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MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED TOPICS
Source: UP Law Center
1. Why is the power to tax considered inherent in a sovereign State? [2003 Bar Exams] It is considered inherent in a sovereign State because it is a necessary attribute of sovereignty. Without this power no sovereign State can exist or endure. The power to tax proceeds upon the theory that the existence of a government is a necessity and this power is an essential and inherent attribute of sovereignty, belonging as a matter of right to every independent state or government. No sovereign State can continue to exist without means to pay its expenses; and that for those means, it has the right to compel all citizens and property within its limits to contribute, hence, the emergence of the power to tax. (51 Am. Jur., Taxation 40) 2. The City of Manila, in order to solve the traffic problem in its business districts, decided to impose a tax, to be paid by the driver, on all private cars entering the city during peak hours from 8:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. from Mondays to Fridays, but exempts those cars carrying more than two occupants, excluding the driver. Is the ordinance valid? [2003 Bar Exams] The ordinance is in violation of the Rule of Uniformity and Equality, which requires that all subjects or objects of taxation, similarly situated must be treated alike in equal footing and must not classify the subjects in an arbitrary manner. In the case at bar, the ordinance exempts cars carrying more than two occupants from coverage of the said ordinance. Furthermore, the ordinance only imposes the tax on private cars, and exempts public vehicles from the imposition of the tax, although both contribute to the traffic problem. There exists no substantial standard used in the classification by the City of Manila. Another issue is the fact that the tax is imposed on the driver of the vehicle and not on the registered owner of the same. The tax does not only violate the requirement of uniformity, but the same is also unjust because it places the burden on someone who has no control over the route of the vehicle. 3. Congress, after much public hearing and consultations with various sectors of society, came to the conclusion that it will be good for the country to have only one system of taxation by centralizing the imposition and collection of taxes in the national government. Accordingly, it is thinking of passing a law that would abolish the taxing power of all local government units. In your opinion, would such a law be valid under the present Constitution? Explain your answer. [2001 Bar Exams] No. The law centralizing the imposition and collection of all taxes in the national government would contravene the Constitution which mandates that: “…….Each local government unit shall have the power to create their own sources of revenue and to levy taxes, fees and charges subject to such guidelines and limitations as Congress may provide consistent with the basic policy of local autonomy.” It is clear that Congress can only give the guidelines and limitations on the exercise by the local governments of the power to tax but what was granted by the fundamental law cannot be withdrawn by the Congress. 4. Among the taxes imposed by the Bureau of Internal Revenue are income tax, estate and donor’s tax, value added tax, excise tax, other percentage taxes, and documentary stamp tax. Classify these taxes into direct and indirect taxes, and differentiate direct from indirect taxes. [2000 Bar Exams] Income tax, estate tax and donor’s tax are considered as direct taxes. On the other hand, value added tax, excise tax, other percentage taxes, and documentary stamp tax are indirect taxes. Direct taxes are demanded from the very person who, as intended, should pay the tax which he cannot shift to another; while an indirect tax is demanded in the first instance
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from one person with the expectation that he can shift the burden to someone else, not as a tax but as a part of the purchase price. 5. An Executive Order was issued pursuant to law, granting tax and duty incentives only to businesses and residents within the “secured area” of the Subic Economic Special Zone, and denying said incentives to those who live within the Zone but outside such “secured area”. Is the constitutional right to equal protection of the law violated by the Executive Order? Explain. [2000 Bar Exams] No. Equal protection of the law clause is subject to reasonable classification. Classifications, to be valid, must (1) rest on substantial distinctions, (2) be germane to the purpose of the law, (3) not be limited to existing conditions only, (4) equally to all members of the same class. There are substantial differences between big investors being enticed to the “secured area” and the business operators outside that are in accord with the equal protection clause that does not require territorial uniformity of laws. The classification applies equally to all resident individuals and businesses within the “secured area”. The residents, being in like circumstances to contributing directly to the achievement of the end purpose of the law, are not categorized further. Instead, they are similarly treated, both in privileges and obligations required. (Tiu, et al. vs. Court of Appeals. GR No. 127410. January 20, 1999) 6. X is the owner of a residential lot situated at Qurino Avenue, Pasay City. The lot has an area of 300 square meters. On June 1, 1994, 100 square meters of said lot owner by X was expropriated by the government to be used in the widening of Quirino Avenue, for Php300,000 representing the estimated assessed value of said portion. Form 1991 to 1995, X, who is a businessman, has not been paying his income taxes. X is now being assessed for the unpaid income taxes in the total amount of Php150,000. X claims the income tax liability has already been compensated by the amount of Php300,000 which the government owes him for the expropriation of his property. Decide. [1996 Bar Exams] The income tax liability of X can not be compensated with the amount owed by the Government as compensation for his property expropriated. Taxes are of distinct kind, essence and nature than ordinary obligations. Taxes and debts cannot be the subject of compensation because the Government and X are not mutually creditors and debtors of each other and a claim for taxes is not a debt, demand, contract, or judgment as is allowable to be set-off. (Francia vs. IAC. GR No. 76749. June 28, 1988) 7. X, a lessor of a property, pays real estate taxes on the premises, a real estate dealer’s tax based on rental receipts and income tax on the rentals. X claims that this is double taxation. Decide. [1996 Bar Exams] There is no double taxation. Double taxation means taxing for the same tax period the same thing or activity twice, when it should be taxed but once, by the same taxing authority for the same purpose and with the same kind and character of tax. The real estate tax is a tax on property; the real estate dealer’s tax is a tax on the privilege to engage in business; while the income tax is a tax on the privilege to earn an income. The taxes are imposed by different taxing authorities and are essentially of different kind and character. (Villanueva vs. City of Iloilo. 26 SCRA 578)
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8. X, while driving home from his office, was seriously injured when his automobile was bumped from behind by a bus driven by a reckless driver. As, a result, he had to pay P200,000 to his doctor and P100,000 to the hospital where he was confined for treatment. He filed a suit against the bus driver and the bus company and was awarded and paid actual damages of
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P300,000 by way of moral damages and P50,000for what he had to pay his attorney for bringing his case to court. Which, if any, of the foregoing awards are taxable income to X and which are not? Explain. [2003 Bar Exams] Nothing is taxable. Under the Tax Code, any amount received as compensation for personal injuries or sickness, plus the amounts for any damages received whether by suit or agreement, on account of such injuries or sickness shall be excluded from gross income. Since the entire amount of P450,000 received are awards of damages of the injuries sustained, all shall be excluded from his gross income. Obviously, these damages are considered by law as mere return of capital (Sec.32 (B)(4), 1997 Tax Code). 9. On 03 January 1998, X, a Filipino citizen residing in the Philippines, purchased one hundred (100) shares in the capital stock of Y Corporation, a domestic company. On 03 January 2000, Y Corp. declared, out of the profits of the company earned after 01 January 1998, a hundred percent (100%) stock dividends on all stockholders of record as of 31 December 1999 as a result of which X holding in Y Corp. became two hundred (200) shares. Are the stock dividends received by X subject to income tax? Explain. [2003 Bar Exams] NO. Stock dividends are not realized income. Accordingly, the different provisions of the Tax Code imposing a tax on dividend income only includes within its purview cash and property dividends making stock dividends exempt from income tax. However, if the distribution of stock dividends is the equivalent of cash or property, as when the distribution results in a change of ownership interest of the shareholders, the stock dividends will be subject to income tax. [Section 24 (B) (2); Section 25 (A)&(B); Section 28 (B)(5)(b), 1997 Tax Code] 10. XYZ Foundation is a non-stock, non-profit association duly accredited for religious, charitable and social welfare purposes. Last January 3, 2000 it sold a portion of its lot used for religious purposes and utilized the entire proceeds for the construction of a building to house its free Day and Night Care Center for children of single parents. In order to subsidize the expenses of the Center and to support its religious, charitable and social welfare projects, the Foundation leased the 300-square meter area of the second and third floors of the building for use as a boarding house. The Foundation also operates a canteen and a gift shop within the premises, all the income from which is used actually, directly, and exclusively for the purposes for which the Foundation was organized. a. Considering the Constitutional provision granting tax exemption to non-stock corporations such as those formed exclusively for religious, charitable and social welfare purposes, explain the meaning of the last paragraph of said Sec.30 of the 1997 Tax Code which states that “income of whatever kind and character of the foregoing organizations from any of their properties, real or personal, or from any of their activities conducted for profit regardless of the disposition made of such income shall be subject to tax under this Code”. [2003 Bar Exams] The exemption contemplated in the Constitution covers real estate tax on real properties actually, directly and exclusively used for religious, charitable and social welfare purposes. It does not cover exemption from the imposition of the income tax, which is within the context of Sec.30 of the Tax Code. As a rule, non-stock, non-profit corporations organized for religious, charitable or social welfare purposes are exempt from income tax on their income receive by them as such. However, if these religious, charitable and social welfare corporations derived income from their properties or any of their activities conducted for profit, the income tax shall be imposed on said items of income irrespective of their disposition. (Sec.30, NIRC; CIR vs. YMCA. G.R. No. 124043. ) b. Is the income derived by XYZ Foundation from the sale of a portion of its lot, rentals from its boarding house and the operation of its canteen and the gift shop subject to tax? Explain. Yes. The income derived from the sale of lot and rentals from its boarding house are considered as income from properties which are subject to tax. Likewise the income from
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the operations of the canteen and the gift shop are income from its activities conducted for profit that are subject to tax. The income attaches irrespective of the disposition of these incomes. (Sec.30, NIRC; CIR vs. YMCA. G.R. No. 124043. ) 11. A “fringe benefit” is defined as being any good, service or other benefit furnished or granted in cash or in kind by an employer to an individual employee. Would it be the employer or the employee who is legally required to pay an income tax on it? [2003 Bar Exams]
It is the employer who is legally required to pay an income tax on the fringe benefit. The fringe benefit tax is imposed as a final withholding tax placing the legal obligation to remit the tax on the employer, such that, if the tax is not paid the legal recourse of the BIR is to go to after the employer. Any amount or value received by the employee as a fringe benefit is considered tax paid hence, net of the income tax due thereon. The person who is legally required to pay (same as statutory incidence as distinguished from economic incidence) is that person who, in case of non-payment, can be legally demanded to pay the tax. 12. a) How often does a domestic corporation file income tax return for income earned during a single taxable year? Explain the process. [2001 Bar Exams]
A domestic corporation is required to file an income tax returns four (4) times for income earned during a single taxable year. Quarterly returns are required to be filed for the first three quarters where the corporation shall declare its quarterly summary of gross income and deductions on a cumulative basis. (Sec. 75, NIRC). Then a final adjustment return is required to be filed covering the total taxable income for the entire year, calendar or fiscal. (Sec. 76, NIRC) b) What is the reason for such procedure? The reason for such procedure is to ensure the timeliness of collection to meet the budgetary needs of the government. Likewise, it is designed to ease the burden on the taxpayer by providing it with an installment payment scheme, rather than requiring the payment of the tax on a lump-sum basis after the end of the year. It is also to improve the liquidity of the government.
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A, doctor by profession, sold in the year 2000 a parcel of land which he bought as a form of investment in 1990 for Php 1 million. The land was sold to B, his colleague, at a time when the real estate prices had gone down and so the land was sold only for Php800,000 which was then the fair market value of the land. He used the proceeds to finance his trip to the United States. He claims that he should not be made to pay the 6% final tax because he did not have any actual gain on the sale. Is his contention correct? Why? [2001 Bar Exams] No. The 6% capital gains tax on sale of a real property held as capital asset is imposed on the income presumed to have been realized from the sale which is the fair market value or selling price thereof, whichever is higher. (Section 24D, NIRC) Actual gain is not required for the imposition of the tax but it is the gain by fiction of law which is taxable.
Distinguish Allowable Deductions from Personal Exemptions. Give an example of an allowable deduction and another example for personal exemption. [2001 Bar Exams] The distinctions are as follows: a) As to amount – Allowable deductions generally refer to actual expenses incurred in the pursuit of trade, business or practice of profession while personal; exemptions are arbitrary amounts allowed by law. b) As to nature – Allowable deductions constitute business expenses while personal exemptions pertain to personal expenses.
(Section 57(A). has an executive (P) who is a Filipino citizen. since Mr. Is he exempt from income tax and therefore not required to file an income tax return? [2000 Bar Exams] Mr. NIRC). NIRC) TAXATION LAW Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 18. Are these salaries. Javier is exempt from income tax on his monthly GSIS pension (Sec. A Co.000 as a bribe to the approving official. [2001 Bar Exams] No. Illegally acquired income constitutes realized income under the claim of right doctrine. for this reason. 343 US 130) 16. relieve the recipient of the income the duty to file income tax returns. NIRC) 17. it is not allowed as a deduction form gross income of Corporation A. (Section 22(E). (Rutkin vs. Javier’s sole taxable income would have been subjected to a final withholding tax. A Co. 51(A) (2)(c). while the other 50% plus housing. NIRC) but not on the interest income that might accrue on the pensions deposited with PNB which are subject to final withholding tax. NIRC). NIRC). A Co. The income tax on all income derived from Philippine sources by a non-resident alien who is not engaged in trade or business in the Philippines is withheld by the lessee as a Final Withholding Tax. while personal exemptions can be claimed only by individual taxpayers. P qualifies as a non-resident citizen because he leaves the Philippines for employment requiring him to be physically present abroad most of the time during the taxable year. (Section 32(A).. (Section 51. (Section 23. NIRC). He receives a monthly pension form the GSIS. d) As to claimants – Allowable deductions can be claimed by all taxpayers. has a subsidiary in Hong Kong (HK Co. The salary of P will be shouldered 50% by A Co. NIRC). is the Php100. [2001 Bar Exams] Since the amount of Php100.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS c) As to purpose – Deductions are allowed to enable the taxpayer to recoup his cost of doing business while personal exemptions are allowed to cover personal. he is not required anymore to file an income tax return. corporate or otherwise. P will bring his family to reside in HK and will lease out his residence in the Philippines.) and will assign P for an indefinite period to work full time for HK Co.000 taxable income of the approving official? Explain your answers. which he deposits with the PNB-Makati Branch. US. Is a non-resident alien who is not engaged in trade or business or in the exercise of profession in the Philippines but who derived rental income from the Philippines required to file an income tax return on April of the year following his receipt of said income? If not. 32(B)(6)(f). the same constitutes a taxable income. In order to facilitate the processing of its application for a license from a government office. Corporation A found it necessary to pay the amount of Php100. (Section 34(A)(1)(c). A non-resident citizen is taxable only on income derived from Philippine sources. Consequently. why not? Explain your answer. allowances and rentals subject to the Philippine income tax? [1999 Bar Exams] The salaries and allowances received by P are not subject to Philippine income tax. (Sec. Javier is a non-resident senior citizen. All income from legal or illegal sources are taxable absent any clear provision of law exempting the same.000 deductible form the gross income of Corporation A? On the other hand. However. will credit the 50% of P’s salary to P’s Philippine bank account. P will also be receiving rental income for the lease of his Philippine residence. to the recipient government official. Mr. the income tax on income derived from within must be collected through the withholding tax system and thus. a Philippine corporation. 15. The government can not require persons outside of its territorial jurisdiction to file a return. family and living expenses. This is the reason why gross income had been defined to include income from whatever source derived. Is the Php100. cost of living and educational allowances of P’s dependents will be shouldered by HK Co.000 constitutes a bribe. The salaries and allowances received from being .
