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D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling
Dissemination level: Public Authors: V. Sabatelli, G. Fiorenza, D. Marano (ENEA) Reviewer: P. Oliaro (PoliMI) November 2005 CONTENTS:
INTRODUCTION Description of main objectives and expected results. SOLAR COOLING Overview on cooling technologies which can be in principle coupled with low to medium solar collectors. Focus area: Overview of traditional cooling systems and their markets in European countries Description of the main cooling technologies: - Absorption chillers - Adsorption chillers - Thermo Chemical Accumulators (TCA) - DEC systems - Other cooling technology Energy comparison between different solar cooling technologies based on primary energy saving. SOLAR DESALINATION Overview on solar desalination plants currently available. Focus area: Overview of traditional desalination technology in European countries Description of the main desalination plants: - Multiple Effect Evaporation - Multi-stage Flash Evaporation - Application for small users Comparison between different technologies under investigation. CONCLUSIONS Description of main results and open question in view of the subsequent selection of the most promising solar technology for cooling and desalination. ANNEX A Country data on conventional airconditioning systems. Information about market trends.
SUMMARY The overall objective of NEGST project is the development and market introduction of more cost-efficient solar thermal systems, particularly for domestic hot water preparation and / or space heating and cooling. This “new generation” of solar thermal systems represents a further development of today’s system technology with respect to the improvement of thermal performance and the reduction of system costs. This is essential for contributing to the European Union's Action Plans with regard to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the cost effective supply of renewable energies. In this framework, NEGST Work Package 5 aims to assess the potential of solar thermal systems for advanced applications, such as cooling and desalination. An enlargement of the utilization field, traditionally limited to hot water preparation and/or space heating, could in fact positively contribute to sustain a further diffusion of solar thermal systems and, at the same time, to promote innovative concepts. In this context, an overview on all cooling and desalination systems, which can be suitable coupled with low to medium solar collectors, constitutes a preliminary step towards the aforesaid objective. Thus, the first step of Work Package 5 is an investigation, relevant to each considered process, which main issues concern: the brief description of the technologies under investigation, the assessment of the global energy requirements, economics, the main advantages and drawbacks in particular in view of the coupling with solar systems, the development status and their possible commercial diffusion. The result of this investigation is a “Technical Status Report”, which main target is to support the selection of the most promising solar technology for cooling and desalination, worth to be subject to a further analysis in the following steps of the NEGST WP5. For this purpose, a preliminary screening criterion, based on energy saving approach, is introduced. Internet More information are available on Project website: http://www.swt-technologie.de/html/negst.html
NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6
WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 2 of 102 pages
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF CONTRIBUTIONS ___________________________________________________________ 4 1. 2. INTRODUCTION ________________________________________________________________ 5 SOLAR COOLING _______________________________________________________________ 6 2.1 OVERVIEW OF TRADITIONAL COOLING SYSTEMS AND THEIR MARKETS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES________________________________________________________________ 6 2.1.1 Demand of AC in Europe ____________________________________________________ 6 2.1.2 Energy consumption________________________________________________________ 7 2.1.3 The market: present situation and trends ________________________________________ 8 2.1.4 Solar cooling installations in Europe___________________________________________ 10
2.2 ABSORPTION CHILLERS ____________________________________________________ 11 2.2.1 Physical principles ________________________________________________________ 12 2.2.2 Classification of absorption chillers ___________________________________________ 13 2.2.3 Cycle Performance and Maintenance _________________________________________ 15 2.2.4 Coupling of the Absorption Chillers with a Solar Heating System ____________________ 16 2.2.5 Investment costs _________________________________________________________ 19 2.2.6 Operating plants __________________________________________________________ 20 2.3 ADSORPTION CHILLERS ____________________________________________________ 21 2.3.1 Physical principles ________________________________________________________ 21 2.3.2 Classification of adsorption chillers ___________________________________________ 21 2.3.3 Operating plants __________________________________________________________ 23 2.4 THERMO CHEMICAL ACCUMULATOR (TCA) ___________________________________ 24 2.4.1 Physical principles ________________________________________________________ 24 2.4.2 Classification of TCA machines ______________________________________________ 25 2.4.3 Operating plants __________________________________________________________ 27 2.5 DESICCANT COOLING FOR AIR-CONDITIONING ________________________________ 27 2.5.1 Physical principles ________________________________________________________ 28 2.5.2 Coefficient of performance __________________________________________________ 29 2.5.3 Limits of the thermo dynamical principle _______________________________________ 30 2.5.4 Configuration of Desiccant cooling systems_____________________________________ 32 2.5.5 Desiccant Wheel _________________________________________________________ 33 2.5.6 DEC-system with liquid sorbent materials ______________________________________ 37 2.5.7 Examples of DEC-System plants _____________________________________________ 38 2.6 OTHER COOLING SYSTEMS _________________________________________________ 40 2.6.1 Organic Rankine Cycle_____________________________________________________ 40 2.6.2 Ejector air-conditioning system_______________________________________________ 42 2.7 COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES UNDER INVESTIGATION _______ 46 2.7.1 Description of the methodology ______________________________________________ 46 2.7.2 Reference locations _______________________________________________________ 47 2.7.3 Heating and cooling needs __________________________________________________ 47 2.7.4 Configuration of solar cooling systems_________________________________________ 51 2.7.5 Results _________________________________________________________________ 53 3. SOLAR DESALINATION _________________________________________________________ 58 3.1 OVERVIEW OF TRADITIONAL DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES_______________________________________________________________ 58
3.2 MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATION ___________________________________________ 62 3.2.1 Physical principles ________________________________________________________ 62 3.2.2 Research and demonstration systems _________________________________________ 65 3.3 MULTI-STAGE FLASH EVAPORATION _________________________________________ 72 3.3.1 Physical principles ________________________________________________________ 72
NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6
WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 3 of 102 pages
3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4
Energy Consumption and Costs______________________________________________ 73 Integration of Solar Heat in Multiple Stage Flash Evaporation Plants _________________ 73 Operating plants __________________________________________________________ 74
