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A Course in Fuzzy Systems and Control

# A Course in Fuzzy Systems and Control

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## Sections

• Approximation Properties of Fuzzy Systems II
• 11.1 Fuzzy Systems with Second-Order Approximation Accuracy
• 11.3 Summary and Further Readings
• 11.4 Exercises
• Design of Fuzzy Systems from Input-Output Data
• Design of Fuzzy Systems Using A Table Look-Up Scheme
• 12.2 Application to Truck Backer-Upper Control
• 12.3 Application to Time Series Prediction
• 12.4 Summary and Further Readings
• 12.5 Exercises and Projects
• Design of Fuzzy Systems Using Gradient Descent Training
• 13.1 Choosing the Structure of Fuzzy Systems
• 13.2 Designing the Parameters by Gradient Descent
• 13.3 Application to Nonlinear Dynamic System Identification
• 13.3.1 Design of the Identifier
• 13.3.2 Initial Parameter Choosing
• 13.3.3 Simulations
• 13.4 Summary and Further Readings
• 13.5 Exercises and Projects
• Design of Fuzzy Systems Using Recursive Least Squares
• 14.1 Design of the Fuzzy System
• 14.2 Derivation of the Recursive Least Squares Algorithm
• 14.3 Application to Equalization of Nonlinear Communication Channels
• 14.3.1 The Equalization Problem and Its Geometric Formulation
• 14.3.2 Application of the Fuzzy System to the Equalization Problem
• 14.4 Summary and Further Readings
• 14.5 Exercises and Projects
• Fuzzy Control of Nonlinear Systems I: Sliding Control
• 19.1 Fuzzy Control As Sliding Control: Analysis
• 19.1.1 Basic Principles of Sliding Control
• 19.1.2 Analysis of Fuzzy Controllers Based on Sliding Control Principle
• 19.2 Fuzzy Control As Sliding Control: Design
• 19.2.1 Continuous Approximation of Sliding Control Law
• 19.3 Summary and Further Readings
• 19.4 Exercises
• Fuzzy Control of Nonlinear Systems I I: Supervisory Control
• 20.1 Multi-level Control Involving Fuzzy Systems
• 20.2.1 Design of the Supervisory Controller
• 20.2.2 Application to Inverted Pendulum Balancing
• 20.3 Gain Scheduling of PID Controller Using Fuzzy Systems
• 20.3.1 The PID Controller
• 20.3.2 A Fuzzy System for Turning the PID Gains
• 20.4 Summary and Further Readings
• 20.5 Exercises
• Fuzzy Control of Fuzzy System Model
• 21.1 The Takagi-Sugeno-Kang Fuzzy System
• 21.2 Closed-Loop Dynamics of Fuzzy Model with Fuzzy Con- troller
• 21.3 Stability Analysis of the Dynamic TSK Fuzzy System
• 21.4 Design of Stable Fuzzy Controllers for the Fuzzy Model
• 21.5 Summary and Further Readings
• 21.6 Exercises
• 22.1 Phase Plane Analysis of Fuzzy Control Systems
• 22.2 Robustness Indices for Stability
• 22.2.1 The One-Dimensional Case
• 22.3.2 Construction of the Hierarchical Fuzzy System
• 24.2 Design of the Combined Directllndirect Adaptive Fuzzy Controller
• 31.4.1 The Endless Debate
• 31.4.3 How to View the Debate from an Engineer's Perspective
• 31.5 Summary and Further Readings
• 31.6 Exercises
• Bibliography
• Index

Consider the dynamic TSK fuzzy system (21.5) with bp in (21.4) equal zero. We
assume bP = 0 because comparing (21.4) with (21.7) we see that there is no bPu(k)
term in (21.7). Define the state vector x(k) = (x(k), z(k - I), ..., x(k - n i-

I))~

and

Then the dynamic TSK fuzzy system (21.5) can be rewritten as

\

where UP is defined in (21.6). Since the right-hand side of (21.22) equals zero when
x(k) = 0, the origin in Rn is an equilibrium point of the dynamic system (21.22). We
now use the following well-known Lyapunov stability theorem to study the stability
of the dynamic system (21.22)
Lyapunov Stability Theorem: Consider the discrete-time system described

by

~(k

f 1) = f [x(k)]

(21.23)

where x(k) E Rn and f (0) = 0. Suppose that there exists a scalar function V[x(k)]
such that: (a) V(0) = 0, (b) V[x(k)] > 0 for x(k) # 0, (c) V[x(k)] -+ m as
(Ix(k)ll -+ m, and (d) AV[x(k)] = V[x(k + l)] - V[x(k)] < 0 for x(k) # 0, then the
equilibrium point 0 of the system (21.23) is globally asymptotically stable.