on which they paid respectively. Arnold. The maximum number of dependents for purposes of the additional personal exemption is four. (Section 35. there can be no doubt that. (a) Discuss the meaning of the Global and Schedular systems of taxation. for each of them to manage and dispose of as exclusively his own without the intervention of the other heirs. NIRC) 20. (Section 42. 2 – 98 implementing Section 35. [1998 Bar Exams] a) For income tax purposes. who is single. the net income from the rental property was distributed to all. inclusive. the corresponding income tax. Each year. Arnold is only entitled to deduct additional personal exemption for four (4) out of the six (6) illegitimate children. he allows his shares to be held in common with his co-heir under a single management to be used with the intent of making profit thereby in proportion to his share. 21. as having entered into an unregistered partnership. the leased property being located in the Philippines. Were the assessments justified? [1997 Bar Exams] Yes. and. an extrajudicial settlement of the estate was executed by the heirs. If after such partition. P is taxable on rental income for the lease of his Philippine residence because this is an income derived from within. the income tax returns of the heirs were examined and deficiency income tax assessments were issued against each of them for the years 1989 to 1993. proportionately. The children are not married and not gainfully employed. Within the year. An unmarried man who has illegitimate minor children who live with him and depend upon him for their chief support is considered as “head of the family. NIRC) However. even if no document or instrument were executed for the 36 Law San Beda College of . A schedular system of taxation provides for a different tax treatment of different types of income so that a separate tax return is required to be filed for each type of income and the tax is computed on a per return or per schedule basis. the heirs are entitled already to their respective definite shares of the estate and the income thereof. Mr.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION employed abroad are income from without because these are compensation for services rendered outside of the Philippines. NIRC) 19. he becomes liable individually for all taxes in connection therewith. From the moment of such partition. The estate consisted of a family home and a four-door apartment which was being rented to tenants. Arnold and Vilma have six minor children who live and depend upon Arnold for their chief support. Santos died intestate in 1989 leaving his spouse and five children as the only heirs. thus partly schedular and partly global. cohabits with Vilma. (b) To which system would you say that the method of taxation under the National Internal Revenue Code belongs? [1997 Bar Exams] The method of taxation under the NIRC is a combination of both systems. (Section 42. accordingly. NIRC) b) Is Arnold entitled to deduct from his gross income. an additional exemption for each of his illegitimate child? No. The surviving spouse assumed administration of the property. In 1994. each of them receiving his/her due share. [1997 Bar Exams] A global system of taxation is one where the taxpayer is required to lump up all items of income earned during a taxable period and pay under a single set of income tax rules on these different items of income. may Arnold be considered as “head of a family?” Yes. who is legally married to Zachary.” (RR No. the assessments were justified because for income tax purposes. the co-ownership of inherited property is automatically converted into an unregistered partnership from the moment the said properties are used as common fund with intent to produce profits for the heirs in proportion to their shares in the inheritance.
donations and contributions to nonstock. 45 SCRA 74) 22. The cost of the dinner amounted to Php50.. masses. NIRC] TAXATION LAW Estate Tax and Donor’s Tax 23. the Php50. Any portion of the funeral and burial expenses borne or defrayed by relatives and friends of the deceased are not deductible. NIRC of 1997]. 101 (a) of the Tax Code? [2000 Bar Exams] The following are the conditions: 1) Not more than thirty (30%) of said gifts shall be used by such donee for administration purposes. Medical expenses. NIRC] Note: However. medical expenses as of the last illness will not form part of funeral expenses but should be claimed as medical expenses incurred within one (1) year before the death of the decedent. non-profit private educational institutions may be exempt from the donor’s tax under Sec. [4th par. are allowed only if incurred by the decedent within one year prior to his death. [2000 Bar Exams] The value of the gross estate of a non-resident decedent who is a Filipino citizen at the time of his death shall be determined by including the value at the time of his death of all property. donations. Is the said cost of the dinner to commemorate his one year death anniversary deductible from his gross estate? Explain your answer. These Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 .000. and devoting all its income. [Sec.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS purpose. Regs. nurses and others who attended to Y during his last illness. 6 (A) (1) Rev. Disguised dividends in income taxation? Give an example. to the latter ostensibly for services rendered by the latter to the former. Whether viewed in the context of either funeral expenses or medical expenses. on the other hand. 2) The educational institutions is incorporated as a non-stock entity. 2-2003. Discuss the rule on situs of taxation with respect to the imposition of the estate tax on property left behind by a non-resident decedent. No. governed by trustees who receive no compensation. CIR. which is a subsidiary of a non-resident foreign corporation. On the first anniversary of the death of Y. [2001 Bar Exams] No. In such case. Note: Dividends received by a domestic corporation form another domestic corporation shall not be subject to tax. for tax purposes. but which payments are disproportionately larger than the actual value of the services rendered. the same will not qualify as a deduction. 24. wherever situated to the extent of the interest therein of the decedent at the time of his death [sec. whether students’ fees or gifts. the amount over and above the true value of the service rendered shall be treated as a dividend and shall be subjected to the corresponding tax of 32% on Philippine source gross income or such other preferential rate as may be provided under a corresponding Tax Treaty. at least an unregistered partnership is formed. 27 (D) (4). or the like are not deductible. his heirs hosted a sumptuous dinner for his doctors. This expense will not fall under any of the allowable deductions from gross estate. Regs. entertainment. (Oña vs. [1994 Bar Exams] Disguised dividends are those income payments made by a domestic corporation. Compared to his gross estate. paying no dividends. to the accomplishment and promotion of purposes enumerated in its Articles of Incorporation. subsidies or other forms of philanthropy. 2-2003]. What conditions must occur in order that all grants.000 did not exceed five percent of the estate. [Section 86 (A)(6). Expenses incurred after the internment. 85 (A). Sec. (Sec. real or personal. such as prayers. 101 (A) (3) NIRC of 1997) 25. tangible or intangible. pursuant to Rev. No.
The excess of the fair market value over the selling price is a deemed gift. sold to B. The BIR. Provided. does not apply to a sale of property subject to capital gains tax. with respect to intangible personal property. the BIR is correct. is correct in pursuing the second remedy although this will give rise to the right of the heir who pays to seek reimbursement from the other heirs. A sold some of his shares of stock in X Co. 21 SCRA 105). [1999 Bar Exams] The first transaction where a lot was sold by A to his brother-in-law for a price below its fair market value will not be subject to donor’s tax if the lot qualifies as a capital asset.000.. which has a fast growing business. A’s cost in the shares sold is Php 1 million. In no case. 1997) 36 Law San Beda College of . Is the BIR correct? [1999 Bar Exams] Yes. to his key executives in X Co. the BIR found out that the estate failed to report the income received by the estate during administration. The transfer for less than an adequate and full consideration. his brother-in-law. which gives rise to a deemed gift. if the lot sold is an ordinary asset. The estate tax was properly paid and the estate settled and divided and distributed among the four heirs. (Ibid) 26. The selling price is Php 3 million. CIR. NIRC). without the cognition and authority of the court sitting in probate over the supposed will of the deceased. (CIR vs. Pineda. the excess of the fair market value over the consideration received shall be considered as a gift subject to the donor’s tax.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION properties shall have a situs of taxation in the Philippines hence subject to Philippine estate taxes. GR No. In a case where the estate tax has been distributed to the heirs. that. therefore. we apply the rule of reciprocity. A. A also owns X Co. The BIR is authorized to collect estate tax deficiency through the summary remedy of levying upon and sale of real properties of a decedent. A’s cost in the lot is Php100. the collection remedies available to the BIR in collecting tax liabilities of an estate may either (1) sue all the heirs and collect from each of them the amount of tax proportionate to the inheritance received or (2) by virtue of the lien created under Section 219. (Marcos vs. A died. However. 28. only that part of the entire gross estate which is situated in the Philippines to the extent of the interest therein of the decedent at the time of his death shall be included in his taxable estate. his lot with a market value of Php One million for Php600. Is the BIR authorized to collect estate tax deficiencies by the summary remedy of levy upon and sale of real properties of the decedent without first securing the authority of the court sitting in probate over the supposed will of the decedent? [1998 Bar Exams] Yes.000. surcharges and penalties. B is financially capable of buying the lot. immortalized in the maxim that taxes are the lifeblood of the government. sue only one heir and subject the property he received from the estate to the payment of the estate tax. 120880. in the case of a non-resident decedent who at the time of his death was not a citizen of the Philippines. can the BIR enforce the tax liability in excess of the share of the widow in the inheritance. Later. The sale of shares of stock below the fair market value thereof is subject to the donor’s tax pursuant to the provisions of Section 100 of the Tax Code. These executives are not related to A. however. The BIR issued a deficiency income tax assessment plus interest. which is the book value of the shares sold but with a market value of Php 5 million. and this is justified by the necessity of government funding. (Section 100. the BIR sought to collect the full tax deficiency only against the widow. Explain if the above transactions are subject to donor’s tax. The purpose of A in selling the shares is to enable his key executives to acquire a propriety of A in selling the shares is to enable his key executives to acquire a propriety interest in the business and have a personal stake in its business. it is exempted from the application of the statute of non-claims. Since the three children are residing abroad. On the other hand. 27. survived by his wife and three children. June 5. an individual. As such the estate tax is exempt.
CIR. As such political contributions made before RA No. He donated one-half of his said property to a non-stock. as provided in Section 13 thereof. a Philippine corporation. A Co. February 23. is a big manufacturer of consumer goods and has several suppliers of raw materials. Furthermore. Mr. Pascual’s income from leasing his property reaches the maximum rate of tax under the law. NIRC). business or profession (Section 34(A)(1)(a). NIRC) c) Where the taxpayer has signed a waiver authorizing the Commissioner or his duly authorized representatives to inquire into the bank deposits. management. . Tax Administration 30. provided the recipient candidate had complied with the requirement for filing of returns of contributions with the Commission on Elections as required under the Omnibus Election Code. 1405. NIRC) Note: In the recent case of Abello vs. The donation is the legal means employed to transfer the incidence of income tax on the rental income. The examiner requested the Commissioner to authorize him to inquire into the bank deposits of the taxpayer so that he could proceed with the net worth method of investigation to establish fraud. Mr.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS TAXATION LAW 29. The CIR therefore: a. and therefore qualified for tax exemption under Article XIV. 12071. b) Where the taxpayer has filed an application for compromise of his tax liability by reason of financial incapacity to pay such tax liability. operation and/or conduct of a trade. Mr. to furnish the BIR information on sales and payment to its suppliers. Having thus transferred a portion of his said asset. are subject to the payment of gift taxes. b) The contributor is not allowed to deduct the contributions because the said expense is not directly attributable to. it may even be considered as a bribe or kickback. A taxpayer is suspected not to have declared his correct gross income in his return filed for 1997. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue or his duly authorized representative may be allowed to inquire or look into the bank deposits of a taxpayer in the following cases: a) For the purpose of determining the gross estate of a decedent. Pascual has exploited a legally permissive alternative method to reduce his income tax by transferring part of his rental income to a tax-exempt entity through a donation of one-half of the income producing property.. GR. 7166. is it allowable as a deduction from gross income? [1998 Bar Exams] a) No. the Banks Deposits Secrecy Law. if the candidate is an incumbent government official or employee. 7166 provides no retroactive effect on this point. Are contributions to a candidate in an election subject to donor’s tax? On the part of the contributor. (Section 6(f). 31. directly and exclusively used for educational purposes. The BIR suspects that some of the suppliers are not properly reporting their income on their sales to A Co. The donation is likewise exempt from the donor’s tax. Section 4(3) of the Constitution and Section 30(H) of the Tax Code. Is there tax avoidance or tax evasion? Explain. (Section 34(A)(1)(a). 32. as this would be violative of Republic Act No. No. May the examiner be allowed to look into the taxpayer’s bank deposits? In what cases may the Commissioner or his duly authorized representative be allowed to inquire or look into the bank deposits of a taxpayer? [2000 Bar Exams] Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 No. the development. Pascual succeeded in paying a lesser tax on the rental income derived from his property. are not subject to the payment of any gift tax. [2000 Bar Exams] There is tax avoidance. the Supreme Court held that political/electoral contributions duly reported to the Commission on Elections made after the passage of RA No. non-profit educational institution whose income and assets are actually. Issued an access letter to A Co. and RA No. 2005. 7166.
A Co. A Co. San Beda College of 1. A taxpayer who is constituted as withholding agent who has deducted and withheld at source the tax on the income payment made by him holds the taxes as trust funds for the government (Section 58(D).. if the tax is limited to gross income without deductions of these corporations.00. Law Tax Remedies under the NIRC 35. and X Bank that the BIR is justified only in getting information from the former but not from the latter. 2000. (see 1 Cooley 176-184). 2.000. This is no longer implementation of the law but actually it constitutes legislation because among the powers that are exclusively within the legislative authority to tax is the power to determine the amount of the tax.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION b. on the alleged ground that the suppliers are committing tax evasion. The Secretary of Finance. A ration of forty percent (40%) of income tax collection to total tax revenues. 3. however. may effective January 1. issued a Revenue Regulation using gross income as the tax base for corporations doing business in the Philippines. What is your advice. Accordingly. allow corporations the option to be taxed at (15% of gross income. upon the recommendation of the Secretary of Finance. However. upon recommendation of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. Counsel for AZ Medina protested the assessment for being null and void on the ground that no pre-assessment notice had been issued. after the following conditions have been satisfied: A tax effort ration of twenty percent (20%) of Gross National Product (GNP). May the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue compromise the payment of the withholding tax (tax deducted and withheld at source) where the financial position of the taxpayer demonstrates a clear inability to pay the assessed tax? [1998 Bar Exams] No. 34. 33. X Bank and the suppliers have not been issued by the BIR letter of authority to examine. this is changing the amount of the tax as said amount ultimately depends on the taxable base. [1999 Bar Exams] I will advise A Co. and X Bank believe that the BIR is on a “fishing expedition” and come to you for counsel. and 4. The subsequent inability of the withholding agent to pay/remit the tax withheld is not a ground for compromise because the withholding tax is not a tax upon the withholding agent but it is only a procedure for the collection of a tax. NIRC) and is obligated to remit them to the BIR. In the investigation of the withholding tax returns of AZ Medina Security Agency (AZ Medina) for the taxable years 1997 and 1998. Certainly. The BIR is authorized to obtain information from other persons other than those whose internal revenue tax liability is subject to audit or investigation. Note: The President.9% ratio of the Consolidated Public Sector Financial Position (CPSFP) to GNP. the 36 . the BIR issued an assessment and a demand letter calling for the immediate payment of the deficiency withholding taxes in the total amount of P250. However this power shall not be construed as granting the Commissioner the authority to inquire into bank deposits. before the period of prescription commenced to run. A 0. A VAT tax effort of four percent (4%) GNP. a discrepancy between the taxes withheld from its employees and the amounts actually remitted to the government was found. Issued an access letter to a bank (X Bank) to furnish the BIR on deposits of some suppliers of A Co. Is the Revenue Regulation valid? [1994 Bar Exams] The regulation establishing gross income as the tax base for corporations doing business in the Philippines (domestic as well as resident foreign) is not valid.9 percent (0.
