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Sap Sd Billing

Sap Sd Billing

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Sections

  • Billing Document
  • Creating a Credit Memo / Debit Memo
  • Releasing or Rejecting Credit Memo Requests
  • Workflow for Credit Memo Requests
  • Quantity Difference
  • Price Difference
  • Returns
  • Pro Forma Invoices
  • Billing Process
  • Copying Control at Item Level
  • Copying Requirements
  • Billing Quantity Indicator
  • Billing Quantity
  • Copying Control
  • Pricing in the Billing Document
  • Pricing Types
  • Pricing Exchange Rate
  • Price Source
  • Billing Processing
  • Processing Billing Due Lists
  • Process Billing Due List
  • Creating Invoices on Specific Dates
  • Billing in the Background
  • Background Processing
  • Cancellation of Collective Billing Run
  • Log of Collective Run
  • Transaction Codes in Billing Document
  • Methods in Billing
  • Invoice Splits
  • Item-Dependent Invoice Split
  • Performing a Split Analysis
  • Split Analysis
  • Changing Header and Item Data in Invoice List
  • Customizing for Invoice List
  • Assign Invoice List Type To Each Billing Type
  • Maintain Conditions for Invoice Lists
  • Create Condition Tables
  • Maintain Pricing Procedure
  • Define Condition Types
  • Maintain Output for Invoice Lists
  • Maintain output condition tables for billing documents
  • Maintain access sequences
  • Maintain output determination procedures
  • Output types
  • Working with the General Billing Interface
  • Reading the Material Master
  • Function Module Parameter
  • Customizing for Down Payment Processing
  • Maintaining a pricing procedure with the condition type AZWR
  • Maintaining the Billing Document
  • Down Payment Request
  • Down Payment Processing in SD/FI
  • Payments Made
  • Retroactive Billing
  • Order Reason in Retroactive Billing
  • Prerequisites
  • Define Order Reasons
  • Features
  • Billing Plans at Header Level
  • Displays
  • Header Billing Plans in Milestone Billing
  • Customizing for Billing Plan
  • Define Billing Plan Types -Periodic Billing
  • Define Billing Plan Types –Milestone Billing
  • Define Date Description
  • Define Date Descriptions
  • Assign Date Category Proposal for Billing Plan
  • Assign Billing Plan Types to Sales Document Types
  • Define Rules for Determining Dates

SAP SD ECC 5.

0 - Billing

10th December, 2007

Contents

Billing Document Structure Basic Functions in Billing Billing Document Type Copying Control Billing Processing Invoice List The General Billing Interface Down Payments for Sales Orders Installment Plans Retroactive Billing Billing Plan

2

Billing Document

Definition : Umbrella term for invoices, credit memos, debit memos, pro forma invoices and cancellation documents. Use: The billing document is created with reference to a preceding document, in order to create an invoice or a credit memo, for example. Structure: All billing documents have the same structure. They are made up of a document header and any number of items.

3

Billing Document Structure

Header

Company Max Smith Smithsville

Item 1 J Miller Richville Item 2 5 Units type 0815 4 Units type 0816 Item 3 Rs 3000 Rs 1000

4

Billing Document Structure Header : The header contains the general data that is valid for the entire billing document. such as the identification number of the sold to party • Pricing Elements 5 . This includes: • Customer number of the payer • Billing date • Net value of the entire billing document • Document currency • Terms of payment and incoterms • Partner numbers.

This includes: • Material number • Billing quantity • Net value of the individual item • Weight and volume • Number of the reference document for the billing document (for example.Billing Document Structure Items: The items contain the data relevant for each individual item. the number of the delivery on which the billing document is based) • Pricing elements relevant for the individual items 6 .

These screens are divided up as follows: .Detail screens: .Screens at header level with general data .Overview screens: .Overviews with header and item data .Screens at item level with specific data for the item 7 .Billing Document Screens The data in the billing document can be displayed on different screens.

Billing Billing represents the final processing stage for a business transaction in sales and distribution. Functions : • Creation of invoices based on deliveries or services • Issue credit and debit memos • Pro forma invoices • Cancel billing transactions • Comprehensive pricing functions • Issuing rebates • Transfer billing data to financial accounting 8 . Information on billing is available at every stage of order processing and delivery processing.

Basic Functions in Billing Billing Types Number range Match codes Copying control Blocking reasons Displaying lists Displaying the billing due list 9 .

The following is a list of billing types: • F2  Invoice • F5  Pro forma invoice for sales order • F8  Pro forma invoice for delivery • G2  Credit memo • L2  Debit memo • RE  Returns • S1  Cancellation invoice • S2  Cancellation credit memo • LR  Invoice list • LG  Credit memo list 10 .Billing Types The billing type controls the whole billing document. The billing types are used to cover the full range of business transactions during billing processing.

Billing Types • IV • IG • BV  Intercompany billing (invoice)  Intercompany billing (credit memo)  Cash sale 11 .

Define Billing Types Number that determines how documents are to be numbered by the system. 12 . It indicates which number range is relevant for a document type A classification for the different types of documents that you can process.

mark the field A grouping that allows you to control certain features of transaction flow by sales. shipping and billing documents 13 .Define Billing Types To block automatic transfer of the billing document to accounting.

Define Billing Types Indicates whether the system stores information from billing documents of this type for the purposes of statistical analysis Used to differentiate the billing documents by requirements for invoice printing. billing document creation and forwarding to FI 14 .

Define Billing Types The document type classifies accounting documents. Indicator that causes the transaction figures to be reset for a document item 15 .

Classification that distinguishes between invoice list types 16 .Define Billing Types The indicator controls which partner functions of the billing document can be forwarded to financial accounting.

the reference billing document is not settled and the payment deadline date for the base billing document comes after the billing date for the credit memo. then field VALDT ( fixed value date) in the credit memo request is filled with the payment deadline date of the baseline date of the base billing document.Define Billing Types If this field is set. 17 .

Define Billing Types Indicates whether the billing type is used exclusively during rebate processing Indicates whether billing documents of this type are relevant during rebate processing 18 .

Define Billing Types Specifies the default cancellation for this billing type Identifies a copying routine. The routine checks that certain requirements are met when one document is copied into another 19 .

Define Billing Types The reference number is a piece of additional information forwarded from SD to FI You can find the allocation number under additional information in the (document) line item that is forwarded from SD to FI 20 .

• The transfer status of the billing document is .transferred to financial accounting .blocked from transfer . The billing document type controls the following elements: • The number range for the document number • The billing type that can be used to cancel the billing document. This is done using control elements that are specified in tables.not transferred • The procedure for account assignment in financial accounting The allowed output for a business transaction and the procedure for output • The partner functions allowed at header level • The partner functions allowed at item level 21 .Billing Type Controls Specific functions can be defined for each billing document type.

If no complaints are made about the delivery. If you want to make sure that the goods are sent out before the invoice is created. not a delivery. Deliveries and services which are carried out on the basis of sales orders are invoiced to the customer. you can refer to an order.Invoice Definition: A sales document used to bill a customer for goods delivery or service. When you bill a customer for a service. the business transaction is considered complete from the sales point of view. you would probably refer to the sales order. individual order or delivery item or even partial quantities within an order item or a delivery item. If you want to receive money before you send the goods to the customer. When you create an invoice. you would create an invoice on the basis of the delivery. since a service is usually based on an order. a delivery. 22 . you would create an invoice with reference to a sales order.

The system proposes a relevant billing type from the underlying sales document type. you can determine whether billing is to be carried out with reference to a delivery or an order. in delivery-related billing. For example.Billing Type Proposal In customizing for the item category. a standard order ( order type OR) is invoiced using billing type F2. 23 .

For example.Delivery-Related Invoices You can use an invoice to refer to an order and a delivery simultaneously. you create one invoice for goods ( the carpet) and service (installation) as long as the requirements for combining the two are met. 24 .

such as laying a carpet. 25 . normally you create an invoice with reference to the sales order because deliveries are not usually created for services.Order-Related Invoices If you want to invoice a customer for services rendered.

The parameters to be changed ( for example. 26 . Credit memos can be cancelled with billing document type S2 in the standard system. a cancellation document must be created. We do not need to make an entry in copying control for cancellations. the delivery for the cancelled invoice) can now be billed again. The reference document of the billing document (for example. The system copies data from the reference document into the cancellation and offsets the entry in Accounting.Cancellation To cancel a billing document. assignment number and reference number) are stored per billing type directly in the cancellation area of the screen. We also have the option of canceling individual items in a billing document.

we have not charged the customer enough. Use: We need to create credit memos for various reasons (for example. we may need to create a debit memo. 27 . for example. Debit memo: A sales document created on the basis of a customer complaint. This reduces receivables in Financial Accounting. if . because of defective goods or because we have overcharged a customer) Similarly. This increases receivables in Financial Accounting.Credit and Debit Memos Credit memo: A sales document created on the basis of a customer complaint.

Creating a Credit Memo / Debit Memo Credit and debit memos may be created either with reference to credit or debit memo requests ( sales documents) or directly with reference to a billing document ( if the company does not require a release procedure in the case of complaints) We can create credit and debit memo requests: • Without reference to a previous business transaction • With reference to an order We can control in customizing whether the system is to set a billing block automatically for a credit or debit memo request. The employee responsible can: • Release the credit or debit memo request after review. 28 . The employee responsible can decide the amount or quantity to be credited or debited. • Reject items in the credit or debit memo request and enter a reason for rejection.

