says his chief task 30 years ago was not only to establish and perfect an accurate screening system, but also to inform Jews throughout New York that they should get active in staving off disease. He did so against a backdrop of ignorance among physicians, who were either unaware of the tests or were not offering them to their patients. And he watched with dismay as babies continued to be born to couples who had no idea that they carried aberrant genes. Dr. Nitowsky then began visiting Jewish community centers, synagogues, and campus Hillel branches throughout the metropolitan area, urging Ashkenazi Jews who were most at risk to get tested. Under Dr. Nitowsky’s direction, Einstein screened an estimated 30,000 people between 1979 and 1982. Lab technicians measured the level of a certain enzyme that broke down fatty substance in the blood. A carrier has one-half the normal amount of the enzyme, and the test was considered 99 percent accurate. Rabbi Ekstein learned of Dr. Nitowsky’s success during a routine office visit with his pregnant wife. Encouraged by the results and the desire to help others in his Brooklyn Hasidic community, Rabbi Ekstein established, with Dr. Nitowsky’s help, Chevra Dor Yeshorim, the Association of an Upright Generation. Dor Yeshorim works within ultra-Orthodox communities to remove the stigma that sometimes surrounds genetic disease. In the past, ignorance about the way genetic diseases are passed to future generations often meant entire families were stigmatized even if one member was afflicted. Before becoming engaged, prospective mates would simply call Dor Yeshorim and read off the code numbers assigned

SOURCE: DR. SUSAN GROSS, MONTEFIORE MEDICAL CENTER

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Dr. Harold Nitowsky, who launched Einstein’s Tay-Sachs program in the 1970s, says screening for genetic disorders leads to prevention of disease and the birth of healthy children.

to their test results. If the records showed that neither person carried the gene, or that only one person did, the match was judged to be sound. But if both partners happened to be carriers, meaning any child they conceive would have a one-infour chance of suffering the fatal disease, (as many as one in 25 Ashkenazim are carriers of Tay-Sachs,) the marriage would not take place. Thus, by keeping the screening results secret and revealing them only if both partners were carriers, Dor Yeshorim could protect the marriageability of many ultraOrthodox youth in large families. Before such screening was possible, couples would learn

they were both carriers only after an afflicted child was born. The experience of watching babies suffer and slowly die was so devastating, many of the parents never had other children. Now, says Dr. Nitowsky, the number of babies nationwide born with Tay-Sachs has dropped from 50 a year to 5, and most of those are born to non-Jewish couples who happen to have the mutated gene. The success in Tay-Sachs testing has prompted doctors at Einstein and other research hospitals to expand screening to include eight other genetic disorders afflicting Jews of Ashkenazi descent. “Education [on genetic diseases] is spotty,”

By testing an individual’s enzyme level, Dr. Susan Gross can accurately detect whether a person is a Tay-Sachs carrier.

Drs. Nitowsky (l) and Gross believe their success in helping

says Susan Gross, MD, associate professor of obstetrics, gynecology, and women’s health, and co-director of the Montefiore division of reproductive genetics. “Some doctors may know about Tay-Sachs now,” she says, “but fewer know about Canavan Disease and even less are familiar with Bloom Syndrome, Fanconi Anemia, or Mucolipidosis IV.” To that end, Dr. Gross has consulted with experts on genetic disease research, plus the Jewish community at large, to help secure funding for expanded testing. “The other eight or nine genetic disorders should die out with screening, just like Tay-Sachs,” says Dr. Gross. “That’s what we want to do with our screening program. Hopefully, like Tay-Sachs, if there’s a strong enough push to do this, doctors and others will catch on, and screening will become standard care.” One hurdle, says Dr. Gross, is a health insurance system that tends to cover costs for people who are already ill, leaving preventive care, such as screening, a personal responsibility. For some families, knowledge of their genetic history may seem overwhelming, especially when the results affect their self-worth and human relationships. Says Nancy Neveloff Dubler, a professor of epidemiology and population health who directs the bioethics program at the Montefiore Medical

stamp out Tay-Sachs can lead to other breakthroughs through expanded genetic screening.

Center, “It’s essential that individuals and couples understand the personal ramifications of genetic testing.” Ms. Dubler says she believes many lives can be saved if individuals learn about their genetic susceptibilities to disease so they can make lifestyle changes or seek preventive medical care. But, she warns, most people will forgo screening if they believe information gleaned from such tests could jeopardize their jobs or health insurance. She supports federal legislation against genetic discrimination. However, she says, such laws must reflect expertise from clergy, lawyers, and ethicists, as well as others including doctors and researchers. “This is an opportunity to create a community of understanding that could reach beyond the specifically affected individuals,” she says. Indeed, removing the stigma and anxiety associated with genetic testing remains a Yeshiva University imperative, says Dr. Gross. “Many YU rabbis have been very supportive of testing, certainly for students,” she says. “They’re particularly advanced and sophisticated on this issue.” Such cross-disciplinary support, she says, sets YU apart as an academic institution that melds Jewish ethics with cutting-edge science. ■

…many lives can be if individuals learn about their genetic susceptibilities to disease so they can make lifestyle changes or seek medical care.

saved

preventive

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TORAH AND BIG BANG
BY NORMAN EISENBERG

For most of history, says Carl Feit, PhD, religion and science have been rather like siblings, feeding off and competing with each other, rather than outright adversaries in a common quest for understanding. And while such tensions often marked the separate worlds of research and religion, the gap appears to be narrowing. More and more academics are coming to believe that the key to unlocking life’s mysteries resides in neither sphere, but rather in a combination of the two.
NASA, ESA AND J. HESTER (ASU)

This photograph was taken by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope. The image, roughly three lightyears across, captures a small region within M17, a hotbed of star formation, located in the constellation Sagittarius. It depicts a bubbly ocean of glowing hydrogen gas and small amounts of other elements such as oxygen and sulfur.

Religion Science

has sort of pushed

to think about its basis in terms of epistemology— how we know what we know.

Dr. Feit applies a common approach to research and religion.

NASA, ESA AND J. HESTER (ASU)

That suits Dr. Feit just fine. The Brooklyn-born biologist who holds the Dr. Joseph and Rachel Ades Chair in Health Sciences at Yeshiva College says he has waited a lifetime for the two disciplines to meld. Science and religion are the twin engines that power Dr. Feit’s intellectual pursuits, and he credits his Jewish upbringing (he’s an ordained rabbi) and YU education with handing him the tools to successfully navigate both worlds. His sense of mission brought him back to his alma mater in 1985 as an associate professor of biology, after a decade at New York’s Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. A 1967 Yeshiva College graduate, Dr. Feit says one acquired a powerful understanding of the ongoing and complex debates that challenge theologians and scientists—debates that have raged since the time of Galileo. Galileo sought to convince Urban VIII, the 17th century pope, that contrary to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, the earth was not the center of the universe but revolved around the sun as the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus theorized a century earlier. At first, Dr. Feit points out, the Church was delighted with Galileo’s infectious enthusiasm and extended him favor. But in time, it found Galileo’s thinking to be heretical. Galileo’s heresy in the eyes of the Pope was not just his

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Galileo used scientific technology—his telescope—and scientific reason to challenge 17th century cosmological theory that the earth was the center of the universe, views that would unsettle Church orthodoxy.

Copernican view, says Dr. Feit, but also his belief in scientific reason. The Church feared reason encroached upon the mystery surrounding unprovable faith. Up until the beginning of this century, advances in science favored reason over faith, he explains. “Over the past century, scientists were far less concerned with the philosophical or theoretical aspects of their work. Religion has sort of pushed science to think about its basis in terms of epistemology—how we know what we know.” Dr. Feit says he, too, used to wonder whether the random genetic mutations of evolutionary theory blur the idea that God has a plan for the universe. “I investigated the traditional texts and found that the random nature of the physical world was not a theological problem. In fact, randomness itself is seen as an expression of the divine will, even if it is inscrutable,” he says. For several years, Dr. Feit has been involved with Science and the Spiritual Quest, a program of the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, that promotes dialogue on science and religion. And in 2002, he helped establish the International Society of Science and Religion, a think tank that includes several Nobel Laureates and National Academy of Science members. Science, he says, remains a search for truth. “There’s a

statement in the Talmud that the seal of God has the word ‘truth’ written on it. You look at a cell and you find 10,000 chemical reactions going on at any one time. That’s mind-boggling to anybody. But it is awe-inspiring to a religious person.” Furthermore, he adds, since pure thought can penetrate the universe’s mysteries, “this seems to be telling us that something about human consciousness is harmonious with the mind of God.” A trained microbiologist and immunologist, Dr. Feit believes that some ethicists have slipped into the fallacy of ignoring biological origins. “For some reason, many people persist in maintaining that there’s some basic conflict between Darwinism and religion,” he says. “We have a lot to learn by studying origins, although we do ourselves a disservice if we say we’re trapped as the product of our genes.” Dr. Feit acknowledges that science and religion may never be completely reconciled. The default setting of science is eternal doubt; the core of religion is faith, he says. Yet, both profoundly religious people and scientists are driven to understand the world. And as they pursue that quest, he says, they carry with them the hope that common commitments to truth and moral balance will ultimately offer solutions that ■ heal body and soul.

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CatchMe
if youcan
B Y G A RY G O L D E N B E R G

EINSTEIN AT THE FRONTIERS OF GLOBAL HEALTH

Life in the Third World has often been nasty, brutish, and short, to co-opt the Hobbesian view. Now, it’s getting even shorter. In many corners of the globe, the average life expectancy has dipped below 40—an age when people in the West are just beginning to fret over mid-life crises. The outlook is particularly bleak in subSaharan Africa. According to the US Agency for International Development, by 2010 the average Namibian will live to 34 and the average Botswanan to just 27. Infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria shoulder much of the blame. Together, this trio kills 5 to 10 million people a year and sickens hundreds of millions more, shredding the social and economic fabric of entire countries. Yet in this gloomy picture are glimmers of hope. Using powerful new tools of molecular biology, medical scientists are teasing apart the offending microbes, gene by gene, molecule by molecule, and gaining new insights into their intricate dance with the human immune system. Ideas abound for the design of new therapies.

© IMAGES.COM / CORBIS

Infectious diseases
cause most of the world’s health problems, yet they attract only a fraction of medical research funding. Albert Einstein College of Medicine is the rare exception, where studies of HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria receive high priority.

G L O B A L H E A LT H AT E I N S T E I N

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HIV/AIDS

umerous examples of this remarkable work are visible at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, a hot zone for the study of infectious diseases, particularly AIDS. “More than $70 billion is spent annually on medical research by the public and private sectors, yet only 10 percent of these funds is directed toward research into diseases that cause 90 percent of the world’s health problems,” says Dominick P. Purpura, MD, the Marilyn and Stanley M. Katz Dean of the medical school. “At Einstein, we’re committed to redressing this imbalance. We really have no choice. As we’ve seen with AIDS, and just recently with SARS [Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome], we can no longer distinguish between ‘us’ and ‘them.’ Infectious diseases are a threat to everyone, everywhere. Global health must be a top priority.”

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he most active area of research in infectious diseases at Einstein is HIV/AIDS, the focus of more than 40 separate basic science and clinical research laboratories. All told, the labs receive $23 million a year in funding from the National Institutes of Health, one-fifth of the medical school’s total support from the NIH. Most of these labs fall under the umbrella of Einstein’s Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), one of 20 centers established by NIH to promote interdisciplinary research in AIDS and to spur the application of findings from the bench to the bedside. Einstein’s CFAR consists of six major research divisions— developmental therapeutics, immunology, epidemiology, HIV-associated pathogens, viral pathogenesis, and substance abuse and behavioral issues—which are supported by a variety of core services, such as an animal biohazard facility, virology laboratory, and a clinical investigations unit. “AIDS research is so complicated and diverse that the left hand often does not know what the right hand is doing,” says CFAR’s director, Harris Goldstein, MD, who emphasizes his point by motioning to the Center’s grant application, as thick

“AIDS research is so complicated and diverse that the left hand often does not know what the right hand is doing.”

as the Manhattan white pages. “One of the major functions of CFAR is to provide a big tent to allow all these different investigators to share ideas and research findings. For example, a clinician might wonder why some patients have become resistant to drugs but not others. A basic researcher could sequence the genes in the patients’ strains of HIV to see if different mutations are associated with different clinical presentations. That information could lead to more individualized treatments. CFAR lowers the threshold required for this kind of collaboration.” If 40 laboratories sound like overkill, Dr. Goldstein would be happy to have 40 more. HIV is one of the most formidable foes ever encountered by infectious disease researchers. “HIV is continuously reinventing itself,” he explains. “It’s like the character in the Spielberg movie, ‘Catch Me If You Can,’ who was always changing his appearance to fool his pursuers. As soon as we find out what HIV looks like and come up with a way to block it, the virus mutates and puts on a new disguise.”