TAXATION LAW The protest should be resolved against Mr. Mr. several pieces of real property in Metro Manila. [2002 Bar Exams] A. and a claim of deductions in an amount exceeding thirty percent (30%) of actual deductions. NIRC). Note: The thirty percent (30%) rule under Sec. Mr. the failure to report sales. Will the special civil action for prohibition brought before the CTA under Sec. NIRC) B.000. The information must not yet be in the possession of the Bureau of Internal Revenue. 1125 prosper? Discuss your answer. What was filed is a fraudulent return making the prescriptive period for assessment ten years (10) from discovery of the fraud (Section 222. No. 2001.11 of R. 1125 is only ancillary to its appellate jurisdiction to issue writs of prohibition or injunction independently of and apart from an appealed case. Section 228 of the Tax Code expressly provides that no pre-assessment notice is required when a discrepancy has been determined between the tax withheld and the amount actually remitted by the withholding agent. Is the contention of the counsel tenable? Explain. Castro. Since the amount assessed relates to deficiency withholding taxes.250. Santos to entitle him to reward are as follows: He should voluntarily file a confidential information under oath with the Law Division of the Bureau of Internal Revenue alleging therein the specific violations constituting fraud. (Sec. applies Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . Castro was fraudulent and that he failed to declare all properties left by his father with intent to evade payment of the correct tax. because the CTA has no jurisdiction to entertain the same. Santos comply with so that he can claim his reward? Explain. Santos on January 6. the contention of the counsel is untenable. The estate tax return was filed and the estate tax due in the amount of P250. Castro inherited from his father. receipts or income or for overstatement of deductions. interest and penalty. The legal requirements that must be complied by Mr. on the ground of prescription. b) What legal requirements must Mr. 1994. a deficiency estate tax assessment for P1. 282. NIRC). Counsel then filed a petition for prohibition with the Court of Tax Appeals to restrain the collection of the tax. inclusive of 50% surcharge for fraud. or refer to a case already pending or previously investigated by the Bureau of Internal Revenue. As a result.00. 3 SCRA 313 ) 36. the assessment was issued within the prescriptive period to make an assessment based on a fraudulent return.A. Accordingly. The remedy is to appeal the decision of the BIR. Mr. Yuseco. that is. 11 of R. Castro protested the assessment. 1998 that the return filed by Mr. The Tax Fraud Division of the BIR investigated the case on the basis of confidential information given by Mr.A. and The information must result to collections of revenues and/or fines and penalties (Sec. shall render the taxpayer liable for substantial underdeclaration of sales. (Collector v. was issued against him on January 10. [2002 Bar Exams] a) Decide Mr. 1994. the BIR is correct in issuing the assessment and demand letter calling for the immediate payment of the deficiency withholding taxes. 248 (B) of the NIRC. who died on June 10.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS protest was denied. 228.00 was paid on December 6. receipts or income in an amount exceeding thirty percent (30%) of that declared per return. No. Castro's protest. The power to issue writ of injunction provided for under Sec. Santos should not be a government employee or a relative of a government employee within the sixth degree of consanguinity. The Special Civil action for prohibition will not prosper.000.
. The CIR did not formally rule on the protest but on January 25. which can only be done either (1) in reducing gross income or (2) in increasing the items of deductions. 1999. Reyes returned to the Philippines as a balikbayan on December 8.e. protested the assessment on the ground that it has prescribed. 203. or 2.e. A Co. 222. On November 10. twenty five percent (25%) versus fifty percent (50%). 1995 up to December 8.. On December 15.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION only for purposes of imposing the surcharge. 1996. 1995. Reyes was out of the Philippines or from the period December 15. filed its 1995 Income Tax Return (ITR) on April 15. (Revenue Regulation No. 1998. A reasonable doubt as to the validity of the claim against the taxpayer exist. Decide. the 30 % rule does not apply. For purposes of prescription. was served a summons and a copy of the complaint for collection of the tax deficiency filed by the BIR with the Regional Trial Court (RTC). the BIR issued a notice of deficiency income tax assessment on April 15. filed its protest with the BIR. i. 204 (B). putting A Co.. on August 5. or 2. received an income tax deficiency assessment from the BIR on May 5. 40. he filed a protest against the assessment on the ground that he did not receive the notice of assessment and that the assessment had prescribed. [Sec. On May 31. in a net income position. the counting of the three year period starts from the date the amended return was filed. NIRC) San Beda College of 39. 1995. claimed.) Abate or cancel a tax liability? The Commissioner of Internal Revenue may abate or cancel a tax liability when: 1. The tax or any portion thereof appears to be unjustly or excessively assessed. The financial position of the taxpayer demonstrates a clear inability to pay the assessed tax. On July 30. NIRC). a Filipino citizen engaged in the real estate business. [1999 Bar Exams] The right of the BIR to assess the tax has not prescribed. After the investigation of said return. 37. NIRC of 1997] 38. Will the protest prosper? Explain. [2000 Bar Exams] No. 1995. a Philippine Corporation. On 36 Law . 1995. Prescription has not set in because the period of limitations for the Bureau of Internal revenue to issue an assessment was suspended during the time that Mr. Under what conditions may the Commissioner of Internal Revenue be authorized to: a. The rule is that internal Revenue taxes shall be assessed within three years after the last day prescribed by law for the filing of the return.) Compromise the payment of any internal revenue tax? [2000 Bar Exams] The Commissioner of Internal Revenue may be authorized to compromise the payment of any internal revenue tax where: 1. if the return originally filed is amended substantially. the three (3) year prescriptive period (Sec. submitted to the BIR all relevant supporting documents. Mr. a Philippine corporation... The administration and collection costs involved do not justify the collection of the amount due. 30-02) b. intent to defraud must still be established. Reyes. he left the Philippines as an immigrant to join his family in Canada. (CIR vs. 1996. filed his 1994 income tax return on March 20. As a result. Finding his name to be in the list of delinquent taxpayers. However. 1996 showing a net loss. NIRC) versus the ten (10) year period in case of false or fraudulent return (Sec. the BIR disallowed certain deductions claimed by A Co. A Co. i. 14 SCRA 52). Phoenix Assurance Co. A Co. A Co. 1998. NIRC). (Section 203. Mr. A Co. 1995. it amended its 1995 ITR to show more losses. (Section 223 in relation to Section 203. A Co. After a tax investigation. There is substantial amendment in this case because a new return was filed declaring more losses. 1998. the BIR issued a deficiency income assessment against A Co.
1996. On July 6. 000 with the BIR. A Co. 15. the effect of the Commissioner’s action of filing a judicial action for collection is a decision of denial of the protest. Lim Tian Teng & Sons. brought a Petition for review before the CTA. A Co. 1997.. When the Commissioner decided to collect the tax assessed without first deciding on the taxpayer’s protest. The BIR moved to dismiss the Petition on the ground that the CTA has no jurisdiction over the case. A Co. five days later. (CIR vs. a Philippine corporation received an income tax deficiency assessment from the BIR on November 25. On May 20. CIR vs. On March 20. The BIR denied the claim on Nov. On December 10. 1996. 1997. (Republic vs. In the same vein. executory and demandable assessment which can be enforced by the BIR. the period to appeal will not commence to run. Wander Phils. 26. Decide. and should therefore be dismissed.000. Inc. 41. Being a withholding agent. 1995. 185 SCRA 547) 42. 1996. remitted to B Co. which A Co. 1997.. the reckoning of the 30 day period to appeal was on June 9. realized that the proper WT rate is 10%. royalties of Php 10 million. therefore. 1996.. A Co. 1996. [1999 Bar Exams] The CTA has jurisdiction over the case. A Co. 1998) b) Does the RTC have jurisdiction over the collection case filed by the BIR? Explain. in which event the taxpayer may file an appeal with the CTA. filed a Petition for Review with the CTA. filed a Petition for Review with CTA. The Supreme Court has ruled that the CIR must categorically state that his action on a disputed assessment is final. to bring the refund case. This warrant was served on A Co. A Co. 28.. Cruz. as agent. Union Shipping Corp. it is the one held liable for any violation of the withholding tax law should such a violation occur. 204 SCRA 377) 43. A Co. 10. on May 25. A Co. 1997 and received by A Co. The filing of an appeal with the CTA has the effect of divesting the RTC of jurisdiction over the collection case.’s protest stating that it constitutes his final decision on the matter. The BIR attacked the capacity of A Co. (Yabes vs. 3 SCRA 92). a non-resident German company. 1997. (CIR vs. filed a claim for refund of P2. Procter and Gamble PMC. The RTC has no jurisdiction over the collection case filed by the BIR. There is no final. That final action cannot be implied from the mere issuance of a warrant of distraint and levy. otherwise. the CTA has jurisdiction over the case because this qualifies as an appeal from the Commissioner’s decision on disputed assessment. 160 SCRA 573. 1996. 15 SCRA 278. has a trademark licensing agreement with B Co. A Co. Sept. The appealable decision is the one which categorically stated that the Commissioner’s action on the disputed assessment is final and. [1999 Bar Exams] A Co.500. it gives a justifiable basis for the taxpayer to move for dismissal in the RTC of the Government’s action to collect the tax liability under dispute.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS February 20. once a timely appeal is filed. San Juan vs. Decide the issue. it should be allowed to claim a refund in case of overwithholding. Upon advice of counsel. In a letter dated June 4. the CIR formally denied A Co. At the moment the taxpayer appeals the case to the CTA in view of the Commissioner’s filing of the collection case with the RTC which was considered as a decision of denial. Vasquez. is the wholly owned subsidiary of B Co. filed its protest with the BIR. L-39910. 16 SCRA 584. the withholding agent of the non-resident foreign corporation is entitled to claim for refund of excess withholding tax paid on the income of said corporation in the Philippines. On Nov. [1999 Bar Exams] a) Does the CTA have jurisdiction over the case? Yes. On Feb. Is assessment necessary before a taxpayer may be prosecuted for willfully attempting in any manner to evade or defeat any tax imposed by the Internal Revenue Code? [1998 Bar Exams] TAXATION LAW Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . A Co. Flojo. the BIR issued a warrant of distraint to enforce the assessment. The filing of the petition for review with the CTA was timely made. The BIR contended that the Petition is premature since there was no formal denial of the protest of A Co. 500. Dayrit vs. subjected to a WT of 25% or Php 2.
Cusi. (Section 7. It is the Commissioner’s decision on the protest that give the Tax Court jurisdiction over the case provided that the appeal is filed within 30 days from receipt of the Commissioner’s decision. the petition for review filed with the CTA on March 02. so that unless and until the BIR has made a final determination of what is supposed to be the correct taxes. it paid on 30 May 1993 its quarterly income tax in the amount of Php 3 million. On 20 August 1993. The third quarter resulted in a net loss. or the regular courts. Fortune Tobacco Corp. On the contrary. On 10 February 1996. it paid the second quarterly income tax of Php 0. (CIR vs. 83736. a taxpayer who believes that an ordinance passed by the City Council of Pasay is unconstitutional for being discriminatory against him. 1995). Did the claim for refund prescribe? [1997 Bar Exams] The claim for refund has prescribed. What would your advice be to your client. In the affirmative. on 15 January 1996. For the first quarter of 1993. Rather. RA No.5 million. 112. whether or not he can file an appeal. A corporation files its income tax return on a calendar year basis. 1996) 44. it is the action taken by the Commissioner in response to the taxpayer’s protest on the assessment that would constitute the appealable decision. 1125) Law Local Government Code 46. Before a taxpayer can avail of judicial remedy he must first exhaust administrative remedies by filing a protest within 30 days from receipt of the assessment. An assessment by the BIR is not the Commissioner’s decision from which a petition for review may be filed with the CTA. the counting of the two year prescriptive period is counted from the close of the taxable quarter (Sec. or the Secretary of Justice. Inc. GR No. The counting of the two year prescriptive period for filing a claim for refund is counted not from the date when the quarterly income taxes were paid but on the date when the final adjustment return was filed. the corporation filed a petition for review with the CTA on its claim for refund of the overpayment of its 1993 quarterly income tax. 97 SCRA 877). Could the Tax Court entertain the petition? [1997 Bar Exams] No. he asks you where such appeal should be made: the Secretary of Finance.. on 02 March 1996. alleged that the claim for refund was filed beyond the reglementary period. the taxpayer forthwith filed a petition for review with the CTA. an assessment for an internal revenue tax deficiency. Note: For VAT refunds. For the fourth and final return for 1993. and no tax was paid. the corporation filed with the BIR a written claim for the refund of Php 3. 15. X? [2003 Bar Exams] 36 . Assessment is not necessary before a taxpayer maybe prosecuted if there is a prima facie showing of a willful attempt to evade taxes as in the taxpayer’s failure to declare a specific item of taxable income in his income tax returns. if the taxes alleged to have been evaded is computed based on reports approved by the BIR there is a presumption of regularity of the previous payment of taxes. and the taxpayer indicated in the income tax return that it opted to claim a refund of the quarterly tax payments. his tax lawyer. 119322. It is obvious that the annual income tax return was filed before January 10. 1996 is beyond the reglementary period. BIR failed to act on the claim for refund. 1994 because the written claim for refund was filed with the BIR on January 10. Jan. Since the two year prescriptive period is not only a limitation of action for bringing the case to the judicial stage. May 29. the taxpayer should not be placed in the crucible of criminal prosecution. the company reported a net loss for the year. (CIR vs.. A taxpayer received.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION No. (Ungab vs.5 million. wants to know from you. Inc. GR No. in its answer to the petition. June 4. On 10 January 1994. hence. 1992. 1994. PhilAm Life Insurance Co. NIRC) San Beda College of 45. CIR vs. X. 105208. or the Court of Tax Appeals. TMX Sales. BIR. GR No.