3.4 APPLICATIONS FOR SMALL USERS __________________________________________ 76 3.4.1 Solar still________________________________________________________________ 77 3.4.2 Humidification-dehumidification ______________________________________________ 81 3.5 COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGY UNDER INVESTIGATION _________ 84 3.5.1 Selected solar desalination systems __________________________________________ 85 3.5.2 Calculation methodology ___________________________________________________ 86 3.5.3 Results _________________________________________________________________ 86 4. CONCLUSIONS ________________________________________________________________ 88
ANNEX A – Country data on conventional cooling systems _______________________________ 91 REFERENCES_____________________________________________________________________ 98
NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6
WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 4 of 102 pages
LIST OF CONTRIBUTIONS
Arguments INTRODUCTION SOLAR COOLING Overview of traditional cooling systems and their markets in European countries Absorption chillers Adsorption chillers Thermo Chemical Accumulator Desiccant cooling for air-conditioning Other cooling systems (Rankine Cycle, Ejector air-conditioning system) Comparison of the different technology under investigation - Heating and cooling needs (§ 2.7.3) SOLAR DESALINATION Overview of traditional desalination technologies in European countries Multiple Effect Evaporation Multi-stage Flash Evaporation Applications for small users (Solar still, Humidification-dehumidification) Comparison of the different technology under investigation CONCLUSIONS G. Fiorenza M. J. Carvalho, G. Buchinger J. Buchinger, C. Isaksson, D.Jähnig E. Mathioulakis, G. Panaras G. Fiorenza, D. Marano V. Sabatelli, G. Fiorenza ENEA INETI - AEE AEE Demokritos ENEA ENEA V. Sabatelli U. Jordan, R. Shahbazfar H. Drueck, E. Streicher C. Bales T. Selke G. Fiorenza V. Sabatelli, D. Marano P. Oliaro, R. Adhikari ENEA UniKassel ITW SERC ARSENAL ENEA ENEA PoliMI Authors V. Sabatelli, G. Fiorenza Institutions ENEA
NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6
WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 5 of 102 pages
The overall objective of the NEGST Project is to support the market of solar thermal systems, as a contribution to the European Union’s Action Plans with regard to the reduction of CO2 emissions and the cost effective supply of renewable energies. In order to achieve this goal, the project provides a framework for the development of the next generation of solar thermal systems and their diffusion. In particular, the Work Package 5 aims to assess the potential of solar collectors for advanced applications, such as cooling and desalination. The enlargement of the utilization field is a measure that cannot be disregarded to facilitate a further diffusion of solar thermal systems and to stimulate the production of innovative concepts. In effect, solar systems for domestic hot water preparation represent a mature technology which application already reaches a satisfactory figure in many European countries. In any case the margins for a further market growth are rather narrow and the impact on global energy consumption limited. In addition, in South European countries use of solar systems for space heating is not much attractive. The main reason is that the over sizing of the collectors area in order to meet heating requirements too has to be paid off in a very reduced period of utilization. Therefore, as a general rule, such systems turn out to be affected by an excessive cost. On the contrary, the application of solar collectors for air conditioning or generically production of refrigerated water can have a higher potential. In fact, even though in many southern locations also the heating load is greater than the cooling load, the period of utilization of the solar system is wider. The explanation is that the cooling cycle can be reversible or, in any case, the collectors can be directly used for heating purposes during the cold season, while the opposite process is not possible without the presence of the cooling machine. A second potential application in southern regions is represented by the desalination of seawater, which can be particularly valuable in isolated areas, where the supplies of fresh water with traditional means is usually very onerous. It is to be noticed that cooling and desalination processes require in general a driving temperature higher than the average working temperature of collectors for domestic hot water production and space heating. Therefore the diffusion of these advanced applications can act as an incentive to improve the efficiency of low temperature collectors and introduce to the market more cost-effective collectors able to operate at relatively higher temperatures (up to 200 ° C). The overview on all cooling and desalination systems, which can be in principle coupled with low to medium temperature solar collectors, constitutes a preliminary step towards the aforesaid objective. The main topics relevant to each considered process will be: brief description of the working principle accurate assessment of the global energy requirements short statement about economics advantages and drawbacks in particular in view of the coupling with solar systems development status and possible commercial diffusion Differently from other works in the same field, aspects such as the exhaustive description of working cycles, components, operating systems and any other feature of the cooling or desalination process not closely related to the coupling with the solar source are considered as secondary issues. In fact this work is not intended as a handbook for planner and thus design criteria and examples will not be deeply investigated. On the contrary the main target is to support in the selection of some solar cooling or desalination systems worth to be subject to a further analysis in the following steps of the NEGST WP5. For this purpose, a preliminary screening criterion is introduced according to an energy saving approach. The obtained results are then to be analysed considering the system capital cost, the level of commercial maturity, the presence of technological barriers and any other key factor in order to reach a final assessment of the most promising solar systems for cooling and desalination.
NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6
WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 6 of 102 pages
2. SOLAR COOLING
2.1 OVERVIEW OF TRADITIONAL COOLING SYSTEMS AND THEIR MARKETS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Commonly, conventional air conditioning systems are divided into two main categories: Room Air Conditioners (RAC) characterized by an individual and autonomous appliance for household use, with a cooling capacity usually less than 12 KW. These systems include split, multi-split, single-duct and single-packaged units. Central Air Conditioners (CAC) are instead systems with more than 12 KW of cooling capacity, having a central refrigerating unit that use a fluid (typically water or air) to transport the “cold”. As illustrated in Figure 2.1.1, for “central air conditioning units” exist a large variety of systems and technical options, according to the type of refrigerant employed and/or the equipments used to distribute the air-conditioned.
Figure 2.1.1: AC systems classification (Sources: EECCAC and EERAC studies).
Demand of AC in Europe
In the last years, the sales of conventional air-conditioning systems is growing rapidly in Europe, as a result of the increased living standards and the need to improve comfort conditions both in household and workplace. Actually, in a study of European Commission, the “Energy Efficiency and Certification of Central Air Conditioners” Report (/EECCAC/), the increase of annual additional air-conditioned floor area in buildings has been estimated from 1980 to 2000. Figure 2.1.2 shows this rapid trend in growth.
NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6
D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 7 of 102 pages Figure 2. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . The household sector represents about 70% of total energy consumption in buildings sector. In the analysis are included the RAC units. Figure 2.2 Energy consumption Energy consumption in European domestic and tertiary sectors represents about 40% of the annual EU-15 final energy use and about a third of greenhouse gas emissions.1. Spain and Italy. as emphasized in the same Figure 2. the development of the tertiary sector has produced in some middle European countries (Germany for example) a larger rate of growth in AC demand than in some Southern countries such as Portugal or Greece.WP5. 2004). account for more than 50% of the entire EU market. in EU-15 countries. Other 13% United Kingdom 8% France 12% Germany 11% Greece 5% Spain 24% Italy 25% Portugal 2% Figure 2. both for central and room air conditioners.3: (a) Evolution of apparent annual additional building floor area conditioned from 1980 to 2000 in different EU countries – (b) Present distribution of apparent annual additional building floor area by country (Source: EECCAC study). which are also predominantly used in trade and office buildings. about two-thirds are concentrated in residential sector. Table 2.3 shows this tendency in each national market of AC systems. Even if the expansion of AC demand is principally related to the climatic conditions and the requirement of better comfort conditions. Among these.1.1 gives an estimation of total and per capita energy consumptions.1. 2. At present time just two countries.1.1. the remaining part in commercial buildings (Source: EU – Energy & Transport in figure.2: Apparent annual additional building floor area conditioned by CAC from 1980 to 2000 (Source: EECCAC study).3 that shows the distribution of additional floor area by country.2.
Presently. increase of electrical energy consumption and environmental problems resulting from the use of refrigerants and the increase of installed electric power generation. 2000) (EERAC Report.1998).4 and Figure 2.5).1. 1996) Per capita consumption [KWh/y] 73 116 36 371 361 175 553 48 34 17 51 44 0 49 56 81 469 5010 2286 2909 16209 1020 19689 2359 274 71 206 127 11 605 391 51636 121 1782 672 1007 4494 714 2496 446 444 12176 Table 2.WP5. including residential part (see Figure 2.2. The use of conventional cooling equipment has introduced several drawbacks such as frequent peak electric loads. and their distribution for economic sector. Figure 2. 2.1.4: Market share by equipment type for different economic sector (Source: EECCAC Report .D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 8 of 102 pages COUNTRY Austria France Germany Greece Italy Portugal Spain United Kingdom Belgium Denmark Finland Ireland Luxemburg Netherlands Sweden TOTAL Total energy consumption [GWh/y] CAC Systems RAC Systems (EECCAC Report.1. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . there is a well-established correlation between the growth of peak power electricity demand in summer season and the growth of airconditioning sales in the small and medium size market. and in particular in South European countries.1.1: Estimation of total and per capita energy consumption by country.3 The market: present situation and trends The same EECCAC and EERAC studies present the market share of air conditioning systems by equipment type (not only for CAC but also for RAC systems).
1. Regarding the equipments. Greece and Spain). As it can be noted from Figure 2.WP5.g. A more uniform distribution of different cooling systems.6: Market share of CAC and RAC systems by equipment type (% of floor conditioned area).1998).5: Market share by economic sector (Source: EECCAC Report . no more than 1% in southern European countries such as Italy. hotels. Among these.5. offices and education are prevalently characterized by chillers with a modest percentage of RAC systems. about the present market situation (typical application. For more details. thermally driven chillers represent only a small percentage with respect to total plants in operation (e. etc. the household sector is entirely characterized by RAC systems while economic sectors such as hospitals. trends.6.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 9 of 102 pages Figure 2. refer to data and references included in Annex A. vapour compression chillers and split units dominate the CAC and RAC markets. packaged and multi-split units. even though a major attention for thermally driven chillers is rising.1.1. More recent data confirm this trend in the market share of technology.) in some EU countries.1. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . size. (a) Central Air-Conditioning systems Splits >12KW 11% Rooftops 7% VRF 3% (b) Room Air-Conditioning systems Multi-split 7% Single-duct 18% Packages 8% Singlepackaged 6% Chillers 71% Split 69% Figure 2. with a weak prevalence of RAC systems. respectively. characterizes the trade sector. as depicted in Figure 2. cost.
(a) Installations Netherlands Austria Italy Portugal France Greece Spain Germany (b) Employed technology 2 2 3 3 4 6 19 27 DEC Systems 28% Absorption chillers 60% Adsorption chillers 12% 0 5 10 15 # of plants 20 25 30 Figure 2.1. In fact. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .8: Installations (a) and distribution by technology (b) of solar cooling systems in Europe. is still scarcely investigated. as shown in Figure 2. 2.3 MW.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 10 of 102 pages Finally. the recourse to solar energy.1. as suitable choice in opposition to conventional energy sources. at the present time the total cooling capacity of solar powered air-conditioning systems installed in Europe is estimated in only 6. Figure 2. It is to be noted that.7: Evolution of cooled floor area by equipment type (Source: EECCAC Report). in some cases (Italy for example).1.WP5. it is to be expected a high growth of the AC market especially for room air conditioners.1.7. such data are underestimated in comparison with the current diffusion of air conditioning systems.4 Solar cooling installations in Europe In contrast to the significant electric consumptions attained by cooling systems currently in operation. with a consequent remarkable increase of the electrical consumptions during the summer season especially for Southern Europe countries.