A better mouse model

The lack of an animal model for studying the disease presents a major roadblock. “Of all the non human primates, chimpanzees are the only ones who can be infected by HIV, and they don’t get sick like humans do,” says Dr. Goldstein, professor and vice chairman of pediatrics and professor of microbiology and immunology who has been working with AIDS patients since the first days of the epidemic. Scientists would rather study HIV in mice, which reproduce more quickly and are far less expensive to maintain than chimps. “The problem is that HIV doesn’t infect mice,” says Dr. Goldstein. “So one of the thrusts of our research is to understand factors in mice that prevent HIV from successfully replicating.” Of particular interest are receptors on the surface of immune cells. HIV begins its assault on the immune system by invading lymphocytes, specifically T-cells that express a surface protein called CD4. HIV homes in on CD4, anchors

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HIV/AIDS
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itself to the protein, fuses with the T-cell’s outer membrane, and then takes over the cell for self-replication. Ultimately, the host cell is destroyed. If enough CD4 T-cells are infected, the immune system collapses, resulting in the immune deficiency syndrome known as AIDS. “One well-documented difference between human and mouse cells is that the CD4 expressed by mouse T-cells does not bind HIV,” says Dr. Goldstein. “In addition, another molecule, CCR5, first demonstrated by my colleague, Tanya Dragic [PhD, assistant professor of microbiology and immunology], to be a critical receptor on the surface of CD4 Tcells, is also structurally different in mice than in humans. “If HIV can’t get in the door, it can’t infect the cell. So we’ve engineered transgenic mice that express the human form of CD4 and CCR5. Now we can infect mice with HIV. Unfortunately, we haven’t been able to get a sustained infection.” Taking another approach, the team has employed transgenic technology to incorporate HIV’s DNA directly into the mouse genome, bypassing the initial steps of infection. These transgenic mice, the researchers have demonstrated, produce infectious virus, although not in high enough concentrations to become symptomatic. As more human-specific genes required for HIV replication are identified, they will be incorporated into the mice, further improving the models. Meanwhile, Dr. Goldstein’s mice are already helping the researchers gain a better understanding of HIV and AIDS and identify potential targets for new treatments. tence within years of diagnosis. Now, the overwhelming majority of patients do not have to be hospitalized and actually live fairly normal lives—until the side effects of the medications catch up with them. But we have gone from years to decades, and that is a major advance.” It’s a far different tale in the Third World, where antiretroviral therapy is prohibitively expensive and HIV infection is quickly fatal. There, if not everywhere, the great hope is for inexpensive vaccines that can prevent HIV infection or at least slow the progression of the disease in those already infected. The latter goal—a so-called therapeutic vaccine—is the pursuit of Arye Rubinstein, MD, professor of pediatrics and of microbiology and immunology and the scientist who first identified pediatric AIDS. Dr. Rubinstein’s work with AIDS vaccines begins in the early ’90s, when researchers began to question why some HIV-positive pregnant women transmit the virus to their fetuses while others do not. It turned out that those who didn’t pass HIV were found to have antibodies to a loop of peptides (linked amino acids) located on gp120, a key surface protein that HIV uses to anchor itself to CD4 T-cells. The discovery suggested that a synthetic version of this loop, called V3, might be useful as a vaccine to stimulate an immune response against HIV. Dr. Rubinstein was one of the first to champion this approach. However, he met with no success until he tried coupling the V3 peptide to various immune-system boosters. PPD, the protein used for tuberculosis skin tests, worked best. Combined with PPD, V3 was found in animal studies to trigger the production of antibodies that could neutralize laboratory strains of HIV—a promising start. “The trick was the coupling,” says Dr. Rubinstein. “The way we conjugated PPD to V3 seemed to induce random changes in the folding of the peptide, presenting just the

© HOWARD SOCHUREK / CORBIS

40 million

infected worldwide

SOURCE: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

Hopes for a vaccine
In the West, antiretroviral therapy has largely transformed AIDS into a chronic disease. “ICUs used to be full of AIDS patients,” says Dr. Goldstein. “HIV infection was a death sen-

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right combination of molecules to the immune system.” Dr. Rubinstein and his colleagues, including John Lenz, PhD, professor of molecular genetics and of microbiology and immunology, moved to clinical trials in the mid ’90s. In the first trial, involving people who were HIV-negative, the V3-PPD vaccine produced significant immune responses. A few years later, an improved version of the vaccine, including V3 peptides from several HIV strains, was tested first in animals and then in a small Phase I clinical trial in collaboration with researchers at Tel-Aviv University. Seven HIVpositive individuals were given the vaccine; all were asymptomatic and none were taking antiretroviral therapy. After a series of vaccinations, six of the seven exhibited a strong immune response, and several showed a precipitous decline in the amount of virus in the bloodstream. Encouraged by the results, the investigators have planned a larger and longer (Phase II) trial, set to begin next year in Israel. The only limitation to this approach is that vaccinees would have to be PPD-positive, that is, immunized with BCG vaccine or exposed to tuberculosis. But, since a third of the world’s population meets this criterion (see below), a PPD-based vaccine would still have widespread applicability. Importantly, the vaccine would be relatively inexpensive, costing only about $400 for a year of treatment, as compared to tens of thousands of dollars for antiretroviral therapy.

“Indeed, TB has managed to infect one in three people on the planet, some two billion humans.”

After countless centuries together, TB and humans have reached a truce of sorts. In most cases, the bacterium remains idle and its host symptom-free. But that delicate balance can quickly change if the host’s immune system is weakened, for example, by HIV, old age, or poor living conditions. Then, for reasons not fully understood, TB runs wild, overwhelming the lungs with serpentine colonies of bacteria, ripe for spreading through the air to claim yet more victims. It’s no wonder the World Health Organization has called TB, “Ebola with wings.” Current treatments are far from ideal. The TB vaccine works for some, but not for others. TB drugs are very effective; however, they are slow-acting and must be taken on rigorous schedule. Only one in four TB patients worldwide actually gets treatment, and many never complete the recommended regimen, a phenomenon that has spawned several strains of drug-resistant TB. As a result, TB kills at least 2 million people each year and debilitates countless others. And the worst is yet to come—as HIV spreads, so does TB. “Clearly, novel interventions are needed,” says Dr. Jacobs.

Phages to the rescue
Researchers understood little about the molecular biology of tuberculosis, not even about how TB vaccines or drugs worked, until the 1980s. That was when Dr. Jacobs discovered a way to manipulate the TB genome; and one by one, the microbe’s mysteries began to unravel. The key was bacteriophages (“phages” for short), which are viruses that infect bacteria and incorporate their own DNA into their hosts’ genome. Once Dr. Jacobs learned how to exploit this ability, it was possible to generate specific mutations in TB and elucidate the function of individual genes. Using phages, Dr. Jacobs and his colleagues were able to identify the gene responsible for a ring-like component on the surface of TB that allows the bacterium to colonize the lungs. Without this gene, called pcaA, and the enzyme it generates, TB still reproduces but loses its virulence. The researchers

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nfortunately, HIV is just one infectious microbe with an uncanny knack for survival. The tuberculosis bacterium is another. “Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the world’s most successful pathogen,” says William Jacobs, PhD, professor of microbiology and immunology and of molecular genetics and an investigator at Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Indeed, TB has managed to infect one in three people on the planet, some two billion humans.

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Dr. Jacobs and his team used phages to identify genes that allow the TB bacterium to colonize lungs.

are currently searching for drugs that can inhibit the pcaA gene or its enzyme. Luckily, there’s no shortage of phages and no shortage of what can be done with them. “Phages are the most abundant life form on planet Earth,” explains Dr. Jacobs, who leads a team of 18 scientists at Einstein. Everywhere there is soil, there are phages. In fact, Dr. Jacobs has unearthed valuable samples in his own backyard, in the zebra cage at the Bronx Zoo, and outside a TB hospital in Chennai, India. One of his phages was employed to identify the exact enzyme that is targeted by isoniazid, the most effective TB medication. This finding provides the first insights as to why TB strains have become drug-resistant, and points the way to alternative drug therapies. Dr. Jacobs has also engineered phages to insert luciferase, the gene that makes fireflies glow, into the TB genome—a seemingly outlandish idea with an eminently practical application. “Our goal was to make a simple and inexpensive test for drug-resistance that could be used in the Third World,” he says. Dubbed the “Bronx Box,” the test consists of an array of tubes, each filled with a different antibiotic, and a strip of Polaroid film. All are enclosed in a light-tight box. A sample of the patient’s bacteria is inserted into each tube, along with

TUBERCULOSIS 2 billion
infected worldwide

8 millionper year 2 million new cases deaths per year
© LESTER V. BERGMAN/CORBIS

deaths predicted in next decade

30 million

SOURCE: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

MALARIA
300 to 500 million
new cases per year
SOURCE: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

the luciferase phage. If the bacteria are resistant to a drug in one of the tubes, they will grow, incorporate the luciferase gene, and begin to glow, producing a spot on the film. Results are available within 12 days. The Bronx Box, which has been licensed for production, is currently undergoing field tests in several developing nations.

A better vaccine
In yet another project, Dr. Jacobs and his colleagues have set their sights on designing a better TB vaccine, one derived from the human form of TB (M. tuberculosis). The current vaccine, BCG, is an attenuated, or weakened, strain of TB that infects cattle (M. bovus). BCG’s effectiveness varies significantly, and the vaccine is virtually useless in some locales. Since BCG offers some protection, Dr. Jacobs decided it was worthwhile to find out how the vaccine works. Previous studies had suggested that BCG’s attenuation stems from a deletion of the RD1 section of the TB genome. To test this hypothesis, Dr. Jacobs summoned his trusty phages to eliminate RD1 in bovine TB and, as suspected, the bacterium was severely weakened; when RD1 was restored, so was the bug’s virulence. The same experiment was done with human TB strains, with the same results. In subsequent experiments, they identified the exact protein and protein-secretion pathway that is governed by the RD1 genes. Next, vaccines were made from the attenuated bovine and human TB strains and tested separately in mice. Both offered good protection against TB infection, with the latter vaccine proving to be much safer. How the M. tuberculosis vaccine will fare in clinical trials remains to be seen. And then there’s the question of whether the vaccine would be safe for people with HIV (the popula-

tion most vulnerable to TB), whose compromised immune systems generally cannot tolerate even a weakened form of the bacterium. The researchers cannot directly test this aspect of the M. tuberculosis vaccine in mice, since a proper HIV mouse model does not yet exist. However, they are now testing the vaccine in mice that lack CD4 immune cells, the next closest thing (since HIV disease is characterized by a deficiency of CD4 cells). The initial results are promising; however, the final data will not be available until the fall. So Dr. Jacobs labors on, fueled by a passion to help those in the Third World. “What changed my life was the first time I went to India,” he says. “I’ll never forget that long cab ride from the Madras Airport through the countryside. There were mopeds, buses, trucks, cars, oxcarts, and elephants, everyone was beeping their horns, and the air was thick with pollution. Countless people were living in nothing more than shacks and tents. It is important for all Americans, including our political leaders, to take this ride. We just don’t understand what life is like in the rest of the world.”

MALARIA

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t’s hard to hit a moving target. That describes one of the survival strategies of the peripatetic malaria parasite, which moves back and forth between mosquitoes and humans in a dizzying cycle of developmental stages, some as fleeting as a politician’s campaign promise. For added protection, the parasite incessantly varies its surface proteins when circulating in its human host, staying one step ahead of the immune system. Frustrated with the parasite’s endless evasions, malaria researcher David Fidock, PhD, gave up his quest for a vaccine five years ago. “I differ with many of my colleagues about

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this, but I think we have overestimated our ability to generate a vaccine that would elicit protective, long-lasting immunity,” he says. “So I changed direction and started focusing on chemotherapy as the linchpin of efforts to control malaria.” Dr. Fidock, an assistant professor of microbiology and immunology, is particularly interested in chloroquine, historically the most successful antimalarial drug. “Chloroquine is well-tolerated and affordable—about 10 to 15 cents a curative dose—which is within the budgets of developing nations,” he says. But chloroquine’s power is fading fast. Several species of the parasite, especially Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest of them all, are growing increasingly resistant to the drug. Dr. Fidock and his colleagues are trying to understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms behind this resistance, a key toward developing alternative medical therapies. Dr. Fidock started working on chloroquine-resistance in the late ‘90s as a member of the malaria genetics section of the National Institutes of Health. The NIH scientists narrowed the source of the resistance to a small section of chromosome 7 of the P. falciparum genome and then to a specific gene, cg2. News of this discovery— which shattered the traditional belief that resistance is determined by multiple genes—made a splash in scientific and lay publications around the world. “It seemed reasonably convincing,” he says, “but in a year and a half, I had conclusive evidence that we had the wrong gene.” Before long, however, Dr. Fidock found that a neighboring gene, pfcrt, was the likely culprit. Conclusive proof would come from a complicated series of experiments that he initiated in 2000, after relocating his lab to Einstein. The challenge was to find a way to replace a normal pfcrt gene in a chloroquine-sensitive parasite with a multiply-mutated version of the gene from chloroquine-resistant parasites. The gene swap was accomplished using genes from three representative chloroquine-resistant strains from around the world—and all three mutant forms of pfcrt conferred drug resistance in vitro. They had their gene.

The parasite incessantly varies its surface proteins when circulating in its human host, staying one step ahead of the immune system.

What does pfcrt do? According to Dr. Fidock, when P. falciparum infects a red blood cell, it supports its growth by taking up nutrients from the host cell into a specialized organelle called a digestive vacuole. Chloroquine is thought to affect the way the vacuole disposes of toxic digestive by-products. But if chloroquine cannot concentrate inside the vacuole, it cannot exert its effect. That’s where pfcrt comes into play. The gene encodes a protein on the vacuole membrane that dictates chloroquine levels in the vacuole. When the gene is mutated, chloroquine is quickly escorted from the premises, and the parasite goes about its culinary feast unharmed. With gene in hand, Dr. Fidock and colleagues devised a laboratory test for diagnosing chloroquine-resistant malaria infections, a test with significant public health ramifications. “It is a powerful predictive tool for helping public health authorities decide when countries need to switch to alternative antimalarials,” says the investigator. In another spin-off, Dr. Fidock’s genetically modified parasites are being used as a quick in vitro tool for assessing whether drug compounds under development will have any cross-resistance to chloroquine. It’s still too early to tell whether it is possible to rejuvenate drug therapy by making minor modifications to chloroquine, or if wholly different compounds will be needed. In either case, Dr. Fidock does not hold out much hope for a single magic bullet. Rather, he says, the solution to controlling malaria will probably be a combination of medications, as in therapy for HIV/AIDS, which will lessen the likelihood of future drug resistance.

Hollywood ending?
After all these years, HIV, TB, and malaria are still on the loose—but for how long? For what it’s worth, Carl Hanratty, the real-life detective depicted in “Catch Me if You Can,” eventually got his man. Perhaps similar Hollywood endings are in store for the researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. ■

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Compassion and Controversy: EXPLORING

Medical
BY NORMAN EISENBERG

As scientists, ethicists, and religious scholars weigh the centrifugal forces created by biomedical advances, many ethical questions challenge both the rigor and compassion of Jewish law.

Ethics
Indeed, two leading YU scholars have spent years discussing and analyzing some of society’s most contentious debates: Moshe Tendler ’49R, PhD, professor of biology and Rabbi Isaac and Bella Tendler Professor of Jewish Medical Ethics at Yeshiva University (right); and Rabbi J. David Bleich, Herbert and Florence Tenzer Professor of Jewish Law and Ethics at YU’s Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law and rosh yeshiva at the affiliated Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (left). While scientific advances are often synonymous with enhancing the quality of life, these advances, say both men, also raise vexing ethical and legal issues. Here they compare notes on some of those issues, weighing the salient principles that govern their thinking. To Dr. Tendler (MT), ethical decisions must embrace five axioms—“beneficence (doing good); non-maleficence (doing no evil); justice; autonomy (respecting the individual’s wishes); and the sanctity of life.” For Rabbi Bleich (JDB), the quality of any ethical opinion is only as good as the information and research that support its logic and application. “An ethicist is no different from a physician. He can operate only on the basis of what he sees. If he doesn’t have all the tests and results, he cannot give you an accurate diagnosis.”

A stem cell as seen through a microscope.