Angeles. The underground tanks although installed by the lessee. valued. Angeles. [2001 & 2003 Bar Exams] Yes. considered real property for purposes of real property taxation under the LGC? Explain. and assessed on the basis of its actual use regardless of where located. assemblers.235. 376 SCRA 376) 47. aside from the basic real estate tax may be imposed by: City/Provincial Government a) Printer’s or publisher’s tax b) Franchise tax c) Professional tax Municipalities in the Metro Manila area a) Annual fixed tax on manufacturers. 114 SCRA 296) 48. Are those underground tanks which were not placed by the owner of the land but were instead placed there by the lessee of the land. Inc. LGC). How should the appeal be decided? [2002 Bar Exams] The appeal should be decided against Mr. and Mrs. Aside from the basic real estate tax. installed by the lessee on a leased land. Municipality of Hagonoy. Mr. and Mrs. install underground tanks in the gasoline station located on land leased by these companies from others.240). Special Levy (SEC. The following taxes. Red Notes in Taxation Law 1. processors. when the spouses left for the United States to stay there permanently with their children. they must be placed by the owner of the land and in addition. repackers. Additional Ad-valorem tax on idle lands (Sec. Section 217 of the Local Government Code provides that "real property. and compounders of liquors. the underground tanks are taxable as necessary fixtures of the gasoline station without which the gasoline station would not be operational. Alternative Answer: A. in order for machinery and equipment to be considered real property. give three other taxes that maybe imposed by provincial and city government as well as by municipalities in the Metro Manila area? [2002 Bar Exams] a. are considered real property for purposes of the imposition of the real property taxes. vs CBAA. (Caltex Phils. Hagonoy Market Vendor Association vs. Under Art. 49.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS TAXATION LAW The appeal should be made with the Secretary of Justice. since January 1997. LGC. However. 2. the property has been rented to a single proprietor engaged in the sale of appliances and agri-products. would not be considered as real property. must tend to directly meet the needs of the industry or works carried on the owner. 37 . whoever owns it.236. 415 of the Civil Code. rectifiers. (Section 187. It is only for purposes of executing a final judgment that these machinery and equipment. and whoever uses it". situated in a commercial area in front of the public Market. LGC). was declared in their Tax Declaration as residential because it had been used by them as their family residence from the time of its construction in 1990. The Provincial Assessor reclassified the property as commercial for tax purposes starting January 1998. shall be classified. Any question on the constitutionality or legality of a tax ordinance may be raised on appeal with the Secretary of Justice within 30 days from the effectivity thereof. The following real property taxes area aside from the basic real property tax. b. The law focuses on the actual use of the property for classification. and Mrs. Shell and Caltex. Oil companies such as Caltex and Shell. may be imposed by provincial and city government as well as by municipalities in the Metro Manila area: Additional levy on real property for the Special Education Fund (Sec. Angeles appealed to the Local Board of Assessment Appeals contending that the Tax Declaration previously classifying their property as residential is binding. valuation and assessment purposes regardless of ownership. But in the imposition of the real property tax. brewers. The real property of Mr. c. distillers.
The Local Tax Code only allows provinces and cities to impose Tax on the transfer of ownership of real property. 1982) Note: Under the new CTA law. 50. Percentage tax on retailers. July and August 2002. Are they “returning residents” for purposes of Section 105 of the Tariff and Customs Code? Explain.. Inc. A Co. The Board ruled in favor of the City. [1999 Bar Exams] No. Due to their limited duration of stay abroad X and Y are not considered as “returning residents” but they are merely considered as travelers or tourists who enjoy the benefit of conditionally free importation. RA No. 1125. Y. appealed the matter to the Muntinlupa Board of Assessment Appeals. The City Assessor characterized all these properties as real properties subject to the real property tax. is the owner of machinery. 1987 Constitution) Tariff and Customs Code 52. they accumulated some personal effects which were necessary. 9282 which amended RA No. each local government is vested with the power to create its own sources of revenue and to levy taxes. vs. In accordance with RA No. He instead filed appropriate case asking that the ordinance be declared null and void since such a tax can only be collected by the national government. The municipality countered that under the constitution. decisions of the Central Board of Assessment Appeals are now appealable to the Court of Tax Appeals and no longer to the Court of Appeals. [2003 Bar Exams] No. L-50466. Is the Petition for Review proper? Explain. A Co. and it imposed the subject tax in the exercise of said constitutional authority. 22. has appellate jurisdiction over decisions of Local Board of Assessment Appeals. (Sec 5. (Section 105(f) of the Tariff and Customs Code). The Municipality of Malolos passed an ordinance imposing a tax on any sale or transfer of real property located within the municipality at a rate of one-fourth (1/4) of one percentum (1%) of the total consideration of such transaction. May 31. The CTA is devoid of jurisdiction to entertain appeals from the decision of the City Board of Assessment Appeals. a Philippine corporation. equipment and fixtures located at its plant in Muntinlupa City. as well as souvenirs in non-commercial quantities. (Caltex Phils. 51. 36 Law . distributors. Resolve the controversy. The term “returning residents” refers to nationals who have stayed in a foreign country for a period of at least six (6) months. b) Annual fixed tax on wholesalers. [1992 Bar Exams] San Beda College of The ordinance passed by the Municipality of Malolos imposing a tax on the sale or transfer of real property is void. Local Tax Code) While it is true that the Constitution has given broad powers of taxation to local government units. Municipalities are prohibited from imposing said tax that provinces are specifically authorized to levy (Sec. X sold a parcel of land in Malolos which he inherited from his deceased parents and refused to pay the aforesaid tax. Said decision is instead appealable to the Central Board of Assessment Appeals. Filipinos living in the Philippines. Local Tax Code). X and his wife. Art X. this delegation however. went on a three-month pleasure trip around the world during the months of June. (Sec 7 and 23. appropriate and normally used in leisure trips. A Co. as in fact he has paid BIR the required capital gains tax. or dealers in any article of commerce of whatever kind or nature. 1125. In the course of their trip.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION distilled spirits and wines or manufacture of any article of commerce of whatever kind or nature. Central Board of Assessment Appeals. brought a petition for review before the CTA to appeal the decision of the City Board of Assessment Appeals. which under the Local Government Code. is subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
1125).2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS TAXATION LAW [Note: Credit must likewise be given if the answers is in the affirmative. et al. 55. There is no decision yet of the Commissioner which is subject to review by the Court of Tax Appeals. and companion case. 120 SCRA 455) There should be no unnecessary hindrance on the government’s drive to prevent smuggling and other frauds upon the Customs. RA No. the Regional Trial Court do not have jurisdiction in order to render effective and efficient the collection of import and export duties due the State. Under the same facts above. (Section 7. Court of Appeals. What is the basis of the automatic review procedure in the Bureau of Customs? Explain.] 53. 1989) 54. De Veyra. Whenever the decision of the Collector of Customs is adverse to the government. the same shall be automatically elevated to and be finally reviewed by the Secretary of Finance (Yaokasin vs. the said decision is automatically elevated to the Commissioner for review. Commissioner of Customs. the importer filed a petition for review with the Court of Tax Appeals. not in commercial quantities. This is the reason why whenever the decision of the Collector is adverse to the Government. Dissatisfied with the decision rendered after hearing by the Collector of Customs on the confiscation of the articles. detention or release of property affected. treating their personal effects. which enables the government to carry out the functions it has been instituted to perform. The Collector moved to dismiss the petition for lack of jurisdiction. et al. On the basis of a warrant of seizure and detention issued by the Collector of Customs for the purpose of enforcing the Tariff and Customs Laws. 249 SCRA 35. Automatic review is necessary because nobody is expected to appeal the decision of the Collector which is favorable to the taxpayer and adverse to the Government. [2002 Bar Exams] Automatic review is intended to protect the interest of the Government in the collection of taxes and customs duties in seizure and protest cases. whether absolute or relative to the domestic production. actions for forfeiture of property for violation of the Customs laws could easily be undermined by the simple device of replevin. et al vs. could the importer file an action in the Regional Trial Court for replevin on the ground that the articles are being wrongfully detained by the Collector of Customs since the importation was not illegal and therefore exempt from seizure? [2000 Bar Exams] No. The Court of Tax Appeals has jurisdiction only over decisions of the Commissioner of Customs in cases involving seizures. The legislators intended to divest the Regional Trial Courts of the jurisdiction to replevin a property which is a subject of seizure and forfeiture proceedings for violation of the Tariff and Customs Code otherwise. as to be a substantial cause of serious injury or threat thereof to the domestic industry. Without such automatic review. as conditionally free importation. Rule on the motion. considering that travelers or tourists are given the same tax treatment as that of returning residents. 43) Note: The Secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry in case of nonagricultural products or the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture in the case of agricultural products shall apply a general safeguard measure upon a positive final determination of the Tariff Commission that a product is being imported into the country in increased quantities. and if such decision is affirmed by the Commissioner. and if it is affirmed by him. (Jao.. neither the Commissioner of Customs nor the Secretary of Finance would know about the decision laid down by the Collector favoring the taxpayer. it is automatically elevated to the Secretary of Finance for review. assorted brands of cigarettes said to have been illegally imported into the Philippines were seized from a store where they were openly offered for sale. 180 SCRA 591. it is automatically elevated to the Commissioner for review. The power to decide seizure and protest cases may be abused if no checks are instituted. The Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . [2000 Bar Exams] Motion granted. Furthermore. (De La Fuente vs.
In smuggling a shipment of garlic. Thereafter. since it was not being used as a duly authorized common carrier. paid the said amounts without any protest. inter alia. Makati continued to implement the ordinance. a duly-organized corporation. (Sec. Thus.. The RTC rendered judgment declaring the ordinance valid. filed a complaint with the RTC of Makati against Makati and its Acting Municipal Treasurer for a refund or tax credit. since the same was used unlawfully in the importation of smuggled articles. the Department of Justice came out with a resolution after an appeal from a taxpayer. the truck owner. Jardine Davies Insurance Brokers. 8800. Danny did not know that the shipment of garlic was illegally imported. or a quantitative restriction. Can the collector of customs of the port seize and forfeit the truck as an instrument in the smuggling? [1994 Bar Exams] Yes. there arises a prima facie presumption of knowledge or participation if the owner is not in the business for which the conveyance is generally used. business and franchise taxes in the Municipality of Makati. Petitioner did not protest the assessment but in fact. was assessed and billed by Makati an amount for taxes. (RA No. Safeguard Measures Act) 56. Makati thereby file a petition with the RTC of Makati. he is legally deemed not to have been engaged in the trucking business. the Collector of Customs of the port can seize and forfeit the truck as an instrument in the smuggling activity. 92-072 which provides. 2530 [a] TCC) Moreover. Inc. relying on the resolution of the DOJ. although forfeiture of the vehicle will not be effected if it is established that the owner thereof had no knowledge of or participation in the unlawful acts. (Sec 2531. for the schedule of real estate. Danny. 36 Law . the smugglers used an eight-wheeler truck which they hired for the purpose of taking out the shipment from the customs zone. not having a certificate of public convenience to operate a trucking business. which was chartered or leased as such.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION limitation may take in the form of any additional duty which may be specific and/or ad valorem. The defendants filed a motion to dismiss the complaint on the ground of prematurity. The mere carrying of such articles on board the truck (in commercial quantities) shall subject the truck to forfeiture. The Sangguniang Bayan of Makati enacted Municipal. declaring "null and void and without legal effect" the said ordinance for having been enacted in contravention of Section 187 of the Local Government Code of 1991. In the meantime. Tariff and Customs Code) San Beda College of BAR TYPE QUESTIONS I. did not have a certificate of public convenience to operate his trucking business. Jardine Davies. fees and charges. Ordinance No.
and no money inures to the private benefit of the persons managing or operating the institution. directly and exclusively used for religious. Jardine Davies even paid without any protest the amounts of taxes assessed by respondents Makati and Acting Treasurer as provided for in the ordinance. and to medical or professional practitioners who use the same as their private clinics. It accepts paying and non-paying patients. including out-patients. within 30 days from effectivity thereof. Moreover. Even though the petitioner is a charitable institution. 2. Is the Lung Center of the Philippines a charitable institution? 2. “Clearly. Are its real properties exempt from real property taxes? 1. after the lapse of 60 days. 187 of R. so long as the money received is devoted or used altogether to the charitable object which it is intended to achieve. of the burden upon the state to care for and advance the interests of its citizens. (Jardine Davies Insurance Brokers. 2003) II. for canteen and small store spaces. Such statutory periods are set to prevent delays as well as enhance the orderly and speedy discharge of judicial functions.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS Is Jardine Davies proscribed from filing its complaint with the RTC for a refund of the alleged payment without any protest of the taxes due and without any appeal with the Secretary of Justice as to legality or constitutionality of the ordinance? YES. But if the Secretary does not act thereon. 118900. buildings and improvements actually. charitable or educational purposes. The tax exemption under Section 28(3). A big space at the ground floor is being leased to private parties. 7160 is fatal to their cause. G. a taxpayer may file a complaint assailing the validity of the ordinance and praying for a refund of its perceived overpayments without first filing a protest to the payment of taxes due under the ordinance. a party could already proceed to seek relief in court. 1999). directly and exclusively used for charitable purposes. a period also of 30 days is allowed for an aggrieved party to go to court. For this reason the courts construe these provisions of statutes as mandatory.” In the instant case.R. Lung Center of the Philippines is a non-profit and non-stock corporation which was organized for the welfare and benefit of the Filipino people principally to help combat the high incidence of lung and pulmonary diseases in the Philippines. In case the Secretary decides the appeal. February 27. a charitable institution does not lose its character as such and its exemption from taxes simply because it derives income from paying patients. predicated on its claim that it is a charitable institution. those exempted from real estate taxes are lands. What is exempted is not the institution itself. These three separate periods are clearly given for compliance as a prerequisite before seeking redress in a competent court.A. The settled rule in this jurisdiction is that laws granting exemption from tax are construed strictissimi juris against the taxpayer and liberally in favor of the taxing power. It owns of a parcel of land with a hospital in the middle. NO. Taxation is the rule and exemption is the exception. Court of Appeals (320 SCRA 486. The fundamental ground upon which all exemptions in favor of charitable institutions are based is the benefit conferred upon the public by them. whether out-patient. No. the failure of Jardine Davies to appeal to the Secretary of Justice within 30 days as required by Sec. As a general precept. TAXATION LAW Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . or confined in the hospital. those portions of its real property that are leased to private entities are not exempt from real property taxes as these are not actually. located at Quezon City. and a consequent relief. Its medical services are to be rendered to the public in general. As held in the case of Reyes vs. vs. Article VI of the 1987 Philippine Constitution covers property taxes only. As a general principle. to some extent. 1. It also receives annual subsidies from the government. A big portion of the land is being leased for commercial purposes to a private enterprise. Both the land and the hospital building were assessed for real property taxes. Aliposa. YES. Inc. or receives subsidies from the government. the law requires that the dissatisfied taxpayer who questions the validity or legality of a tax ordinance must file his appeal to the Secretary of Justice. Thereby the entity filed a Claim for Exemption from real property taxes with the City Assessor.