with heat supplied from district heating. As regards the market. followed by desiccant air conditioning systems (DEC) using solid or liquid sorbent materials. for large scale systems. improvement of “Life Cycle Climate Performance”. a small reduction of sales has been observed. Spain and Germany account for about 70% of the total installations in Europe. but the energy consumption is lesser. in which thermally driven absorption chillers play the role of leading technology. _________________________________ Finally. they should be improved for reduction of the energy consumption.2 ABSORPTION CHILLERS Most thermally driven cooling systems and solar assisted air conditioning systems installed today are based on absorption chillers /Hen02/. i. reduction of refrigerant leakages and volume per cooling capacity. Nevertheless. Increased installation of comfort cooling in commercial and public buildings due to perceived warmer summers and increased internal loads. Increased use of air-air heat pumps in domestic and small office locations. instead.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 11 of 102 pages Presently. as can be noted in Figure 2. it has to be expected an increase of penetration of thermal driven systems (due to natural gas penetration). in the EU-15 countries solar energy contribution to air-conditioning in buildings is really modest and is principally characterized by demonstration plants. vacuum tubes. some interesting remarks about the current trend in national markets are summarized in the following table (for more details refer to Annex A). Concerning existing technologies (mainly compression chiller). The same figure illustrates the distribution of solar cooling systems by technology. GERMANY GREECE ITALY SPAIN SWEDEN Table 2. the refrigerant and a solvent are used to drive the process in two loops. there is a significant increase in the interest towards thermally driven chillers. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . the market of water condensed chillers is decreasing in favour of air condensed chillers. A working pair. reliable and robust. Increased interest in providing local cooling using thermally driven cooling processes. more energy efficient. an increase of split systems to more than 50% at the expense of single duct systems. Conversely. Due to high water consumption and to the possible contamination of “legionella bacteria” in the cooling towers. as well as concentrating collectors are used for the heat supply of solar assisted air conditioning systems. a gradual but constant increase of Chinese low-cost products penetration has to be pointed out. Flat plate collectors.1. there is an interest in ab/adsorption cooling machines driven by district heating network.e.1. In recent years there is a growing interest for thermal driven chillers.8. The market of inverter type systems is increasing in spite of these systems are more expensive. Most recently. Absorption chillers are using heat to drive a refrigerant. and the domination of inverter type systems.WP5.2: Market trends in some EU countries (Source: country data delivered by NEGST WP5 participants) 2. The estimated market for district cooling is 2 TWhcooling by 2010. District cooling has increased from 180 to 600 GWh cooling in the period 1998-2002. A continuous market growth has to be expected for small compression chillers (up to 40% for room air conditioners and in particular for split and multi-split units). Concerning construction trend. COUNTRY AUSTRIA Some information about market trend In recent years there is a great attention to realize new products more environmental friendly. Global trend for Germany shows a huge increase of air-conditioned areas. There are no significant changes expected with regard to the present situation. With regards to R&D actions for technology beside compression chiller.
Heat recovery is applied from the hot concentrated solution to the diluted solution in a heat exchanger. a thermal compression cycle is used (Figure 2.2. For solar driven absorption chillers continuously driven cycles are most suited. An overview of solar assisted absorption chillers is given. The concentrated hygroscopic solution returns to the absorber. In the condenser heat is & removed by a heat sink ( QA1 ). e. the main loop.1). a heat exchanger. in order to increase the performance of absorption chillers.g.2.1 indicate the pressure and temperature levels of the fluids in the system. is composed of an evaporator. green colour) the evaporated refrigerant is compressed by an absorption/desorption cycle. In the regenerator the mixture is separated again by increasing the pressure due to heat supply.2.1. /Hen04a/ and /Hen04b/. e. In the evaporator heat is extracted from the & room to be chilled ( Q cooling ) and transferred to the refrigerant on a low pressure level. GAX). Instead of a mechanical compressor used in compression cooling machines. Similar to a compression cooling machine. (/Eng97/) and Corallo et al. a pump.e.1.2. the diluted solution. As shown in Figure 2.2. is pumped from the absorber to the regenerator. 2.2. additional heat exchangers can be installed in the absorber and generator for heat recovery purposes. or with an additional loop between the absorber and regenerator (Generator-Absorber heat eXchange.1: Absorption chillers.1 Advanced cycles: AHE (Absorber Heat Exchange) and GAX (Generator-Absorber heat eXchange) According to Engler et al. principle The mixture of the two fluids.WP5. and a second throttle valve. a cooling tower. a compressor. The positions of the components shown in Figure 2.1 shows schematic of the working principle of absorption chillers. a condenser. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . a cooling tower. from a solar collector. It consists of an absorber.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 12 of 102 pages Absorption chillers work either in a continuous or intermittent mode. Due to the fact that the boiling point of the mixture is higher than the boiling point of the pure hygroscopic solution. and a throttle-valve. Heat released during the exothermic absorption process & ( QA2 ) is transferred to a heat sink. the pressure of the refrigerant condensate is reduced in the expansion valve and flows back to the evaporator. (/Cor03/). thermal compressor pressure Q A1 condenser Q drive generator throttle valve pump solution heat exchanger throttle valve for the solvent evaporator absorber Qcooling Q A2 temperature Figure 2. a generator. A concentrated hygroscopic fluid absorbs the refrigerant vapour in the absorber.g. the absorber and the generator. the refrigerant vapour can be released at high pressure to flow to the condenser. the heat recovery can be realized either with internal loops inside both. i. using heat e. for example in /Hen04c/. In the thermal compressor (Figure 2.g from a solar collector. Afterwards. physical (Source: /Hen04a/ (changed)). shown in blue.1 Physical principles Figure 2.2.2. 2.2 a) and b). so-called Absorber Heat Exchange (AHE).
