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Determination of Iron, Copper, Cadmium and Zinc in Some Cigarette Brands in Turkey Harun Ç FTÇ and Ali ÖLÇÜCÜ
University of Fırat Science-Art Faculty Department of Chemistry, Elazig - TURKIYE firstname.lastname@example.org
(Received: 16.01.2007; Accepted: 17. 03. 2007)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium
(Cd) in some brand cigarette sold in Turkey, by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean values obtained for Fe in cigarette A, B, C, D and E brands are, 650; 410; 545; 312 and 530 mg/kg; the mean values for Cu are 21,4; 27,6; 18,4; 30,8 and 24,7 mg/kg; the mean values for Cd are 1,94; 2,12; 0,91; 2,24; and 1,05 mg/kg and the mean values for Zn are 16,2; 48,4; 28,3; 61,8 and 32,5 mg/kg, respectively.
Key Words: Tobacco, Heavy Metal, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, STAT
Türkiye’de Satılan Bazı Sigara Markalarında Demir, Bakır, Kadmiyum ve Çinko Tayini
Özet: Bu çalışma, Türkiye’de satılan bazı sigara markalarındaki demir(Fe), bakır(Cu), çinko(Zn), ve kadmiyum
(Cd) düzeylerini alevli atomik absorpsiyon spektrometri (F-AAS) ile tayin etme amacı ile yapılmıştır. A, B, C, D ve E markalarındaki sigaralarda ortalama demir (Fe) düzeyleri sırasıyla 650, 410, 545, 312 ve 530 mg/kg , bakır (Cu) düzeyleri 21,4; 27,6; 18,4; 30,8 ve 24,7 mg/kg, kadmiyum (Cd) düzeyleri 1,94; 2,12; 0,91; 2,24 ve 1,05 mg/kg, çinko (Zn) düzeyleri ise 16,2; 48,4; 28,3; 61,8 ve 32,5 mg/kg olarak bulundu.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Tütün, Ağır Metal, Atomik Absorpsiyon Spektrometri, STAT
1. Introduction Tobacco plant is amenable to absorb and accumulate heavy metal species from the soil into its leaves . Heavy metals in cigarette tobacco may cause a significantly serious damage on human health. In fact, some surveys clarified that the contents of certain toxic heavy metals, especially cadmium, in fat , blood  of tobacco smokers were much higher than those of nonsmokers. The monitoring of heavy metals in tobacco and food samples, therefore, is essential for protection of the environment and of our health . Cadmium is a known human carcinogen  and has recently been implicated as a cause of pancreatic cancer . Two main risk factors for pancreatic cancer, age and cigarette smoking, are also associated with cadmium exposure. Cadmium accumulates in the body over time, because there are no specific mechanisms for its removal. The half-life of this metal in the body ranges from 10 to 30 years, with an average of 15 years . The aim of this study was to determine the levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in some cigarette brands sold in Turkey, by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 2. Material And Method Solutions The standard metal solutions of Cd(II), Zn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II) (1000 mg L-1) (grade of analytical, merck) were diluted to the desired concentrations with 0,2 M HNO3. Concentrated (ultrapure grade, Merck) HNO3, HClO4 and H2O2 for digestion of tobacco samples and deionized doubly distilled water was used. A solution of 1.0 %w/v of LaCl3 was used as the a slotted tube atom trap (STAT) coating material. This solution was sprayed on STAT when the flame was on. So, the destruction of
9994 2 0 0 0. For the sample decomposition 4.5 4. The optimum conditions for Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry are given Table 1.0 0. Calibration curve for iron 30 . STAT was used to increase the sensitivity of Cd using FAAS. Calibration curves are shown in Figures 1-4.Determination of Iron.00 g portion of each sample was dried at 80°C. Cu.5 R2 = 0.6 4.5 Zn 213. 3 rd step.2326 R = 0. Operating parameters for FAAS which are used in analysis of trace elements Parameters Wavelength (nm) HCL current (mA) Acetylene flow rate. 6 th step. Calibration curve for copper 1000 Abs. 10 -3 100 50 y = 99.5 0.023x + 1.0 0. 5 th step. Concentrations were found using the best line equations. (L/min) Air flow rate (L/min) Slit (nm) 700 600 Cd 228.8 3. Colorless solution was transferred into a beaker and the contents were evaporated to dryness on a hot plate.0 0.0 mL of concentrated HNO3.40 g of this sample was accurately and directly weighed in a PTFE bomb.0 0. Readings were done in duplicate. Cadmium and Zinc in Some Cigarette Brands in Turkey STAT by alkaline and earth-alkaline elements was minimized. Copper. 2 min 650 W.8 4.5 1 1. Apparatus ATI-Unicam 929 Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (FAAS) equipped with ATI Unicam hollow cathode lamps was used for the determination of Cd. 1 min 150W.3 15. Table 1. 3 min 480 W. In a tightly closed system.9919 Figure 3. Fe and Zn.5 1 Cu (mg/L) 1.6 4. 1.5 y = 302. In addition.0 0. Calibration curve for zinc 200 150 Abs.1M HNO3. the following six-step microwave digestion program was applied according to the manufacturer’s operating guideline: 1st step.69x + 47. 10-3 800 600 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 Fe (mg/L) 20 25 y = 38. Jl 180 Chyo electronic balance Premier microwave system PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) bomb and various glassware Preparation of Sample Solutions Five kinds of tobacco from the Turkish cigarette samples were digested microwave system.0 mL with 0.056x + 46. Afterwards. diluting reagents which are used are read by device as blank.2 Cu 324. 4 min 150 W.0 0.5 Fe 248.6 4.0 mL of concentrated H2O2 and 1. Device setting is controlled every five readings. 2 nd step. 1. 4 th step.5 Zn (mg/L) 2 2. 0. final volume was diluted to 25.9 7. Calibration Curves for Elements Readings were always performed in the linear range.0 mL of concentrated HCIO4 acid were added.0 0. 2 min 0 w. Analysis of Tobacco Samples Sample solutions were analyzed with method of direct calibration curve by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for every element.5 2 Figure 2.5 Abs 10-3 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.637 R 2 = 0.9945 Figure 1. PTFE bomb was kept for an hour to cool and was carefully opened. 3 min 300 W.