by clear and unequivocal proof. classification.R. The Motion to Dismiss will prosper since the trial court is without authority to address the alleged irregularity in the issuance of the notices of assessment without prior tax payment. In fact. prohibits courts from declaring any tax invalid by reason of irregularities or informalities in the proceedings of the officers charged with the assessment or collection of taxes except upon the condition that the taxpayer pays the just amount of the tax. listing. it is not exclusively used for the exempted purposes but is subject to taxation. 7160 in order to be entitled to the exemption. No. Act No. classification and appraisal of the property subject to taxation. The Municipal Treasurer filed a Motion to Dismiss on ground of lack of jurisdiction. MERALCO did not pay. Is MERALCO liable for the deficiency in real property taxes for the years 1996-1998? 2. DIRECTLY and EXCLUSIVELY used for charitable purposes. the Municipal Assessor of Muntinlupa discovered that MERALCO. 3. G. including the buildings thereon as well as the machineries and equipment. If real property is used for one or more commercial purposes. Barlis.) III. Are the letters sent to the MERALCO by the municipal treasurer mere collection letters or notices of assessment? 3. To impose the real property tax on the subsequent owner that was neither the owner nor the beneficial user of the property during the designated periods would not only be contrary to law but also unjust. The words "dominant use" or "principal use" cannot be substituted for the words "used exclusively" without doing violence to the Constitutions and the law. including the discovery. The fact that NAPOCOR is the present owner of the Sucat power plant machineries and equipment does not constitute a legal barrier to the collection of delinquent taxes from the previous owner. June 29. and (b) its real properties are ACTUALLY. Still. Lim vs. NO.R. 2. G. listing. thus the reminder to the taxpayer that the failure to pay the taxes shall authorize the government to auction off the properties subject to taxes. the petitioner is burdened to prove. namely. MERALCO filed its tax declarations covering its Sucat power plants. who has defaulted in its payment. for the years 19961998. MERALCO filed before the RTC of Makati a Petition for Prohibition enjoining the Municipal Treasurer of Muntinlupa from enforcing the warrants of garnishment. the value of a specific property or proportion thereof which is being taxed. misdeclared and/or failed to declare for taxation purposes a number of real properties consisting of several equipment and machineries found in the said power plants. Quezon City and Rosas. A notice of assessment as provided for in the Real Property Tax Code should effectively inform the taxpayer of the value of a specific property. as determined by the court in the pending proceeding. In 2005. MERALCO sold all the power-generating plants including the landsite to the NAPOCOR. (Lung Center of the Philippines vs. that (a) it is a charitable institution. 144104. the Municipal Treasurer of Muntinlupa issued three notices to MERALCO. City of Manila. MERALCO. 114231. In Testate Estate of Concordia T. the tenor of the notices bespeaks an intention to collect unpaid taxes. and appraisal of properties. Section 64 of the RPTC. or proportion thereof subject to tax. As MERALCO failed to make a protest payment of the tax assessed. requesting it to pay the full amount of the claimed deficiency with a warning that its properties could be sold at public auction unless the tax due was paid. under protest. any argument regarding the procedure observed in the preparation of the notice of assessment and collection is futile as the trial court in such a scenario cannot assume jurisdiction over the matter. No. Thereafter. 2004) 36 Law San Beda College of . YES. the Court held that the unpaid tax attaches to the property and is chargeable against the person who had actual or beneficial use and possession of it regardless of whether or not he is the owner. nor does it state the discovery. The notices do not contain the essential information that a notice of assessment must specify. 1. Will the Motion to Dismiss prosper? 1.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION Under the 1973 and 1987 Constitutions and Rep. The letters cannot qualify as notices of tax assessment. Thereafter. nor take other steps. June 29. by petitioner. YES. From 1995 to 1998. 2004. MERALCO paid the real property taxes on the said properties on the basis of their assessed value as stated in its tax declarations. (MERALCO vs.
March 4. 2004) TAXATION LAW Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 .R. The Collector of Customs sitting in seizure and forfeiture proceedings has exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine all questions touching on the seizure and forfeiture of dutiable goods. Such act does not deprive the Bureau of Customs of jurisdiction thereon. Raw materials consigned to RRC Manufacting arrived in the warehouse of CLT Freight Inc.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS IV.V. RRC Manufacturing filed a complaint for damages before the RTC against CLT Freight Inc. the District Collector of Customs initiated an abandonment proceedings over said cargo and issued a notice to the RRC Manufacturing giving them fifteen (15) days from notice thereof to file entry of the cargoes. 128064. G. Inc. otherwise. The latter contends that the RTC has no jurisdiction to review and nullify the declaration by the Collector of Customs. The declaration of abandonment became final and executory. the cargoes would be deemed abandoned and sold at public auction. vs Court of Appeals. The trial court has no jurisdiction. tenable? YES. The consignee failed to file the requisite import entry of cargo and to claim the cargo immediately. (R. The Bureau of Customs treated the raw materials as subject to ordinary import taxes. Is the contention of CLT Freight Inc. Marzan Freight. Thus. The Regional Trial Courts are precluded from assuming cognizance over such matters even through petitions of certiorari. prohibition or mandamus. No. and to enjoin or otherwise interfere with the said proceedings even if the seizure was illegal. The RTC is devoid of any competence to pass upon the validity or regularity of seizure and forfeiture proceedings conducted by the Bureau of Customs.
3. 1996). 4. I Taxes are assessed for the purpose of generating revenue to be used for public needs.A. 2. in our jurisdiction. The power to tax is primarily vested in Congress.9282 was passed on March 30. The Court of Appeals has jurisdiction to review decisions of the Court of Tax Appeals. GR No. Municipality of Tanauan. (Mactan Cebu International Airport vs. 2. The basic rationale for the grant of tax power to local government units is to safeguard their viability and self-sufficiency by directly granting them general and broad tax powers. 186 SCRA 198). Marcos. doubts will have to be resolved in favor of municipal corporations. ) Accordingly. R. 36 Law .9282) has made the CTA a co-equal judicial body of the Court of Appeals. considering that the present CTA Act (R. Article X of the Constitution. Taxation itself is the power by which the State raises revenue to defray the expenses of government. Reyes. 4. Laguna vs.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION 2004 BAR EXAM QUESTIONS & SUGGESTED ANSWERS QUESTION NO. (Manila Electric Co. The statement that taxes are levied by the executive branch of the government may be erroneous. however. the power to tax is purely legislative and which the legislative body cannot delegate either to the executive or judicial department of the government without infringing upon the theory of separation of powers (Pepsi-Cola Bottling Company of the Philippines vs. but by direct authority conferred by the Constitution. Albay. NPC vs. 3. In our jurisdiction. A. Taxes are levied by the executive branch of the government. A jurist said that a tax is what we pay for civilization. The Court of Tax Appeals has jurisdiction over decisions of the Customs Commissioner in cases involving liability for customs duties. inasmuch as the power to tax may be exercised by local legislative bodies no longer by valid delegation of said power by Congress. B. (City Government of San Pablo. Province of Laguna. 5. it may be exercised by local legislative bodies. The court should construe a law granting tax exemption strictly against the taxpayer. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction to review decisions of the Court of Appeals. 2004. GR No. Taxes are imposed on persons and property within the territorial jurisdiction of a State. in interpreting statutory provisions on municipal fiscal powers. 1999) Note: The proposition that the Court of Appeals has jurisdiction to review decisions of the Court of Tax Appeals is also untenable. which of the following statements may be erroneous: 1. San Beda College of The proposition that the court should construe a law granting a municipal corporation the power to tax most strictly may now be untenable. One characteristic or attribute of taxes is that it is levied by the legislative body of the state because the taxing power is peculiarly and exclusively legislative in character. 306 SCRA 750.A. Taxes are assessed according to a reasonable rule of apportionment. Taxes are pecuniary in nature. Leyte. As a general rule. Justify your answer or choice briefly. Which of the following propositions may now be untenable: 1. 127708. 120082. The court should construe a law granting a municipal corporation the power to tax most strictly. 5. Taxes are enforced charges and contributions. no longer by virtue of a valid delegation as before but pursuant to direct authority conferred by Section 5. vs. September 11. March 25.
101 (A) (3). No. 91 Phil. Art. e. any tax exemption unilaterally granted can be withdrawn at the pleasure of the taxing authority without violating the Constitution (Mactan Cebu International Airport vs.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS QUESTION II A. Rental from canteen concessionaires d. Dormitory fees c. Interest from money-market placements of the tuition fees. The donee. exempt from the donor’s tax if actually. in relation to Sec. 8 Phil. G. being a non-stock. having made their investments in full reliance with the period of exemption granted by the law. directly and exclusively for educational purposes. The suit will not prosper. Arguing that the ordinance rewards delinquent taxpayers and discriminates against prompt ones.R. is a qualified entity to receive an exempt donation subject to conditions prescribed by law [Sec. It collected and received the following: Which of these abovecited income and donation would not be exempt from taxation? Explain briefly. non-profit educational institution. provided not more than 30% of the donation is used by the donee for administration purposes. likewise. 1996) What constitutes an impairment of the obligation of contracts is the revocation of an exemption which is founded on a valuable consideration because it takes the form and essence of a contract (Casanova vs. 120082. Marcos. But three years later. Due to a series of typhoons and adverse economic conditions. par 4. a. Tuition fees b. A law was passed granting tax exemption to certain industries and investments for a period of five years. 371 ). Donation of a lot and building by school alumni All of the income derived by the non-stock. NIRC] Accordingly. its repeal violated their constitutional right against the impairment of the obligations of contract. the exception. the law was repealed. 1987 Constitution. non-profit educational institution will be exempt from taxation provided they are used actually. XIV. B. The remission or condonation of taxes due and payable to the exclusion of taxes already collected does not constitute unfair discrimination. The municipal attorney rendered an opinion that RC cannot be reimbursed because the ordinance did not provide for such reimbursement. Since taxation is the rule and tax exemption. QUESTION NO. Sarmiento. an ordinance is passed by MM City granting a 50% discount for payment of unpaid real estate taxes for the preceding year and the condonation of all penalties on fines resulting from the late payment. NPC and KTR companies questioned the assessments on the ground that. par 3. RC is law-abiding citizen who pays his real estate taxes promptly. vs. inc. RC files suit to declare the ordinance void on the ground that it is a class legislation. none of the cited income and donation collected and received by the nonstock. RC demands that he be refunded an amount equivalent to one-half of the real taxes he paid. 125 ). the exemptions were considered revoked by the BIR. which assessed the investing companies for unpaid taxes effective on the date of the repeal of the law. non-profit educational institution run by the Archdiocese of BP City. XYZ Colleges is a non-stock. III A. The law providing for tax exemption is granted unilaterally and gratuitously by Congress in the exercise of its taxing power. 4. Is the contention of the companies tenable or not? Reason briefly. Each set of taxes is a class by itself and the law would be open to attack as class legislation only if all taxpayers belonging to one class were not treated alike (Juan Luna Subdivision. Hord. 1987 Constitution) The donation is. non-profit educational institution would not be exempt from taxation. 4. With the repeal. directly and exclusively used for educational purposes. September 11. Will his suit prosper? Explain your answer briefly. TAXATION LAW Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . The contention of the companies is not tenable. directly and exclusively used for educational purposes are exempt from taxation (Sec. XIV. Art. The Constitution provides that all revenues and assets of non-stock. non-profit educational institution which are actually.
101 (A)(3). non-profit educational institution are not exempt from taxation: c. Article VIII of the 1987 Constitution which provides that salaries of judges shall be fixed by law and that during their continuance in office their salary shall not be decreased. XIV. in relation to Sec. not more than 30% of the donation is used for administration purposes (Sec. taxable (DOF Order No. QUESTION NO.137-87. business or other activity. 36 Law San Beda College of . If however. Note: Revenues derived from assets used in the operation of cafeterias/canteens and bookstores are exempt from taxation provided they are owned and operated by the educational institution as ancillary activities and the same are located within the school premises. the said interest is used actually.4 par. 1987 Constitution. rental payment from their building/premises). Rentals from canteen concessionaires. directly and exclusively for educational purposes as proven by substantial evidence. it shall be subject to a 10% tax. However. which of those abovecited income and donation would be exempt from taxation? Explain briefly. Their interest income from currency bank deposits and yield from deposit substitutes instruments used actually. 27[B]. 76 – 03) B. Art. XIV. With regard to letters (a) to (d). Since the donee is a proprietary educational institution. NIRC) The donation of lot and building will likewise be subject to the donor’s tax because a donation to an educational institution is exempt only if the school is incorporated as a nonstock entity paying no dividends. it shall be subject to the normal corporate income tax. the donation is taxable (Section 101 (A) (3). Rental income is considered as unrelated to the school operations.3. The interest on the placement is taxable (DOF Order No.4. all of its income from school related and non-school related activities would be subject to the income tax based on its aggregate net income derived from both activities.16. NIRC). hence. d. Art. If XYZ Colleges is a proprietary educational institution. (Sec. Dec. non-profit educational institution will be exempt from the donor’s tax if used actually. they shall be subject to internal revenue taxes on income from trade.137-87). Is the contention of the judge correct? Reason briefly. directly and exclusively in pursuance of their purposes as an educational institution are exempt from the 20% final tax and 7 ½% tax on interest income under the expanded foreign currency deposit system upon compliance of certain conditions. The other items of income which were all derived from school-related activities will be exempt from taxation in the hands of the recipient if used actually.e.4. the same will be exempt from taxation (CIR vs. Interest from money-market placements of the tuition fees. 1987 Constitution). 298 SCRA 83 ). (Revenue Memorandum Circular No. directly and exclusively for educational purposes and provided. Suppose that XYZ Colleges is a proprietary educational institution owned by the Archbishop’s family. rather than the Archdiocese. that. that if the gross income from unrelated trade. the conduct of which is not related to the exercise or performance by such educational institutions of their educational purposes or functions (i. 1987). IV A. directly and exclusively for educational purposes (Sec. a judge of MM Regional Trial Court questioned the deduction of withholding taxes from his salary since it results into a net deduction of his pay. The donation to a non-stock. Citing Section 10. NIRC). par.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION ALTERNATIVE ANSWER: The following receipts by the non-stock. provided. CA. business or other activity exceeds 50% of the gross income derived by said school.