1 Working Pairs The working pair consists of the refrigerant and a hygroscopic solvent.WP5. In order to guarantee a sufficient separation of the refrigerant and the solvent in the generator.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 13 of 102 pages Q A1 condenser Q drive generator CONDENSER RECTIFIER PRECOOLER GENERATOR evaporator absorber EXPANSION VALVE ABSORBER Q cooling Q A2 EVAPORATOR SOLUTION VAPOUR REFRIGERANT LIQUID REFRIGERANT P (a) Figure 2.2. 2. The density difference in the absorber and evaporator is realized by a pressure equalizing auxiliary gas (usually Helium). the temperature supplied in the generator. the absorption capability of the solvent shall only marginally depend on temperature and the solution shall be liquid after the absorption of the refrigerant.) have a large impact on the reliability of the systems. The main advantages of absorption chillers compared to conventional compression cooling machines are their low electrical energy consumption and maintenance needs. 2. etc. gas bubbles are produced which carry the rising solution along to the regenerator. the thermodynamic properties of the fluids relevant for the chilling process. The fluid materials used depend on: the chilling set temperature. variable operating conditions (temperatures.1. 2. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . On the other hand. the solvent shall have a distinctly higher boiling temperature at generator pressure than the refrigerant.2. the number of stages the chillers consist of (single.2.2.2. During heating. and according to developments obtainable from coupling the absorption chillers with solar collectors of advanced cycles.2: (a) Absorber Heat Exchange (AHE) (b) (b) Generator-Absorber heat eXchange (GAX).2 Diffusion Absorption Chillers In diffusion absorption chillers a gas bubble pump is used instead of the solution pump. Furthermore. there is a uniform pressure all over the diffusion absorption chillers.2 Classification of absorption chillers Absorption chillers can be classified by their working pairs. Suitable working pairs are chosen according to the absorption capability of the solvent and the capability to release as little heat as possible in the absorption process. In opposite to the absorption chillers described in the last section. triple effect). double.
1 bar (generator. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . two or three cycles as shown in Figure 2. At a temperature in the regenerator of more than 120° and at such a pressure the solvent C (water) evaporates as well. In order to achieve these low temperatures.01 bar (evaporator. 2. /Jak03/. Prototypes of these systems are being developed. double-effect (b). whereas for air conditioning purposes mostly H2O/LiBr is used.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 14 of 102 pages So far. Parabolic trough collectors are applied for double effect absorption chillers recently. Moreover. absorption chillers operating with the working pairs H2O/LiBr und NH3/H2O have been proven to be reliable. Double and triple effect absorption chillers are usually less suitable for solar energy assisted absorption chillers since higher working temperatures are needed.2. pressure of the refrigerant is typically about 0. The working pair H2O/LiBr (refrigerant/solvent) is used for air conditioning and water chilling down to a temperature of solely 4° in order to pr event the refrigerant to freeze. The operating C. in order to increase the amount of refrigerant to be evaporated in the regenerators and therewith the COP of the system. supply temperatures of 120 to 150° are necessary in the regenerator.2 Number of cycles Absorption chillers are built with either one.WP5.2. C With the working pair NH3/H2O (refrigerant/solvent) cooling temperatures down to about –20° can be generated. Crystallization of LiBr that occurs at high concentrations must be prevented. and triple-effect (c) absorption chillers (Source: Southern California Gas Company /Mah98/). absorber) to 0. developed by the company Solitem (Austria).2.3: Single-effect (a). Additional generators and condensers are used on different temperature and pressure levels. The heat removed from the condenser of the higher cycle is sufficient to be used in the lower-temperature regenerator.2. condenser). In this case it must be separated from the Ammonium by means of a rectification column (dephlegmator). for example. absorber) to 10 bar (generator. In order to achieve temperatures below 4° the working pair NH 3/H2O is C used. The working pressure of the refrigerant is typically C about 2 bar (evaporator. research and development projects are being carried out using NH3/H2O/He for diffusion absorption chillers.3. by Jakob et al.TEMPE RATUR CONDE NSOR (b) HIG H-TEMP E RATUR GE NERATO R MIDDLE-TE MPERATUR CO NDE NSO R MIDDLE-TE MPERATUR G ENERAT OR LOW-TE MPERATUR CONDE NSOR L OW-TEMPERA TUR G ENERAT OR EVAP ORATO R A BSORBE R (c) Figure 2. condenser). CONDE NSOR GENERATOR MIDDLE-TE MPERATUR CO NDE NSO R MIDDLE-TE MPERATUR G ENERAT OR LOW-TE MPERATUR CONDE NSOR EVAPOR ATOR ABSOR BER L OW-TEMPERA TUR G ENERAT OR EVAP ORATO R A BSORBE R (a) HIGH.
Enropie. when the driving temperature approaches 200° C.2.110° C C 1 H2O NH3 80° .2 few producers few producers 20 to 100 kW 50 to 100 kW many producers more producers more than 100 kW more than 100 kW Broad. higher driving temperatures Tdrive of at least 150° are required compared to the bas ic cycle. 2.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 15 of 102 pages 2. The COP increases rapidly to about 1.1: Absorption chillers.7 ********* Producer ABB. DunhamBush.3 . Number of cycles Solvent Refrigerent Driving temperature Driven by COP Power range market available 2 LiBr H2O 140° . Century. the suitable driving temperature range. the COP increases from 0. Robur Table 2. in Germany (TÜV).75.3. the solvent degrades gradually and expanded maintenance and analysis of the solvent has to be carried out about every 5000 operation hours.7 – 0.8 0.2. Corrosion protection needs to be checked at the beginning of operation. Sulzer-Escher Wyss.2.8 – 0. EAW.1. For H2O/LiBr absorption chillers the pressure needs to be checked daily or weekly. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . AHE cycle.0. Colibri.WP5.6 .1.2.3. Ebara.9 .3 Cycle Performance and Maintenance 2.75.120° C C hot water steam directly burned 0.1) of single effect LiBr/H2O absorption chillers. Yazaki.g. Carrier. Mattes. Trane. C Meanwhile. York 1 LiBr H2O 80° .2.2 Maintenance and lifespan The system pressure and the chemical stability of solvent or refrigerant need to be inspected at least once or twice a year. Typical sizes and COP.9 Driving temperature 150 – 200° C 160 – 200° C Table 2.2. and the range of cooling capacity is given in Table 2. Parameter Typical size COP Ammonia/Water Advanced Cycles AHE GAX 10-90 KW 10-90 KW 0.0.1 for absorption chillers operated with one and two cycles with the working pairs LiBr/H2O and H2O/NH3.160° C C hot water hot water steam steam directly burned 0. An overview of COP values. Due to incomplete sealing of the system. for operating temperatures of more than 100° special C inspections are mandatory e. the absorber and generator (Absorber Heat Exchange.2: Advanced cycles: Absorber Heat Exchange (AHE) and Generator-Absorber heat exchange (GAX).1 Cycle Performance The coefficient of performance for absorption chillers is defined as the useful cooling power related to the heat necessary to drive the process. Table by /Hen04a/ (modified.75 0. a minimum driving temperature of 160° C is necessary. to generate a COP of about 0. Sanyo-McQuay. Moreover.2. producers added). If additional heat exchangers are included in both.6 (for the basic cycle) to about 0. LG Machinery. For GAX cycles (Generator-Absorber heat eXchange). section 2.