Using the reasons for rejection allows you to control whether the item: • Is copied into the credit memo with a zero value • Appears in the credit memo at all Debit memo requests are processed in exactly the same way. 29 .Releasing or Rejecting Credit Memo Requests We can release a credit memo request or return by removing the billing block. The value of these items will not be copied into the billing document. If the complaint has not yet been justified you can enter a reason for rejection for each item.

then it can be released automatically by the system. depending on the value involved. or process the credit memo request. we can make the definition of the point at which the check is carried out and the employee responsible dependent upon the value of the credit memo request. The workflow within the framework of credit memo processing now guarantees that the employee responsible is automatically determined and informed when a credit memo request is created. 30 . The employee responsible can either reject. credit) upon creation until the employee responsible releases this block. If the value of the credit memo request is below a certain minimum limit. release. Within the company.Workflow for Credit Memo Requests Credit memo requests are usually blocked for billing (that is.

values. The invoice correction request must be created with reference to the corresponding billing document ( no reference to order or enquiry). a second item is created). The resulting item categories must have +/. When creating an invoice correction request. The reference to the corresponding billing document is created when you specify the preceding document and the preceding item. The difference created represents the final full amount to be credited. On the one side. followed by all debit memo items. 31 . the items are automatically duplicated ( this means that for every item in the billing document. credit is granted fully for the incorrect billing item while it is simultaneously debited ( automatically created as a debit memo item). First all credit memo items are listed.Invoice Correction Process Flow The invoice correction request represents a combination of credit and debit memo requests.

We can delete the credit and debit memos in pairs ( unchanged pairs of items can be deleted all at once in this way).g. change in quantity). The corresponding debit memo item.Invoice Correction Process Flow The credit memo item cannot be changed. new pricing. can be updated according to new characteristics ( e. however. 32 .

The system corrects the quantity to be billed via the debit memo item. 33 . If other item pairs arise from the relevant billing document and these item pairs are unchanged. using the Delete unchanged items function.Quantity Difference Quantity difference is used when a customer complaint is being processed due to a certain amount of damaged or sub-standard goods. they can be deleted in one step.

A correction of the pricing elements must be carried out in the debit memo.Price Difference Price difference is used when a customer complaint is being processed for incorrect pricing of goods. 34 .

35 . which means it refers to the return request document.Returns We create return for goods sent back from a dissatisfied customer. The credit memo is billed with reference to the order. not to the return delivery. Returns are processed in the same way as credit memo requests.

Pro Forma Invoices Definition: An invoice that is created on paper for exported goods to provide the customs authorities with evidence of the cost of the goods. No statistical data is created on the basis of pro forma invoices./ neg. you may need to print pro forma invoices. They are used to give the importer or the responsible authorities in the import country details about forthcoming shipments. You can create as many pro forma invoices as required. In copying control. the system does not forward data to Financial Accounting (FI). the field Quantity / value pos. is not available for entry in order to avoid the possibility of a pro forma invoice updating the quantity that has already been billed in the reference document. since the billing status in the reference document is not updated. The difference is that this invoice does not need to be paid. 36 . A pro forma invoice appears exactly the same as a customer invoice. When you deal in export. Therefore.

The reference document is displayed as the source at header level in the copying control table. 37 . You must always refer to an existing document when creating a billing document. for example can be taken from the delivery.Billing Process Each billing document requires a reference document ( exception: billing external transactions). This may be : • Sales document • Outbound delivery • Billing document When billing explicitly. are taken from the underlying order. For delivery-based billing. you must enter the number of the reference document as the transaction to be billed. Data will then be copied from the reference document to the billing document. the prices. the quantities to be billed. however.

Allocation number .Quantity . for texts.Reference number .Data Flow You can. 38 . This is done using: • Billing types ( for example. terms of payment can be copied from the customer master instead of the preceding sales document. to a certain extent influence the data flow from reference documents to billing documents. For example.Item number assignment At item value: . partners) • Copying control: the control options are as follows: At header level: .Foreign trade data .Pricing You can also use data transfer routines to influence the data flow to meet your individual requirements.

Data Flow
Example : Delivery –related billing For example: Payer, Item no., Pricing, texts

Order

Outbound Delivery

Invoice

For example: ship-to party, amount, texts
39

Copying Control
Target Billing type Source Delivery Type

Header

F2

LF

Target Billing Type

Source Delivery Type

Source Item Category

Item

F2

LF

TAN

40

Copying Control
The system administrator can define how data is transferred in the billing process in the copying control table. Controls are determined for: • The header ( target: billing type, source: sales document type) • The item (target: billing type, source: sales document type, item category) The following controls are found at header level: • Reference document: which documents may be used as reference for billing? • Determination of foreign trade data, allocation numbers, reference numbers, and item numbers

41

Copying Control at Item Level
The following controls are found at item level: • Billing quantity: which quantity should be invoiced – the order or delivery quantity ? • Pricing and exchange rate. Should pricing, for example, be carried out again or should prices from the order be copied over, and at what exchange rate? • Updating the quantity and value in the reference document • Where should the conditions in the billing document be carried over from ( for example, copying over shipment costs from the shipment cost document)? Customizing: Billing -> Billing documents->Maintain copying control for billing documents

42

Controlling is carried out in SD Customizing by Billing  Billing Documents  Maintain copying control for billing documents. You define the copying requirements in copying control. In this way. you can specify how a sales document is to be billed with regard to requirements. for example. 43 . With requirements in copying control you can.Copying Requirements Using requirements in copying control. specify whether goods issue has to be posted before billing can be carried out. Field Copying requirement If you want to define a copying requirement as a data transfer routine. enter this in filed VBRK/VBRP. Navigation Header and Item. You can define your own requirements using transaction VOFM. you can determine whether terms of payment are to be copied from the customer master record instead of the sales document.

Copying Control 44 .

Copying Control 45 .

46 . The routine checks that certain requirements are met when one document is copied into another.Copying Control Identifies a copying routine.

Copying Control Identifies a routine that checks that certain requirements are met during the transfer of data from billing document item fields during copying 47 .

48 .Copying Control Specifies which quantity the system copies from the source document into the target billing document.

49 . for example. to create an order-related billing document for quantities already delivered. You can also take into account the quantity already billed ( depending on the area for which the relevant billing type is used). This makes it possible.Billing Quantity Delivery and order quantities are referenced in billing.

F and I  Third party business transaction • G and H  Batches • Note: Make sure that control of the amount to be billed is directly related to the item category billing relevance. 50 . Indicator uses: • A  Order-related billing • B  Delivery related billing • C and D  Pro-forma invoices • E. If you create a pro forma invoice.Billing Quantity Indicator When you create an invoice for a standard sales order item. the system copies in the order quantity. the quantity that the system copies into the invoice is the delivery quantity less the quantity already invoiced. for example.

billing types F1 and F2) Pro forma invoice F5 Pro forma invoice F8 Order quantity minus quantity already billed Quantity already delivered minus quantity already billed Order quantity Delivery quantity 51 .g.g.Billing Quantity Billing document Based on an order (e. standard order) Billing quantity Order quantity minus quantity already billed Quantity already delivered minus quantity already billed Based on a credit memo request Based on a delivery (e.

Copying Control Indicates whether. during copying. the quantity or value in the target document has a negative effect. positive effect or no effect at all on the quantity still to be completed in the source document. 52 .

While the source document ( such as quotation or quantity contract ) is being processed. 20 pieces in the quotation remain to be completed. the copying has a positive effect on the quotation.Pos. Quantity Use The system uses this indicator to determine how the quantity in the source document is affected./neg. If you do not make an entry in this field. In effect. or set indicator 0. if you are working on a quantity contract. if you create a quotation item for 100 pieces. the source document is not blocked. no one can create a release order for that contract. For example. you have added 80 pieces to the quotation quantity that is now considered complete. copy the quotation into a sales order and create a sales order item for 80 pieces. which allows you to create several target documents at once ( for example when using EDI and frequent contract releases). it is blocked. For instance. 53 .

for example. Quantity In sales documents./neg. for example. you can expect the following results: • Delivery  Invoice : Positive • Delivery  Cancellation : Negative 54 .Pos. you can expect the following results: • Quotation  Sales order : Positive • Contract  Return : Negative • Sales order  Sales order : No effect In billing documents.

Pricing in the Billing Document When a sales document is created. During billing you have the option to copy the prices from the sales document to the billing document or to have the system carry out pricing again. You define the pricing type in copying control. the system automatically carries out pricing. 55 . You can also trigger pricing manually.

Copying Control Specifies how the system treats pricing data when copying documents. 56 .

D: The pricing elements are copied unchanged from the reference document. E: Copy pricing elements and values unchanged F: Only used within the program G: The pricing elements are copied unchanged from the reference document.Pricing Types At the time of billing. B: Carry out new pricing C: The manual pricing elements are copied. The tax conditions are re-determined. 57 . The freight is re-determined. H: The pricing elements are copied unchanged from the reference document. the following possible pricing types may be set for the items: A: The pricing elements are copied from the reference document and updated according to a scale. and pricing is carried out again for the others.

Pricing in the Billing Document 58 .

Copying Control Determine pricing exchange rate 59 .

Pricing Exchange Rate Options in Pricing Exchange Rate are :  Copy from sales order  Price exchange rate = Accounting rate  Exchange rate determination according to billing date  Exchange rate determination according to pricing date  Exchange rate determination according to current date  Exchange rate determination according to date of services A B C D E F rendered 60 .

61 .Copying Control This field controls from where and in what sequence the conditions from the reference documents are copied to the billing document.