1997) B. claimed as a deduction in its tax returns the amount of P1. the BIR reversed the ruling and issued a new one stating that the tax covers printing companies. vs. Subsequently.000 as bad debts. or reversal will be prejudicial to the taxpayer (CIR vs. but only vaguely theoretical. prospect that the debt would ever be paid. Inc. 1967) Requisites for valid deduction of bad debts from gross income: TAXATION LAW Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . The corporation was assessed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue for deficiency taxes on the ground that the debts cannot be considered as “worthless. l-20312. Art. 152 SCRA 284 ). is not a diminution contemplated by the fundamental law (Nitafan vs. he acted in good faith. L-22265. GR No. Both a license fee and a tax may be imposed on the same business or occupation.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS NO. or for selling the same article and this is not in violation of the rule against double taxation (Compania General de Tabacos de Filipinas vs. 1972) QUESTION NO. CIR. however. V A. Is the refusal of the mayor justified? Reason briefly. The taxpayer should establish that during the year for which the deduction is sought. The fixed annual fee is in the nature of a license fee imposed through the exercise of police power while the 5% tax on purchase or consumption is a local tax imposed through the exercise of taxing powers. the deduction of withholding taxes. DEF Printers submitted a legal query to the Bureau of Internal Revenue on that issue. This is because Section 246 of the NIRC provides that any revocation. and other establishments selling liquor should pay a fixed annual fee of P20. A municipality. The municipal mayor.000. The company asks for your advice on “What factors will help in determining whether or not the debts are bad debts?” Answer and explain briefly. The BIR cannot assess DEF Printers for back taxes corresponding to the years before the new ruling because it would be violative of the principle of non-retroactivity of rulings and doing. The impositions are of different nature and character. Dec. GR No. February 26. Due to an uncertainty whether or not a new tax law is applicable to printing companies. The ascertainment of worthlessness of bad debts requires proof of two facts: (1) that the taxpayer did in fact ascertain the debt to be worthless in the year the deduction is sought. The BIR issued a ruling that printing companies are not covered by the new law. The salaries of judicial officers are not tax-exempt and their taxability is not contrary to the provisions of Sec. or reversal of any of the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commissioner shall not be given retroactive application if the revocation. Relying on this ruling. and (2) in so doing. modification. The clear intent of the Constitutional Commission that framed the Constitution is to subject their salaries to tax as in the case of all taxpayers. The refusal of the mayor is not justified. has an ordinance which requires that all stores. February 6. (5%) No. a situation developed as a result of which it became evident in the exercise of sound. (Collector vs. DEF Printers did not pay said tax. being a manner of collecting the income tax on their salary.00. Goodrich International Rubber. NO. City of Cebu. San Miguel Brewery. BB. City of Manila. Subsequently. CC. objective business judgment that there remained no practical. Well settled is the rule that rulings and circulars. rules and regulations promulgated by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue would have no retroactive application if to so apply them would be prejudicial to the taxpayers.000. 117982. VIII of the 1987 Constitution on the non-diminution of the salaries of members of the Judiciary during their continuance in office. PQR Corp. Hence. B. modification. Could the BIR now assess DEF Printers for back taxes corresponding to the years before the new ruling? Reason briefly. restaurants. restaurants and other establishments. the municipal board proposed an ordinance imposing a sales tax equivalent to 5% of the amount paid for the purchase or consumption of liquor in stores.” hence they do not qualify as bad debts. 22. Court of Appeals and Alhambra Industries. 8 SCRA 367 . Good faith is not enough. 10. refused to sign the ordinance on the ground that it would constitute double taxation.
Since. No. imposts and other charges for a period of three years. is not a taxpayer. In the course of business. and 5. 49 Phil 466 ). January 31. Can the stockholders be held personally liable for the unpaid taxes of the dissolved corporation? Explain briefly. Assume arguendo that XYZ had to and did pay the sales tax.R. business or practice of profession. fees. Is this claim tenable? NO. the sale is subject to a sales tax.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION 1. G. but it would also not be in accord with the rule that a corporation is vested by law with a personality that is separate and distinct from those of the persons composing it. what is paid by it is not a tax but part of the cost it has assumed. XYZ Inc. Also a stockholders who has unpaid subscription is liable for the debts of the 36 Law . and the corporation was dissolved. were notified by the Securities and Exchange Commission that the corporation would be subject to involuntary dissolution. for instance be enforced against its stockholders because not only would this run counter to the principle that taxes are personal. Is the claim of ABC Corp. ABC Corp. ABC Corp. The claim of ABC Corp. is not meritorious. Inc. ABC Corp. The stockholders did not do anything to comply with the requirements. was organized and was granted such incentive. VI As an incentive for investors. The same must not be sustained in a transaction entered into between related parties enumerated under Sec. B. ABC Corp. is not tenable. L-15778). There must be an existing indebtedness due to the taxpayer which must be valid and legally demandable. 4. Llanes. VII A. The claim of XYZ. a law was passed giving newly established companies in certain economic zones exemption from all taxes. The taxpayer who can file a claim for refund is the person statutorily liable for the payment of the tax. Taxes are personal to the taxpayer. as well as from that of any other legal entity to which it may be related (Sunio vs. 2. 1984) However. however. NLRC. meritorious? San Beda College of No. later found out. Although the tax was shifted to ABC Corp. the stockholders of ABC Corp. ABC Corp. which is tax exempt. CIR. 25-2002) QUESTION NO. For failure to comply with certain corporate requirements. The same must be connected with the taxpayer’s trade. its claim that the sale is tax exempt is not tenable. Normally. therefore. A tax exemption is construed in strictissimi juris and it can not be permitted to exist upon vague implications (Asiatic Petroleum Co.. A corporation’s tax delinquency cannot. Since XYZ Inc. 57767. (RR No. by the seller. A. purchased mechanical equipment from XYZ Inc. that since it sold the equipment to ABC Corp. Exemption from taxes is personal in nature and covers only taxes for which the taxpayer-grantee is directly liable. however. The same must be actually charged off the books of accounts of the taxpayer as of the end of the taxable year. is directly liable for the sales tax and no tax exemption privilege is ever given to him. LTd. QUESTION NO. The same must be actually ascertained to be worthless and uncollectible as of the end of the taxable year. duties. it has no capacity to file a claim for refund. XYZ should not be liable to pay the sales tax. NO. vs. The sales tax is a tax on the seller who is not exempt from taxes. now claims for a refund from the Bureau of Internal Revenue in an amount corresponding to the tax passed on to it since it is tax exempt. 36(B) of the Tax Code of 1997. 3. that XYZ merely shifted or passed on to ABC the amount of the sales tax by increasing the purchase price. stockholders may be held liable for the unpaid taxes of a dissolved corporation if it appears that the corporate assets have passed into their hands (Tan Tiong Bio vs. claims.
On ethical grounds. only 50% of the judgment award is all he could really afford. As represented by NX in his offer. Does the Commissioner have the power to accept the compromise offer? Is it legal and ethical? Explain briefly. the Commissioner of Internal Revenue initiated the filing of a civil action to collect the tax due from NX. In preparing his Income Tax Return (ITR) for the year 2003. The judgment became final and executory. Its annual premium amounted to P100. (b) married. 2003. RAM got married to LISA last January 2003.? Reason. but attempts to execute the judgment award were futile. OXY is the president and chief executive officer of ADD Computers. (e) none of the above? Why? Reason. The term ‘ordinary’ is used in the income tax law in its common significance and it has the connotation of being normal. RAM should indicate “(b) married” as his civil status in preparing his Income Tax Return for the year 2003 and claim the P32. The death of his wife during the year will not change his status because under Section 35 (C) of the NIRC. OXY objected to the insurance purchase but ADD purchased the policy anyway.000 additional exemption for his twins. On November 30. what should RAM indicate in the ITR as his civil status: (a) single. however. B. ADD proposed to obtain a policy of insurance on his life. Believing that its business outlook. although the inquiry need not be limited only to the bank deposits of the taxpayer but also to his financial position as reflected in his financial statements or other records upon which his property holdings can be ascertained. After the tax assessment had become final and unappealable. After several years. This is an offer for compromise based on financial incapacity which the Commissioner shall not accept unless accompanied by a waiver of the secrecy of bank deposits (Section 6(F). a decision was rendered by the court ordering NX to pay the tax due plus penalties and surcharges. If indeed the financial position of NX as determined by the Commissioner demonstrates a clear inability to pay the tax. Inc. No. Inc. one of the twins also died on December 15. usual or customary. YES. The waiver will enable the Commissioner to ascertain the financial position of the taxpayer. Nirc). P8. TAXATION LAW Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 .000 personal exemption for married individual and the P16. Lisa died in the course of her delivery. (c) head of the family (d) widower. Paying premiums for the insurance of a person not connected to the company is not normal. NX offered the Commissioner a compromise settlement of 50% of the judgment award.000. the acceptance of the offer is legal and ethical because the ground upon which the compromise was anchored is within the context of the law and the rate of compromise is well within and far exceeds the minimum prescribed by law which is only 10% of the basic tax assessed.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS corporation since the unpaid debt of the stockholder for the purchase price of the subscribed shares represents an asset of the corporation in the hands of the stockholders. The premium is not deductible because it is not an ordinary business expense. Unfortunately.000 additional exemption per dependent. When OXY was asked to join the government service as director of a bureau under the Department of Trade & Industry. or (2) The financial position of the taxpayer demonstrates a clear inability to pay the assessed tax. B. QUESTION NO. goodwill and opportunities improved with OXY in the government. Is said premium deductible by ADD Computers. he took a leave of absence from ADD. the taxpayer may still claim the exemptions (that of being married) as if the spouse or dependent died at the close of such year. usual or customary. Subsequently. Due to complications. 2003. that is. 204 [A] of the 1997 NIRC the Commissioner may compromise any internal revenue tax when: (1) A Reasonable doubt as to the validity of the claim against the taxpayer exist. representing that this amount is all he could really afford. should the spouse die during the taxable year. Lisa gave birth to twins. VIII A. Under Sec.
filed an appeal with the Court of Tax Appeals. VCC filed a motion with the probate court to stop the enforcement and collection of the tax on the ground that the BIR should have secured first the approval of the probate court. 2003. This is so because if the insured. NO. On March 12. QUESTION NO. Court of Appeals. which had jurisdiction over the estate. 2001. REN paid his taxes. RR can file a motion for injunction with the Court of Tax Appeals to stop the administrative collection process. he received the decision of the Commissioner denying REN’s claim for refund. On the contrary. While the appeal is pending. 9282). Ten months later. he realized that he had overpaid and so he immediately filed a claim for refund with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. he received from the Commissioner of Internal Revenue a deficiency tax assessment for the estate in the amount of P1.000. under Section 94 of the 1997 NIRC. RR disputed a deficiency tax assessment and upon receipt of an adverse decision by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. 1997) B. as amended by RA No. But he ignored the notice. X A. and (2) the taxpayer is willing to deposit the amount being collected or to file a surety bond for not more than double the amount of the tax to be fixed by the Court (Sec. the premium is not allowed as a deduction from gross income (Section 36 (A) (4). the payment of premium will constitute bribes. There is nothing in the Tax Code and in the pertinent remedial law that implies the necessity of the probate court or estate settlement of court’s approval of the State’s claim for estate taxes before the same can be enforced and collected by the BIR. 2003. Last month. Last year. if the company was made the beneficiary. what could RR do to stop the process? Explain briefly. CIR. he did not institute his action 36 Law San Beda College of .College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION Another reason for its non-deductibility is the fact that it can be considered as an illegal compensation made to a government employee. On February 27. which is prohibited from authorizing the delivery of the distributive share to any interested party without a certification from the CIR showing the payment of the estate tax. Although A filed his claim for refund with the BIR within two years from the date of payment. his estate or heirs were made as the beneficiary (because of the requirement of insurable interest). in the estate proceedings pending before the MM Regional Trial Court. VCC’s contention is not correct. On March 24. Granting arguendo that the BIR can legally levy on the properties. NIRC). 1125. which are not allowed as deduction from gross income (Sec. An appeal to the CTA shall not suspend the enforcement of the tax liability. before levying on its real properties. 11. NIRC). The CTA is empowered to suspend the collection of internal revenue taxes and customs duties in cases pending appeal only when: (1) in the opinion of the court the collection by the BIR will jeopardize the interest of the Government and/or the taxpayer. whether directly or indirectly. The enforcement and collection of estate tax is executive in character and task is specifically ascribed to the BIR. Was his appeal filed on time or not? Reason.000. Is VCC’s contention correct? NO. 14 SCRA 832. the BIR effected a levy on the real properties of the estate to pay the delinquent tax. (Marcos II vs. 273 SCRA 47. RA No. The appeal made by REN was not filed on time. June 5. 34 [A][c]. REN filed an appeal with the Court of Tax Appeals. 1965). IX A. On the other hand. QUESTION NO. unless a motion to that effect shall have been presented in court and granted by it on the basis that such collection will jeopardize the interest of the taxpayer of the Government (Pirovano vs. the BIR served a warrant of levy on the real properties of RR to enforce the collection of the disputed tax. VCC is the administrator of the estate of his father NGC. it is the probate or settlement court.
vs. Treasurer of Ormoc City. 2003. because the classification is not based upon substantial distinction which makes real differences.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS for recovery within the same period of two (2) years with the CTA. both in the privileges conferred and in the liabilities imposed. as it is not discriminatory against the other professionals because they have reasonable and substantial differences in the conduct of their professions. Exempting lawyers and doctors from a burden to which other professionals re subjected will make the law discriminatory and violative of the equal protection clause of the Constitution. vs. 1968) In the instant case. Since the appeal was only made on March 24. Other professionals complained and filed suit questioning the law for being discriminatory and violative of the equal protection clause of the Constitution since complainants were not given the same exemption. TAXATION LAW Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . 22 SCRA 603. 24 SCRA 789. Treating doctors and lawyers as a different class of professionals will not comply with the requirement of a reasonable. City of Butuan.. Accordingly. City of Butuan. 1968) ANOTHER ANSWER: The suit is not meritorious. Is the suit meritorious or not? Reason briefly. must be treated alike for tax purposes. in compliance with the rule of equality of taxation. The classification does not comply with the requirement that it should be germane to the purpose of the law either. While singling out a class for taxation purposes will not infringe upon this constitutional limitation (Shell vs. Inc. The two-year period of limitation for filing a claim for refund is not only a limitation for pursuing the claim at the administrative level but also a limitation for appealing the case to the Court of Tax Appeals. 24 SCRA 789. The law does not violate the equal protection clause of the constitution. singling out a taxpayer from a class will no doubt transgress the constitutional limitation (Ormoc Sugar Co. more than two years had already elapsed from the time the taxes were paid on March 12.. vs. The equality in taxation rule is not violated if classifications or distinctions are made as long as the same are based on reasonable and substantial differences. Inc. Vaño. hence valid classification.. NIRC). 1954). 2003. 55. (Pepsi Cola Bottling Co. the professions of doctors and lawyers are not principally aimed at earning money but for the service of the people. The law provides that “no suit or proceeding shall be filed after the expiration of two years from the date of the payment of the tax or penalty regardless of any supervening cause that may arise after payment (Section 229. A law was passed exempting doctors and lawyers from the operation of the value added tax. 94 Phil 389. hence should be neutral to those who belong to the same class. Professionals ARE a class of taxpayers by themselves who. REN had lost his judicial remedy because of prescription. The exemption granted to doctors and lawyers from the operation of the VAT is justified. under the circumstances and conditions. the suit is meritorious. The VAT is designed for economic efficiency. Inc. 1968). (Pepsi Cola Bottling Co. The equal protection clause of the Constitution merely requires that all persons subjected to legislation shall be treated alike. Yes.