In order to apply this theorem to the system (21.22), we need the following

lemma.

270

Fuzzy Control of Fuzzy System Models Ch. 21

Matrix Inequality Lemma: If P is a positive definite matrix such that

where A, B, P E Rnxn, then

Proof of this lemma is left as an exercise. Using the Lyapunov Stability Theorem
and the Matrix Inequality Lemma, we obtain the following theorem on the stability
of the dynamic TSK fuzzy system (21.22).

Theorem 21.2. The equilibrium point 0 of the dynamic TSK fuzzy system
(21.22) is globally asymptotically stable if there exists a common positive definite
matrix P such that

A;PA,-P < 0

(21.26)

for all p = 1,2, ..., N.

Proof: Consider the Lyapunov function candidate

where P is a positive definite matrix. This V[x(k)] satisfies conditions (a)-(c) in
the Lyapunov Stability Theorem; we now show that it also satisfies condition (d).
Using (21.22), we have

Rearrange the summations, (21.28) becomes

From (21.26), the Matrix Inequality Lemma, and the fact that UP > 0, we con-
clude that AV[x(k)] < 0. Hence, this theorem follows from the Lyapunov Stability
Theorem. I7

Sec. 21.3. Stability Analysis of the Dynamic TSK Fuzzy System

271

Figure 21.2. Membership functions for the fuzzy sets in
the rules (21.30)-(21.31).

Theorem 21.2 gives a sufficient condition for ensuring the stability of the dynamic
TSK fuzzy system (21.22). We may intuitively guess that the nonlinear system
(21.22) is stable if all locally approximate linear systems A, (p = 1,2, ..., N) are
stable (the linear system x(k + 1) = A,x(k) is stable if all the eigenvalues of A,
are within the unit circle). However, this is not true in general, as we notice that
even if all the Abs are stable, there may not exist a common positive definite matrix
P such that (21.26) is true. The following example shows that two locally stable
linear systems result in an unstable nonlinear system.

Example 21.2. Consider a dynamic TSK fuzzy system constructed from the

following two rules:

IF x(k - 1) is Fl, THEN xl(k + 1) = x(k) - 0.5x(k - 1) (21.30)
IF x(k - 1) is F2, THEN x2(k + 1) = -x(k) - 0.5x(k - 1) (21.31)

where the membership functions of the fuzzy sets Fl and F2 are shown in Fig. 21.2.
For this system, we have

The eigenvalues of A1 and A2 are

and y,

respectively, which are all within
the unit circle, so the two locally approximate linear systems x(k+ 1) = Alx(k) and
x(k+ 1) = Asx(k) are stable. However, the dynamic TSK fuzzy system constructed

272

Fuzzy Control of Fuzzy System Models Ch. 21

I

from the tie ru3gr(21.30) and (21.31)c

is unstable, as illustrated in Fig. 21.3, which shows the ~(k)

resulting from (21.33)

with initial condition x(1) = (%(I),

~(0))~

= (-1.7,1.9)~.

Figure 21.3. Res~onse

of the dynamic TSK fuzzy system

- "
(21.33) (z(k)) with initial condition x(1) = (z(l), ~(0))~

=

(-1.7,1.9)~.

Obviously, in Example 21.2 there does not exist a common P such that (21.26)
is true, since the final dynamic TSK fuzzy system is unstable. We now give a
necessary condition for ensuring the existence of the common P.
Lemma 21.1. Assume that A, (p = 1,2, .. ., N) are stable and nonsingular
matrices. If there exists a common positive matrix P such that ATPA, - P < 0
for p = 1,2, ..., N, then ApAq are stable matrices for all p, q = 1,2, ..., N.

Proof of this lemma is left as an exercise. Lemma 21.1 shows that if any ApAq is
an unstable matrix, then the common P does not exist and therefore it is possible
that the dynamic TSK fuzzy system is unstable. For Example 21.2, we have

whose eigenvalues are

and one of which is outside of the unit circle.

There is no general procedure that guarantees to find such common P. Usually,
a trial-and-error approach has to be taken, as we will show in the next section.

Sec. 21.4. Design of Stable Fuzzy Controllers for the Fuzzy Model

273

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