Price Source Price Source Blank  A B C D E F G Description Order        Purchase Order Purchase order / delivery Not used Delivery Delivery / order Shipment costs External 62 .

you create. You can create billing documents in the following ways: • By having the system process a billing due list automatically as a background task • By processing manually from a worklist • By creating a billing document explicitly 63 . You can create billing documents: • With reference to a sales document • With reference to a delivery order • With reference to external transactions You can refer to an entire document. individual items or partial quantities of items.Billing Processing During billing processing. change and delete billing documents.

When selecting. delivery-related. you can also decide whether the billing due list should only contain documents that are order-related. The system displays the billing documents without saving the documents. You are far more likely to carry out periodic collective billing runs ( by goods issue posting. enter the selection criteria ( such as soldto party. for example). Transactions containing errors are indicated with the corresponding processing status. You can process the billing due list in simulation mode. The system uses the selection criteria as a basis for combining the transactions to be billed. billing date. and destination country). you can display the log to determine which billing documents were created from a billing due list and whether any errors occurred. or both.Processing Billing Due Lists You will not usually bill transactions individually. 64 . If you are working with the billing due list. After saving.

Process Billing Due List 65 .

66 . • The calendar is client-independent. • When you enter a document. All deliveries due for billing on a certain date can be combined into one collective invoice.Creating Invoices on Specific Dates You can process invoices periodically. the system copies the next invoice date from the factory calendar to the appropriate document as the billing document. To do this. you must first : • Maintain Individual billing dates in the factory calendar using special rules • Enter the factory calendar in the customer master record of the payer ( Invoicing Dates on the Billing document screen).

In this way.m.m.) • At a specific time ( for example. you can make better use of your hardware by operating more than one processor. 67 . You can run the background job automatically in the following ways: • Periodically ( for example. June 19 at 8p. If you do not require a log or a detailed list. every Monday at 2 a. This will improve performance considerably.) The system can divide the billing due list into multiple background jobs and start them simultaneously.Billing in the Background You may decide to create invoices using a background job because it is practical and efficient. SAP recommends that you do not select these options in the selection screen.

Background Processing 68 .

Only users with the correct authorization can cancel collective runs. 69 . This cancels all the billing documents in a collective run.Cancellation of Collective Billing Run The system contains functions to enable you to cancel the collective billing run. choose : Billing  Information system  Billing document  Log of collective run  Documents  Reverse all. The cancelled billing documents are combined under a collective processing number in collective processing type S and can be displayed under billing document  Log. In order to cancel the collective billing run. You can then bill the preceding documents for the cancelled billing document again.

Log of Collective Run 70 .

Transaction Codes in Billing Document VF01  Create billing document VF02  Change billing document VF03  Display billing document VF07  Display from archive billing document VF11  Cancel billing document VF04  Process billing due list VF06  Creating background jobs for billing VFRB  Retrobilling VFX3  Release billing documents for accounting 71 .

Methods in Billing The following methods may be used in billing: • One individual billing document per sales document • A collective billing document for several sales documents • Several billing documents for one or more sales documents ( invoice split) 72 .

Individual Billing Documents 73 .

field: VBRK/VBRP.Individual Billing Documents Settings for Individual Billing Documents Copying control is carried out in SD Customizing via Billing-> Billing Documents >Maintain copying control for billing documents. In this field you select data transfer routine 3 The number of the reference document is set in field VBRK-ZUKRI. 74 . Navigation Item.

Collective Billing Documents 75 .

76 .Collective Billing Documents It is possible to include both order-related and delivery-related items in the same billing document. • The split conditions specified do not apply. The following prerequisites must be met for collective billing document: • The header data appearing in the billing document must agree. • The system behaves differently for the functions Billing Due List and Create Billing Document.

Invoice Splits 77 .

If data from the related reference documents differs in the item fields of the billing document the system does not split the invoice. An order contains terms of payment at header as well as item level. you can specify requirements for splitting to prevent sales orders or deliveries being combined into a collective billing document.Invoice Split In customizing for copy control. As a rule. the system combines into one billing document all transactions for the same customer. the system will automatically split the invoice. an invoice split will always be made. If data from the related reference documents differs in the header fields of the billing document. However. 78 . These are stored at header level in the billing document. if there are different terms of payment in the reference documents. default billing date and sales organization.

you must first define the appropriate splitting requirements in Customizing for copying control.Invoice Split The order basis is stored at the header level in the order and at item level in the billing document. type of order. If you require an invoice split.e. Copying control depends on the following criteria: • Reference document type (i. delivery or billing document on which the sales document is based) • Billing document type • Item category in the reference document 79 . The system does not split the invoice.

Item-Dependent Invoice Split The system administrator can also define additional split requirements in Customizing for copying control to prevent the system from combining sales documents in a billing document. Fields that cause a split are displayed in the split analysis. Field VBRK-ZUKRI is used in the billing header to store these additional split criteria. 80 . Example: Separation based on material group or profit center.

It compares two billing documents and lists the fields which have differing contents. proceed as follows: Enter the number of the billing document that you wish to compare. The first shows the header partners and header fields which are different in the two documents while the second and third columns show the respective values for these fields. It is made up of three parts.Performing a Split Analysis You can use split analysis to review why the system has split a billing document. You can call up the Split analysis function with the following transactions: Billing document -> Change or display Billing document -> Billing due list To display the split analysis for one of these screens. Enter the billing document number and choose Continue. The system displays the split analysis log. Choose Environment -> Split Analysis Enter the number of the second billing document which you wish to compare to the first in the dialog box. 81 .

Split Analysis 82 .

The standard version of the SAP R/3 system includes two types of invoice lists: • For invoices and debit memos  LR • For credit memos  LG If you wish you can process invoices. debit memos and credit memos at the same time. The billing documents in the invoice list can be single or collective documents ( collective invoices combine items from more than one delivery). a list of billing documents (invoices. credit and debit memos) to send to a particular payer. 83 . The system automatically creates a separate invoice list for credit memos.Invoice List The invoice list lets you create. at specified time intervals or on specific dates.

Invoice List Type of invoice list 84 .

85 . The group payer takes responsibility for paying the invoice lists and the collecting payment from the individual members.Invoice List A payer may be the head office of a buying group. condition type RL00 ( factoring discount) must be maintained and if required also the condition type MW15. In return for these services. Copying requirements must be defined ( for example. the group payer usually earns a factoring discount. An invoice list type must be assigned to each billing type that you want to process in invoice lists. terms of payment and other fields that must be identical in the documents to be included in the invoice list). the payer. which pays all the invoices for goods that are shipped to individual members. Prerequisites for invoice lists If you have agreed upon a factoring discount.

Invoice list schedule field) • Maintain condition records for condition type RL00 for the payer. 86 . • Create output condition records for condition types LR00 and RD01. This factory calendar is to be entered in the payer customer master record. • A customer calendar must be defined. before you process an invoice list.Invoice List In addition. ( you can determine whether invoice papers are to be sent to the customer upon invoice creation or only when the invoice list has been created). specifying the time intervals or dates on which invoice lists are to be created. you must maintain the following master data. ( Billing screen.

Changing Header and Item Data in Invoice List You can change some of the header data – for example.when you process the invoice list. the billing date . you cannot change any data in individual billing documents once they are part of an invoice list. You can change an item – either an individual or collective invoice – and display document details. 87 . However.

you can choose one of two ways to create the invoice list. 4) Select the billing documents that you want to include in the invoice list and select Invoice List  Save 88 .Creating an Invoice List To create an invoice list 1) Select the Billing screen Depending on the number of billing documents that you want to include. You can either • Select invoice list Create and enter each billing document separately • Create a list of all billing documents that are relevant for the invoice list. This procedure shows you how to create the work list. 2) Select Invoice List  Edit Work List 3) Enter your selection criteria and press ENTER The system displays a list of billing documents that meet your selection criteria. You can then process the work list for invoice lists.

which show you why billing documents are written to different invoice lists (e.g. 89 . due to different payers) Incorrect invoice lists can also be cancelled. The simulation also allows you to carry a split analysis. This is useful as a test option.Creating an Invoice List You can also simulate creation of invoice lists via the work list for invoice lists.

Creating an Invoice List 90 .

Creating an Invoice List 91 .

Transaction Codes in Invoice List VF21  Create invoice list VF22  Change invoice list VF23  Display invoice list VF27  Display from archive invoice list VF26  Cancel invoice list VF24  Edit work list for invoice list 92 .

Customizing for Invoice List Assign Invoice List Type To Each Billing Type Maintain Conditions for Invoice Lists Maintain Output for Invoice Lists 93 .

Assign Invoice List Type To Each Billing Type 94 .

Maintain Conditions for Invoice Lists Create Condition Tables Maintain access sequences Maintain pricing procedures Define condition types 95 .

Create Condition Tables 96 .

Maintain Access Sequence 97 .

Maintain Pricing Procedure 98 .

Define Condition Types 99 .

Invoice list output • V30001 – Invoice list item output 100 .Maintain Output for Invoice Lists Maintain output condition tables for billing documents Maintain access sequences Maintain output determination procedures Output types Two new output determination procedures have been created for determining output in invoice lists: • V30000 .

Maintain output condition tables for billing documents 101 .

Maintain access sequences 102 .

Maintain output determination procedures 103 .

Output types 104 .