Reproductive versus therapeutic human cloning

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uch of the scientific community supports a ban on reproductive cloning aimed at producing a child with the same genes as its genetic parent. But most scientists want to pursue therapeutic cloning to harvest stem cells, which are extracted from human embryos, where they are tiny clusters of no more than 300 cells. Because stem cells can grow into any tissue in the body, scientists hail them as the building blocks of a new era of regenerative medicine, helping doctors heal patients using their own tissues. The work, however, attracts intense criticism from abortion opponents because the embryos, which they view as human life, are destroyed by the experiments. To realize the full promise of stem cells, many experts say, the cells must be compatible with patients’ immune systems —the rationale for therapeutic cloning. By creating embryos that contain patients’ DNA, they say, scientists believe they can develop tissues that would be an exact match for patients. Tissues developed from such work could eventually yield treatments for diabetes, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, heart disease, and cancer, among other ailments. Opponents of embryonic stem cell research support using so-called adult stem cells, which can be derived from blood, bone marrow, body fat, and certain organs, but, say experts, lack the range of possibilities of those taken from embryos.

cloning imposes too much of a burden on the patient, with no medical and scientific advantage. True, future technology may change the equation, but an ethicist can worry only about current factors, not potential breakthroughs.”
J D B : “The ethicist is confronted with the age-old

M T: “The idea of man as a meddler has always been a concern in theology—except in Orthodox Judaism. Jewish tradition teaches that God gave man the right to master the world. Therefore, the first principle of ethics is beneficence. If isolating a stem cell promotes good, I am obligated—in fact, I have a divine imperative—to proceed. “However, good can come only from therapeutic cloning, which does not hurt anyone. Reproductive cloning could create monsters, and that’s maleficence, which we can’t do. Thus, it becomes a divine imperative to practice therapeutic cloning. The Pope would call this abortion—a religious rather than an ethical analysis. But from Judaism’s perspective, a fertilized egg is not a human being if it never saw the inside of a woman. “The balance between beneficence and maleficence favors beneficence, especially with therapeutic cloning, when the benefit outweighs the burden. By contrast, reproductive

problem: Does the end justify the means? Moral concerns surround the destruction of an embryo. If you don’t regard life as beginning at the moment of conception, then there’s absolutely no reason to oppose therapeutic cloning. “Many halakhic authorities, including the late Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, do regard destruction of an embryo, even in its early stages, as prohibited. Many authorities find no difference between a fetus fertilized in its mother’s uterus and one developed in a laboratory. And while much of the scientific community, as well as many lawmakers, oppose reproductive cloning, I think that opposition will change once the technology is perfected. “I have fewer problems with reproductive cloning than I do with therapeutic cloning. While I recognize the inherent dangers of the former, and society’s right to regulate it, reproductive cloning is not something ethicists would consider intrinsically evil for the simple reason that it does not require destruction of an embryo. Reproductive cloning, once it has been shown to be safe as far as the neonate is concerned, may nevertheless create psychological and societal burdens that are sufficient reason for society to restrict it. But if you regard the destruction of an embryo to be intrinsically wrong, therapeutic cloning becomes a very serious issue.”

Reproductive medicine

© UNGER KEVIN / CORBIS SYGMA

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hile donor eggs and sperm, embryo implantation, and similar techniques enable infertile couples to become happy parents, these techniques also prompt ethical debate.

M T: “In vitro fertilization creates new possibilities. We wel-

come assisted reproductive technology. However, a woman

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“Jewish tradition teaches that God gave man the right to master the world.”

bears a burden with this benefit—depending on how many times she wants to become pregnant. The burden increases with each attempt, something a doctor must weigh. I would tell a woman who already has children but who wants to use assisted reproductive technology to become pregnant again not to go ahead. The reason: Halakhah would forbid her to have more children if by doing so it would mean more risk than benefit. But if the woman is childless, that’s a different story. The Torah already defined that for us when [the Biblical heroine] Rachel said to [her husband] Yaakov, ‘Give me a child or else I will die.’”
J D B : “With any novel form of assisted procreation, it is impossible to predict whether it will result in a higher incidence of congenital defects. True, the procedure enables childless couples to experience the pleasures of parenthood. But the question comes back to whether the end justifies the means. At present, the risks to the mother are well within the bounds of the halakhically justifiable. But does one have the right to impose potential harm upon a person who has not yet been created and who is in no position to consent to that risk?”

donate a kidney without serious side effects. But I do not believe Jewish law would permit a liver lobe transplant, because it may endanger the donor too much. After death, however, it is a mitzvah to save a human life by donating all organs, including vital ones—heart, liver, lungs, for example.”
J D B : “A person is permitted—but not required—to risk his

Organ donations and transplants

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lthough all religions embrace the value of saving life, a thicket of moral issues surrounds the means: organ donations and the time and method of their procurement. Donated organs save more than 20,000 lives each year. Yet the issue remains highly sensitive within Orthodox Judaism.

M T: “The main point of medical ethics is to ask, ‘Can I save my patient without incurring an equal maleficence to this beneficence?’ In other words, can I obtain an organ without hurting the donor, as defined by medicine today? One can

life to save another from certain death. When not coerced, the donation of organs is certainly acceptable. There is nothing intrinsically wrong in the sale of organs. We do it all the time; we permit payments for blood, semen, and ova. But there’s a difference. We have virtually unlimited quantities of sperm and Dr. Leon R. Kass is chairman of the ova. Women who donate President’s Council on Bioethics, eggs do incur some risk; Addie Clark Harding Professor of still, they are born with more than enough ova to the Committee on Social Thought last a lifetime. And one and the College of the University of can live with only a single Chicago, and honorary degree kidney. Our society prohibits the sale of certain recipient at YU’s 72nd annual vital organs for a number commencement exercises in May of reasons, most signifi2003. He has compiled a list of cantly because of fear historical, philosophical, literary, that a person may compromise his own health and religious works on bioethics. for economic gain. InThese books of poetry, short stodeed, we do not allow ries, and essays can be “invaluable ourselves to be sold into slavery even if we agree to companions as we grapple to do so. But on balance we understand our brave new biotechmust ask: Does prohibitnology,” according to the Council’s ing the sale of organs result in a greater good or Web site. The list can be accessed in greater harm?” ■
at www.bioethics.gov/bookshelf.

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Pathways to a Career:

UndergraduatesExcel inResearch
Meet YU’s breed of science majors: gifted and committed scholars who, despite the time constraints of a dual curriculum, are able to successfully compete with top students nationwide for seats in highly selective graduate programs.

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© ANDREW BROOKES / CORBIS

mong the most motivated students at Stern the creative process,” Dr. Lowengrub says. “The skills they College for Women and Yeshiva College, gain through active participation in research projects remain science majors find the time to engage in with them throughout their lives.” Jeffrey Kern, MD, ’85Y,A credits his participation in the research, a year-round endeavor at other universities, mostly during summers. Roth Scholars program in 1984 with “giving me the opportuThis summer, for instance, some 20 nity to see how laboratory research helps in a very practical way in patient management. It confirmed what I knew: that YU students are interns at the University’s Albert Einstein College a great deal of good could be done both in the lab as well as of Medicine, Sloan-Kettering Institute and the Rusk Institute in clinical practice, and that one complements the other.” of Rehabilitation Medicine in New York City, Henry Ford Even now, he says, he integrates research into his daily activities as pediatric cardiologist at Flushing and New York Hospital in Detroit, Howard Hughes Honors Summer Institute at the University of Maryland, and the Weizmann Presbyterian hospitals. That same year, Dr. Michelle Small Roth, now an ob/gyn, Institute in Rehovot, Israel. “It is an honor to be accepted for a research internship,” was a Roth Scholar as well. Her summer internship at Einstein solidified her desays Harvey Babich, cision to attend medPhD, professor of biolical school. “I was wafogy at Stern College. fling for a while, not He alerts students to sure if I wanted mediinternships, strongly cine or law, or someencouraging them to thing else. But once I apply. Entry into the started the internship, summer programs at I knew medicine was prestigious national reit,” she says. search institutions is According to Lea highly competitive. Blau, PhD, professor “Research experiof chemistry at Stern ence distinguishes stuCollege, the beauty of dents if they decide to internships is that they go into medicine, denallow students to purtistry, occupational or sue their own projects. physical therapy, nurs“In the classroom and ing, or biotechnology,” labs, they follow a Dr. Babich says. Caryn Gamss ’03S was a 2002 Roth Scholar. broad, prepackaged curBarry Potvin, PhD, professor of biology at Yeshiva College, chairs the committee riculum. With research internships, they become highly spethat selects students for the Roth Scholars Program, an annu- cialized in very focused subjects,” she says. The research that students do off-campus enhances the al 10-week medical research internship at Einstein sponsored by the Ernst and Hedwig Roth Institute of Biomedical academic environment at both undergraduate schools, nurScience Education at YU. “Faculty at Einstein who work with turing a sophisticated scientific atmosphere that benefits the Roth Scholars are interested in serious students who everyone. At Stern, the Student Undergraduate Research want research careers,” says Dr. Potvin. This year, 31 students Group Exchange, or SURGE, is a faculty-initiated science club that sponsors symposia, primarily of the research conapplied for the program’s eight slots. Internships enable students to work with top biomedical ducted by Stern students. At Yeshiva College, Sigma Delta scientists in state-of-the-art laboratories. The experience aug- Rho, the undergraduate science research society, coordinates ments the knowledge they acquire in class and in labs with programs, speakers, and seminars where students, faculty, practical, in-depth study—one reason Morton Lowengrub, and invited guests can present their research findings. “Research helps students make the next step to grad PhD, vice president for academic affairs, advocates so strongly for internship funding. “The best experience for learning school,” says Dr. Potvin. “And it’s a golden opportunity for occurs when students are deeply immersed and focused on them to contribute something unique to science.”

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Scientists
at YU
Baruch Stein ’02Y Baruch Stein studies applied physics at Columbia University’s School of Applied Science. At YU, he says he worked closely with Fredy Zypman, PhD, professor of physics, spending “countless hours in his office.” Working one-on-one with him “was the cornerstone of my undergraduate physics education,” he says. Mr. Stein’s research centered on the functioning of nanoscale electronic devices on the order of atomic lengths. He says that understanding the functioning of devices as small as these requires developing a new theory explaining quantum effects. While the research itself was complex, the recipe for success was traditional, he says. “I learned a lot from my peers who were working with other professors in the sciences at YU,” he says. Doing research at YU was great! he adds. “Mincha just down the hall from the lab—that’s what Torah Umadda is all about.” Yaacov Yunger ’02Y, Jay and Jeanie Schottenstein Honors Program With a double-major in philosophy and physics and a minor in mathematics, Yaacov Yunger attended a scientific conference on the island of Corsica last summer and served for a month as guest researcher at the University of Nice, thanks to the efforts of Gabriel Cwilich, PhD, assistant professor of physics. Mr. Yunger’s research in France and at YU involved studying computer simulations of how physical waves (e.g. light and ultraviolet) travel through certain substances. For example, this occurs when sunlight travels through a cloud. A practical application of Mr. Yunger’s research could be a variation of medical resonance imaging (MRI). If his research is perfected, Mr. Yunger says, it could assist in using harmless light frequency waves to detect tumors in the human body. This fall he begins a PhD program in physics at Cornell University.

The Making of Young

Julia Josovitz ’02S, S. Daniel Abraham Honors Program Julia Josovitz was one of the first two biochemistry majors to graduate from Stern College for Women in a new curriculum instituted in 2002. She worked under her mentor, Chaya Rapp, PhD, professor of chemistry, studying protein structure and stabilization to learn how proteins behave and synthesize to perform a target function. In March she was one of three Stern students—

STORY CONTRIBUTORS: KELLY BERMAN, JUNE GLAZER, DAVID HILLSTROM

with Anya Sedletcaia and Sarabeth Reingold—to present posters of their research at the 225th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, held in New Orleans. Ms. Josovitz says the SCW chemistry program, which is “especially rigorous,” helped prepare her for the challenge of medical school. She plans to attend Einstein in the fall.

Ouri Cohen ’03Y A participant in the unique 3-2 Combined Plan with Columbia University, Ouri Cohen graduated with degrees from both YU and Columbia. At YU his major was physics; at Columbia he majored in electrical engineering. Mr. Cohen explains his research this way: “Let’s say there’s an object embedded within another, a tumor in a brain, for instance. It’s desirable to determine characteristics of the tumor, like size, rate of growth, etc., without having to physically dig for it. My research focused on solving that problem. We reflected electromagnetic waves off an object, then used the reflected waves to construct an image of that object. The applications will depend mostly on the imagination of future scientists and engineers.”

Shira Miller ’03S, S. Daniel Abraham Honors Program With a major in biology, Shira Miller was a teacher’s assistant to Brenda Loewy, PhD, visiting associate professor of biology at SCW. As an intern in the genetics department of the Children’s Hospital of Yehoshua Levine ’03Y, Jay and Jeanie Schottenstein Honors Program Yehoshua Levine, a pre-med student, conducted his research as a University Scholar at Einstein’s microbiology and immunology department this past summer. He researched the Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV), a retrovirus used as a model to study how target cells are infected, with specific application to the HIV/AIDS virus. During fall 2002 and spring 2003, he continued his research part-time at Einstein’s Sue Golding Graduate Division, becoming the first honors student to complete his thesis project off-campus. Regarding his research experience at YU, Mr. Levine says, “It’s exciting to be at the forefront of where science is going, in addition to learning about what’s already known. It thrills me to be an active part in expanding the knowledge base.” Mr. Levine plans to attend Harvard Medical School in the fall.

Anya Sedletcaia ’03S Anya Sedletcaia spent two summers of her Stern College career conducting scientific research, first under the guidance of Dr. Babich and later as a 2002 Roth Scholar with Paula Cohen, PhD, assistant professor in Einstein’s department of Molecular Genetics. Ms. Sedletcaia says these two experiences inspired her to pursue a career in research, and she will enter the PhD program at Einstein’s Sue Golding Graduate Division of Medical Sciences this fall. With Dr. Babich, she studied a compound called protocatechuic acid (PCA) found in fruit, nuts, and vegetables. At Einstein, she studied proteins associated with genetic diseases including hereditary colorectal cancer. In March, she was one of three Stern College students —with Julia Josovitz and Sarabeth Reingold—to present posters of their research at the 225th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, held in New Orleans. “Doing research makes the theory come alive,” she says.

Philadelphia, ranked among the world’s leading pediatric centers, Ms. Miller worked in a lab that specializes in pinpointing deletions in chromosomes 1 and 21. “I was just a 20-year-old junior in college, but the people I worked with treated me almost as a peer,” she says. Her research focused on locating the aberration in chromosome 5 of a 10-yearold patient with symptoms of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), a condition characterized by malignant polyps on the colon. Ms. Miller is considering a career in education and nursing.

“There’s so much that we don’t understand—the more we know, the more we realize we don’t know.”

