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Drugs Study

Drugs Study

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Published by Nelle Agni

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Published by: Nelle Agni on Jan 05, 2011
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Generic / Trade Name Piperacilin + Tazobacta m Piptaz Dosage / Frequen cy Piptaz 2.5g IV q6 (to complete 40 doses) Classificati on Piperacillin and enzyme inhibitor Belongs to the class of penicillin combination s, including betalactamase inhibitors. Used in the systemic treatment of infections. Indication Treatment of infections in the lower respiratory tract Ex: severe communityaquired pneum onia & healthcare pneumonia; uncomplicated & complicated skin & skin structure infections; intraabdominal infections w/ peritonitis. Contraindica tion Hypersensitiv ity to penicillins, cephalosporin s & β-lactam inhibitors Side effects Hypersensitivity Reactions: Rash, pruritus and fever have been reported Gastrointestinal Effects: melena, gastritis Hepatic Effects: Transient increases in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin can occur. Renal Effects: Increases in serum concentrations of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) may be observed. Effect on the Central Nervous System: Headache, Malaise Local Reactions: pain, inflammation, thrombophlebitis and edema. Nursing Responsibilities Piptaz should not be added to blood products or albumin hydrolysates and should not be mixed with other drugs in a syringe or infusion bottle due to possible problems with compatibility. Piptaz is not chemically stable in solutions that contain only sodium bicarbonate and solutions that significantly alter pH. Lactated Ringer's Solution is not compatible with Piptaz. Piptaz is stable in glass and plastic containers (plastic syringes, IV bags and tubing) once used with compatible diluents. Use Piptaz immediately after constitution. Discard properly any unused portion after 24 hrs if stored at room temperature (20-25°C) or after 48 hrs if stored at refrigerated temperature (2-8°C). Vials should not be

Mild & transient hematological disturbances. GIT & GUT infection. Tachycardia. heart failure. Fungi & protozoal infection. urinary tract agent. Other bacterial infections eg acute brucellosi s. septicemia. Skin & wound infections. Premature or newborn infant. hypotension. chest pain. dyspnea. obtain C&S before starting therapy Assess blood dyscrasias . sulfonamide Indication Respiratory tract. Nursing Responsibilities Assessment: Assess for allergic reactions Monitor I&O ratio Monitor Kidney Function Assess type of infection. Used in the systemic treatment of infections anti-infective. edema. Side effects Occasionally GI intolerance. bradycardia. Co-Trimoxazole Generic / Dosage / Trade Frequency Name CoCotrimoxazole Trimoxazo forte 1tab BID le for 14 days Classification Sulfamethoxazo le and trimethoprim .Other Adverse Effects: Hypertension. Stability in the IV bags has been demonstrated for up to 24 hrs while stability in an ambulatory IV infusion pump has been demonstrated for a period of 12 hrs at room temperature. frozen after constitution. Belongs to the class of combinations of sulfonamides and trimethoprim. Prophylaxis against sensitive gm-ve organisms Contraindicatio n Hepatic or renal impairment. including derivatives.

bleeding disorders. hepatic impairement. pregnancy. headache.Clopidogrel Generic / Trade Name Clopidogr el / Clomex Tab Dosage / Frequen cy Clopidogr el 75mg/tab 1tab OD after lunch Classificatio n Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptopr antagonist Antiplatelet Belongs to the class of platelet aggregation inhibitors excluding heparin. peripheral arterial disease & stroke. Flu-like symptoms. back/joint pain. Peptic ulcer or intracranial hemorrhage. reflexes. adventitious sounds Intervention: Provide small frequent feeding if . peptic ulcer Physical: Skin color. orientation. constipation. Respiratory. lesions. rash. affect. MI. Orthostatic BP. Pulse. Used in the treatment of thrombosis. dizziness. lactation. Nursing Responsibilities Assessment: History: Allergy to clopidogrel. Side effects Stomach upset/pain. Inhibits Indication Prevention of atherosclerotic events in patients w/ atheroscleros is at risk of thromboembolic disorders eg. temperature. BP. recent surgery. peripheral perfusion. diarrhea. baseline ECG. Contraindica tion Active pathological bleeding eg.