… 105 . sales organization. • Specify the remaining fields required for billing either through the data records for the sequential file or through the R/3 system ( optional fields) Examples: Required fields : Customer master.General Billing Interface Using the general billing interface. you must first: • Prepare the data in a sequential file of specified format • Specify a minimum number of required fields to be filled from the data records. you can invoice external documents in the SAP R/3 system ( that is. … Optional fields : Material master. order and deliveries not created in the R/3 system). price components. To do this.

you can carry out new pricing in billing. Pricing elements and /or VAT amounts can be transferred. 106 . When you create a billing document.General Billing Interface External reference numbers can be entered in the interface ( such as external delivery numbers or external order numbers). entirely or only for taxes. the system records document flow using these reference numbers You may decide to work with a CpD customer master record instead of taking data (such as an address) from a customer master. Alternatively.

which may be transferred. Required fields which must be transferred. 107 . or fields which are determined from available master data in the system during the billing document run. Optional fields.Working with the General Billing Interface The communication structure of the general billing interface distinguishes the following fields during the transfer of data from an external system.

Extracting Data from an External System Billing data from an external system must be prepared in a sequential file which must fulfill the following requirements: Sequential file structure Record 1st main record (Billing data) Data : Indicator A in first position Structure as of 2nd position analogue communication structure KOMFKGN 1st – nth secondary record (Pricing element) Data : Indicator B in first position Structure as of 2nd position analogue communication structure KOMFKGN The client in the secondary record (MANDT) must correspond to the client in the main record (MANDT) 108 .

Extracting Data from an External System The document condition record in the secondary record (KNUMV) must correspond to the document number of reference document in the main record (VGBEL) The condition item number (KPOSN) must correspond to the item number of the reference business transaction item in the main record (VGPOS) Sorting main records in the sequential file according to: • Sales Organization : VKORG • Distribution Channel : VTWEG • Sold to party : KUNAG • Document number of the reference document: VGBEL • Item number of the reference item : VGPOS 109 .

Optionally. All errors are displayed in error log.Extracting Data from an External System Processing errors: You can carry out a check run with sample report RVAFSS00 to display faulty records in the sequential file before final billing. you must restart the billing procedure. a list of new billing documents is presented with the error log. After correcting the faulty records in the sequential file. 110 . The system ignores records which have already been billed and creates billing document for records which have been corrected.

The following fields in the sequential file‟s main record must be maintained. Field Name Field Length Field Description MANDT  3  Client AUART  4  Sales document type VKORG  4  Sales organization VTWEG  2  Distribution channel SPART  2  Division FKDAT  8  Billing data KUNAG  10  Sold-to party WERKS  4  Plant or LAND1  3  Country key 111 .Communication Structures Use Sample report RVAFSS00 supplies communication structures XKOMFGN and XKOMFKKO with data from the sequential file and initiates the billing process.

of the reference document VGPOS 6 Item number If you are also transferring pricing elements. VGBEL 10 Document no. you must maintain the following fields in the sequential file‟s secondary record: Field name Field length Field description MANDT  3  Client in main record KNUMV  10  VGBEL in main record KPOSN  6  VGPOS in main record KSCHL  4  Condition type KBETR  6  Condition amount 112 .Communication Structures Field Name Field Length Field Description PSTYV  4  Item category KWMENG  8  Cumulative order quantity The following fields do not have to be maintained but it is recommended that you do so as it gives information on document flow.

Once the communication structures have been maintained. You may fill them with data from the system as necessary during the billing run ( the payer field. the system initiates billing with function module GN_INVOICE_CREATE 113 . for example).Communication Structures All the fields in both communication structures KOMFKGN and KOMFKKO are optional.

This program is then called up.Text Transfer Texts (header and item) can be transferred in the general billing interface. Record type Interface table Purpose A  XKOMFKGN  Item data B  XKOMFKKO  Condition data C  XKOMFKTX  Text data 114 . The report RVAFSSS00 imports a flat file and completes the interface tables for the program N_INVOICE_CREATE depending on the record type. You can use the test report RVAFSS01 to write text information in a flat file.

Text Transfer The interface table has the structure XKOMFKTX Component Component type MANDT  MANDT VGBEL  VGBEL VGPOS  VGPOS TDOBJECT  TDOBJECT TDID  TDID TDSPRAS  SPRAS TDFORMAT  TDFORMAT TDLINE  TDLINE 115 .

this is a header text. this is an item text. 116 . If VGBEL/VGPOS is complete.Text Transfer Texts are only transferred into the billing document if the following are completed: VGBEL or VGBEL/VGPOS TDOBJECT ( as a rule TDOBJECT = „VBBK‟ or „VBBP‟) TDID If only VGBEL is complete.

the following additional fields in the main record must also be maintained. the material master will not be read.Reading the Material Master If the NO_MARA field in the main record of the sequential file is marked. In this case. Field name Field length Field description VRKME  3  Sales unit WAERK  5  Currency ARKTX  40  Material-short text TAXM1  1  Material-tax indicator 117 .

Customizing The following parameters should be taken into consideration: • Billing Document Type • Use billing document type FX for billing external transactions or create your own. re-determine all others You may also copy a scale quantity (XKOMFGEN-SMENG) from the interface with pricing type B (new pricing) 118 . • Control of Document Flow • If you wish to take into account secondary records copied to the sequential file. maintain one of the following pricing types in Customizing under „Copying control for billing documents‟: Pricing type Description D  Copy pricing elements unchanged G  Copy pricing elements unchanged. re-determine tax C  Copy manual pricing element unchanged.

Copying control Copy control 013 in copying control for billing documents at item category level ensures that the customer master block is observed and that records having a billing quantity of 0 are ignored. Item category Item categories used in external business transactions must be relevant for pricing and billing.Customizing Condition types Condition types that are transferred into secondary records must be set up so that the manual value has priority (manual entry = C). make sure that no conditions which initiate reading of the material master are set in the pricing procedure ( for instance. 119 . costs – VPRS). Pricing procedure To prevent the material master from being read.

Among other things. The system immediately initiates posting when you enter A and B in import parameter WITH_POSTING. this function module returns values from the following tables: Table number Table name XVBFS  Error logs XVBSS  Collective processing number XVBRK  Billing documents XVBRP  Billing items XKOMV  Condition records 120 .Function Module Parameter Function module GN_INVOICE-CREATE is the main component of the general billing interface.

Maintain the following fields in the main record of the sequential file. address data must exist in this data extract. If you are using a data extract in the billing interface to transfer CpD customer data. Field name Field length Field description Land1  3  Country key Name1  35  Name 1 PSTLZ  10  Zip code ORT01  35  City 121 .Processing one-time customers Use You must work with a CpD customer master record if customer master data (such as an address) can not be used.

Processing one-time customers Address data transferred to the file is assigned to the partner functions (except for SP) described in the following fields. Field name Partner function – Example CPD_PARVW1  BP (Bill-to party) CPD_PARVW2  PY (Payer) CPD_PARVW3  SH (Ship-to party) CPD_PARVW4 Exception: Partner function SP ( Sold-to party) must be a CpD customer and is always transferred with the transferred CpD address data. 122 . No check is carried out for partner function usage.

Field name Field length Field description ANRED  15  Form of address NAME2  35  Name 2 ORT02  35  District STRAS  35  Street and house number REGIO  3  Region You can add additional fields to table structure SADR in INCLUDE structure KOMFKZZ if the fields in table structure KOMFKGN are not sufficient for processing CpD customers.Processing one-time customers In addition to required fields. the following fields in table structure KOMFKGN are available for CpD customer processing. 123 .

Down Payments for Sales Orders Purpose Normally. or plant engineering and construction industries. They represent short or medium term outside capital procurement and therefore improve the company‟s liquidity situation. 124 . Down payments are payments made before completion of the product. down payment agreements are made for producing and delivering goods to customers in the capital goods. with no interest.

the down payment agreement is contained as a deadline in this billing plan. The value of the agreed down payment can be entered either as a fixed amount or as a percentage of the value of the item. Down payment agreement can be used only for order-related billing and not for delivery-related billing. This enables you to carry on as many down payments as required for different dates. 125 . If a down payment agreement is assigned to one item with a billing plan. A down payment agreement is created as a deadline in the billing plan.Down Payments for Sales Orders Features Down payments form part of the agreement with the customer and are saved in the sales order. The date for the down payment yet to be created is specified in the deadline. and the system uses payment conditions to assign a due date to the down payment.

The item category TAO calls up the billing plan function. You need to implement the following activities in the billing plan for down payments: • Maintain the deadline type. This gives the item category TAO via item category determination. Use down payments that are due for the proposed deadlines. maintain the materials. This determines the billing rule (percentage or value down payment) for the down payment request. • The system assigns billing type FAZ ( payment request) defined in the standard system with billing category P. with item category group 0005 (milestone billing).Customizing for Down Payment Processing Settings for the billing plan To activate the billing plan function. • Maintaining deadline proposal. ( For the billing type FAZ there is the cancellation billing document type FAS in the system). for which you wish to process down payments. 126 .

The pricing procedure cannot be marked as a transaction-specific pricing procedure ( field Spec. proc. You must include this condition type in the relevant pricing procedure before output tax. Enter condition 2 (item with pricing) and the calculation formula 48 (down payment clearing value must not be bigger than the item value) for the condition type AZWR. Before the condition AZWR you can create a subtotal with the base value calculation formula 2 ( net value). If the condition AZWR is changed manually. Maintain the printing indicator. the condition type AZWR is delivered for the down payment value already provided but which has not been calculated. you can get information on the original proposal from the subtotal.) The condition type AZWR has the calculation type B (fixed amount) and the condition category E (down payment request / clearing). 127 .Maintaining a pricing procedure with the condition type AZWR In the standard system.