Solving the Puzzle of Genetic Disease
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hirty-six years ago, Lisa Edelmann ’96A was collecting ants and worms, studying them in her parents’ backyard on Long Island. Just three years old, even then the lure of natural science cast a spell over her. Today, working from her lab at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, Dr. Edelmann has turned her focus and her sense of wonder from small organisms to human genetics—with an eye to refining the molecular diagnosis of inherited disease. “What I really like about human genetics is its direct applicability,” says Dr. Edelmann, a trained molecular biologist who earned her PhD in genetics at the Sue Golding Graduate Division of Albert Einstein College of Medicine. “You don’t have to stretch to see the impact it might have on human health. It’s obvious.” At Mt. Sinai, her work in the Genetic Testing Laboratory centers on Jewish genetic diseases, including Tay-Sachs, Gaucher, Canavan, and Familial Dysautonomia, and involves screening for genetic mutations among Ashkenazi Jews and calculating the frequency of those mutations. In a sense, her horizon has shifted from bench to bedside. “When you do basic research, you look to answer a specific question, address a basic scientific problem,” says Dr. Edelmann. “In the kind of work I do now, you ask the question in a way that will aid in the diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of genetic disease. My work bridges basic research and medicine.” Interestingly, the detour into human genetics was un-

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planned. Though post-doctorate work in molecular biology was her logical next step, the Human Genome Project, gaining momentum in the mid to late ’90s, cast another spell, and she opted to study with Bernice Morrow, PhD, an associate professor in Einstein’s department of molecular genetics. Dr. Morrow was working on a genetic disease known as DiGeorge Syndrome, a disorder that results from a large deletion on chromosome 22. Dr. Edelmann was given the formidable challenge of mapping a particularly difficult region of the chromosome. “I’ve always been good at jigsaw puzzles, so I approached the task as a puzzle with pieces all of the same color. It took me about a year and a half to finish the maps,” she says. Her data was a significant contribution to the chromosome 22 sequencing effort, the first human chromosome to be sequenced. Despite the rewards, Dr. Edelmann considers opting for a more clinically oriented human genetics career a tradeoff of sorts. She misses the rudiments of investigation, and the satisfaction of knowing you can push a field forward with benchwork—the “glamour” of basic research, as she calls it. On the other hand, she enjoys the more immediate impact of translational medicine—knowing that her efforts actually improve people’s lives. “I feel it’s a privilege to put scientific discoveries in human genetics into practice in the clinical laboratory,” says Dr. Edelmann, whose career path began at SUNY Stony Brook as a biochemistry major. Her next step was to Einstein, where, as a molecular biologist, her research focused on sea urchin embryos. “Science can be done secretively with all doors closed, or open with one department helping another. At Einstein, all doors are open. The school functions as a community in a positive environment,” she says. “Generosity prevails, with scientists from different disciplines offering their time and sharing equipment.” Ever the scientist—“logic is the principle I live by, the guiding force in my life”—nevertheless, spirituality surrounds her observations on her discipline. “When you stop to think about how things work, about how amazing life is, you can’t help but think it’s all the work of the Greatest Scientist Ever. I think of God as that Scientist.” Indeed, belief in God is not inconsistent with science, she contends. “There’s so much that we don’t understand—the more we know, the more we realize we don’t know.” ■

At the Crossroads
BY A. WESSON

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o know God, study His creations. Those words, simple yet profound, landed on the desk of Sam (Shmuel) Safran ’73Y at YU 34 years ago. They have stayed with him ever since, an invisible thread connecting two strands in his life: Torah study and science. The words came from a handout in his freshman physics course, courtesy of his professor, Dr. Herman Presby YH, ’62Y,BG. They were from the first chapter of Maimonides’ “Mishna Torah” on the topic of “leidah,” knowing the Creator —in part by probing the wonders of what He had wrought. “This is more than just ‘science appreciation’ of the wonders of creation,” says the 51-year-old Dr. Safran. “It requires probing the depths of the experimental and theoretical underpinnings that show the beauty and universality of the laws governing the physical universe.” Probing is what Dr. Safran, now a theoretical physicist, has done since his days at YU. His search took him to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received a doctorate in physics in 1978, and then to Bell Labs, where his postdoctoral work focused on the theory of crystalline materials. Then it was on to a 10-year stint at Exxon, where he worked with chemists, applied mathematicians, and chemical engineers to study the fundamental properties of materials important to the petrochemical industry, including oil, water, and soap. At Exxon his team applied these “soft-matter” materials to practical applications, such as fuel stabilization and oil-spill clean-ups. In 1990, he joined the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, in the department of Materials and Interfaces. There Dr. Safran’s work on “soft materials” may someday enable medical researchers to deliver therapeutic drugs to infected areas of the body with pinpoint accuracy. He served as dean of the Institute’s Feinberg Graduate School; and in December 2001, he was named vice president of the Institute, responsible for its academic and research components. Through it all, Dr. Safran has managed to find a balance between “the two different planes” of his life, as he calls his scientific work and his Torah study. In so doing, he tries to

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SAMUEL SAFRAN

His work may enable medical researchers to deliver therapeutic drugs to infected areas of the body with pinpoint accuracy.
live by the YU ethos of Torah Umadda. “As the Rav explained many times, the quest for scientific knowledge and for Torah knowledge and practice are mandated by the same Creator. It’s up to us to pursue both,” Dr. Safran says. His Talmud studies with the Rav, Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, in his senior year at YU and as a graduate student over five years at MIT, helped him locate common ground between the physical and spiritual worlds. Those studies ultimately led to his 1999 article, “Methodologies Common to Science and Halakhah,” published in Bar-Ilan University’s Journal of Torah and Scholarship. The article surveyed common themes put forth by the Rav and Nobel Laureate physicist Richard Feynman. “The Rav compared the mathematical description of the physical world to the halakhic attempt to quantify the spiritual world. A true appreciation of this, I feel, can only be gained by ‘jumping in’ and studying both science and Talmud in depth. You must get involved and ‘do science’ to understand how it works, just as you must get involved in learning —at the lomdut [scholarly] level, if possible—to fully appreciate its philosophical beauty.” The son of a mother who survived Auschwitz and a father who spent the war years in the Shanghai ghetto of China, Dr. Safran began his foray into science as a boy in Brooklyn where his dream at age 8 was to design amusement park rides, and later at Yeshiva University High School for Boys. But it is his longtime playing of the accordion that provides a handy metaphor for his life, unfolding as he has done in his work the beauties of creation, and coming back home, so to speak, to Torah. ■
Weizmann’s Dr. Samuel Safran (third from the right) gathers with students and colleagues on the Rehovot, Israel campus.

bookshelf
Women in the Talmud

By Aaron Glatt YH,’79Y Orthodox Union, Artscroll The author is associate dean and professor of medicine, NY Medical College; chief of infectious diseases, St. Vincent Catholic Medical Centers (Brooklyn/Queens Division); and a musmakh of Rav Avrohom Wosner. He examines the role of women in Judaism from the perspective of the Talmud. A talmudic scholar, his purpose is to correct distortions and misinterpretations of the text.

ume’s author, cannot be put into words. Her reading of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness sets the stage for comparative and far-reaching literary insights into the notion and conception of traumatic narrative.
Federal Sentencing for Business Crimes

By Kirby D. Behre and A. Jeff Ifrah ’89C,B,R LexisNexis Focuses on federal sentencing for white-collar corporate crimes. A two-volume set, the first includes instructions for determining whitecollar sentences; analysis of key factors that directly impact on sentences; and case examples. The second contains analysis of guidelines pertaining to offenses such as tax, healthcare, and securities fraud.
U.S. Securities Law for International Financial

Worship of the Heart: Essays on Jewish Prayer

By Joseph B. Soloveitchik Edited by Shalom Carmy ’70Y,B,R, assistant professor of Bible Toras HoRav Foundation and KTAV The second in a series based on the trove of manuscripts left by the Rav at his death, the volume consists of 10 essays on Jewish prayer. Rabbi Soloveitchik defines and analyzes the inward experiences that are to accompany the behavior mandated by Halakhah by focusing on the “Amidah” and “Shema” prayers.
Out of the Whirlwind: Essays on Mourning, Suffering and the Human Condition

Words and Witness: Narrative and Aesthetic Strategies in the Representation of the Holocaust

Transactions and Capital Markets, Second Edition, Vols. 14 and 14a

By Lea Wernick Fridman ’70S SUNY Press Albany, NY Close readings of works by Holocaust authors, including Aharon Appelfeld, Jerzy Kosinski, and Elie Wiesel explore the inventive means by which these writers wrestle with and experience what, according to this vol-

By Guy P. Lander YH’70 Thomson, West Group Part of the author’s Securities Law Series, the volumes include United States securities regulation of international financial transactions, broker-dealers, and investment advisers. Also included: how foreign companies can access the US capital markets by engaging in

By Joseph B. Soloveitchik Edited by David Shatz YH,’69Y,B,R, professor of philosophy; Joel B. Wolowelsky ’69BG; and Reuven (Ronnie) Ziegler YH,’91Y Toras HoRav Foundation and KTAV The nine essays in Out of the Whirlwind, the series’ third volume, articulate a Jewish response to the phenomena of death, crisis, and suffering. The first part analyzes the laws of mourning, focusing on the relationship between the external actions prescribed by Halakhah and the inner world of the mourner. Turning from mourning to suffering, the Rav argues that Judaism wants man not to philosophize about the reasons for evil but instead to fight evil relentlessly and convert it into a constructive force. The Toras HoRav Foundation was formed by the Rav’s family immediately after his death, with the aim of carrying out the instructions in his will to publish many of his manuscripts.

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Revenge: A Story of Hope
In March 1986, Rabbi David L. Blumenfeld YH’52 was on a weeklong visit to Israel when a member of a radical faction of the PLO shot him in the head. It was the first in a series of random, pointblank shootings of tourists by a terrorist cell. Miraculously, Rabbi Blumenfeld survived. His daughter, Laura, then a student at Harvard, vowed to find the man who pulled the trigger. More than a decade later, she returned to Jerusalem to settle the score. A prize-winning reporter for The Washington Post, she went undercover looking for the assailant and to explore the mechanics and psychology of vengeance. She found and confronted her enemy, but the experience, and subsequent meetings with him, left her and her nemesis transformed. Since its release, Revenge: A Story of Hope (Simon & Schuster 2002) has become a best seller. The New York Times called it “A vitally important story”; it won the “Book for a Better Life” Suze Orman First Book Award, and has attracted the attention of HBO.

securities transactions in the US, and how US companies may engage in securities transactions abroad.
Disability in Jewish Law

By Tzvi C. Marx ’64Y,F,R Routledge Research London Disability in Jewish Law offers insight into the position of Halakhah regarding the rights and status of the physically and mentally impaired, and discusses the responsibilities and obligations of the non-disabled to them.
A Race Against Death: Peter Bergson, America, and the Holocaust

the poet, and speaks of the significant things in life for all mankind.
The Maverick Rabbi

Rafael Medoff ’91B and David S. Wyman The New Press New York, NY The author relates the story of Peter Bergson, a Zionist emissary from Palestine who led a series of political action campaigns in the US to pressure the Roosevelt administration to rescue Jews from Hitler.
Perspectives

By Aaron I. Reichel YH,’71Y,B,R The Donning Company Norfolk, VA The author narrates the story of Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein, the first American-born, Ivy Leagueeducated Jewish “evangelist” who spearheaded a sweeping Jewish revival movement at the beginning of the 20th century. He is considered by many to be one of the most colorful, creative, and charismatic figures in modern Jewish history.
Brave New Judaism: When Science and Scripture Collide

here she shows how contemporary rabbis and Judaica scholars have interpreted these texts in light of radical new biotechnologies such as infertility treatments, genetic testing, sex selection, and bioengineered food.
Why Me? The Question of Theodicy

By Nahum Spirn ’87Y,B,R New York, NY Rabbi Spirn has authored a monograph summarizing divergent approaches to the question of why good people suffer. His own thesis, offered here, is particularly timely in light of September 11.
Zorei’a Tzedakos: Contemporary Stories of Divine Providence

By Hirsch Lazaar Silverman ’51F Century House New York, NY A clinical and forensic psychologist, in his new volume of original poetry the author combines the function of the philosopher with that of

By Miryam Z. Wahrman YH’73. University Press of New England/Brandeis University Press Lebanon, NH The author is professor of biology at William Paterson University, NJ, where she codirects the Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. Presenting bioethical principles derived from traditional Judaic sources,
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By Meir Wikler ’70Y,W Feldheim Publishers Jerusalem, New York The title means “the One Who sows seeds of righteousness, kindness, and mercy.” The author, a psychotherapist, has assembled a collection of true stories that illustrate how ordinary lives have been touched by Divine Providence.
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■ YU Publications
Kol Zvi: A Compendium of Essays in Talmudic Studies

Edited by Shmuel Hain YH,’98Y,R and Yaakov Werblowsky YH,’94Y,R The Bella and Harry Wexner Kollel Elyon and Semikhah Honors Program RIETS The publication is the fourth volume in the Kol Zvi Journal series. Articles

include responsa concerning the agunot of 9/11, and essays on testimony and evidence in cases of spousal disappearance, levirate marriage and chalitzah, and selected topics from Tractate Yevamot.
The Clarion: Spring-Fall 2002

Journal of the J.P. Dunner Political Science Society Yeshiva University An undergraduate project,

The Clarion offers articles by YU students, alumni, and faculty on the state of the world. The issue also contains contributions from former Israel Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and New York Times metro columnist Clyde Haberman. Topics include terrorism’s relationship to poverty, media coverage of the 2001 NYC mayoral race, and a response to Bernard

Goldberg’s bestseller, Bias: A CBS Insider Exposes How the Media Distorts the News.
Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 2002

Matthew Bower, editor-in-chief Includes articles on opensource software; sanctions in sport; boy bands and the struggle for artistic legitimacy; and parody, satire, and markets.

Faculty
The Art of Serenity: The Path to a Joyful Life in the Best and Worst of Times

By T. Byram Karasu, Dorothy and Marty Silverman Professor of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Simon and Schuster New York, NY The author offers a prescription for happiness, a state of mind he says is opened by a combination of soul and spirit and which culminates in the love and belief in God.
Spatially Resolved Characterization of Local Phenomena in Materials and Nanostructures

Symposium Proceedings series and is the result of Dr. Zypman’s research with three other colleagues from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), and the University of Pennsylvania.
Why Didn’t the Press Shout?

spread indifference of the press—from the US and Great Britain to the Soviet Union and Nazi-occupied Europe—in reporting the Holocaust before and during World War II. It contains papers presented at a YU conference in 1995 under the auspices of the Eli and Diana Zborowski Professorial Chair in Interdisciplinary Holocaust Studies.
Keshet Giborim, Vol. 2

tion by Dr. Yitzchak Raphael, former Israel minister of religion and head of Mosad Harav Kook, the book’s publisher.
Contested Memories

Co-edited by Fredy Zypman, professor of physics Materials Research Society The book is part of the Materials Research Society
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By Aaron B. Shurin, former lecturer in Jewish studies, SCW Mosad Harav Kook Jerusalem In Hebrew, it includes biographical studies of major Jewish personalities of the 20th century. Rabbi Shurin is also author, Bain Yehudai Arztot Habrith, vignettes and images of Jewish life in America with an introduc-

Edited by Joshua D. Zimmerman, BRGS assistant professor of East European Jewish history and occupant, Eli and Diana Zborowski Chair in Holocaust Studies Rutgers University Press New Brunswick, NJ, and London The volume is based on papers delivered at an April 2000 Holocaust conference held at YU and sponsored by BRGS and the Zborowski Chair. It represents a reassessment by three generations of Polish and Jewish scholars of the existing historiography of Polish-Jewish relations just before, during, and after World War II.
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Standing (L–R): Dr. David J. Schnall, Jason Schwartz, Dr. Leon Chameides, and Sora Goldfeder Brazil. Seated (L–R): Avery E. Neumark, Rabbi William Altshul, Deena Jarashow, and Lillian Lubka Cantor.