disorientation. chest pain. memory loss.platelet aggregation by blocking ADP receptors on platelets. abdominal bleeding Citicoline Generic / Trade Name Citicoline / Somazone Dosage / Frequen cy Citicoline 3ml BID Classificatio n Neuroprotecti ve CNS Drugs & Agents for ADHD MOA: stimulation of PtdCho synthesis in the injured brain. Indication Contraindica tion Side effects Citicoline has a low side effect profile. recent cranial trauma and their Must not be administered along with medicaments containing meclophenoxate . and difficulty sleeping if the supplement is taken in the evening. accident in acute and recovery phase. fainting.dizziness. Patients with symptoms and parasympath signs of cerebral etic insufficiency hypertonia. preventing clumping of platelets GI upset occurs Provide comfort measures and arrange for analgesics if headache occurs Teachings: Take daily as prescribed. severe headache. eg. Nursing Responsibilities Treatment of Hypersensitivi cerebrovascular ty to the drug. Some citicoline side effects include elevated body temperature restlessness. May be taken with or without meals Report skin rashes. poor concentration.

headache. low blood pressure (faintness. poor concentration. nausea & vomiting. or rash.TB agents Indicatio n Treatment of pulmonary and extrapulm onary Tuberculos Contraindicat ion Comprilex Previous Isoniazidassociated hepatic injury or other severe Side effects Feeling dizzy. swelling in yout face or hands. Allergic reaction: itchng or hives.sequela To increase brain metabolism Cholinerv Generic / Trade Name Citicoline Na / Cholinerv Dosage / Frequen cy Classificatio n Neuroprotecti ve CNS Drugs & Agents for ADHD MOA: stimulation of PtdCho synthesis in the injured brain. Rising slowly over several minutes from sitting or lying position is recommended. recent cranial trauma ) Contraindica tion Hypersensitivi ty to the drug. Patients with parasympath etic hypertonia. cheat tightness. swelling or tingling in your mouth or throat. memory loss. Nursing Responsibilities Note for any allergic reactions . or diarrhea. Give 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. Children Give this medicine on an empty stomach. symptoms & signs of cerebral insufficiency (dizziness. Side effects Gastroinstestinal disorders. Nursing Responsibiliti es 1gm IV q12 Must not be administered along with medicaments containing meclophenoxate Rifampicin Generic / Trade Name Rifampici n / Rifampin Rifaldazin Dosage / Frequen cy 200mg/5 ml: 3ml 30 mins Classificat ion Anti. Indication CVD in acute & recovery phase. dizziness) slow or fast heart beat. trouble breathing.

or a medicine cup (only for older children) from your pharmacist. fever. These include headache. get an oral syringe. • • Give this medicine with a full glass of water. Measure liquid doses carefully. aches. Flush the feeding tube before and after medicine is given. a medicine spoon. Shake well before use. Bifidobacterium bifidumlactobacillus acidophilus • Discoloration of contact lenses. Ciprofloxacin Generic / Trade Name Dosage / Freque ncy Classificatio n Indication Contraindica tion Side effects Nursing Responsibilities . Do not wear while taking this medicine. acute gout. Use measuring device that comes with the medicine. Diarrhea. shakes.e Rifamycin is isoniazid adverse reactions. Yogurt. a medicine dropper. Zinaplex Severe hepatic damage. Flu-like symptoms. If none is available. Mild pain medicine may help. pains. should be extra careful climbing stairs. • Change in color of body fluids to orange. Children who have feeding tubes can also use the liquid. and sweating. A liquid (suspension) is available if your child cannot swallow pills. Belly pain. weakness.

Proquin XR 500 mg 1 tab every 12 hrs/ NG Antibiotic MOA: Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase thus preventing replication in susceptible bacteria Treatment for infection of the respiratory tract Contraindicat ed in patients hypersensitivi ty to drugs The most frequent side effects of ciprofloxacin include nausea. diarrhea. Cipro XR. headache. vomiting. Administer 2 hrs before or 2 hrs after antacids . as safe use in these patients has not been established. and restlessness Ciprofloxacin should be avoided in pregnancy. abdominal pain. Ciprofloxacin should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age. Patients taking ciprofloxacin can develop sensitivity of the skin to direct sunlight (photosensitivity) and should avoid exposure to sunlight or use sun protection and sunscreens.Ciprofloxac in / Cipro. rash.