Controlling the down payment is done using the billing category P of the billing type. You have to maintain blocking reason 02 (complete confirmation missing) for the billing documents and assign it to billing type FAZ. 128 . Copying control 23 must be entered in copying control at item level for down payment clearing. In the standard system the order OR for copying control is set up according to the billing type F2 for the item category TAO. Copying control: Copying requirement 20 must be entered in copying control at item level for the down payment request.Maintaining the Billing Document In the standard system there is the billing type FAZ ( down payment request) and for canceling the billing type FAS. A billing type becomes a down payment request when the billing category P is assigned. In the standard system the order type OR for copying control is set up according to the billing type FAZ for the item category TAO.

Down Payment Request Billing category is set as P 129 .

you should assign the field status definition G031. 130 .Financial Account Settings for Down Payment A prerequisite for down payment processing is that the account is assigned to the underlying sales account. You must also carry out a G/L account number assignment for the tax account. To do this. Maintain accounting configuration (transaction OBXB) For the down payments (posting key ANZ in the standard system) and the output tax clearing (posting key MVA in the standard system). you must maintain the posting key. change the field status settings in customizing as follows: Set reconciliation accounts (transaction OBXR) For the received down payments and down payment requests from the G/L accounts you have selected. Maintain the posting key (transaction OB41) For posting key 19 set the sales order as an optional field.

set the sales order as an optional field. Assign the company code to the field status variants (transaction OBC5) 131 .Financial Account Settings for Down Payment Maintain the field status definition (transaction OB14) For field status variant 0001. field status group G031.

Down Payment Agreements in the Sales Order Control for Down Payment Agreement is carried out via the billing rule: • Billing rule 4 : Down payment for percentage milestone billing • Billing rule 5: Down payment for value milestone billing. For percentage milestone billing. the percentage share of the down payment is not included in the overall calculation of the individual milestone billing documents. An example is given for down payment processing for the documents in SD. 132 . As soon as you take away the billing block and save the sales order. a billing index is created for the individual dates. The percentage specified for the down payment is always based on the total sum of the individual milestone billing documents.

Down Payment Agreements in the Sales Order 133 .

Down Payment Request
A down payment request is sent to the customer in time for the deadline. The request can be generated by the system from the billing due list, or you can enter it manually. The down payment request is posted as such to Financial Accounting. Billing type FAZ is used for creating the down payment request. Tax is determined and displayed automatically when the down payment request is created. The down payment request in FI is created automatically from the down payment request in SD. You can view the down payment requests created in SD and FI via the document flow in the sales order.

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Down Payment Request
When transferring into FI (financial accounting) a down payment requirement is created as a noted item in „down payment requirement‟ account in financial accounting. The account „down payment requirement‟ has no effect on the balance sheet or the profit and loss account. You can see the created down payment requests in the document flow for the sales order. You can print out the down payment requirement and send it. To print out you do not need an extra printing program or form. You just use RVADIN01 which is set up for billing documents in the standard system with the form RVINVOICE01. The following information is also given for down payment requests: • „Down payment request‟ appears in the billing header. • The total is labeled as „payment to be made‟. • The billing value contains the text „Amount to be paid‟.

135

Down Payment Request

136

Down Payment Request

137

Within FI. the incoming payment is assigned to the down payment request. Posting is made to a different reconciliation account. When processing partial / final invoices. which ensures that posting is statistical. The down paid amount is also account assigned for the sales order.Down Payment Processing in SD/FI The down payment request (SD) is automatically posted in Financial Accounting (FI) as a down payment request ( posted as a noted item). The down payments for clearing then appear as open items for the customer and reduce the total of receivables. the down payments made are transferred as down payments to be cleared. The item has special General Ledger (G/L) indicator F. which allows you to differentiate down payment requests from other receivables. When posting an incoming payment for a down payment. the down payments are deducted from the special reconciliation account and entered in the standard reconciliation account. 138 . The item has special G/L indicator A.

You can view the down payments in the open items of accounts receivable under the special G/L indicator A. If the customer only pays part of the amount required. The clearing can also be seen in the sales order document flow. The incoming payment is posted in financial accounting with reference to the payment request. the down payment request will be cleared completely nevertheless. 139 . The payment request is determined by assigning the down payment request to the sales order item. Later down payments must therefore be assigned manually to the sales order and the corresponding sales order item.Payments Made The customer makes the payment. In this transaction the down payment request is labeled as cleared. The noted items in the customer account which were generated by the down payment requests become cleared posts.

140 . The down payment item value corresponds to those down payments made. Billing amount – Down payment amount = the remaining amount to be paid. In billing those payments already made by the customer should be cleared. As soon as you take away the billing block. When printing ( Report RVADIN01 with form RVINVOICE01) the customer receives for the down payment items the text „payments made‟ printed out.Milestone Billing with Down Payment Clearing The billing plan for the sales order contains billing-relevant deadlines. after the billing items to which they refer. The customer merely receives the information concerning which amount he can transport during payment. They are set as items. you can carry out billing. There is no billing. This happens because those payments already made are taken into the billing document as items to be cleared. in the billing document.

Calculation formula 48 in the pricing procedure for the condition type AZWR merely checks that the amount cannot be increased. Postings made to the relevant general ledger account in Financial Accounting reduce the down payments left to be cleared. and the allotted down payments are cleared directly (down payment clearing). The reason for this can be that part of the down payment should be proposed for further billing. The total payment of the final invoice is automatically posted in FI as a receivable. The down payments assigned to a billing document for clearing cause the system to offset all the completed payments against receivables in Financial Accounting (FI).Milestone Billing with Down Payment Clearing You can change proposed down payment for clearing manually. 141 . The transaction is finished with the incoming payment posting and the open items are cleared.

Milestone Billing with Down Payment Clearing 142 .

The remaining down payments are then processed in the final invoice. ( see next slide) 143 .000 (item 11) and 20. the system had originally proposed 40.000 (item 12).Milestone Billing with Down Payment Clearing In the above example. For the example there is 20000 left to pay. The down payment clearings were then manually reduced. The customer is then asked to take the down payments ( 30000 + 10000) from the total amount 60000.

144 .

Milestone Billing with Down Payment Clearing 145 .

Milestone Billing with Down Payment Clearing 146 .

Milestone Billing with Down Payment Clearing In the above only those items still open are shown ( those down payments not yet cleared) due to the overview given by the customer account. The customer is therefore asked to take the 20000 that have not yet been cleared from the 90000 due and to pay 70000. That is. 147 . both lines 21/1 and 21/2 each with 10000.

4713 Value: Rs 300 Payment Terms: R001 1st installment : Rs 100 2nd Installment: Rs 100 3rd Installment: Rs 100 Accounting document Company code: 1000 ---------------------------Customer 1. Rs 100 2. Inst. : due June 1 Rs 100 3.: due July 1 Rs 100 Revenues: Rs 300 148 . Rs 100 Invoice 4713 Total amount Rs 300 1.: due May 1 Rs 100 2. Rs 100 3. Inst.Installment Plans Billing doc. Install. Install. Install.Inst.

Installment Plans An installment plan allows the customer to pay in installments. The installments are defined by the payment terms. Only one billing document is created for all of the installment payments. Each installment payment creates an accounts receivable line item posting in FI. The printed invoice is created on the basis of this billing document and includes a list of individual payment dates and exact amounts. The following data is to be defined: • The number of installments • The payment dates • The percentage of the billing value 149 . which are controlled by the payment terms key. You must define installment payment terms in customizing.

Installment Plans You can store the default payment terms key in the customer master record (on the Billing Sales Area screen. field : payment terms). 150 . You can overwrite the payment terms key in the sales order header or item ( menu path Header or Item --> Business Data. field Payment terms) You can use the payment terms key to print a suitable text on the order confirmation.

Determining the forwarding agent from the payer can be set in Customizing for partner determination.Cash on Delivery Purpose The customer orders from you. by post. 151 . via the sold-to party. Prerequisites Triggering Cash on Delivery You enter the forwarding agent as the payer in order entry and this ensures that the forwarding agent is determined as a selection criterion for shipping. however.g. e. you want to use different determination of the forwarding agent. Transportation of the goods is carried out by a forwarding agency. If. then you need to create a new partner type as forwarding agent for cash on delivery. The goods are delivered to the customer with an invoice and the customer pays upon delivery. for example.

152 . weight scale. group condition) The forwarding agent demands this from the goods vendor and reimburses it upon payment by the customer. NANG : Cash on delivery fee ( absolute amount. group condition) The forwarding agent demands this from the goods vendor and reimburses it upon payment by the customer. weight scale. NAUE : Bank transfer fee The post office demands this from the customer upon payment. Access Sequence: Access sequence NANA for pricing with the payer in the access.Cash on Delivery Standard conditions for pricing NAPG: Package fee (absolute amount.

Cash on Delivery Output Invoice Packaging slip Payment slip Process Flow Order Entry You trigger the cash on delivery transaction by entering the post office as the payer. You must then enter the forwarding agent manually in addition to the payer. it is not possible to redetermine the forwarding agent automatically. the system then determines the same forwarding agent from the selection criteria in shipping. When you enter the order. When you change the order. 153 .

Retroactive Billing Use New pricing agreements that you make with your customer may affect billing documents that have already been processed and settled. you can: • Call up a list of documents affected by price changes • Trigger the system to create the necessary retroactive billing documents directly from the list • Create credit or debit memos directly • Review any errors in a log • Simulate the retroactive billing process for any document 154 . you can perform retroactive billing to call up a list of these documents and reevaluate them with the new price. With the retroactive billing function. If a new pricing agreement is effective before the pricing date of the billing documents. Retroactive billing is a special billing function often used in scheduling agreement processing. You can then create additional billing documents to settle any differences.