Associations Honor Alumni
Eight YU alumni who have made significant contributions to religious, educational, communal, and professional life as well as to scholarship were honored by their alma mater in February. The event was a joint presentation of the Yeshiva College Alumni Association’s 46th Annual Bernard Revel Memorial Awards, the Stern College Alumnae Association’s 20th Annual Samuel Belkin Memorial Awards, the Sy Syms School of Business Alumni Association’s 7th Annual Norman Lamm Award, and the YCAA’s 12th Samuel Belkin Literary Award. The Revel, Belkin, and Lamm awards are named for the University’s first, second, and third presidents, respectively. This year’s recipients of the YCAA Revel Awards and their areas of recognition were • Rabbi William Altshul ’72 of Silver Spring, MD, for Religion and Religious Education. Rabbi Altshul is headmaster of the Melvin J. Berman Hebrew Academy in Rockville, MD, formerly the Hebrew Academy of Greater Washington, where he held the same position from 1983 to 1991. In 1991 he became principal to more than 2,000 students at Mount Scopus Memorial College in Melbourne, Australia, and 1997–2001 was principal of the Joel Braverman High School of the Yeshiva of Flatbush in Brooklyn. He began his career in 1974 at the Maimonides School in Brookline, MA, and taught at the Vancouver Talmud Torah in British Columbia, Canada, where he also was principal. • Dr. Leon Chameides ’55 of West Hartford, CT, for Professional Achievement. Dr. Chameides is former director of the pediatric cardiology unit at Connecticut Children’s Medical Center, and professor emeritus in the department of pediatrics at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine. He received his medical degree from Albert Einstein College of Medicine and completed his specialty training at the University of Rochester and Boston’s Children’s Hospitals.

Dr. Chameides was chairman of the American Heart Association’s Task Force in 1973 that developed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). He is a member of numerous medical associations and has received prestigious awards from organizations including the American Heart Association. He is active in West Hartford’s Jewish community as a member of the boards of Cong. Agudas Achim, the Jewish Historical Society, and the Commission on Jewish Education. • Avery E. Neumark ’74 of New York City, for Community Service Leadership. Mr. Neumark is a partner and director of employee benefits and executive compensation with Rosen Seymour Shapss Martin & Company LLP, a nationally recognized certified public accounting firm. He is also an adjunct professor at Brooklyn Law School and Fordham University Graduate School of Business. He is a commissioner of the NY State Insurance Fund and a member of the American Bar Association’s Employee Benefits Committee. He is active in the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America and the UJA Federation in New York, and lectures nationwide to financial and legal organizations. • • • • • Recipients of the SCAA Belkin Awards and their areas of recognition were • Sora Goldfeder Brazil ’73 of Oceanside, NY, for Professional Achievement. Ms. Brazil is founder and executive director of Senior Life Management, PLLC, which provides mental health and behavior management services for the elderly in more than 50 long-term care facilities in New York. A Wurzweiler MSW recipient, she has provided social service consulting and supervision and counseling services in longterm care facilities for more than 25 years. Ms. Brazil has also been instrumental in developing behavior management programs for nursing facilities. • Lillian Lubka Cantor ’71 of Edison, NJ, for Jewish Education. Ms. Cantor has been educating Jewish children for

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more than 30 years. In 2002, she became principal of Shaare Torah Boys Elementary School in Brooklyn. Prior, she was principal of Shalom Torah Academy in East Windsor and Old Bridge, NJ, at which she also taught for nine years. Ms. Cantor was a longtime Hebrew school teacher at Highland Park Conservative Temple and Center, NJ, and taught grades 2–5 at Rabbi Pesach Raymon Yeshiva in Edison, NJ, where she began her career in 1971. • Deena Jarashow ’84 of Fair Lawn, NJ, for Community Relations. An education major with a JD from New York University School of Law, Ms. Jarashow has dedicated herself to community service. She has held many positions in the sisterhood of her synagogue, Cong. Shomrei Torah, is a member of the board of Jewish Education for Special Children in River Edge, NJ, a member of the board of directors of Yavneh Academy in Paramus, NJ, director of Leah Sokoloff Nursery School of Shomrei Torah, and a member of Shomrei Torah’s board of directors. • • • • • The Sy Syms School of Business Alumni Association awarded its 7th Annual Norman Lamm Award to Jason Schwartz ’93 of Teaneck, NJ, for Business Leadership. Chief financial officer of DealTime.com, a free online comparison shopping service, Mr. Schwartz is responsible for the company’s overall financial strategy. He previously held various positions at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, most recently as a manager in the technology industry group, where he provided accounting and consulting to numerous domestic and international clients. He is also a certified public accountant. • • • • • The YCAA’s 12th Samuel Belkin Literary Award was presented to Dr. David J. Schnall ’69Y, dean of YU’s Azrieli Graduate School of Jewish Education and Administration. He received the award for his latest book, By the Sweat of Your Brow: Reflections on Work and the Workplace in Classical Jewish Thought. Also a RIETS musmakh, after serving as professor in the department of public administration at Long Island University for 12 years, Dr. Schnall was appointed Herbert Schiff Professor of Management and Administration at YU’s Wurzweiler School of Social Work in 1991, where he was an adjunct and visiting professor since 1985. In 1999, Dr. Schnall was awarded a prestigious J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship. He has published eight books and more than 100 articles, essays, and reviews dealing with Jewish affairs, public policy, and management issues.

YU’s Online Alumni Community Yellow Pages is the place to turn. In the OLC Yellow Pages, alumni can view products and services advertised by fellow alumni in locations worldwide and post and edit their Yellow Page listings. Launched last year, the OLC features a range of complementary career and networking services. The OLC can help friends and former classmates stay in touch, reconnect, and exchange ideas. Additionally, alumni can search for jobs in their fields throughout the country. And, the mentoring service is a useful tool for individuals contemplating a career change or seeking expert career guidance. Other features include the capability to build and store a personal Web page with up to one megabyte of disk space free of charge; hot links to other Web resources; an interactive alumni directory; bulletin boards where alumni can post messages to other alumni; events calendar for upcoming YU alumni functions around the world; and free permanent email addresses. To register for the OLC, alumni can go to www.yu.edu/alumni and click the “Online Community” button, or log onto their school’s alumni association Web site and click the “Online Community” button. Registration is a one-time process. Membership for all YU grads is free. To learn more, contact Robert Saltzman, University director of Alumni Affairs.

The Office of University Alumni Affairs can be reached at alumdesk@ymail.yu.edu; by phone at 212-960-5373; or by fax at 212-960-5336. Our mail address is Yeshiva University, 500 West 185th Street, BH723, New York, NY 10033-3201.

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Seeking Award Nominees
The three undergraduate schools’ alumni associations are seeking nominees for their 2003 alumni awards. The Yeshiva College Alumni Association (YCAA) presents its Bernard Revel Memorial Awards in three categories: Religion and Religious Education, Community Service Leadership, and Professional Achievement. The Stern College Alumnae Association (SCAA) presents its Samuel Belkin Memorial Awards in three categories: Jewish Education, Community Relations, and Professional Achievement. The Sy Syms School of Business Alumni Association (SSSBAA) recognizes business achievement through its Norman Lamm Award. The Samuel Belkin Literary Award is presented to recently published Yeshiva College alumni authors. Nominations need only include a letter of recommendation sent to any of the three alumni associations via the Office of University Alumni Affairs. Deadlines for nominations is August 1 for next December’s Alumni Awards Ceremony.
NYC-area alumni gathered for a Hanukkah career and social networking reception, cosponsored by YU GOLD (Graduates of the Last Decade) and YUPN (Yeshiva University Professionals Network). L–R: Joseph Weilgus ’99SB, Stuart Forgash ’96SB, David Blatt ’97SB,C, Karen Stadtmauer Blatt ’96S, and Joseph Steinberg ’93Y.

Dr. Harvey Schlossberg ’71F, chief psychologist for the Port Authority of NY and NJ during the 1993 WTC bombing, in January presented “Helping Others Cope with the Threat of Terrorism” on how psychologists can help

Potpourri
Eli Sar Memorial Fund Launched
The Eli Sar Memorial Fund has been established in memory of Dr. Eli Sar ’41Y, who was medical director for YU’s undergraduate schools for more than 40 years. Contributions will help defray costs of medical services for needy undergraduate students. To donate, send your check to the Eli Sar Memorial Fund, C/O Office of University Alumni Affairs, Yeshiva University, 500 West 185th Street, BH723, New York, NY 10033-3201.

people deal with the fear of terrorism and recover after an attack.

Yeshiva University Professionals Network Takes Off
YC, SCW, and SSSB alumni from the 1970s and ’80s now can get involved with career and social networking events among their peers through a new Yeshiva University Professionals Network (YUPN). The group has sponsored successful after-work receptions and is developing seminars on business, education, health, and law designed for graduates of those decades. Please contact the Alumni Office for more information and to volunteer.

Attorneys Eliot Lauer YH,’71Y (left) and Jacques Semmelman YH’72 presented “Current Legal Initiatives for Jonathan Pollard” in December at a Yeshiva College Alumni Association-sponsored panel discussion moderated by YCAA president Joshua Annenberg ’89Y,C. In May 2000, Mr. Lauer and Mr. Semmelman took on the pro bono representation of Mr. Pollard.

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Dr. Rosa Perla Resnick Helfgot ’76W and WSSW associate professor Dr. Susan Bendor cochaired WSSW’s first such conference, on “Meeting the Challenges of Older Persons: Combining Practice and Policy, National and International Perspectives on Aging,” last February.

President Norman Lamm ’49Y,R,B made philanthropist and communal About 40 alumni attended a CSL continuing legal education program in March, “New York and Connecticut Divorce Law: How They Differ and Why You Need to Know,” presented by attorneys Frederic J. Siegel ’82C (pictured) and Jay Butterman ’88C. The Cardozo Alumni Association cosponsors a monthly series of continuing legal education programs throughout the year. Dr. April Lane Benson ’78F presented ideas from her book, I Shop, Therefore I Am: Compulsive Buying and the Search for Self, at the Midtown Campus in November. A psychologist who treats patients suffering from alcohol, eating, and gambling addictions, she discussed the serious nature of compulsive shopping. leader David J. Azrieli and his wife, Stephanie, honorary alumni and presented him with a commemorative medallion of appreciation at a recent dinner celebrating Mr. Azrieli’s 80th birthday.

Henry Rubin, YU senior director for gift planning, discussed “Estate Planning Secrets of the Rich and Famous” at an alumni gathering in NYC as part of his nationwide series of free educational seminars.

In conjunction with the Student Organization of Yeshiva’s Seforim Sale, the Yeshiva College Alumni Association sponsored its fourth annual pre-Seforim Sale book reception and lecture in February. The program featured YU professors Dr. David Shatz YH,’69Y,B,R (left) and Rabbi Shalom Carmy ’70Y,B,R, who spoke about two of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik’s posthumously published books, which they edited. Noted attorney Nathan Lewin YH,’57Y (right), pictured with Dr. Herbert Dobrinsky YH,’54Y,F,R, received the Distinguished Alumnus Award at the Yeshiva University High Schools Dinner of Tribute in March. Mr. Lewin is an authority on constitutional law and a former official of the US Department of Justice and Department of State.

New Director of Annual Giving

Forget Me Not!
All undergraduate alumni who have not contributed to this year’s Annual Fund Drive should already have received their package of “forgetme-not” seeds as a reminder that this year’s campaign ends June 30. The participation of alumni, not gift size, is a key factor in computing schools’ national rankings. Unless otherwise
© DARRELL GULIN / CORBIS

The Office of University Alumni Affairs is pleased to announce that Ellen Barkenbush is the new director of annual giving. Ms. Barkenbush coordinates mailing and telemarketing fundraising efforts for alumni and parents. Previously, she was director of annual giving programs at Union County College and Drew University in New Jersey, and at Lincoln Center in NYC.

Shabbat Hospitality at Stern
New York area alumnae: Enjoy the enthusiasm and appreciation of a Stern student whose family lives far away by hosting her in your home or community for a Shabbat or chag. Contact the Office of University Alumni Affairs for more information about this hospitality program recently initiated by the Stern College Alumnae Association. The SCAA is spending the summer gathering names of prospective hosts in preparation for the coming academic year. ■

requested, contributions go to graduates’ respective schools or colleges. The fund supports undergraduate scholarships and financial assistance. So, please remember to send in your donation in this magazine’s enclosed envelope.

The Office of University Alumni

Blu Greenberg ’56

Rabbi Marc Schneier ’80

Thank you to alumni authors

Affairs thanks the following authors for submitting their books to the Alumni Authors Library. Since the last issue of Yeshiva University Review, publications received include:

Black Bread: Poems, After the Holocaust How to Run a Traditional Jewish Household On Women and Judaism

Shared Dreams
Dr. Miryam Wahrman ’73

Brave New Judaism Women in the Talmud
Rabbi Shlomo Wexler ’48

Rabbi Irving Greenberg ’45

The Daughters Victorious
To display your work in the Alumni Authors Library, please send a copy to the Office of University Alumni Affairs, Yeshiva University, 500 West 185th Street, BH723, New York,

Living in the Image of God
Dr. Steven Yisroel Charlop ’81

Making Sense of Nursing Homes
Rabbi Jacob Chinitz ’44

Dr. Seymour Hoffman ’56

CoTherapy with Individuals, Families, & Groups
Professor Eliezer D. Jaffe ’55

In My Opinion
Professor Herbert Danzger ’56

Giving Wisely and Sources for Funding
Rabbi Barry J. Konovitch ’63

Returning to Tradition: The Contemporary Revival of Orthodox Judaism

From Idealism to Realism: A 25-Year Odyssey

NY 10033-3201.

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STERN COLLEGE FOR WOMEN

SY SYMS SCHOOL OF BUSINESS

ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE

classnotes
Yeshiva University Review welcomes Classnotes submis-

’20s
■ Personal News Rabbi Abraham Rosenfeld YH,’26R recently celebrated his 100th birthday. A lifelong resident of Washington Heights, NY, he now lives in Baltimore. He was a businessman and executive director of the Rabbi Moses Soloveitchik Yeshiva for more than 20 years, and for many more years served as volunteer rabbi in charge of the synagogue connected with that yeshiva. His son, Dr. Azriel Rosenfeld YH,’50Y,BG,R, received an honorary doctorate from YU in 2000.

for Israel. Also, he authored an essay in Hebrew for Chadashot, the quarterly of the Young Israel of Oceanside, discussing how the “Amidah” prayer on Rosh Hashannah and Yom Kippur contains a remarkable insight into the reason for American and world unity after the destruction of the Twin Towers. ■ Personal News Rabbi William Herskowitz ’48Y,W,R,B and wife Sylvia, YUM director, announce the birth of grandson Yair David to Marilyn and Elliot Herskowitz of Jerusalem. Mazal tov to Rabbi Louis M. Tuchman YH,’44Y,R on the birth of great grandchildren Asher Yaakov Chaim Casden and Esther Rochel Davidman.