CIR. Tax exemption of properties actually. Due process clause 2. 11. equitability and progressivity of taxation 9. etc. revenue and tariff bills shall originate exclusively from the House of Representatives 8. INCOME TAXATION Corporations for income tax purposes. Rule requiring that appropriations. Partnerships. Tax Exemption of the Government 5. donations and contributions. for purpose of undertaking construction projects engaging in Petroleum. the co-heirs used the inheritance or the incomes derived therefrom as a common fund to produce profits for themselves. and other energy operations. Non-Delegability of the Taxing Power 3.College of Law LAW IMPORTANT TOPICS GENERAL PRINCIPLES LIMITATIONS ON THE TAXING POWER A. Uniformity. Public Purpose of Taxes 2. Example of unregistered partnership taxable as a corporation After an extrajudicial settlement. import and export quotas. Includes: 1. Voting requirement in connection with the legislative grant of tax exemption 12. Limitations on the congressional power to delegate to the President the authority to fix tariff rates. NIRC) Note: The main characteristic of a joint venture is that the joint control must be contained in a contractual agreement. Joint venture or consortium formed i. Geothermal. endowments. International Comity San Beda TAXATION B. including grants. 10. ii. Associations or insurance companies b. Non-impairment of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in tax cases 13. a. Joint accounts (cuentas en participation) 4. (Ona vs. no matter how created or organized 2. Exemption from taxes of the revenues and assets of educational institutions. Constitutional Limitations 1. charitable and educational purposes. Non-impairment of contracts 6. (Section 22 (B). directly and exclusively used for religious. Non-infringement of religious freedom and worship 5. Coal. Territoriality or Situs of Taxation 4. 45 SCRA 74) Example of co-ownership not deemed unregistered partnership taxable as corporation 36 Law San Beda College of . General Professional partnerships 2. Joint stock companies 3. Inherent Limitations 1. Pursuant to an operation or consortium agreement under a service contract with the Government. Freedom of speech and of the press 4. Does not include 1. Non-imprisonment for debt or non-payment of poll tax 7. Equal protection clause 3.
CIR. c. be they relatives or not shall be accorded the privileges granted by the Code insofar as having dependents are concerned. For this purpose. d. Miscellaneous items. gratuities. g. Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . Sharing of gross returns does not by itself establish a partnership. Retirement benefits. 32 (B). Implementing Rules and Regulations of RA No. j. Corporations Itemized Deductions Itemized deductions ordinary and necessary expenses interests taxes losses bad debts depreciation of property. NIRC) Exemptions for Senior Citizens Senior citizens shall be treated as dependents provided for in the NIRC and as such individual taxpayers caring for them. 7432) TAXATION LAW (2) (1) (2) (3) (4) a. Amount received by insured as return of premium 3. NIRC of 1997) Classes of Deductions Individuals a. CTA Case No. pensions. 7432. December 20. 5(a) RA No. 34 (A) (2). there must be an unmistakable intention to form a partnership or joint venture. vs. Jr. f. b. (Sec. or (b) to deduct allowance for depreciation thereof (Sec. 1996) In determining personal exemptions allowable to individuals under Section 35 of the NIRC as amended by RA NO. Gifts. gross income from business or practice of profession Optional Standard Deduction (OSD) Itemized deductions premium payments on health and/or hospitalization insurance personal additional exemptions 2. 5 of this implementing rules and regulations. 139 SCRA 436) Exclusions from gross income under the NIRC 1. k. e. a senior citizen may be treated as dependent. 8424. Compensation for injuries or sickness 5.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS Co-heirs who inherited properties which produce income should not automatically be considered as partners of an unregistered partnership or corporation subject to income tax. the definition of the term “head of a family” under the said section shall be deemed amended to refer to the definition under Art. Baybay vs. (Sec. with gross compensation income from employer-employee relationship only (1) premium payments on health and/or hospitalization insurance personal additional exemptions b. (Rule 6. bequest and devices 4. h. CIR. Income exempt under treaty 6. 5280. Life Insurance proceeds 2. (Obillos. i. etc. Special Deductions for Private Educational Institutions A private educational institutions may at its option elect either: (a) to deduct expenditures otherwise considered as capital outlays of depreciable assets incurred during the taxable year for the expansion of school facilities. depletion of oil and gas wells and mines charitable and other contributions research and development pension trust contributions of employees premium payments on health and/or hospitalization insurance. 7.
1997 NIRC) POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE BIR 1. The payor of the tax is the taxpayer. Legal and Inspection Group. 2. GR No. before the tax is computed. A tax credit is used by a private establishment only after the tax has been computed. Each Deputy heads the Operations Group. since the government’s cause of action against the withholding agent is not for the collection of income tax but for the enforcement of the withholding provisions of the Tax Code. he earned no income. (CIR vs. Two more Deputy Commissioners were appointed in 2003 as head of the Prosecution Group and the Special Concerns Group. and thousands of revenue officers conducting the audit of taxpayers’ books of accounts and accounting records. fees. (CIR vs. 108576. To assess and collect national internal revenue taxes. Power to decide tax cases subject to review by the Court of Tax Appeals 3. a taxpayer who has filed an application to compromise payment of tax liability by reason of financial incapacity 36 Law . he is the person subject to tax imposed by law. Power to inquire into bank deposits of taxpayers – Notwithstanding R. 1405 (Bank Secrecy Law) the Commissioner is authorized to inquire into the Bank deposits of: a. compliance with which is imposed on the withholding agent.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION The twenty percent (20%) discount required by law to be given to senior citizens is a tax credit. Commissioner of Customs with respect to taxes on imported goods b. together with thirteen (13) Assistant Commissioners for the different services. Banks duly accredited by the CIR. Power to examine books and other accounting records and obtain information 4. Resource and Management Group. comprise the senior level of administrative authority. not deputy commissioners within Section 3 of the 1997 NIRC. one hundred fifteen (115) Revenue District Officers. and Information Systems Group. The agent is not liable for the tax as no wealth flowed into him. The Commissioner and six (6) Deputy Commissioners. and charges. To effect and administer the supervisory and police powers conferred upon it by the Tax Code or other special laws (Sec. not merely a tax deduction from the gross income or gross sale of the establishment concerned. Power to interpret tax laws subject to review by the Secretary of Finance 2. To execute judgments in all cases decided in its favor by the CTA and the ordinary courts. RA No. Central Luzon Drug Corp. a decedent to determine his gross estate b. 7432 unconditionally grants a tax credit to all covered entities. penalties and fines connected therewith.A. Court of Appeals. Supporting them are the nineteen (19) Regional Directors. 3. To enforce all forfeitures. 12. The tax Code only makes the agent personally liable for the tax arising from the breach of its legal duty to withhold as distinguished from its duty to pay tax. April 15. a tax deduction. San Beda College of AGENTS OF THE CIR: a. January 20. and 4. Head of the appropriate government office with respect to energy tax c. (Sec. Note: These deputy commissioners are technically. 2005) Character of Withholding Agent The withholding agent is not the payor but a separate entity acting no more than an agent of the government for the collection of the tax in order to ensure its payments. NIRC) POWERS OF THE CIR 1. 159647. and the payee is the taxing authority. GR N. 2. 1999) TAX ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION BIR ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Headed by a Commissioner of Internal Revenue and four (4) Deputy Commissioners.
Submission of documentary evidence (60-day period) Note: Submission of documents within the 60 day period is optional to the taxpayer. CIR. etc. 5. Failure to obey summons [Sec. Imposition of withholding tax on certain income payments [Sec. 31 SCRA 95) Principle of Legislative Approval by Reenactment The principle of legislative approval of administrative interpretation of a statute is to the effect that the reenactment of a statute substantially unchanged is persuasive indication of the adoption by Congress of a prior executive construction. Denial of protest by the Commissioner or his authorized representative 4. an essential part or constituent or relating to what is essential. NIRC] 3. NIRC] 4. (Standard Chartered Bank vs. short or concise. Power to assess and collect the correct amount of tax TAXATION LAW TAX REMEDIES OF THE GOVERNMENT • TAX REMEDIES UNDER THE 1997 TAX CODE 1. 266. Appeal by the taxpayer of the final decision of the Commissioner or his authorized representative on the disputed assessment to the CTA (within 30 days from the receipt of the decision. Ledesma. NIRC] 2. which may be civil or criminal SUBSTANTIVE REMEDIES 1. Declaration under penalties of perjury [Sec. 5.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS Note: The taxpayer’s application for compromise shall not be considered unless he waives in writing his privilege under RA 1405 and other general or special laws. Administrative – remedies available at the administration (BIR) level. or in case of inaction from the lapse of the 180 day period) Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . Preparation of tentative findings and holding of informal conference 3. Issuance of Formal Assessment Notice (FAN) and letter of demand Power to Collect Deficiency or Delinquent Taxes 1. Such waiver shall authorize the Commissioner to inquire into his bank deposits. Summary – remedies at the administrative level or regulation that are executed without ceremony or delay. Substantive – remedies provided for by law or regulation.245. CTA Case No. Procedural – remedies involving law of pleading. Issuance of revenue regulations by administrative agency [Sec. 4. CTA and Commissioner. 108 SCRA 142) ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES OF THE GOVERNMENT Power to Assess Presumption of Correctness of the assessments made by the Commissioner Assessment Process 1. Judicial – remedies that are enforced through judicial action. 5696. 57(B). NIRC] Administrative interpretations should be respected The interpretation given by the administrative officer charged by reason of his office to carry out the provisions of a statute should be respected whenever such interpretation is assailed by someone who alleges no reasons of weight to contradict or weaken it. evidence. (ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corp. 244. vs. (Commissioner vs. August 16. 2001) 3. Issuance of Preliminary Assessment Notice (PAN) 4. 2. 267. 3. Examination of books of accounts and other accounting records of taxpayers by revenue officers to determine his correct tax liability 2. Filing of administrative protest by the taxpayer against the assessment (30-day period) 2. jurisdiction.
NIRC] Judicial Remedies If the protest is denied in whole or in part. 2. Compromise and abatement 6. Forfeiture 5. By filing an answer to the petition for review filed by the taxpayer with the CTA 2. or is not acted upon. NIRC) 2. otherwise. NIRC) b. Distraint of personal property. After payment of the deficiency tax assessment – file a written claim for refund or tax credit with the appropriate government agency (the BIR or the Department of Finance One Stop Shop Center) [Secs. Legal Service. Collection Service. Cases under administrative protest after issuance of the Final Assessment Notice to the taxpayer which are still pending in the Regional Offices. or garnishment of bank deposits 3. executory and demandable. other than those already filed in court or those involving criminal tax fraud. • Administrative Remedies of the Government 1. or levy of real property. the taxpayer adversely affected by the decision or inaction may appeal to the CTA within 30 days from receipt of the said decision. supply correct and accurate information. 228. withhold and remit tax and refund excess taxes withheld on compensation (Sec. Failure to file return. 204 (C) and 229. By filing a civil case for the collection of a sum of money with the proper regular court Collectibility arises: (1) Self-assessed tax shown in the return was not paid within the date prescribed by law (2) Final assessment is not protested administratively within 30 days from date of receipt (3) Non-compliance with the condition laid in the approval of the protest (4) Failure to file a timely appeal to the CTA on the final decision of the Commissioner or his authorized representative on the disputed assessment b. within 180 days from submission of documents. pay tax. 4. 5. Penalties and fines 7. Civil tax cases being disputed before the courts.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION Note: 1. (Sec. Revenue District Offices. (Revenue Regulation No. or from the lapse of the 180 day period. Enforcement Service and other offices in the National Office. the decision shall become final. Criminal violations. 254. Attempt to evade or defeat tax (Sec. 255. Before payment of the deficiency tax assessment – file a written protest within 30 days from date of receipt (Sec. Civil Action a. Suspension of business operations The following are the cases which may be compromised: Delinquent accounts. 228. Sale of property of a delinquent taxpayer 4. NIRC) 36 Law . Tax Lien 2. Criminal Action San Beda College of a. 30-02) JUDICIAL REMEDIES OF THE GOVERNMENT 1. Collection cases filed in courts. Large Taxpayer Service (LTS). 3. NIRC) TAX REMEDIES OF THE TAXPAYER • REMEDIES OF TAXPAYERS Administrative Remedies 1.
NIRC) 3. Informal Conference Letter Revenue District Office or Special Investigation Division or Chief of Division concerned (in case of BIR National Office) a. he may appeal to the Court of Tax Appeals within thirty (30) days from the lapse of the one hundred eighty (180) day period provided for under the said section. calling for the payment of the taxpayer’s deficiency tax liability. in case the taxpayer is not amenable. he shall be considered in default. a formal assessment notice shall be sufficient: (1) When the finding for any deficiency tax is the result of mathematical error in the computation of the tax as appearing on the face of the return. 2. Issues a formal letter of demand and assessment notice. b. like any other government agency. 5777. 2000] Substantive Remedies 1. The due observance of the requirements of notice. 228. If there exists sufficient basis to assess the taxpayer for any deficiency tax or taxes. Questioning the constitutionality or validity of tax statutes or regulations 2. b. 2003) TAXATION LAW Procedural Remedies (Revenue Regulations No. or second. 235. a pre-assessment notice shall not be required in the following cases. NIRC) 4. or if 2) Taxpayer fails to respond within fifteen (15) days from date or receipt of notice of informal conference. Preliminary Assessment Notice (PAN) Assessment Division or the Commission or his duly authorized representative a. 12-99) 1.. Failure to inform the taxpayer in writing of the legal and factual bases of assessment makes it void (Sec. Publication of RMC and RMO – While the rule-making authority of the CIR is not doubted. However. of the discrepancy or discrepancies in the taxpayer’s payment of his internal revenue taxes for the purpose of “Informal Conference” 1) Taxpayer responds. The taxpayer was given this option so that in case his protest is not acted upon within the 180-day period. in case of default or taxpayer’s response is not acceptable. Reviews and evaluates. vs. in which case. Preservation of books of accounts and once-a-year examination for income tax purposes (Sec. to the Assessment Division of the Revenue Regional Office or to the Commissioner or his duly authorized representative 3. Inc. the said Office shall issue to the taxpayer a PAN for the proposed assessment. CIR. he may be able to seek immediate relief and need not wait for an indefinite period of time for the Commissioner to decide. (CIR vs. Audits the taxpayer’s records b.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS Note: It has been held by the Court of Tax Appeals that” In cases of inaction. he may wait until the Commissioner decides on his protest before he elevates his case.” (Lascona Land Co. then the same could not result in the assessment becoming final. he shall be considered in default. Endorses the case. Section 228 of the Tax Code merely gave the taxpayer an option: first. Informs the taxpayer in writing. GR No. CTA Case No. 150947. Non-retroactivity of rulings (Sec. 1) Taxpayer responds within fifteen (15) days from date of receipt of the PAN 2) If the taxpayer fails to respond within 15 days from receipt of PAN. July 15. or Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . hearing and publication should not have been ignored. NIRC) 5. in case of default or taxpayer’s response is not acceptable. Notice for Informal Conference Revenue Officer a. the Commissioner may not disregard legal requirements or applicable principles in the exercise of quasi-legislative powers. January 4. But if he chooses to wait for a positive action on the part of the Commissioner. executory and demandable. Michel Lhuillier Pawnshop. 246. States in his report whether or not the taxpayer agrees with his findings that the taxpayer is liable for deficiency tax or taxes.