As.5 28.1 Cd (mg/kg) 1. El-Agha O. Environ. Salmela S.4-30. Zhang and his friends in one study which they did with HPLC in cigarette tobacco in different brands found zinc concentrations between 65. plants may incorporate in their structure a certain amount of toxic elements. cadmium is found to be between 0. Results and Discussion Various systems are affected by a deficiency or excess of trace elements such as zinc. 41.5± 2. 31 . or by the negative effects of elements that contribute to metal pollution poisoning such as lead and cadmium.8 Cu (mg/kg) 21. Çiftçi and A. Br. 18. 49-55 3. Health. copper) and toxic (cadmium) elements in the some cigarette brands in Turkey are shown in Tables 2. and Gokmen I. B and D. 12] have shown that Sb. Smokers generally exhibit significantly higher cadmium body burdens than non-smokers [9. any of the specific diseases caused by any of the elements in question may occur.94±0.10 2. Cadmium amount has been found high in cigarettes which are produced under the brand names of A.. Because heavy metal concentrations are different in soil.12 1. Mussalo-Rauhamaa H. Arch. With the use of some pesticides.. Most of these toxic elements are present in tobacco leaves and food due to increasing industrialization and pollution. Acta Alimentaria. copper and iron. kidney and pancreas cancers which cadmium causes. storage.261. Several investigators [11.8 for Cu and 0.7± 4.5 . “Smoking habits and cadmium intake in. (2002). The individuals who consume these brands should be attentive towards the possibility of being lung.08 2.S. uptake from soil and fertilizer. (2002).H.8 mg/kg.91-2. Ölçücü 80 Abs.8 mg/kg. iron. Calibration curve for cadmium 3. 83-92 2. Cd and Co (as cobalt carbonyl) are toxic for the human bio system even at very low levels of intake.79 and 1.6 32.2 48.2 and 61. and cadmium values were between 0. processing.1x + 1 R = 0. or they may contribute as important factors in the occurrence of various diseases .8± 6. (1986).8± 3. and therefore smoking of tobacco is an important source of air cadmium exposure for smokers. a study of heavy metals and rare earth elements in tobacco products is desirable.4 18.9 30.24 for Cd.4± 1.15 0. packing and other domestic activities.4 24..29 mg/kg . 31-43 Results are mean ± SD of three replicate analyses. pesticides. The analytical results and standard deviations of the levels of non-toxic (zinc.7 61.2 µg of cadmium and that about 10% of the cadmium content is inhaled when the cigarette is smoked. 10]. it is expected that the results for heavy metal concentrations in tobaccos are also different.12±0. B and D cigarette brands are lower than the C and E brands. It has been reported that one cigarette contains about 0. it is necessary to measure these trace elements in tobacco for assessing the possible role they may play to cause some diseases .8 for Zn.06 As it is seen in Table 2.. Tobacco leaves naturally accumulate and concentrate relatively high levels of cadmium. 88 (1). Csalari J.4± 5.91±0. 4. Trace Elem.05±0..5 27. “Saucing of tobacco-cut so as to increase microelement content in the cigarette smoke”. this value was 16. Due to a large consumption of tobacco in Turkey. and Szantai K. Biol. Res. “Some trace and heavy metals and pesticides in man”.2± 3. Table 2. Therefore. 31.. G.24 mg/kg.91 and 2.. In our study zinc levels were found to be between 16. As a consequence.7 and 89. The Fe values had a range of 312-650 mg/kg.6± 2. The prices of A.24±0. Turkey”. 10-3 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 Cd (µg/L) 60 80 y = 1. Level trace and toxic element of cigarettes Cigarette Fe Brand (mg/kg) A 650± 41 B C D E 410± 37 546± 15 312± 27 531± 13 Zn (mg/kg) 16. References 1.3± 7.9966 2 Figure 4.4± 1.
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