College, read a paper, “The Jewishness of Primo Levi” at the international conference, “If This is a Man: The Life and Legacy of Primo Levi (1919–1987),” Hofstra University, in October. Dr. Robert N. Taub ’57Y, professor of clinical medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, is director of the Columbia University Center for Study and Treatment of Mesothelioma, a form of cancer mainly affecting the lungs. Dr. Taub earned his MD from Yale University, PhD from London University, and honorary professorships and awards from the American Cancer Society, Israel Cancer Research Fund, Leukemia Society of America, and National Cancer Institute. ■ Personal News Rabbi Leon Aronsky ’59Y,R announces the birth of a grandson, Adam Meir, to his children Ronnit and Noah Vasserman. Mazal tov to Ayelet (Shapiro) ’59S and Rabbi Ahron Batt ’56Y,R on the birth of great granddaughter Hodaya to Zimarat and Nechemia Zuckerman of Mitzpeh Yericho, Israel. Rabbi Shlomo Jakobovits ’56Y, principal of general studies, Eitz Chaim Schools of Toronto, announces the marriage of daughter Rivka to Rabbi Avrohom Wolpin. Chaya (Heschel) ’59S and Rabbi Elihu Marcus ’53Y,R proudly announce the birth of granddaughter Adi Ita, born to their children, Debby and Shlomo Breitbard, in Maale Adumim, Israel. Idelle (Menkes) YH’56 and Dr. Reuben Rudman YH,’57Y,R made aliyah to Jerusalem.

sions that are typewritten or neatly printed. Relevant information (name, maiden name, school, year of graduation, and a contact phone number) must be included. The magazine is not responsible for incomplete or incorrect information. Graduates of CSL, WSSW, FGS, and AECOM may also direct notes to those schools’ alumni publications. In addition to professional achievements, YUR Classnotes may contain alumni family news, including information on births, marriages, condolences, and bar/bat mitzvahs. Engagement announcements are not accepted. We reserve the right to edit submitted items. We cannot be responsible for timesensitive submissions that expire before publication. Items sent for the next edition of Yeshiva University Review will be included as received and as space permits. Photographs are encouraged.

’30s
■ Personal News Rabbi Israel Nobel ’39Y,R and wife Judith celebrated their 60th wedding anniversary in December. Sharing in the simcha were children Carole Nobel Roth ’68S and Debora Nobel Grossman ’72S, and grandson Daniel Grossman ’03SB.

’50s
■ Professional News Reuben E. Gross ’51Y,R,F is a psychologist and marriage counselor with a private practice in Teaneck, NJ. He was awarded the Diplomate in Clinical Psychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology, Diplomate in Psychotherapy by the American Board of Psychotherapy, and is a fellow of the American Academy of Clinical Psychology. Recently he was honored by his synagogue, Cong. Bnai Yeshurun (Teaneck), at its 28th annual journal dinner, with the Avram Ruditzky Memorial Gemilat Chesed Award. He is married to Donna (Zackai) ’66S, and is the father of Rona Gross-Rubin ’94S, Raphael ’96SB, and Shira. Dr. Joseph Sungolowsky ’55Y,R, professor of French literature and Jewish studies, CUNY-Queens

’40s
■ Professional News Dr. Alvin I. Schiff ’47Y,AG,F, Irving I. Stone Distinguished Professor of Jewish Education, announced that the Board of Jewish Education of Greater New York has published an English translation of his popular guide for lesson planning, under the title Halakhah L’Ma’aseh: From Theory to Practice—Step by Step to Effective Teaching. The manual was originally published in Jerusalem for the Jewish Agency

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BENJAMIN N. CARDOZO SCHOOL OF LAW

WURZWEILER SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK

FERKAUF GRADUATE SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY

Anny (Chana Wolf) YH,’57TIW and Alfred Thee ’56Y announce the birth of granddaughter Shoham Rivka to Chaykie and Yehoshua Bassan of Efrat. Yaakov Zev YH,’54Y,R,W, and wife Chany celebrated the bat mitzvah of granddaughter Sara Chaya.

sor Chanes, who also teaches at Barnard College, was named a member of the Academic Council of the American Jewish Historical Society. Pinhas Friedenberg ’67Y presented a session, “What 9/11 Taught Us” at the fall 2002 Conference of the NJ-NY Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admission Officers. Also, he is vice president for registration and records management, Middle States Association of Collegiate Registrars and Officers of Admission. At its annual meeting in December he presented a workshop on admissions, records, and electronic technology; and a session with LeRoy Rooker, director of the US Department of Education’s Family Policy Compliance Office, on student privacy issues. Cantor Sherwood Goffin ’63Y,CTI, BSJM faculty/outreach program coordinator, served as cantor/ scholar-in-residence last November at Cong. Rinat Yisrael, Teaneck, NJ. Yitzchok Asher Goodman ’69Y,R is a director of investments at Salomon Smith Barney, NYC. He oversees a financial management program for olim. Philip Levitz YH’60 and wife Ruth made aliyah to Ramat Beit Shemesh. Prof. Edith (Slomowitz) Lubetski ’68B, SCW head librarian, chaired a session on “20thCentury Research” at the European Association for Jewish Studies 7th Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, July ’02. Rabbi Bernhard Rosenberg ’69Y,F,AG,R was voted “Teacher Who Made a Significant Impact” by the Class of 2002 at Moshe Aaron Yeshiva High School,

Scholars participate
The Association of Jewish Studies held its 34th annual conference in December in Los Angeles. YU alumni and faculty members in attendance included: Dr. David Berger ’64Y,R; Dr. Moshe Bernstein, YH,’66Y,B,R, associate professor of Bible; Dr. Shani Berrin ’88S,B, adjunct assistant professor of Jewish studies; Evelyn M. Cohen, assistant professor of art; Dr. Yaakov Elman, associate professor of Jewish studies; Dr. Louis H. Feldman, Abraham Wouk Family Professor of Classics and Literature; Dr. Sylvia Barak Fishman ’64S; Naomi Grunhaus, instructor in Bible; Dr. Ephraim Kanarfogel YH,’77Y,B,R, E. Billi Ivry Professor of Jewish History; Dr. Michelle J. Levine ’87B, assistant professor of Bible; Dr. Zafrira Lidovsky-Cohen, assistant professor of Hebrew; Dr. Haym Soloveitchik ’62R, Merkin Family Professor of Jewish History and Literature; and Dr. Joshua Zimmerman, assistant professor of Jewish history and Eli and Diana Zborowski Professorial Chair in Interdisciplinary Holocaust Studies.

’60s
■ Professional News Leah (Segal) Aharonov YH,’69S has lived in Israel since 1969. She is chairperson, Council of Women’s Organizations in Israel, umbrella organization of the 12 major women’s organizations in the country. In that capacity, she represented Israel at the 19th convention of the International Council of Jewish Women, held in Sydney, Australia. Also, she spoke at the Jewish Community Center in Hong Kong on “The Status of Women in Israel.” Cantor Bernard Beer YH,’65CTI, BSJM director, was cantor/scholar-in-residence at the Young Israel of Jamaica Estates, Jamaica Estates, NY, in December. Jerome Chanes ’64Y, adjunct professor, SCW and WSSW, delivered seminars at Columbia and Yale universities and lectured at Oxford. Also, he offered courses in the history of antisemitism and on antisemitism in the US at the JCC of Manhattan and lectured at Temple Emanuel (NY) on the history of the “movements” in the United States. His review of Jewish Baby Boomers by Chaim Waxman ’63Y,B,R appeared in American Jewish History. Profes-

South River, NJ, where he teaches Holocaust studies. He spoke at the midwinter meeting of the New York Board of Rabbis on “Sources for Sermons.” Elaine Leeder Sneierson ’69W is dean of social sciences and professor of sociology, Sonoma State University. She is author of three books and many articles on global perspectives on the family, radical Jewish labor history, and domestic violence. Dr. Henry I. Sobel ’65Y,R, is senior rabbi, Congregação Israelita Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil. He was the official guest of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at his inauguration in January as the new president of Brazil. He was the only rabbi among five religious leaders called upon during the ceremony to greet both the incoming and outgoing presidents and their respective vice presidents and wives.

■ Personal News Mazal tov to Leah (Segal) Aharonov YH,’69S on the marriage of son Aviad, an officer in the Israeli Navy, to Virginie Emanuelle. Nisson Berlin YH’64 and wife Channa welcome the birth of their first grandchild, David, born in Netanya, Israel. Toni (Felscher) ’70S and Phil Chernofsky YH,’69Y,F announce the birth of a grandson to children Miri and Daveed Schler. Lea Dror-Batalion ’69S announces the birth of a granddaughter, Hila, to children Natalie and Menashe Cohen. Sara (Sandy Singer) Eiferman YH’62 and husband Charles, of Har Nof, announce the birth of a grandson, Noam Meir, to their son David and his wife, Dina, of Bat Yam.

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AZRIELI GRADUATE SCHOOL OF JEWISH EDUCATION & ADMINISTRATION

Eli Klein ’61Y and wife Chava celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary and also the birth of their first great granddaughter. Phyllis Curchack Kornspan ’69S celebrated the birth of granddaughter Heichal Haleili, sister of Shirel Hodayah and Nesya. Dr. Elissa “Pitzie” (Friedman) ’63S and Dr. Judah Lando ’60Y announce the marriage of daughter Rachel to Lt. Sagi Baruch. Marlene (Ravitz) Schwartz ’69S welcomes the birth of grandson Yoav Ze’ev to daughter Miriam Almog and her husband, Dr. Gil.

Needs Institute dinner celebrating its 20th year, held in February in Teaneck, NJ. Nava Rephun ’76W presented a seminar in Hebrew for Israeli therapists on Imago Relationship Therapy at Shaare Zedek Hospital, Jerusalem. She is a psychotherapist who works with couples and individuals in her private practice in NYC, and who leads workshops in the US and Israel. She is a certified Imago Relationship therapist. Dr. Miryam (Zahavy) Wahrman YH’73 published Brave New Judaism: When Science and Scripture Collide (see Bookshelf). The book received a Starred Review (“book of outstanding quality”) from Publishers Weekly. Professor of biology and director of general education, William Paterson University, NJ, she also serves as science correspondent for the Jewish Standard and Jewish Community News, NJ. She and husband Dr. Israel S. Wahrman ’75Y live in Teaneck with their two daughters, Abigail and Susanna. ■ Personal News Dr. Avi Auerbach ’78Y and wife Judy, of Efrat, celebrated the bar mitzvah of son Shlomo. Mazal tov also to grandparents Dr. Bernard Auerbach YH,’45Y,R, and wife Vivien. Shelley (Billauer) ’82TIW,B and Rabbi Moshe Berliner ’79W,F,R announce the marriage of daughter Devora Chaya to Yoel Shraga Rosenberg. Rabbi Azarya Berzon YH,’78R and wife Charnie announce the marriage of two sons—within two weeks of each other: Baruch to Mariam Levitanus and Menachem to Chavie Kriger.

Rabbi Menachem Genack YH,’69Y,R, rabbinic administrator, OU kashrut depatment, and a professed history buff, recently exchanged letters with Pulitzer Prize-winning author David McCullough, whose books include Truman and the current best-seller John Adams, about an anecdote involving the 33rd US President and the Jews: • • • • • Dear Mr. McCullough: A few weeks ago a story appeared in the Israeli press about President Truman that I thought you might find interesting. President Truman’s advisers had urged him to address the American people each week. After deliberations with communication experts, the weekly speech was scheduled for Friday night. A Mrs. Berl heard of this decision and was disturbed. There would be many Orthodox Jews who would like to hear the President’s speech, but would not be able to because it would be broadcast on the Jewish Sabbath. She wrote a letter to the President describing her patriotism and her wish to hear the President, but regretted her inability to do so because she could not operate an electrical appliance on the Sabbath. “As a result,” she wrote, “I request that you reschedule the broadcast.” Amazingly a week later, Mrs. Berl received a letter informing her that President Truman read her message and was seriously considering its contents. Two weeks later, the President gave his usual speech on Friday night, but announced that for various reasons, it would thereafter be broadcast on Tuesdays… • • • • • Mr. McCullough responded: Dear Rabbi Genack, I can’t thank you enough for taking the time to send me the story about President Truman. It is one I had not heard before, and certainly it speaks for his fundamental good will and fairness. As you probably know, Harry Truman was the only president of the 20th century who never went to college. He exemplifies in many ways how so much that matters in life does not necessarily come from education. Somehow, possibly from his mother, he acquired a resilient, basic sense of right and wrong, and an ability to put himself in the other person’s place…

’70s
■ Professional News Dov Bloom ’76Y,B is a lecturer in computer science at the Negev Academic College for Engineering in Beersheva, Israel, and at the Yehuda Junior College in Kiryat Arba. Also, he teaches at two Beersheva high schools. He and wife Sandra live in Beit Yatir. Lea Wernick Fridman ’70S, is associate professor of English at Kingsborough Community College. She was a recipient of a PSC-CUNY Research Award Grant in 2001 and in 2002; contributed an article on the writer, Piotr Rawicz, to the reference work Holocaust Literature (Routeledge, 2003); was elected to the CUNY university faculty senate and as cochair of the Kingsborough faculty assembly; and represented Kingsborough at meetings of CUNY governance leaders. Her play, A W/Hole in the Heart, is being produced in NYC as an equity production. Rabbi Yaakov Neuburger ’77Y,R, I. Meier and Henrietta Segals Professor of Talmud, RIETS, was honored at the Sinai Special

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RABBI ISAAC ELCHANAN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY YESHIVA UNIVERSITY MUSEUM YESHIVA COLLEGE STERN COLLEGE FOR WOMEN

Gail (Gaerman) Bokow ’74TIW and husband Motty, of Har Nof, announce the birth of their first grandson to son Yoni and his wife, Yehudis. Mazal tov to Ruthie (Berger) YH’72 and Achituv Gershinsky YH,’75Y,W on the marriage of son Zev to Efrat Shimel of Jerusalem. Mazal tov also to grandparents Rabbi Moshe YH,’44Y,R and Devorah Gershinsky ’73F. Dr. Neil Halpern ’77Y and wife Judith celebrated the bar mitz-

vah of son Shlomo Elisha. Mazal tov also to grandparents Sheila (Lifschitz) YH’50 and Rabbi David Halpern ’49Y,R. Dr. Heshy Harold Jacob ’74Y,A and wife Nancy announce the marriage of their daughter, Elisheva, to Betzalel Vogel. Henry (Zvi) Jurkewicz ’70Y and wife Miriam celebrated the marriage of their son Moshe Chaim to Avigail Korman. Yaffa (Simon) YH’72 and Rabbi Martin Katz YH,’71Y,F,R

announce the birth of granddaughter Esther to son Yehuda and wife Devorah. Mazal tov also to great grandparents Rabbi Dr. E. Yechiel Simon YH,’49Y,R,B and wife Natalie. Morrie Klians ’76Y and wife Carrie have a new granddaughter, born to daughter Sharona Rosenberg and her husband, Nachman, of Ramat Beit Shemesh. Mazal tov to Tova (Lerner) YH’67 and Danny Rhein ’70Y, of Efrat; and Sherry (Scheinberg)

Zimmerman ’74S and husband Saul on the birth of granddaughter Shoshana Bracha to Alisa and Benji Zimmerman. Benji studies at YU’s Bella and Harry Wexner Kollel Elyon and Semikhah Honors Program, Jerusalem. Mazal tov also to great grandfather Rabbi Israel Lerner YH,’43Y,R and wife Chaniette. Mazal tov to Jose Rosenfeld ’79Y and wife Sara Averick, of Jerusalem, on the bar mitzvah of son Nechemya Chaim. Bracha Anita (Gittelman) ’74S

Judah S. Harris YH, ’87Y, photojournalist and fine art photographer, exhibited 57 images in a solo show, “Just One Moment,” held in January at the JCC on the Palisades, Tenafly, NJ. His portrayals of people, places, and life’s moments have appeared in advertising, magazines, newspapers, and on the covers of 37 novels. His work is collected by individuals and corporations and his photographs of contemporary Jewish life have been included in exhibits in various cities, including a permanent display at the Museum of Jewish Heritage Upcoming exhibits and talks in NY, Boston, LA, and Toronto will coincide with the publication of a limited edition collection of 18 photographs (16"x20"), highlighting the first 15 years of Harris’ career, 1987–2002.