How does Retroactive Billing Work? The following graphic shows a simple example of retroactive billing. 155 .

the system calculates the difference between the net value of the invoice ($100) and today‟s net value based on the new price ($90). such as debit or credit memos can be primary or secondary documents. Primary and Secondary Documents The system calculates retroactive billing values for primary documents. This depends on the order reason entered in the billing document. Other billing documents. Invoices are always primary documents. It then creates a credit memo with the net value of $10 to be credited to the customer. It can use secondary documents to help calculate this value. 156 .How does Retroactive Billing Work? In this example.

Secondary documents Secondary documents are the following documents in which you have entered the relevant order reason: • Credit and debit memo requests • Credit and debit memos 157 . You can also assign an order reason to a memo request which then passes it along to the referenced credit or debit memo.How does Retroactive Billing Work? Primary Documents Primary documents are : • Invoices • Credit memos that refer to returns • Credit and debit memos in which you have entered the relevant order reason.

sales organization. billing date or material. it does not take into account any changes in the payer. 158 . If you create a credit or debit memo (or memo request) without reference to an invoice. The system does not take into account whether or not a request has been rejected. partially billed or billed using another pricing procedure. When you create a credit or debit memo request which is relevant for retroactive billing as a secondary document. you will not be able to see in the retroactive billing list if the invoice has already been billed retroactively. sold-to party. Also.How does Retroactive Billing Work? The system displays such a document only when it has been created with reference to the invoice and when the currencies in both documents match. the system will use it to calculate retroactive billing for the referenced document.

Depending on how the order reason you entered is customized. you may find it necessary in some cases to designate these documents as relevant for retroactive billing. the billing document becomes relevant for retroactive billing. Examples of order reasons include price changes. However. 159 . You do this by entering the relevant order reason in the billing document.Order Reason in Retroactive Billing Credit and debit memos and memo requests are not included in the retroactive billing list. poor quality or ruined material.

Prerequisites To make the credit and debit memos and memo requests relevant for retroactive billing. do not assign a type You assign types to order reasons in Customizing for Sales and Distribution • Sales  Sales Documents  Sales Document Header  Define Order Reasons 160 . you need to assign a order type to the order reason as follows: • For primary documents. assign type 2 • For secondary documents. assign type 1 • For documents which are not relevant for retroactive billing.

Define Order Reasons 161 .

the billing document becomes relevant for retroactive billing as follows: Primary Document ( order reason is assigned type 2) • If you enter an order reason with type 2 in a credit or debit memo request.Features When you enter an order reason which has been assigned a type in Customizing. • “Poor quality” would be a typical order reason for this type. for example. • The system will then calculate the retroactive billing amount for this billing document just as for a standard invoice. 162 . the system will use this billing document in retroactive billing as a primary document.

Example 1 163 .

Because 3 pieces were of poor quality. However. the customer received a credit of $30. 164 . 601 Invoices are always primary documents. The credit memo (no. The credit and debit memos created by the system both have the order reason price too high. the customer was sent an invoice with a net value of $100. 601) would normally not be included in the retroactive billing list. Therefore.Example 1 In this example. the system calculates the difference between the net value ($30) and today‟s net value ($27) and creates a debit memo of $3 on the basis of the credit memo no. these billing documents will be relevant for retroactive billing as secondary documents. the order reason poor quality has been assigned type 2 in customizing. Should there be a subsequent retroactive billing run. which has been assigned type 1 in customizing. which means that the credit memo is a primary document relevant for retroactive billing.2 602 ($10) on the basis of the invoice. Therefore the system also calculates the difference between the net value of the invoice ($100) and the today‟s net value ($90) and creates credit memo no.

Example 2 165 .

credit memo 602 ($10) and creates credit memo no. become relevant for retroactive billing. This example continues the process of the previous example. As in the first example. 166 . It then takes this difference ($15) and subtracts the net value of the secondary document. the system calculates the difference between the net value of the invoice ($100) and today‟s net value ($85).Example 2 If you enter an order reason with type 1 in a credit or debit memo or memo request. 604 ($5) on the basis of the invoice. they in turn. “Price difference : price was too high” would be a typical order reason for this type. which has been assigned type 1 in customizing. the system will use this billing document in retroactive billing as a secondary document. Therefore. for example. The credit and debit memos created by the system both have the order reason price too high. but as secondary documents.

50). 167 .50) on the basis of credit memo no.Example 2 The system carries out the same procedure for credit memo no. It then takes this difference ($4.50) subtracts the net value of the secondary document. it displays them in the list in another colour. 603 ($3) and creates debit memo no. 601. 605 ($1. Documents with other order reasons • Although the system does not take documents with other order reasons into account. 601. debit memo no. It calculates the difference between the net value of the credit memo ($30) and today‟s net value ($25.

The retroactive billing list consists of a header and a list. The Header includes information such as : • Payer • Sales Organization • Currency • Ordering Party 168 . • Documents with open values to be processed for price changes • Documents that refer to these billing documents • Documents that have already been created and processed for price adjustments.Retroactive Billing List List containing billing documents relevant for retroactive billing.

the difference between the actual and item values. • If retroactive billing has already taken place.e. billing document items created by the retroactive billing with retroactive billing value i.Retroactive Billing List The list consists of two parts: Actual net value of the invoice (highlighted) i.e. plus/minus values from the relevant credit and debit memos or memo requests in the list. Credit memos and credit memo requests are shown as negative values. A list of • Billing document items with the original item value i. the value that would be determined for the item if you were to reevaluate the billing document. indicated by a negative sign (-) 169 .e. • Related document items that are not relevant to retroactive billing for information purposes Invoices. the value that has already been billed. debit memos and debit memo requests are shown as positive values.

soldto party and material. The following billing documents or items do not appear in the retroactive billing list.Retroactive Billing List The system calculates a separate subtotal for each combination of currency. • Cancelled invoices or items • Cancellation documents • Proforma invoices 170 . you can create a credit or debit memo request with reference to the invoice for the retroactive billing document. Note that you cannot directly reject primary documents or set them to complete in order to remove them from the list. The system displays reasons for rejection in the retroactive billing list. Then reject this document. As a workaround. The primary document will still appear in the list but with an amount of zero.

• If you create a credit or debit memo (or memo request) without reference to an invoice.Retroactive Billing List The following points should be noted: • The system lists credit or debit memo requests with reference to invoices. 171 . the system would continue processing retroactive billing documents for the invoice until the requests were actually billed. If this were not the case. you will not be able to see in the retroactive billing list if the invoice has already been billed retroactively. instead of credit or debit memos with reference to requests.

material and sales organization as the referenced invoice. the system creates debit and credit memos with reference to invoices only. For consistent data in the retroactive billing list: • Create credit and debit memos and memo requests with the same payer. The pricing type you enter for the list may also be different from the pricing type determined for the credit and debit memos created by the system. 172 . • Create credit and debit memo requests with the same currency as the referenced invoice. these two pricing types should be the same. sold-to party. You must create the list manually. the system may include billing documents with a different pricing type. Ideally. In retroactive billing. • Be aware that even though you create an overall pricing type for the list.Processing Retroactive Billing Lists The system does not automatically trigger the creation of a retroactive billing list when you create. change or delete condition records.

and in credit and debit memos for retroactive billing. Make sure that the condition type PDIF is defined in the pricing procedure which is used when creating credit or debit memos. The system allows other users to call up the list for display. the system blocks it for the client. in sales documents. a user who is already in the list to display or simulate can exit. 173 . when they try to perform retroactive billing the system informs them that the list is being processed. and call the list up again. and even simulate retroactive billing. However. To perform retroactive billing. While you are processing the list. or simply choose Refresh. payer and sales organization. The system will always post the difference with the condition type PDIF.Processing Retroactive Billing Lists Make sure that you carefully maintain order reasons in customizing.

Procedure for Retroactive Billing
In Billing choose Billing Document  Retro-billing Enter a payer, a sales organization, to and from dates, and pricing type B or C. The system automatically proposes pricing type C. Besides these entries, you can also enter a currency, sold-to party, or material to narrow your search. Choose Enter • The system creates a list, displaying documents and subtotals for each combination of currency, sold-to party and material. If you are working with this function for the first time you must set the billing types for credit and debit memos and the order reasons for these documents. Choose Settings  Change, enter your data, and choose Save. Although the system will propose these settings as default in future documents, you can change them at any time.

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Procedure for Retroactive Billing

Enter Payer Enter sales organization

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Procedure for Retroactive Billing
Select the document or documents that you want to bill retroactively and choose Retro-billing. Only items with open quantities can be selected. If you cannot select an item, this means that it has already been processed. To simulate the retroactive billing function, choose Simulate.

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Result
The retroactive billing documents that you have selected are divided into two groups. • Items that require credit memos • Items that require debit memos The system processes these groups separately, creating the necessary credit and debit memos for the retroactive billing document. You can only work with the full retroactive billing amount. It is not possible to process partial amounts. The system does not carry out a tolerance check on the net value. Also, it does not take into account different value added tax (VAT) amounts for one item. All conditions other than the retroactive billing amount are determined automatically. The system doe not update the list automatically. Choose Refresh to update the list. Processing large quantities of documents for retroactive billing may negatively affect system performance. Newly created documents may not be available immediately.

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The system creates credit and debit memos with positive amounts.Result The system splits credit and debit memos when: There are differences in the plus / minus signs of the items. Review any errors that occur by choosing Log. • • • • • • 178 . The currencies in the referenced invoices are different. The sales areas in the referenced invoices are different. The sold-to parties in the referenced invoices are different.