UPC (Spain). 15KW). Only few products are on the market with a smaller cooling power.4 Coupling of the Absorption Chillers with a Solar Heating System Solar energy driven absorption chillers can be installed either with an auxiliary energy source (solar assisted system) or without a back up system (stand-alone system).2. 2. A schematic of absorption chillers coupled with a solar heating system and auxiliary energy supply is shown in Figure 2.htm). and some of these absorption chillers are stand-alone.2. and a back-up heating supply system. which leads to increasing investment costs. which corresponds to a specific collector area of about 2. some of the plants are used as heating systems as well. Companies offering absorption chillers are predominantly from USA and Asia (Japan. CPCs) are required to guarantee sufficient efficiencies. Nevertheless.1) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . For LiBr absorption chillers a cooling tower is needed. However.4. Additionally. Absorption chillers with the working pair H2O/LiBr tend to have a longer lifespan than systems with a NH3/H2O working pair. More expensive collector types (e. For low driving temperatures only small efficiencies and capacities can be achieved.g. 2. application. Moreover. Among small absorption chillers the system WFC 10 by Yazaki (35 kW) has the largest market share. small single effect LiBr systems are supplied by the companies Broad Air (20kW). Korea. Table 2. hydraulics. Joanneum Research (Austria).tudelft.3. absorption chillers with a fairly low cooling power are being developed by small companies. Robur Corporation (17kW .nl/ev/res/sace. /Hen02/ the main problems and expected developments in order to achieve a further penetration of absorption chillers in solar-assisted air conditioning systems are the following: The absorption chillers on the market are mainly intended for large-scale applications.9 m² per kW cooling power. vacuum tubes. etc. Most products are directly fired.ocp. and solar collector type are listed for each system.2. a storage tank. Germany). for example Phönix (Germany) and SolarFrost (Austria).2. others are solar assisted systems /Hen04b/.4 (source: Henning /Hen04b/ and http://www. Location. India). and the mean collector area installed is about 250 m². since the collector area is not defined identically. An overview of 36 absorption chillers installed in Europe is shown in section 2.3. it has been shown in the projects listed in table 4 that absorption chillers have been operating successfully and are established on the market. the data are not completely comparable.88kW) and by EAW (Westenfeld.3 Typical Sizes Most single effect absorption chillers available have a cooling capacity of more than 100 kW. The total coefficient of performance (COP) of solar assisted absorption chillers is defined as: COPsol = COPchiller ⋅ ηcoll (2. Nevertheless. There are few manufacturers of double effect absorption chillers. The solar heating system consists of solar collectors.2.4 Advantages and Drawbacks with Respect to Conventional Technologies According to Henning et al.5. INETI (Portugal). China.2. as well as by a number of research institutes (University of Applied Science Stuttgart. 2. Most two-stage absorption chillers are available with a cooling power of more than 100 kW. The mean cooling capacity of these systems is about 87 kW. there is a demand for smaller solar-assisted air-conditioning systems.2. cooling capacity.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 16 of 102 pages The lifespan of absorption chillers is about 15 to 25 years.WP5.
8 0.4.1 Solar Collector According to Henning et al.5.9 0. 2. the higher the supply temperature delivered by the solar collector.1 0.8 0.4: Coupling of an absorption chillers with a solar heating system.3 0.4 0. /Hen04c/ for stand-alone sorption chillers the specific collector area. source: Henning et al.2.3 0. COP and the Figure 2. In addition to the driving temperature the overall system performance depends on the reference conditions like solar irradiation available and desired cooling temperature and demand.2. η 0.8 0. regenerator.5 0.5 0.2.2 0.2.35 (T f -T amb ) / G CPC EDF EHP FPC SAC SYC η collector stationary compound parabolic concentrator direct-contact evacuated tube collector heat-pipe evacuated tube collector flat-plate collector solar air collector evacuated tube collector (Sydney type) Figure 2.2 0.2.7 0. As shown in Figure 2.2 0.5 0.25 0. was roughly chosen according to the following equation (rule of thumb): NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .2 0.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 17 of 102 pages CT SC ABC B HS G C A ABC B C CS CT E G HS SC absorber absorption chillers thermal backup system condenser cold storage cooling tower evaporator generator heat storage solar collector A E CS Figure 2. Collector types suitable for single and double-effect absorption chillers are shown in Figure 2. defined as the collector area per nominal cooling capacity.3 0.1 0 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 TG [° C] COP 0.15 0.3 0. high efficiency collectors even at high temperatures are decisive for an economic and effective operation of absorption chillers. system over the temperature in the /Hen04d/ (changed).6 η collector .5: Collector efficiency.1 0 0.1 0 0 0.WP5.6: Collector efficiency curves of various resulting overall efficiency of the collector types.05 0. the lower the collector efficiency and the higher the COP of the absorption chillers. Thus.2.6 0.6.7 0.7 0.4 0. 0.4 0.6 1 0.