SY SYMS SCHOOL OF BUSINESS

ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE

BENJAMIN N. CARDOZO SCHOOL OF LAW

WURZWEIL

and Bennie Steinberg YH,’72Y,B celebrated the bar mitzvah of son Moshe Elchanan. Dina Roemer ’77S,W and Shaya Wexler ’74Y,B,R, of Efrat, celebrated the marriage of daughter Tehila to Jeremy Gimpel. Mazal tov also to grandparents Rabbi Shlomo Wexler ’49Y,R and wife Chaya, of Har Nof. Sherry (Scheinberg) Zimmerman ’74S and husband Saul, of Beit Shemesh, celebrated the bat mitzvah of daughter Shulamit Elana.

Joseph M. (Yossi) Winiarz ’87W made aliyah in 1990. In Israel, he worked for Project Renewal and as the program officer for the Jewish Agency’s Grants and Allocations programs for eight years. Recently he started his own business, Gefen Professional Services, writing reports and grant proposals for the non-profit sector. He also is a licensed tour guide. He and wife Haya have seven children. The family lives in Efrat. ■ Personal News Marilyn (Kohn) Appel ’87S and husband Howard announce the birth of third child Eliyahu Meir. Rabbi Shalom Berger ’81Y,AG and wife Rachel, of Alon Shvut, Israel, announce the birth of daughter Tmima Bracha. Nicole Cohen ’89S and husband Michael celebrated the birth of their daughter, Sara Tehilla. Mazal tov also to grandparents Rabbi Harry Cohen ’51Y,R and Danielle Levinsohn. Pamela (Beer) YH,’93S and Mitchell Froehlich YH’87 welcomed the birth of a son. Mazal tov also to grandparents Cantor Bernard Beer YH,’65CTI, BSJM director, and wife Barbara. Mike Greenwald ’87Y and wife Vivian announce the birth of a son, Netanel (Tani) Pinchas, in November. Deborah (Cohen) Hamburger YH,’86S and husband Jonathan welcomed the birth of fourth child Eliav. Mazal tov also to grandparents Marshal and Sheila Cohen. Mazal tov to Nehemia Klein ’80Y and wife Rina, of Jerusalem, on the birth of their son, Netanel.

Laura (Soskin) Kornblum ’87S and husband David celebrated the birth of their second child, Jared Tyler. Mark Levitt YH,’88Y and wife Rebecca announce the birth of son Sam Klempler Levitt. Mazal tov to grandparents Harriet Levitt, YUHS for Boys English department chair, and husband Dan, a YU Master Builder. Yehudah Mirsky ’82Y, son of late SCW dean Dr. David Mirsky (1968–77), married Tamar Biala in Jerusalem. Mazal tov also to his mother, Sarah (Appel) Mirsky. David Raush ’88Y and wife Helene announce the birth of their second daughter, Melanie Aviva. Mazal tov also to grandparents Philip Podell YH’54 and wife Ellen, and Charlotte Raush. David lives in Cherry Hill, NJ, and is a clinical psychologist in private practice in Stratford, NJ, and Bala Cynwyd, PA. Dr. Steven Rosenbaum YH,’80Y and wife Carol celebrated the bar mitzvah of their son, Yosef Yonah. David I. Schonbrun ’86Y and wife Helene announce the birth of their third child, daughter Yakira Peninit. The family lives in White Plains, NY. Dr. Moshe Weber ’89Y and his family made aliyah to Beit Shemesh. Mazal tov to Hildee (Zwick) ’89S and Gary Weiss ’84Y, YC Board member, on the birth of daughter Liat Sapir. Mazal tov also to grandparents Shifra (Nulman) Zwick YH,’64S and husband Jack; and YU Board of Trustees Vice Chairman Morry Weiss and wife Judith, YU Benefactors.

’90s
■ Professional News Arlene Bergman ’90C is a partner in the law firm of Wilson Elser Moskowitz Edelman & Dicker, LLP, NYC office. Dr. Leah Gniwesch ’98F received certification as a “life coach” and has started a private practice. Also, her CD is titled Stress Repair. Dr. Gail Gumora ’99F published her dissertation research as an article in the Journal of School Psychology last fall. The article was coauthored with William Arsenio, PhD, associate professor of psychology at Ferkauf. Robert (Reuven) Harow ’91SB has joined The Trout Group, a boutique investor relations/corporate advisory firm focusing exclusively on healthcare and biotechnology. He is director of its Israel office. Rabbi Ira Kosowsky ’90Y,B,R, and his wife, Rachel, of Hashmonaim, returned to Israel after serving five years as emissaries in South Africa. Dr. Rafael Medoff ’91B is associate editor of the scholarly journal, American Jewish History. Also, he authored several books recently: Baksheesh Diplomacy: Secret Negotiations Between American Jewish Leaders and Arab Officials on the Eve of World War II (Lexington books); Historical Dictionary of Zionism with Chaim I. Waxman ’63Y,B,R (Scarecrow Books); Jewish Americans and Political Participation (ABC-CLIO) with a foreword by former NYC mayor

’80s
■ Professional News Jerry Barbalatt YH,’87Y,C was included in New York Resident Magazine’s list of 100 top New Yorkers of 2002. A financial planner and president, Parker Allen and Co., Jerry devotes much of his time to pro bono work. The magazine referred to those on its list as among the “Big Apple’s best and brightest.” Moshe (Mark) Feldman ’88Y opened his own law practice this past June, and specializes in US taxation of international transactions and high net-worth individuals. The firm is based in Tel Aviv and Manhattan. He, wife Nava (Lisotkin) YH’85, and their three children are making aliyah to Nof Ayalon. Moshe is the son of Dr. Louis H. Feldman, YC’s Abraham Wouk Family Chair Holder in Classics and Literature. Rabbi Pinchas N. Pearl ’82R was appointed director of library services and special rackets investigator, Kings County District Attorney’s Office. He continues to serve as rabbi, Beth-El Jewish Center of Flatbush.

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FERKAUF GRADUATE SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY

BERNARD REVEL GRADUATE SCHOOL OF JEWISH STUDIES

Ed Koch; and Militant Zionism in America: The Rise and Impact of the Jabotinsky Movement in the United States, 1926–1948 (University of Alabama Press). A review of Militant Zionism in the journal, Middle East Quarterly, described Dr. Medoff as “one of the preeminent historians of Zionism.” Don Savatta ’96C, a former senior assistant district attorney in Kings County, NY, opened a private law practice specializing in litigation in all federal and state courts. He can be reached at donsavatta@savattalaw.com. ■ Personal News Leslie Fuchs ’93S and Zevi Adler ’91Y announce their marriage. Mazal tov also to parents Debby (Riback) YH’55 and Mel Adler YH,’57Y and Arthur and Nili Fuchs.

Gila (Insler) ’02S and Rabbi Jeffrey Beer YH,’97Y,R announce their marriage. Mazal tov also to parents Cantor Bernard Beer YH,’65CTI, BSJM director, and wife Barbara.

fellow at YU’s Marcos and Adina Katz Kollel (Institute for Advanced Research in Rabbinics) and at the Caroline and Joseph S. Gruss Institute in Jerusalem. He recently worked as rabbinic coordinator for the OU’s kashrut division. He can be reached at ddanzer@lsdny.com. Mazal tov to Ami Drazin ’91Y and wife Aviva on the birth of third child Noa Itia. Mazal tov also to grandparents Baila (Salit) Aspler ’67S and husband Jerrold, and Avrum Drazin ’49Y and wife Ruth. Erica (Feldschreiber) ’00S and Dr. Yosef Fox ’97Y,A announce the birth of son Binyamin. Mazal tov also to grandparents Harvey Feldschreiber YH’64 and wife Fran, and Moshe and Arlene Fox. Cindy (Wagner) Haynes ’92S and husband Joshua welcomed the birth of their first child, Emma

Danielle (Tova Bracha). Cindy is a clinical social worker with Tempo Group, Woodmere, NY. Laurie (Katzman) YH,’95S,C and husband Natan Hecht YH,’95Y,C welcomed the birth of their bekhor, Jacob. Tamar (Schwell) ’91S and Ami Hordes ’93Y announce the birth of second child Daniella Chaya. Mazal tov also to grandparents Susan (Kwalbrun) ’64S and Robert Schwell ’62Y, and Jess Hordes ’63Y and wife Naomi. Aaron Katsman ’92Y and wife Yael, of Jerusalem, welcomed the birth of son Moshe Aryeh. Mazal tov to Heidi (Wellen) ’94W and Eric Kuperman ’97C on the birth of daughter Joelle Bailey (Yardena Bina). Devora (Cohen) ’97S and Rabbi Menachem Linzer ’95Y,AG,R

Dmitriy (David) Borovik ’97SB and wife Tslil welcome the birth of son Shiloh Samson. Dmitriy is a consultant at Deloitte & Touche. Yael B. Cohen ’99S and husband Uri welcomed the birth of son Moshe Shabtai. Rabbi David Danzer ’99R made aliyah to Jerusalem. He was a

In Tribute to Rabbi Steven M. Dworken
Rabbi Jeffrey Saks ’91Y,B,R is director of the Academy for Torah Initiatives and Directions in Jewish Education in Jerusalem. Following are excerpts of his thoughts following the untimely death of Rabbi Steven Dworken ’66Y,F,R (see We Mourn), executive vice president of the Rabbinical Council of America and spiritual leader at Cong. Anshe Chesed, Linden, NJ, where the author attended as a boy. “‘Virtual mourning’ allowed me to sit in my Jerusalem office and listen to the eulogies for Rabbi Steven Dworken over the internet… Much was said of his impact on so many people, none more than a seventh grader in the Cong. Anshe Chesed Hebrew School—testing the waters of Yiddishkeit and Torah. He knew from his own life what it meant for a young boy to become enchanted with Judaism, and he was a loving guide in those early years of my odyssey toward becoming observant. …In about eighth grade, I started coming to shul on Shabbat morning, and he began to invite me to his home for lunch—something that became a bit of a habit, and led to scores (if not hundreds) of Shabbat afternoons in the Dworken house, sukkah, and yom tov [holiday] table, and I came to feel as a ben bayit, as part of the family. … “On the occasion of my finishing semikhah [ordination] at YU, he told me, ‘The trick to being a rabbi is you have to love Jews—especially those who aren’t always so loveable.’ He also once said, ‘After 120 years, I don’t think they’ll say I was a gadol hador [giant of the generation]—but I hope they’ll say I was a good rabbi.’ He was a great rabbi, friend, and role model.”

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announce the birth of daughter Rivka Meira. Mazal tov also to grandparents, Dr. Norman Linzer YH,’55Y,W,R, Samuel J. and Jean Sable Professor of Jewish Family Social Work, WSSW, and wife Diane, and Mrs. Shulie Cohen YH’63, SCW librarian. Mazal tov to Saul Lubetski YH,’90Y and wife Rebecca on the birth of daughter Mia Leora. Mazal tov also to grandparents Edith (Slomowitz) Lubetski ’68B, SCW head librarian, and husband Meir; and David and Roslyn Pine. Mazal tov to Rabbi Joshua Narrowe ’95W,R and wife Adrienne on the birth of third child Noam Eliyahu. Mazal tov also to grandparents Rabbi Morton Narrowe ’54Y and wife Judith; and Lawrence and Sue Dix. Dr. Jonathan Resnick YH,’90Y,A and wife Sheila celebrated the birth of son Jake in November. Mazal tov also to grandparents Marvin Resnick, director of accounting and auditing, Finance department; wife Jeannette Resnick, Payroll department; and Sharon and Seymour Gertz. Josh Rosen YH’99 married Terri Tenenbaum. He is the son of Fran (Rosenzweig) YH’68 and Sheldon Rosen ’70Y. Mazal tov to Elizabeth (Wohlgemuth) ’96S,C, and husband Yosef Rothstein ’97Y on birth of son Daniel Kefir. Mazal tov also to grandparents Judy (Marton) ’64S and Shlomoh Wohlgemuth ’62Y and Rhoda Rothstein. Rona (Gross) ’94SB and Jeffrey A. Rubin ’90C celebrated the birth of son Elazar Moshe. Mazal tov also to grandparents Donna

(Zackai) ’66S and Reuben Gross YH,’51Y,R,F. Mazal tov to Menachem Schechter ’99SB and wife Rachel on the birth of daughter Ita. Mazal tov also to grandparents Joclyn (Weitz) Stern YH’72 and husband David; and Carol and Alan Schechter. Bonnie (Soskin) ’90S and David Sheer ’91Y,AG,R welcomed the birth of fourth child Dena Bracha. Mazal tov also to grandparents Rabbi Charles Sheer ’65Y,B,R and wife Judy; Philip and Joan Soskin; and great grandparents Bernard Schrenzel ’38Y and wife Ester; and Trudy Sheer. Shira (Rubinoff) ’95S and Joseph Steinberg ’93Y welcomed the birth of daughter Miriam Lauren (Miriam Leah Rina). Mazal tov also to grandparents Sandra (Burnstein) ’69S and Edward Steinberg YH’62, and Shia Rubinoff. Robert Sungolowsky ’99C and wife Scharone announce the birth of their son, Yaakov. Mazal tov also to grandparents Dr. Joseph Sungolowsky ’55Y,R, and wife Honey.

