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A Course in Fuzzy Systems and Control

A Course in Fuzzy Systems and Control

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08/14/2013

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Consider the SISO nonlinear system

where u E R is the control input, z E R is the output, and x = (x, 2, ..., x(n-l))T E
Rn is the state vector. In (19.1), the function f (x) is not exactly known, but the
uncertainty of f (x) is bounded by a known function of x; that is,

and

lAf (x)l i F(x)

where A f (x) is unknown but f(x) and F(x) are known. The control objective is
to determine a feedback control u = u(x) such that the state x of the closed-loop
system will follow the desired state xd = (xd, kd, ..., xp-'))~; that is, the tracking
error

-

e(n-l))T

e = x - xd = (e, el ...,

(19.4)

Sec. 19.1. Fuzzy Control As Sliding Control: Analysis

239

should converge to zero, where e = x - xd.

The basic idea of sliding control is as follows. Define a scalar function

where X is a positive constant. Then,

defines a time-varying surface S(t) in the state space Rn. For example, if n = 2
then the surface S(t) is

which is a straight line in the x - x phase plane, as shown in Fig. 19.1. Since id and
xd are usually time-varying functions, the S(t) is also time-varying. If the initial
state x(0) equals the initial desired state xd(0), that is, if e(0) = 0, then from (19.5)
and (19.6) we see that if the state vector x remains on the surface S(t) for all t 2 0,
we will have e(t) = 0 for all t 2 0. Indeed, s(x, t) = 0 represents a linear differential
equation whose unique solution is e(t) = 0 for the initial condition e(0) = 0. Thus,
our tracking control problem is equivalent to keeping the scalar function s(x, t) at
zero. To achieve this goal, we can choose the control u such that

if the state is outside of S(t), where is a positive constant. (19.8) is called the
sliding condition; it guarantees that I s(x, t) 1 will decrease if x is not on the surface
S(t), that is, the state trajectory will move towards the surface S(t), as illustrated
in Fig. 19.1. The surface S(t) is referred to as the sliding surface, the system on the
surface is in the sliding mode, and the control that guarantees (19.8) is called sliding
mode control or sliding control. To summarize the discussions above, we have the
following lemma.

Lemma 19.1. Consider the nonlinear system (19.1) and let s(x, t) be defined
as in (19.5). If we can design a controller u such that the sliding condition (19.8) is
satisfied, then:

(a) The state will reach the sliding surface S(t) within finite time.

(b) Once the state is on the sliding surface, it will remain there.

(c) If the state remains on the sliding surface, the tracking error e(t) will converge

to zero.

Therefore, our goal is to design a controller u such that the closed-loop system
satisfies the sliding condition (19.8).

240

Fuzzv Control of Nonlinear Svstems I: Sliding Control Ch. 19

Figure 19.1. Sliding surface in two-dimensional phase
plane.

We now derive the details of sliding control for a second-order system, that is,
the system is (19.1) with n = 2. In this case, (19.8) becomes

s[f (x) + u - xd + Xe] 5 -771~1

(19.9)

where we used (19.5) and (19.1). If we choose

then (19.9) becomes

where sgn(s) = 1 if s > 0, sgn(s) = -1 if s < 0, and f(x) is the estimate of f (x)
as in (19.2). Furthermore, (19.11) is equivalent to

Therefore, if we choose

K(x,x) = r]+ F(x)

then from (19.3) we see that (19.12) is guaranteed, which in turn implies that the
sliding condition (19.8) is satisfied. In conclusion, the sliding controller is given by
(19.10) with K(z,x) given by (19.13).

Sec. 19.2. Fuzzy Control As Sliding Control: Design

241

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