8 temperature tolerances. Small stores. or chilled water. Thus. in average 2.3: Characteristics of cold stores.2.2) ηcollector collector efficiency at design conditions. small heat losses. The Figure 2. The working principle.. A mixture with water and few other elements make freezing possible at the desired temperature (typically near 8° The mixture is encapsulated C). Eutectic salts / H2O Small stores.04 0. performance of the 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 absorption chillers. supply temperatures.12 0.2. for domestic hot water. Inexpensive. the stores are still being developed. Cold can be stored as Eutectic salts and water.7.20% of the size compared to a cold water store.g.14 0. ηcollector = 50%.. are Large storage sizes. Ice store Ice is stored in the tank.50% compared to stores with eutectic salts.4). COP coefficient of performance. air conditioning. 0.00 G⊥ global irradiation. for direct air flow drying is not necessary.16 0. depending on the hot water COP 0..06 0.18 0. They can either store surplus heat or cold.02 0.2.spec / m ² = with: 1 G ⊥ ⋅ η collector ⋅ COP (2.2. stored cold is shown in Figure 2. Advantage Disadvantage Storage temperatures of 8 – 10° only suitable for C. 10. storage useful temperature difference [K] characteristics (size. and placed in a water store. Method required storage volume [m 3/kWh cold ] Functioning Eutectic salts are a combination of inorganic salts. Cold water store Cold water is stored with typical temperatures of about 6° C.2 Storage Tank In order to store surplus energy in periods with high solar irradiation. and COP = 0.WP5. solar fraction.spec = 3.08 0.2. 2. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . 30.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 18 of 102 pages A coll.. ).2. advantages and disadvantages of these three storage methods are listed in Table 2. no critical chemicals Low temperatures needed.).7: Required storage volume per kWh cold (Henning required storage volume per kWh et al. ice. etc. for G⊥ = 800 W/m².5 chilled application and reference water conditions. Table 2. storage tanks can be installed.6 m² for 1 kW cooling capacity. While the specific collector area for sorption chillers varies between about 1 and 6 m² per kW of installed cooling capacity. like additional solar heat supply (e.7 over the useful temperature difference. the specific design collector area results to Acoll.3.10 0. hot water space heating).20 0.4. insulation. accepted COP 0.9 m² of collector area per kW were installed for the absorption chillers listed in Table 2.2.
2. The heat supplied by the solar collector per m² collector area is described as a function of the optical and thermal losses: & Q coll = G ⋅ ( τα) − k1 (Tav − Tamb ) − k 2 (Tav − Tamb )² A coll (2.1kW (in m²/KW) and the specific collector price (in €/m²). backup heating or cooling systems are installed. Oil. The back-up heating system can either be connected to a heat store or it can be installed between the heat store and the absorption chillers. The costs for the solar collector for 1kW heat delivery for typical reference conditions is then calculated by the product of Acoll.1 Collector Area A rough estimation of the investment costs for the collector area can be calculated from the collector equation (equation 2.4. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . 2. for flat plate collectors to about ETC evacuated tube collector 2000 €/kW for evacuated tube FPC flat-plate collector collectors. These are connected to the cooling loop of the absorption chillers.2. Specific collector areas between about 3 and 5 m²/kWheat and about 2 m²/kWheat are taken into account for these calculations. cooling and heating back-up systems.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 19 of 102 pages 2. or pellet burners are usually used as back-up heating devices.8 (Source: Henning et al.5. In Figure 2. For both.3) & For typical reference conditions and a heat delivery of Q coll = 1KW. For back-up cooling usually conventional compression cooling machines are used. solar irradiation incident on the collector area G = 800 W/m².1kW can be calculated. C. /Hen04c/) investment costs for the solar collector area of various collector types per kW cooling capacity are plotted against the required collector area per kW cooling capacity for different collector parameters and the following reference conditions: ambient temperature: Tamb = 20° C.5 Investment costs 2.3 Back-up System In order to guarantee the functioning of absorption chillers also in times of low irradiation. average fluid temperature in the collector Tav= 95° C. modulation is decisive in order to insure a high overall efficiency of the cooling system. and incident angle Figure 2.2. /Hen04c/) for typical The resulting specific investment reference conditions of single-effect absorption costs range from about 400 €/kW chillers (Tamb = 20° Tav = 95° G = 800 W/m2). gas.3.8: Investment costs over the required absorber area modifier of 1.WP5.2.2. (Source: Henning et al.2. Duffie and Beckman /Duf91/) and the specific collector price. C. the required collector area per kW heat delivery Acoll.2.
2 Absorption chillers Specific costs for absorption chillers per kW cooling capacity with a COP of about 0.4 shows some solar assisted absorption plants operating in Europe.5.WP5. Ausstellungsraum Büroräume Büroräume Büroräume Sportcenter Büroräume verschiedenes Büroräume Büroräume Hotel Laborräume Laborräume Hotel Büroräume Laborräume Büroräume Laborräume Industriegebäude Büroräume Büroräume und Leitzentrale Büroräume. Santiago de Compostela Portugal Italien Österreich Frankreich Verkehrsleitzentrale Baxter / Trento Weinbetrieb Peitler / Steiermark CSTB-Gebäude/ Sophia Antipolis DIREN-Gebäude / Guadeloupe Weinkeller / Banuyls Büroräume Büroräume Büroräume Büroräume Laborräume Kältenetz Büroräume und Laborräume Büroräume Büroräume Ausbildungsräume Büroräume und Laborräume Hotel Hotel Auditorium.2.4: Solar assisted absorption chillers installed in Europe. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .6 Operating plants Table 2. Ausstellungsfläche Weinlager Laborräume Büroräume Weinlager 70 35 70 58 70 7 143 15 168 35 105 105 229 252 105 105 170 170 105 35 105 125 35 35 105 35 105 10 105 115 70 108 10 35 35 52 ETC / 108 FPC / 209 ETC / 20 ETC / 260 ETC / 79 ETC / 615 FPC / 160 FPC / 450 FPC / 450 FPC / 150 ETC / 750 ETC / 120 ETC / 72 ETC / 507 FPC / 1500 ETC / 102 ETC / 96 FPC / 105 ETC / 6 ETC / 345 FPC / 151 ÊTC / 50 FPC / 50 FPC / 160 FPC / 37. 2.7 (driving temperatures 88° C/83° range from about 400 EUR/kW C) (for Pcooling ≈ 35 kW) and about 700 EUR/kW (for Pcooling ≈ 100 kW) (York).D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 20 of 102 pages 2.2.5 ETC / 40 CPC / 214 FPC / 25 ETC / 18 FPC / 504 FPC / 60 CPC / 663 FPC / 108 FPC / 100 ETC / 63 ETC / 61 ETC / 130 Spanien Table 2.(Source: Henning /Hen04b/).2.2. Boecillo Technology Park / Valladolid Siemens Contromatic / Corneliá del Vallés National Institute of Airospecial Techniques INTA / Huelva FONTEDOSO / El Oso Stella-Feuga Building. Land Anlage / Ort Anwendung Leistung [kW] Kollektortyp Kollektorfläche 2 [m ] ETC / 176 ETC / 22 ETC / 244 Wolfferts / Köln Ott & Spies / Langenau Bundespresseamt / Berlin Fraunhofer-Institut Umsicht / Oberhausen Deutschland Bundesverkehrsministerium / Berlin ZAE Bayern / Garching M + W Zander / Stuttgart Technologiezentrum / Köthen American College I / Athen Grichenland Solar Lab Demokritos / Athen Rethymno Village Hotel / Rethymno Lentzakis Crete / Rethymno Social and Cultural Centre Clara Campoamor / Barakaldo Education Department Regional Goverment / Toledo Fabrica de Sol Building / Barcelona Fundación Metrópoli Building / Madrid Daoiz y Velarde Sports Centre / Madrid Head Offices of Inditex / Aretixo (La Coruna) Old Peoples Home / Fustinana (Navarra) University Rovira i Virgili / Tarragona Head Offices of Viessmann Spain / Pinto (Madrid) Belroy Palace Hotel / Benidorm (Alicante) University of Sevilla (School of Engineers) / Sevilla University Carlos III / Leganés (Madrid) Laia Hotel / Derio CARTIF.