Contraindica tion None None Side effects Nursing Responsibiliti es Preferably be taken 1 hr before meal . diarrhea. chemotherapy. & other digestive disorder. For maintenance & restoration of intestinal microbial balance during and after treatment w/ antibiotics. Dietary/ Combination Supplements Indication Immune booster.OMX Generic / Trade Name Food Suppleme nt / OMX Dosage / Frequen cy 1-3 caps/day for 5 days Classificatio n Supplements.

Monitor hepatic enzymes. poorly responsive symptomatic GERD Long-term therapy: Treatment of pathologic hypersecretory conditions (ZollingerEllison syndrome. interventions to reduce side effects. Cough. Diarrhea. Side effects Headache. pylori with amoxicillin or metronidazole and clarithromycin Prilosec OTC: Treatment of frequent heartburn (2 or more days per wk) Contraindicati on Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to omeprazole or its components. Assess GI system: bowel sounds 8 hourly. flatulence Back pain. upper respiratory tract infection Rash Nursing Responsibilities Assess other medications patient maybe taking for effectiveness and interaction. dizziness. lactation. systemic mastocytosis) Eradication of H. abdomen for pain and swelling. and other symptoms to report. . Assess knowledge/teach appropriate use of this medication. Monitor therapeutic effectiveness and adverse reaction at the beginning of therapy and periodically throughout the therapy. asthenia. severe erosive esophagitis.Omepron Generic / Trade Name Omeprazo le / Omepron Dosage / Frequen cy 20mg 1 cap OD PB Classificatio n Anti-secretory agent Proton pump inhibitor Action: Suppresses gastric secretion by inhibiting hydrogen/pota ssium Atpase enzyme system in the gastric parietal cell. abdominal pain. vomiting. Use cautiously with pregnancy. nausea. characterized as a gastric acid pump inhibitor since it block the final step of acid production Indication Short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer First-line therapy in treatment of heartburn or symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Short-term treatment of active benign gastric ulcer GERD. appetite loss. multiple adenomas.

hallucinations. and depression). Monitor for CNS depression (somnolence and fatigue). and in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome Dizziness.Unlabeled use: Posterior laryngitis. • • • • Dryness or soreness of throat Fever Sleepiness or unusual drowsiness tender. and muscle weakness are the most frequently reported side effects of levetiracetam. enhance efficacy of pancreatin for the treatment of steatorrhea in cystic fibrosis Keppra Generic / Trade Name Leviteracet am / Keppra Dosage / Freque ncy 500mg / tab 1tab HS Classificatio n it does appear to attenuate fully kindled seizures and the development of kindling Indication Contraindica tion Hypersensitivi ty to the components of the drug Avoid adrupt withdrawal Pregnancy With renal impairments Caution if psychiatric disorder and geriatrics Side effects Nursing Responsibilities adjunctive treatment for partial seizures levetiracetam may also be useful in some patients with generalized. absence. Other possible side effects that do not usually require medical attention include: Assess effectiveness and interactions of other medications patient may be taking. or myoclonic seizures. anxiety. psychotic depression). swollen glands in . anger. behavioral abnormalities (psychosis. irritability. depersonalization. apathy. Monitor therapeutic effectiveness. aggression. emotional lability. hostility. laboratory values. and adverse reactions at beginning of therapy and periodically with long-term use. and other behavioral symptoms (agitation.

• • neck numbness. right upperquadrant pain) or agranulocytosis (e. dark coloured urine. radioactive iodine or surgery. loss of appetite. pruritus. and adverse symptoms to report. fever. vomiting." or tingling feelings loss of appetite or weight loss Taper dosage slowly when discontinuing. light coloured stools. Assess knowledge/teach patient appropriate use. nausea. "pins and needles. methimazole. sore throat) immediately.g. prickling. interventions to reduce side effects. PTU Generic / Trade Name Propylthioura cil (PTU) Dosage / Frequen cy 50mg /tab 1tab BID HR < 70 Classifica tion AntiThyroid Agents Indication Indicated to patients suffering from hyperthyroidi sm Contraindica tion Hypersensitivi ty to the drug and its components Pregnancy Lactation Lupus-like syndrome Cutaneous vasculitis Thrombocytopenia Skin rash Urticaria arthralgia and fever Side effects Nursing Responsibilities Mild leukopenia Reserve use for patients unable to tolerate any other treatments e. Observe and teach seizure/safety precautions.g. Inform patient of liver failure risk and to report any signs of liver dysfunction (e.g. jaundice. .