179 . the system can automatically propose one of two different types of billing plan: periodic billing or milestone billing. which is then valid for all items assigned to it.Billing Plan Purpose A billing plan is a schedule of individual billing dates for a single item in a sales document. Depending on the kind of business process you are carrying out. You can define a billing plan at header level.

For example. you can use a billing plan for billing a maketo-order item that is assigned to a project in the SAP Project System. the system can propose a schedule of monthly rental payments. As each milestone is successfully reached. according to the length and conditions of the contract.Billing Plan Periodic billing means billing a total amount for each individual billing date in the plan. the system proposes a billing plan based on milestones defined for networks in the project. 180 . When you enter the project related make-to-order item in the sales order (or assembly order). Milestone billing means distributing the total amount to be billed over multiple billing dates in the billing plan. For example. if you are creating a rental contract. the customer is billed either a percentage of the project cost or simply a pre-defined amount.

Billing Plan During sales order processing. you must be able to enter data to identify the individual milestones. 181 . For example. Billing plans for rental contracts and billing plans for project-related milestone billing have different overview screens so that you can enter data relevant to your processing. the system determines from the item category whether a billing plan is required and. The type of billing plan that is determined at this point is set up in customizing and cannot be changed in the sales document. if so which type of plan. for milestone billing.

Billing Plan Functions Billing plan processing includes the following functions: Automatic creation of billing plan dates Pricing Billing block Billing index Billing status Billing rule for milestone billing Fixed dates in milestone billing Document flow Creating with reference Exchange rate determination • • • • • • • • • • 182 .

183 . The system determines the schedule of individual dates based on general date information. such as the start and end dates. you control how the system automatically creates the schedule of dates in a billing plan. This general date information is copied either from contract header data or from proposals in the billing plan type.Billing Plan Functions Automatic creation of billing plan dates In customizing for sales.

The system determines the amount to be billed either from the condition records that are applicable to the item or from the values that are explicitly entered in the billing plan for a particular billing date. At this point the system removes the block. 184 . the system automatically sets a billing block for each date. The block prevents processing for a particular billing date but does not necessarily affect any of the other dates in the plan.Billing Plan Functions Pricing Sales document items are billed as each billing date in the plan becomes due. In milestone billing. In milestone billing. for example. Billing block A billing block can be set for each date in a billing plan. This block remains in effect until the project system reports back that the milestone in the corresponding network has been successfully completed. you can specify a percentage to be billed or an actual amount.

Billing Status The system assigns a billing status to each billing date in the plan. 185 . After billing has been carried out successfully. the system creates and updates a billing index. The status indicates to what extent the billing has been processed for that particular date. This prevents a billed date from being billed again. If a billing date is blocked for billing.Billing Plan Functions Billing Index For every billing date in a plan. the billing status is automatically set to C. the system copies this information into the index.

Billing Plan Functions Billing rule for milestone billing For every date in the milestone billing plan. you can specify whether the billing amount is a percentage of the total amount or whether it is a fixed amount. The following figure shows an example of how a billing value can be determined. For example. The rule determines how the billing amount for the particular date is calculated. 186 . you can specify a billing rule.

Billing Plan Functions
In addition, you can specify that the amount to be billed is a final settlement that takes into account billing that has not yet been processed. For example, price changes may take place after billing dates in the plan have already been processed. The price differences can be taken into account during final settlement. Final processing is not automatically proposed in the billing plan by the system; you must enter it manually during processing. Fixed dates in milestone billing • You can control for each date in a billing plan, whether the date is fixed or whether the system copies the date from the planned or actual milestone dates in a project.

187

Billing Plan Functions
Document Flow After a particular date in a billing plan is processed for billing, the system updates the document flow for the corresponding sales document item. The following figure shows an example of document flow for a billing plan.

188

Billing Plan Functions
The document flow for the sales document displays the following data: • Creation date • Billing date • Billed value Creating with reference When you define a billing plan type in customizing for sales, you can enter the number of an existing billing plan to serve as a reference during subsequent billing plan creation. During sales order processing for items that require billing plans, the system automatically proposes the reference plan and, if necessary, re-determines the billing dates (based on the current date rules) for inclusion in the new billing plan.

189

Billing Plan Functions
Exchange rate determination In the billing plan with partial billing, you can store a certain exchange rate for each date. The amount billed is the amount determined after using this exchange rate to convert from the local currency into the document currency. An exchange rate can also be stored at item level for the sales document (field: Exchange rate for FI on the billing tab page). This fixed rate is valid for all dates in the item billing plan for which no rate is specified in the billing plan. If an exchange rate is entered both for the date in the billing plan and at item level in the exchange rate field, then the system uses the rate specified for the date during billing. If no exchange rate is entered for the date or at item level, then the system uses the exchange rate used for invoice creation and it is forwarded to FI.

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this is automatically copied to the corresponding dates for the item billing plans. 191 . If.Billing Plan Functions When using a header billing plan. all billing plans linked to this header billing plan are automatically updated. for example. you enter an exchange rate for the first date in the header billing plan.

How Billing Plans are Controlled Billing plans are controlled in customizing for sales by the following elements: • Billing Plan Type • Date Description • Date Category • Proposed Date Category • Proposed Date • Assigning billing plan types to sales document items 192 .

For example. today‟s date plus one year). based on the current date plus a specified time period( for example. The billing plan type is displayed in the sales document but cannot be changed. These rules determine. The horizon calculates the last billing date in the billing plan. for example.How Billing Plans are Controlled Billing Plan Type The billing plan type defines the basic control data for the billing plan. the billing plan contains rules for date determination. The billing plan type also contains a date rule for determining the horizon for the billing plan. the beginning and end dates for the schedule of billing dates. 193 .

194 . The descriptions are for information purposes only and do not affect processing. Depending on the date category you use.How Billing Plans are Controlled Date Description Date descriptions are defined to describe the various purposes for which billing plans can be used. the system proposes a date description for the billing dates in the billing plan.

Whether the date is fixed or not (in milestone. the percentage of project completion or a monthly periodic payment for a service contract. Billing type (proposes the type of billing document to be used during billing: invoice. For example. for example. pro forma and so on). you may want the system to use the actual date of the milestone. 195 . for example). whether the billing date is for a rental contract. maintenance contract and so on) Billing block ( the billing date may be blocked.How Billing Plans are Controlled Date Category The date category defines data for each billing date that appears in the billing plan. if a project milestone has not been confirmed). Date description (specifies. for example. for example. the date category determines the following data: Billing rule (determines whether the billing date is based on. and so on).

How Billing Plans are Controlled Proposed Date Category For every billing plan type. During sales processing. The date category “Final settlement” is not proposed as part of the standard SAP R/3 system and must be entered manually during processing. 196 . This reference can be used during order processing. Proposed Date The date proposal function is used only for milestone billing. you can assign a date category. This function enables you to create a standard billing plan as a reference. The dates can be used as the basis for an actual billing plan and changed if required. the system then automatically proposes the date category and its corresponding data for each billing date in the plan.

you can specify that individual item categories are relevant for order-related billing by means of a billing plan. 197 .How Billing Plans are Controlled Assigning Billing Plan Types to Sales Document Items Billing plan types are controlled by item category. In customizing for sales. You can also specify a billing plan type for each item category.

The billing dates in a periodic billing plan can be determined from the following sources: • Control data in the billing plan • Header data in the rental contract • Manually entered dates The following example shows an example of periodic billing.Periodic Billing Periodic billing can be used. in rental contracts. quarterly. annually) • Horizon 198 . for example. The following dates are important for billing date determination: • Start and end dates • Period (monthly.

Periodic Billing 199 .

are copied from the start and end dates of the corresponding rental contract.Periodic Billing Start and end dates Start and end dates define the duration of the billing plan and. quarterly. annually) The periodicity of the billing dates determines the frequency with which the billing dates are created in the billing plan and. these dates may be indirectly determined by the system. whether a billing date is processed for billing on the first or last day of the month. Period (monthly. 200 . For example. in addition. Depending on the configuration of your system. the contract start date may be determined automatically as soon as the installation date is entered. whenever possible.

You use this field to activate automatic creation of credit memo dates in the billing plan 201 .

The horizon for periodic billing determines the last date of the billing plan. the system automatically extends the horizon and the schedule of billing dates into the future. Choose Outline agreement  Contract  Subsequent functions  Horizontal periodic billing • Report RVFPLAN01 which supports this function can be scheduled to run at regular intervals. The determination of dates according to the current horizon must be triggered manually via the following menu path. 202 .Periodic Billing Horizon In case no end date is entered. or the end date lies so far in the future that not all billing dates can be established. The horizon is always determined by a rule that uses the current date as a baseline. then a rule for determining the horizon can be entered. Select Logistics  Sales and Distribution  Sales • 2. • 1. If the current date is updated during processing.

Deactivating the field removes the correction dates again. settlement periods that have already been billed can be re-credited automatically. contract end date) or whether it was entered manually.g. 203 . The most important criterion is that if the end date or „to-date‟ is changed. depending upon your agreement with the customer.Credit Memo Date in the Billing Plan Use After cancellation of a contract. Activation of the field can be carried out manually or automatically via customizing. it comes before the last billed date. Correction dates are created automatically if the field Corr is activated in the document billing plan data. It is unimportant whether the end date changed because of a rule (e.