’99S and Joseph Kalinsky ’00Y,R on the birth of daughter Leah in 2001 and son Shlomo Dov in 2002. Mazal tov also to grandparents Alan Kalinsky YH,’73Y,F,R and wife Sandy. Lauren (Hoffer) Richler ’00W and husband Neil announce the birth of son Benjamin Joel. Mara Schecter ’00W married Lee Nathanson. They live in Bala Cynwyd, PA. Yoram Schwell ’02Y married Ayelet Bacon. Mazal tov also to parents Susan (Kwalbrun) ’64S and Robert Schwell ’62Y and Sari and Ari Bacon. Ayelet is the granddaughter of YC dean emeritus Dr. Isaac and Mrs. Bacon. Joshua Shtern ’01SB married Hadassah Levine, daughter of Sally (Roth) Levine ’78S and husband Arnold. Danya (Stern) ’99S and Aryeh Stechler ’00Y, RIETS student, announce the birth of their bekhor, Avraham Shaul. Mazal tov also to grandparents Gail (Licht) YH,’76TIW and Joseph Stechler ’73Y, YC Board member; and Rabbi Sholom Stern ’60Y and wife Batya. Mazal tov to Shayna Aster ’01S and Aaron Weisz ’01Y on their marriage. Mazal tov to parents Donna and Robert Weisz and Morlin and Margaret Aster.

Fellow with his wife, Arlene, on the loss of his mother, Rose. Marjorie (Diener) Blenden, a YU Trustee and Benefactor, and SCW Board of Directors chairman, and Lawrence Diener, a YC Board member and YU Guardian with his wife, Adele, on the loss of their mother, Beatrice. She was a YU Benefactor with her late husband, Leonard, and established the Leonard and Beatrice Diener Institute of Jewish Law at CSL. At SCW, with daughter Marjorie, she dedicated the Leonard Diener Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory and, with the Blenden Family, the Beatrice Diener Dining Hall. She was also a Fellow of RIETS. Helen (Voehl) ’62S and Rabbi Yehuda Bohrer ’63R,B, of Beit El, on the loss of their daughter, Tehiya Kanarek. CSL Board member Leon H. (and Tzili) Charney, YU Guardians, and Byrna Blumenreich on the loss of their mother, Sara. Leon received the Distinguished Alumnus Award in 1977 from YC; and was honored with YU’s Peace Award at a dinner at CSL. Also, he established the Leon and Tzili Charney Mentorship Program at RIETS. Daniel Chill YH,’57Y on the loss of his mother, Libbie. Rabbi Seth Farber ’91R,B, of Jerusalem, on the loss of his mother. Yosef Fridman YH’69, director of operations, Caroline and Joseph S. Gruss Institute in Jerusalem, on the loss of his father, Aron. Barry Friedman ’80Y, of Efrat, on the loss of his father, Myron. Rabbi Manfred Fulda YH,’52Y,R,B professor of Talmud, on the loss of his sister, Ruth Ueberall.

’00s
■ Personal News Mazal tov to Rena Rosenzweig ’02S and Ahron Glazer ’03Y on their marriage. Mazal tov to parents Peter Rosenzweig ’71Y and wife Bobbie, and to June Glazer, YU senior writer/editor, CPA, and husband Jeffrey. Hillel Glazer ’01Y celebrated his marriage to Ellie Schainker. Mazal tov also to parents June Glazer and husband Jeffrey, and Dr. Bruce and Sheryl Schainker. Mazal tov to Melissa (Ginsberg)

Condolences to
Rabbi Norman Amsel YH,’74Y,F,R of Jerusalem on the loss of his mother, Bernice. Pearl (Rabinowitz) Berger YH, ’62TIW, YU dean of University libraries, on the loss of her mother, Tova. Harvey Blau, longtime CSL Board member, YU Guardian, and CSL

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Rabbi Yitzchak Gottlieb YH,’66Y,R, and Naomi (Gottlieb) Hochstein YH’62, former YU Israel Alumni president, on the loss of their mother, Pesha. Rabbi Herzl Hefter ’77Y, of Efrat, on the loss of his father. Shirley Hus ’73S, Helen Spirn ’77S,B, Susan Stark ’84S,W, and Norman Stark, RIETS trustee who with his wife, Helene, are RIETS Fellows and supporters of several projects at YU, on the loss of their mother, Hanna. Arnold Kaminsky ’71Y on the loss of his mother, Betty. Emily Fisher Landau, member, AECOM Board of Overseers, founder of the AECOM National Women’s Division, benefactor of the Fisher Landau Center for the Treatment of Learning Disabilities at AECOM, and an Honorary Degree Alumna of Yeshiva University, on the death of her son, M. Anthony Fisher, a senior partner at Fisher Brothers, one of the most prominent real estate firms in New York. Mr. Fisher and his wife, Anne, were killed in a plane crash in Massachusetts on April 6. Dr. Judah Lando ’60Y and Dr. David J. Lando ’64Y on the loss of their mother. Jonathan (Buzzy) Levin ’71Y, of Jerusalem, on the loss of his father, Joseph. Ruth Mirvis, YU Guardian with husband Ted, a YU Museum Board member, on the loss of her father, Irving Tershel. Helen (Simon) Moskowitz ’85S, associate director of admissions, on the loss of her father, Dr. Ernest Simon, former YU English literature professor.

Harry Peters ’74Y on the loss of his mother. Bernard Pinchuk ’64Y on the loss of his father, Isaac. Meir Rosenzweig ’02Y on the loss of his father, David. Lawrence Ruben, a longtime CSL Board member, on the loss of his wife, Selma. He and his wife are YU Guardians. Joel Salzman ’79Y and Anita Harband on the loss of their mother, Lillian. Ari Arthur Schaffer YH,’75Y, of Hashmonaim, Israel, on the loss of his mother, Ida. Rabbi Mordecai Schnaidman ’48Y,B,R on the loss of his mother, Anna. Rabbi Chaim Paul Schneid ’66Y of Netzer Chazani, Israel, and Barbara (Schneid) Wiseberg YH’64, of Mechola, Israel, on the loss of their mother, Sara; and to Rabbi Emanuel Rackman YH,’34R, chancellor of Bar-Ilan University, on the loss of his sister. Dr. William J. Schwartz, RIETS Board member and YU Guardian with his wife, Debbie, on the loss of his father, Paul. Herbert Smilowitz, RIETS Board vice chairman and YU and RIETS Guardian with his wife, Marilyn (Cohen) Smilowitz, on the loss of his father, Bernard; and her father, Jacob. Sylvia (Zauderer) Zeevi YH’63 on loss of her mother, Lea.

encouraged the establishment of YU’s medical school while it was still in its planning stages, and was one of the first members of its Society of Founders. He was named to the AECOM Board in 1954, a year before the medical school opened, and served until his death. An honorary alumnus of YU, he divided his support between AECOM and other YU schools. Russell Berrie, a YU Guardian, philanthropist, and leader of the NJ Jewish community who supported WSSW and SSSB, in December. He was a frequent speaker in the business school’s Doris and Dr. Ira Kukin Entrepreneurial Lecture Series. Rabbi Steven M. Dworken ’66Y,F,R, in January. Executive vice president of the Rabbinical Council of America, he was formerly assistant director of RIETS’ Max Stern Division of Communal Services. He also served as its director of rabbinic services and past president of RIETS’ Rabbinic Alumni. He served as rabbi at Cong. Anshe Chesed, Linden, NJ, for 22 years, past president of the Rabbinical Council of New Jersey and the Union County Board of Rabbis, and vice president, treasurer, and secretary of the Rabbinical Council of America. Condolences to his wife, Susan (Haberman) ’99AG, children Naomi (and Yechiel) Rotblat, Aliza (and Jonathan) Frohlich ’94S,AG,F, and Arye ’98SB, and his grandchildren. (See “In Tribute to Rabbi Dworken,” p. 48) Herman David Engelberg ’37Y, in October. An attorney and a founder of the Young People’s Synagogue, Pittsburgh, PA, he devoted much of his life to the growth and development of the

Jewish community there. Condolences to his wife, Evelyn, and children. Rabbi Joshua J. Epstein YH,’47Y,R, in January. He was retired as spiritual leader, Cong. Ahavath Achim, the Bronx. Condolences to his wife, Estelle, his children, and brother. Rabbi Seymour L. Essrog ’55Y,B,R, in October. He was past president, Rabbinical Assembly, and served his entire rabbinic career in Baltimore—at Beth Israel Synagogue for 30 years and then Cong. Adat Chaim. Condolences to his wife, Toby, and family. Isidore Falk, YU Benefactor, in January. His foresight and generosity led to the establishment of the Anne and Isidore Falk Recreation Center at the Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus. Condolences to his children, Maurice (and Judi), Rebecca (and John) Steindecker, and Serafina (and Dr. Melvyn) Weiner. Rabbi Aaron Feinerman YH,’33Y, a former RIETS student who was a respected leader in the Jewish community. Condolences to his wife, Marilyn, and to his brother, Rabbi Judah Feinerman ’47Y,R, YU Board of Trustees member, YUHS chair, former RIETS Board chairman, and YU Guardian with his wife, Shepsie. William Herzl Freed YH,’39Y, in March ’01. A Society of American Travel Writers charter member, he is thought to be the first YC graduate to attend Columbia University’s graduate school of Journalism, where he earned a master’s degree. Condolences to his wife, Gladys, children Myra L. Freed ’80C (and Dr. Seth J. Orlow ’86A) and Susan E. Freed (and

We Mourn
Hon. Walter Annenberg, honorary member of AECOM’s Board of Overseers and a Benefactor of AECOM and YU, in October. He was among the handful of forward-looking personalities who

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Martin Brandwein), and grandchildren. Dr. Eliezer Goldman ’37Y, in October. He made aliyah in 1938, earned a PhD from BarIlan University where he taught and later was chairman of the philosophy department. A prominent Israeli religious philosopher, he was the recipient of the Bialik Prize in 1998. In 1999, YU honored him with an honorary doctorate. Alfred Hazan, a YU Guardian with his wife, Jennie, in December. They were founding leaders of YU’s Sephardic Studies Programs and established the Alfred and Jennie Hazan Scholarship Fund for Sephardic Students. Rabbi Mayer Herskovics ’50B, who was professor emeritus of Jewish studies. Condolences to his wife, Esther, and to the Grossman, Rosensweig, and Herskovics families. Rabbi Seymour Solomon Hirschman YH,’43Y,R,F, in December ’01. Also a cantor, he served as president of the Jewish Ministers Cantors Association of America and Canada. A school psychologist, he was a member of the NYC Bureau of Child Guidance and worked for the NYC public school system. A Zionist, he held leadership positions in Shomer Hadati. He was also a Jewish educator. Irving Jaret ’42Y, in May 2002. He had been a pulpit rabbi in Nyack, NY, and executive director of synagogues in Cedarhurst (NY) and North Miami (FL). Condolences to his children, Jacalyn Brenner, David Jaret, and Marcy Ruggiero. Zvi (Henry) Jurkewicz ’70Y, of Har Nof, Israel, in October.

Rabbi Elihu Kasten YH,’36Y,R, in October. Condolences to his wife, Sarah, children Rabbi Avi Kasten ’67Y,B,R, Tamar, and Carmi. Zvi Kolitz, an honorary degree recipient who taught Jewish studies at YU. He was author of Yosl Rakover Talks to God, a novel about a Holocaust victim’s struggle to believe in God. The book was so realistic that it initially was believed to be an actual diary found in the Warsaw Ghetto. He also wrote and produced Hill 24 Doesn’t Answer, a film about Israel’s 1948 War of Independence. Jeffrey D. Loeb ’78W, in February 2002. Condolences to his wife, Robin, and children. Dr. Barry Mishkin ’95A, in August. Condolences to his wife, Sari, his children, and his parents, Dr. and Mrs. Seymour Mishkin. Dr. David Israel Muskat ’61A in June 2001. He was a psychiatrist with a practice in Pittsburgh, PA. Condolences to his wife, Gloria (Goldspiel) YH’56, and their children. Dr. Gerald Nissenbaum YH,’54Y, in August ’02. An internist and gastroenterologist in Jersey City and Bayonne for 37 years, he developed medical devices and “Nissenbaum’s Fixative,” a classic cytologic reagent used worldwide in medicine and microbiology. Condolences to his wife, Sylvia, and sons Gary, Eliot, and Robert. Rabbi Norman Pauker ’47R, in August 2002.

Rabbi Harold Perlman ’47R, in October. He was a former Jewish studies instructor at SWHSG. Dr. Eli Sar ’41Y, in March. He was former medical director for Yeshiva College and Stern College for Women for 50 years. He was son of S.L. Sar, YU dean of men for many decades. Condolences to his wife, Ruth, sister Esther Zuroff, and to the entire family. Stephanie Thea Shatkin ’79C, in December. She was a member of the first CSL graduating class; served as an assistant general counsel, NY City Transit Authority, for 16 years; and was president of the Young Israel of East Brunswick (NJ) Sisterhood and a founder and board member, Young Israel of East Brunswick Mikvah. Condolences to her husband, Elia S. Weixelbaum YH’72, and their three children. Rabbi Bernard Siegfried YH,’87Y,R, instructor of physics and mathematics, MSTA, in December. Condolences to his wife, Hadassah. Dr. Ruth Skydell, FGS Board member and YU Guardian with her husband, Rabbi Adrian Skydell, in February. They established the Ruth K. Skydell Scholarship for SCW graduates at FGS. Condolences to Rabbi Skydell, to YC Board member Harry (and Rachel) Skydell, and to the entire family. Gershon Stern ’48Y, who for more than 25 years was a member of the YU Board of Trustees. He also served as national president of Canadian Friends of Yeshiva

University and was honorary national president at the time of his death. He was a member of the SSSB Board of Directors where he and his wife, Merle, YU Benefactors, established the Gershon and Merle Stern Chair in Banking and Finance. He was the first YC alumnus to become a Benefactor and the first alumnus to endow a chair at that institution. Also, he served as a past member of the RIETS Board of Trustees. He received an honorary degree from YU in 1984. Pearl Unger, a YU Benefactor with her husband, Milton, in November. They established the Milton and Pearl Unger Department of Jewish Studies at The Marsha Stern Talmudical Academy, where they endowed a major scholarship fund. Rabbi Ascher M. Yager ’28R, RIETS’ second oldest rabbinic alumnus at 97 years old, in March. He was a Guardian who established the Edith Yager Memorial Scholarship and the Rabbi Ascher M. Yager Rabbinic Kollel Fellowship at RIETS. Rabbi Leon J. Yagod ’46Y,R,B, in October. He taught at NYU in its Hebrew Culture Program and served his congregation in Irvington, NJ, for many decades. Each year he held a fundraising breakfast to support the Rabbi Dr. Leon J. Yagod Scholarship Fund. Condolences to his wife, Miriam. Moshe Ziv ’78W, in August. He maintained a private practice in divorce mediation in Maplewood, NJ, before retiring.

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