elevated LFT above 3 times the upper limit of normal or exfoliative dermatitis. Monitor prothrombin time regularly during treatment. anxiety. Cardiac arrhythmia associated w/ tachycardia caused by digitalis intoxication. Chronic bronchitis. Side effects Headache.GI discomfort Vomiting Headache. Any unused solution in the chamber of the nebulizer must be discarded. fever. Emphysema. Stop treatment upon signs of agranulocytosis. tachycardia. rarely nausea and vomiting. and skin rashes can be observed. liver injury. Ventolin Generic / Trade Name Ventolin (Nebule) / Albuterol Dosage / Frequen cy q1 for 4hrs Classificatio n Respiratory drugs Anti-asthmatic Indication Relief of Bronchospasm in Bronchial asthma. tremor. Nursing Responsibilities Dilution: May be diluted with sterile normal saline. aplastic anaemia. and other reversible Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases. especially before surgical procedures. hypertension. Contraindica tion Hypersensitivi ty to any components of ventolin. Regular monitoring of thyroid function and CBC is advisable. Serum potassium levels should be monitored Bronchial Clapping may be performed after each neb if prescribed by the Physician (with bronchial clapping after Neb) Acetylcysteine Generic / Dosage / Classifica Indication Contraindication Side effects Nursing .

For acute adrenal cortical insufficiency Hypersensitivity to corticosteroids. Classificat ion Adrenal cortical steroid Indication Contraindication Side effects Fluid retention. Hypotension. osteoporosis. convulsions. chronic bronchitis and its exacerbations. and convulsions. Coronary artery disease. cured or manifest TB. impaired wound healing. Nursing Responsibilities Give daily before 9am to mimic normal peak diurnal corticosteroid levels. blurred vision. angio-edema. rashes & pruritus. renal impairment Hypersensitivity reactions including bronchospasm. Responsibilities Monitor effectiveness of therapy and advent of adverse/allergic effects. GI ulcers. vomiting. fever. disturbances of liver function. Hypertension. Flushing. acrivastine or any component. herpetica. syncope. arthralgia. hypokalemia. mucoviscidosis and bronchiectasis MAO inhibitor therapy within 14 days initiating therapy. nausea. keratitits.Trade Name Acetylcystei ne (nebule) / Broncoflem Frequen cy ½ amp q6 tion Mucolytics Treatment of respiratory affections characterized by thick and viscous hypersecretions: acute bronchitis. Instruct patient in appropriate use and adverse effects to report Use with caution in patients > 60 years of age Hydrocortisone Generic / Dosage / Trade Frequen Name cy Hydrocortiso 100g IV ne q8 (IV) / Hydrocorton e. acidosis. pulmonary emphysema. Cortenema. GI & acute Corticostero hypersensitivity id reactions Hormones Glucocortic . acute psychoses & latent. CHF. hypersensitivity to pseudoedephrine. cardiac & respiratory arrest. Severe hypertension. psychic disturbances. muscular atrophy.

Cortef oid ulcer. lactation . Doxofylline Generic / Trade Name Doxofylline (tablet) Dosage / Frequen cy 400mg ½ tab q8 Classificat ion Antiasthma tic & COPD Indication Contraindication Side effects Nausea. Do not give IM injections if patient has thrombocytopenic purpura. Hypertension. myasthenia gravis & renal insufficiency headache & papillo edema. Hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylactic shock) Space multiple doses evenly throughout the day. hypotension. Cushing's syndrome. Glaucoma. Taper doses when discontinuing highdose or long-term therapy. pulse and blood pressure before Reversible airways Acute MI. exopthalmia & cataract. latent DM. vomiting. osteoporosis. Use minimal doses for minimal duration to minimize adverse effects. Nursing Responsibilities Assess lung sounds.

irritability. If conditions occur. withhold medication and notify physician immediately. extrasystole. Note amount. hyperglycemia. color. and character of sputum produced. albuminuria administration and during peak of medication. Monitor pulmonary function tests before initiating therapy and periodically during therapy to determine effectiveness of medication. insomnia. . Observe for paradoxical bronchospasm (wheezing). tachypnea. tachycardia./ Ansimar Preparation s obstruction epigastric pain. cephalalgia.

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