Credit Memo Date in the Billing Plan Example The contract had a duration of four months and all dates were billed. 204 . a corresponding correction date is set. the contract was cancelled on April 15 1998 and it was agreed that the amount for the remaining period would be credited to the customer. After further negotiations with the customer. As soon as the end date is changed.

Credit Memo Date in the Billing Plan 205 .

Credit Memo Date in the Billing Plan The value of a correction date cannot be changed. The billing dates to which the correction dates refer cannot be cancelled. Correction dates which have already been billed can no longer be changed. If you only want to reimburse a certain amount to the customer. then you can only do this by fixing the end date. 206 .

cor. Date category maintenance In the billing type field. You can configure authorizations for changing the billing block in the document (activating and deactivating )using authorization object V_VBAK_AAT 207 . In the billing block field you maintain a block indicator for credit memo in the billing plan. All fields represent a proposal for the billing plan and can be overwritten in the billing plan.Credit Memo Date in the Billing Plan Prerequisites You need to make the following settings in Customizing for billing plans: Billing plan type for periodic billing In the „Aut.date‟ field. you activate the automatic creation of credit memo dates in the billing plan. you maintain the proposal billing type for the credit memo date in the billing plan.

208 . In the SAP R/3 system. Each milestone-related billing date is blocked for processing until the Project System confirms that the milestone is completed. such as plant engineering and construction projects. milestones are defined in a network along with planned and actual dates for the completion of work. Such projects include a series of milestones that mark the completion of different stages of the work. Delivery relevant order items for which a milestone billing applies are billed on the basis of the requested delivery quantity and not on the total of the confirmed quantities. The following figure shows an example of milestone billing.Milestone Billing Milestone billing is typically used for billing projects. The milestones are also assigned to the billing dates in the billing plan.

Milestone Billing 209 .

Milestone Billing For each billing date in a milestone billing plan. if the date is earlier than the planned billing date for the date. The additional fixed value of Fixed date means that you cannot assign it to a milestone. In order to do this you must assign the milestone manually in billing plan maintenance. the Fixed date field of the proposed date category of the billing plan type must not be blank. Milestone assignment is possible for all other values. To make this assignment. It is also possible to assign milestones to the dates of the billing plan during milestone billing if no network plan has been opened. 210 . you can specify whether the billing date is : • Fixed • Always updated with the actual date of the milestone • Updated with the actual date of the milestone.

Mark the schedule line and select Procurement details. To display the project-related data for a schedule line. In one of the overview screens of the sales document. proceed as follows: • 1. Each schedule line can be assigned to a network in a project. select Item  Schedule lines • 2. 211 .Milestone Billing Integration between Sales and the Project System The connection between the project and the sale document item is made in the individual schedule lines of the item.

Data copied to the assigned items cannot be changed in the items.Billing Plans at Header Level You can define a billing plan at header level which is valid for all items assigned to it. 212 .

the system carries out pricing. In periodic billing. Once an item has been partially billed. By marking the header billing plan on the item billing plan screen. You can remove or set an assignment with the assignment indicator.Functions in Header Billing Plans Automatically attaching item billing plans to the header billing plan All items with the same billing plan type (controlled by the item category) refer to the header billing plan. 213 . Copying the header billing plan to item billing plans You can copy global changes made at header level to item billing plans assigned to that header. If you want to define billing plans for specific items. determines billing document value and determines document status at item level irrespective of the header. you can remove the assignment and maintain the item billing plan separately. you can display the relevant item/ header billing plan assignment. it can be removed from the header but no longer attached to it. Dates which have already been billed cannot be changed.

The document value at header level is the sum of all assigned items.Functions in Header Billing Plans Dynamically determining totals and status at header level Information displayed in the header billing plan is valid for all items which refer to that header. billing document value and status at header level are determined dynamically from all assigned items. 214 . In milestone billing.

There are two new fields in the Billing overview screen (Overview  Billing) The Billing relevance field indicates for each item whether the sales order is relevant for an order related billing document and whether a billing plan exists ( billing relevance „I‟) The Header billing plan field indicates whether the billing plan refers to the header billing plan (Header Bill Plan “X”) 215 . you can branch to the header billing plan with Header  Contract  Billing Plan The header billing document field in the item billing plan (Item  Contract  Billing plan ) indicates whether it has been assigned to a header billing plan.Displays In the sales order.

Header data will once again be valid for the item. All manually set milestones will be deleted when you reassign this item to the header billing plan. If you want to schedule milestones in an item separately from the header. When you make changes at header level (e. the following functions are carried out at item level: Determining billing document value on a percentage basis. The system does not allow you to make changes at item level. you must first remove the item from the header billing plan before milestones can be assigned to it. 216 . Handling milestones Dates generated in the header billing plan and milestones set in the header billing plan (Edit  Generate dates  Manual milestones) are copied to the item billing plans assigned to that header. the related items are automatically changed accordingly.g. In milestone billing.Header Billing Plans in Milestone Billing The system copies the basis for the header billing plan from customizing. new billing dates or changes to percentage rates). Dates at header level are copied from all item billing plans assigned to that header.

the resulting dates will be copied to the item level.Header Billing Plans in Periodic Billing In periodic billing. Changes to validity period Start and end dates establish the billing validity period and can be determined automatically using a rule or entered manually. These dates are copied to the item billing plans. no billing document value or status appear in the header billing plan. If you change the rule or the manual validity period at header level. 217 . the following functions are carried out exclusively at item level: • Pricing • Determining status • Determining date-from and date-to For this reason.

The dates which the system determines at item level remain valid even if you make changes to the header billing dates. the system deletes the rule and uses the manual dates from these two fields to determine the relevant billing dates.Header Billing Plans in Periodic Billing To maintain different dates at item level. the system will again use the rule in the billing header to determine billing dates. 218 . If the manual dates from the Date-from and Date-to fields are deleted. proceed as follows: • If you specify a validity period manually in the Date-from and Date-to fields in the item billing plan.

Customizing for Billing Plan The following are to be done in customizing: IMG  Sales and Distribution Billing  Billing Plan Define Billing Plan Types Define Date Descriptions Define and Assign Date Categories Maintain Date Proposals for Billing Plan Types Assign Billing Plan Types to Sales Document Types Assign Billing Plan Types to Item Categories Define Rules for Determining Dates 219 .

This field determines whether the billing dates are automatically determined or whether they must be entered manually. The field In advance is to be set if the billing is to be done in advance e.Periodic Billing Horizon specifies the last date for periodic billing.g advance rental 220 . It is always determined from a rule which can be entered in the billing plan type.Define Billing Plan Types . up to which dates should be set.

Define Billing Plan Types – Milestone Billing Rule for origin of start date of billing plan 221 .

Define Date Description 222 .

Define Date Descriptions In this step. the distinction is made for example between billing dates for rent or maintenance. The descriptions are used only for differentiating between the billing dates and have no controlling function. Example In the billing plan. 2. Enter an alphanumeric key with a maximum of 4 digits together with a language ID and textual description for the date description that you want to create. Enter the date description for the date categories for which you want to use the description. you define date descriptions. Actions 1. These are the textual descriptions for the respective billing dates in the billing plan. The date descriptions are entered for the date categories and are then found with the billing plan dates in the order document and printed. 223 .

Define and Assign Date Categories 224 .

Define and Assign Date Categories 225 .

Assign Date Category Proposal for Billing Plan 226 .

Since. you can assign one or more date categories to each billing plan type or create new date categories. • Whether the billing date is a fixed date. you must specify. you can have several date categories for a billing plan type. in a further step. The billing rule which specifies how the value to be billed for a date is to be determined. The date category controls at billing date level. a default date category for each billing plan type. for example. Billing rule 2 of the standard system (Value based milestone billing) specifies. 227 . • With which billing type the billing date is to be billed. if necessary which billing block the billing date has. that the entire invoice value is distributed between the dates and a part of the total value is billed for each date. • Whether and. The date category also specifies the description for the billing date.Define and Assign Date Categories In this step.

Maintain Date Proposals for Billing Plan Types 228 .

Maintain Date Proposals for Billing Plan Types 229 .

To maintain the date proposal for milestone billing. the dates are copied according to the reference. The date proposal is only relevant for the billing plan type Milestone billing (periodic billing = blank) When you create a billing plan with milestone billing.Maintain Date Proposals for Billing Plan Types The date proposal specifies a sequence of dates which can be used during order processing as a reference for date determination. 230 . go to the detail screen of the date proposal and select the function „Maintain date‟. and placed in the billing plan. re-determined on the basis of the current rules.

Assign Billing Plan Types to Sales Document Types 231 .

Assign Billing Plan Types to Item Categories 232 .

233 . In the standard system. item category MVN is configured for periodic billing and item category TAO is configured for milestone billing.Assign Billing Plan Types to Item Categories In this IMG activity. you assign a billing plan type and billing relevance „I‟ (relevant for order-related billing / billing plan ) to the item categories for which you want to create a billing plan. This assignment is necessary for creating a billing plan for the relevant order items.

Define Rules for Determining Dates 234 .

Define Rules for Determining Dates Enter a calendar ID in this field to influence the date calculated by the system during indirect date determination 235 .

• If you use a calendar ID to define a rule.Define Rules for Determining Dates A baseline date (for example. current date. • You can define the period in any way by specifying a number with a corresponding time unit. You define the rules for date determination on the basis of the following dates: • The possible baseline date is predefined by a fixed value range (for example. you may not specify a period. beginning of the contract) and cannot be changed. If you use a calendar ID. A period to be defined is added to this baseline date. 236 . beginning of contract) forms the basis of every date determination rule. the system determines the next possible workday starting from the baseline date. current date.

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