Deficiency tax liability arising from a tax audit conducted by the BIR [Sec. such as the imposition of surcharges and interests. the assessment shall become final. Tax period of a taxpayer is terminated [Sec. has been sold. or (3) When a taxpayer who opted to claim a refund or tax credit of excess creditable withholding tax for a taxable period was determined to have carried over and automatically applied the same amount claimed against the estimated tax liabilities for the taxable quarter or quarters of the succeeding taxable year. otherwise. the assessment shall become final. Disputed Assessments Taxpayer a. Tax lien [Sec. Constructive Service of Notice There shall be constructive service of notice in the following cases: 1. b. the taxpayer may appeal to the Court of Tax Appeals within thirty (30) days from the lapse of the 180-day period. or jurisprudence on which the assessment is based. Otherwise. 36 Law San Beda College of . Submits required supporting documents within sixty (60) days from the date of filing his letter of protest. Regs. executory and demandable. 3. machineries and spare parts. the assessment shall become final. the assessment shall become final. executory and demandable. 52(c). 4. 219. By leaving the notice in the premises of the taxpayer and this fact of service is attested to. Rev. otherwise. if protest is denied in whole or in part by the Commissioner. No. In the proper pursuit of judicial and extrajudicial remedies to enforce taxpayer liabilities and certain matters that relate to it. and no response is received from the taxpayer within the prescribed period 2. The exceptions are: 1.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION (2) When a discrepancy has been determined between the tax withheld and the amount actually remitted by the withholding agent. it shall be void. 6(D). If the notice is personally served on the taxpayer or his duly authorized representative. executory and demandable. Protests administratively against the formal letter of demand and assessment notice within thirty (30) days from receipt thereof.7. Appeals to the Court of Tax Appeals. but not limited to. such as. c. NIRC] 4. witnessed and signed by at least two (2) revenue officers other than the revenue officer who constructively served the same. Dissolving corporation [Sec. refuse to acknowledge receipt thereof 3. If the notice to the taxpayer is served by registered mail. do not require the issuance of an assessment notice in order to establish the tax liability of a taxpayer. traded or transferred to non-exempt persons. Formal Letter of Demand and Assessment Notice Commissioner or his duly authorized representative issues the formal letter of demand and assessment notice which shall state the facts. vehicles. the law. otherwise.1. capital equipment. within thirty (30) days from date of receipt of decision. NIRC] Significance of Assessment: a. NIRC] 2. (Sec. If the Commissioner fails to act on the taxpayer’s protest within one hundred eighty days (180) days from date of submission of required supporting documents. however. NIRC] 3. 56(B). otherwise. who. (5) When an article locally purchased or imported by an exempt person. executory and demandable. rules and regulations. 12-99) • ASSESSMENT AND PROTEST Assessment The general rule is that taxes are self-assessing and thus. or (4) When the excise tax due on excisable articles has not been paid. 5.
1997 NIRC). L-10507. 2. and (b) that the same is his final decision. In the application of statute of limitations. 1997 NIRC). Period to file criminal action FIVE (5) YEARS from: (1) day of the commission of the violation of the law. • FALSE RETURN / FRAUDULENT RETURN The distinction between a false return and a fraudulent return is that the first merely implies a deviation from the truth or fact whether intentional or not. the applicable law.5. TEN (10) YEARS – without assessment in case of false or fraudulent return with intent to evade or failure to file return (Sec. 1964) 3. July 31. and regulations. and d.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS b. Substantial under-declarations of income for six consecutive five years demonstrate fraudulence of return (Perez vs. Union Shipping Corp. (Sec. whereas the second is intentional and deceitful with the sole aim of evading the correct tax due. Rev. from discovery thereof and the institution of the judicial proceedings for its investigation and punishment.222 [A] 2. CTA Case No. Ayala Securities Corp. 1997 NIRC). in which case. b. (Commissioner vs. or jurisprudence on which such decision is based. Regs. Fraud must be the product of a deliberate intent to evade taxes (Jalandoni vs. Republic. 203. May 30. 3. No. Protest 1. 3. 51. c. the decision shall be void. the same shall not be considered a decision on a disputed assessment.222[A]). 222. FAILURE TO FILE A RETURN: TEN (10) YEARS from the date of the discovery of the omission to file the return (Sec. Referral by the Commissioner of request for reinvestigation to the Solicitor General (Republic vs. FIVE (5) YEARS – from assessment or within period for collection agreed upon in writing before expiration of the 5-year period (Sec. In estimating the revenues that may be collected by government in the coming year. and (2) If the same be not known. Period to collect the assessed tax a. There is fraud in the following decided cases: 1. In the establishment of tax liens. 12 – 99) 2. Commissioner did not rule on the taxpayer’s motion for reconsideration of the assessment – It was only when respondent received the summons on the civil action for the collection of deficiency income tax that the period to appeal commenced to run. rules. CTA. Direct denial of protest Administrative decision on a disputed assessment – The decision of the Commissioner or his duly authorized representative shall (a) state the facts. 222. 1958) TAXATION LAW Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . otherwise. 185 SCRA 547) b. Simple statement that return filed was not fraudulent does not disprove existence of fraud (Tayengco vs. Lim Tian Teng Sons) c. Indirect denial of protest (Jurisprudence) a. 70 SCRA 204) PRESCRIPTIVE PERIODS UNDER THE TAX CODE 1. Collector. 15 SCRA 51) 2. whichever is later (Sec. Reiterating the demand for immediate payment of the deficiency tax due to taxpayer’s continued refusal to execute waiver (Commissioner vs. Exceptions: 1.1. Period to assess the tax General Rule: THREE (3) YEARS after the date the return is due or filed. FALSE OR FRADULENT RETURN with INTENTION TO EVADE THE TAX: TEN (10) YEARS from the date of the discovery of the falsity or fraud (Sec.
12-99) (2) in case a false or fraudulent return is willfully made Prima Facie evidence substantial underdeclaration (exceeding 30% of that declared) of taxable sales. or (4) Failure to pay the full or part of the amount of tax shown on any return required to be filed under the provisions of this Code or rules and regulations. the 50% civil penalty shall be applied. San Beda TAXATION Presence of fictitious expenses. voluntarily files the said return (only 25% shall be imposed) 50% surcharge shall be imposed in case the taxpayer files the return only after prior notice in writing from the Commissioner or his duly authorized representative (Sec. Rev. 50% surcharge (1) in case of willful neglect to file the return within the period prescribed by the Code. 248) Note: A taxpayer may modify. 12-99) 36 Law San Beda College of . Thus if the amended return has been filed only after the issuance of the Letter of Authority for the investigation or in the course of said investigation. 248. Fraud is never imputed and the courts never sustain findings of fraud upon circumstances that only create suspicion (Commissioner vs. or his duly authorized representative. or will not apply in case a taxpayer. Regs. Commissioner) However.F. or substantial overstatement (exceeding 30% of actual deductions) of deductions (Sec. with no evidence presented. Sec.College of Law LAW 4. 4.2. Regs. statement or declaration has. Reg. Fraud is a question of fact and the circumstances constituting fraud must be alleged and proved in the trial court (Commissioner vs. provided however that no notice for audit or investigation of such return. (Sec.) 3. 70 SCRA 204) 4. filing a return with an internal revenue officer other than those with whom the return is required to be filed. Sale of real property for a price less than its fair market value is not necessarily a false return (Commissioner vs. NIRC. without notice from the Commissioner. CTA and Collector) CIVIL PENALTIES • CIVIL PENALTY / SURCHARGE 1. Rev. Mistakes of revenue officers on three different occasions remove element of fraud (Aznar vs. proves existence of fraud (Tan Guan vs. B. Mere understatement in the tax return will not necessarily imply fraud (Jalandoni vs. or the full amount of tax due for which no return is required to be filed. Javier. receipts or income. (Sec. Goodrich Phils. 4.1. 25% surcharge (1) Failure to file any return and pay the tax due thereon as required under the provisions of this Code or rules and regulations on the date prescribed. 4. or (2) Unless otherwise authorized by the Commissioner. NIRC). change or amend his tax return within three (3) years from the date of such filing. No.2. on or before the date prescribed for its payment. or (3) Failure to pay the deficiency tax within the time prescribed for its payment in the notice of assessment.2. in the meantime been actually served upon the taxpayer. Ayala Securities. the courts did not consider the tax returns filed as false or fraudulent with intent to evade the payment of tax in the following cases: 1. Republic) 2. 199 SCRA 824) 5. No. 6 (A). Rev. 12-99) 2. (Sec.
Inaction by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue (1) in cases involving disputed assessments. where the NIRC provides a specific period for action. orders or resolutions of the RTC – in local tax cases originally decided or resolved by them in the exercise of their original or appellate jurisdiction. where either party may appeal the decision to impose or not to impose said duties. 8800. The affirmative votes of four (4) members of the Court en banc or two (2) members of a Division. (2) or other matters arising under the NIRC or other laws administered by the BIR. Same level as the Court of Appeals. each division consisting of three (3) Justices. Decisions of the Secretary of Trade and Industry in the case of nonagricultural product. penalties in relation thereto. fees or other charges. fees or other charges. refunds of internal revenue taxes. seizure. respectively. detention or release of property affected. 9282 (Approved March 30. possessing all the inherent powers of a Court of Justice Consists of a Presiding Justice and five (5) Associate Justices May sit en banc or in two (2) Divisions. Decisions of the Commissioner of Customs (1) in cases involving liability for customs duties. Decisions. of the Tariff and Customs Code. Decisions of the Secretary of Finance – on customs cases elevated to him automatically for review from decisions of the Commissioner of Customs which are adverse to the Government under Section 2315 of the Tariff and Customs Code. fees or other money charges. (2) or other matters arising under the Customs Law or other laws administered by the Bureau of Customs. fines. in which case the inaction shall be deemed a denial. Decisions of the Central Board of Assessment Appeals – in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction over cases involving the assessment and taxation of real property originally decided by the provincial or city board of assessment appeals. penalties in relation thereto. shall be necessary for the rendition of a decision or resolution. refunds of internal revenue taxes. and a new division was created. – involving dumping and countervailing duties under Secs. 2004) The rank was elevated to the level of a collegiate court with special jurisdiction. commodity or article. TAXATION LAW Expanded Jurisdiction Exclusive appellate jurisdiction to review by appeal Decisions of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue (1) in cases involving disputed assessments. 301and 302.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS COURT OF TAX APPEALS Under RA NO. (2) or other matters arising under the NIRC or other laws administered by the BIR. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Red Notes in Taxation Law (f) (g) 37 . forfeitures or other penalties in relation thereto. commodity or article. Four (4) Justices shall constitute a quorum for sessions en banc and two (2) Justices for sessions of a Division. and safeguard measures under RA No. and the Secretary of Agriculture in the case of agricultural product. as the case may be.
(2) Over petitions for review of the judgments. and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts in their respective jurisdiction. Municipal Trial Courts. --. resolutions or orders of the RTC in the exercise of their appellate jurisdiction over tax collection cases originally decided by the Metropolitan Trial Courts. Municipal Trial Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts. resolutions or orders of the RTC in tax cases originally decided by them. and no right to reserve the filing of such civil action separately from the criminal action will be recognized. In collection cases where the principal amount of taxes and fees. the Secretary of Finance. ruling. in their respective territorial jurisdiction. the Secretary of Trade and Industry or the Secretary of Agriculture or the Regional Trial Courts • this appeal shall be heard by a Division of the CTA (2) By filing a petition for review under a procedure analogous to that provided for under Rule 43 of 1997 Rules on Civil Procedure • decisions or rulings of the Central Board of Assessments Appeals and the Regional Trial Courts in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction • this appeal shall be heard by the CTA en banc. Metropolitan Trial Court. (2) Over petitions for review of the judgements. (b) Exclusive appellate jurisdiction in criminal offenses (1) Over appeals from the judgments.000. resolutions.in criminal and collection cases. fees.00) or where there is no specified amount claimed – the offenses or penalties shall be tried by the regular courts and the jurisdiction of the CTA shall be appellate. Any provision of law or the Rules of Court to the contrary notwithstanding. the Government may directly file the said cases with the CTA covering amounts within its exclusive and original jurisdiction. exclusive of charges and penalties claimed is less than one million pesos (P1. and jointly determined in the same proceeding by the CTA.000. (b) Exclusive appellate jurisdiction in tax collection cases (1) Over appeals from the judgments. or inaction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. in their respective jurisdiction.000. and Regional Trial Court. exclusive of charges and penalties. charges and penalties.College of Law LAW San Beda TAXATION Jurisdiction over cases involving criminal cases (a) Exclusive original jurisdiction over all criminal cases arising from violations of the NIRC or Tariff and Customs Code and other laws administered by the BIR or the Bureau of Customs Where the principal amount of taxes and fees. Commissioner of Customs. the criminal action and the corresponding civil action for the recovery of civil liability for taxes and penalties shall at all times be simultaneously instituted with. resolutions or orders of RTC in tax collection cases originally decided by them. in their respective territorial jurisdiction. Jurisdiction over tax collection cases (a) Exclusive original jurisdiction in tax collection cases involving final and executory assessments for taxes. Modes of Appeal (1) By filing a petition for review under a procedure analogous to that provided for under Rule 42 of 1997 Rules on Civil Procedure • decision. the filing of the criminal action being deemed to necessarily carry with it the filing of the civil action. claimed is less than one million pesos (P1.00) – shall be tried by the proper Municipal Trial Court.000. or orders of the RTC in the exercise of their appellate jurisdiction over tax cases originally decided by the Metropolitan Trial Courts. Procedure: 36 Law San Beda College of .
Effect of Appeal No appeal taken to the CTA shall suspend the payment. 2. 3. when in its opinion the collection may jeopardize the interest of the government and/or the taxpayer. and/or sale of any property of the taxpayer for the satisfaction of his tax liability as provided by existing law.2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS 1. TAXATION LAW Red Notes in Taxation Law 37 . order or decision of a Division of the CTA may file a motion for reconsideration or new trial before the same Division within 15 days from notice. the BIR can not later decide on the protest since under Rules 42 and 43 of the Rules of Court. distraint. In cases where the BIR have not decided on the protest after 180 days and an appeal has been filed with the CTA. A party adversely affected by a ruling. levy. A party adversely affected by a resolution of a Division of the CTA on a motion for reconsideration or new trial may file a petition for review with the CTA en banc. However. the CTA may suspend the said collection and require the taxpayer either to deposit the amount claimed or to file a surety bond for not more than double the amount with the Court. 4. The appeal shall be filed with the CTA within thirty (30) days after the receipt of such decision or ruling or after the expiration of the period fixed by law for such action. A party adversely affected by a decision or ruling of the CTA en banc may file with the Supreme Court a verified petition for review on certiorari pursuant to Rule 45 of the 1997 Rules on Civil Procedure. the BIR has only residual jurisdiction over the case after the appeal has been made.
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