their functions are interchanged.3. firing An adsorption chiller consists of two water cooling separate chambers. and evaporates under low partial pressure. which have enormous surface areas per unit weight where they can physically bind water or molecules. Typical cooling powers are between 70 – 400 kW. Each of the 25…35 ° C chambers contains the adsorbent (e. Solar energy is used for the regeneration of the absorbent: regeneration is done by passing hot water through the chamber that is heated by a solar system. Contrary to absorption the adsorption process represents a physical process in which the molecules of one substance are adsorbed on the internal surface of another substance.1: Schematic of the internal chambers of an discontinuously.g. This step produces the useful cooling effect. The binding to the surface is weak and reversible. which is delivered by the solar collectors (electrical energy use is not considered). Once the adsorber is charged and the desorber regenerated. The condensate is sprayed in the evaporator. desorber adsorber silica-gel) and a heat exchanger. activated carbon or alumina.WP5. an evaporator and water 50…90 ° C a condenser (Figure 2. The refrigerant condenses in the condenser and heat of condensation is removed by cooling water. Heat is removed by cooling water.3.1). NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . condenser In the following the functional principle cooling water of adsorption chillers. The refrigerant vapour is adsorbed in the adsorber (left chamber). Typical substances used are silica gel. Application areas for closed systems are the production of cold water which is either used in central ventilation stations (dehumidification) or for decentral air conditioning e.4. the cooling of building elements. The adsorption chiller works Figure 2. for which evaporation heat must be applied.3 2. Suitable adsorbents are porous materials that are insoluble in water. In one phase the adsorption chiller.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 21 of 102 pages 2. The chilled water main difference to a general chiller is 5…12 ° C that the solid sorbent cannot be evaporator circulated. 2. A characteristic performace parameter of adsorption chillers is the coefficient of performance (COP).3.1 ADSORPTION CHILLERS Physical principles Adsorption means the binding of molecules or particles to a surface. The reverse process is called desorption. is explained.7. adsorption process is linked with the evaporation and in another phase the desorption process is linked with condensation. This is the quotient of heat transferred in the evaporator to the heat required for regeneration. During one cooling cycle the following processes take place: The refrigerant adsorbed is driven off through the use of firing water in the desorber (right chamber).2 Classification of adsorption chillers Concerning solar cooling it can be distinguished between closed and open sorption-chilling processes.5 to 0. Heat is driven off from the chilled water which is cooled to the required temperature. In general the COP of adsorption chillers range from 0. During the adsorption process condensation heat is released (exothermic reaction).g. which belong to 25…35 ° C the group of closed systems.
the lower is the relation between adsorbed water mass [kgH20] and mass of the adsorbent (silica-gel) [kgads]. 2. That means that with higher adsorbent temperature less water vapour can be adsorbed until saturation is reached. as the resulting temperature level in the right chamber (desorption chamber) is higher than the temperature level in the condenser. A direct condensation of the evaporated water is energetically not possible for thermodynamic reasons (temperature of the evaporated water is lower than temperature level in the condenser). The higher the temperature of the adsorbent. the adsorbent. This process is reversible and unlimitedly repeatable. It has to be ensured that this heat is driven off the chamber through cooling water. Both are Japanese manufacturers: Nishiyodo (adsorption chiller type: NAK) and Mayekawa (adsorption chiller type: ADR). the evaporating C. Under common atmospheric pressure water evaporates at 100 ° If the pressure drops. If water is sprayed or injected into a vessel under vacuum. it evaporates spontaneously and extracts energy from the surroundings.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 22 of 102 pages There are only two manufacturer of this kind of adsorption chillers worldwide. condensation heat is released during the adsorption process. In the following the adsorption chillers are classified according to their working pair (cooling agent/absorbent). For applications below 0 °C ammonia NH3 can be used as an appropriate cooling agent. but re-condensed within the chiller. a vacuum of 13 – 26 mbar is sufficient. The following factors are essential for the process: Silica-gel can easily take up water without causing a structural change or volume expansion. temperature of the water also decreases.3. wood. Spent activated carbon is regenerated by roasting but the thermal expansion and contraction eventually disintegrate the structure so some carbon is lost or oxidized. But the ammonia/activated carbon pair requires high temperature (>120 ° input heat for C) regeneration. Compared to open systems the evaporated water is not released as steam into the surroundings. 2. In this case silica-gel. By creation of a sufficient vacuum the water evaporates at a lower temperature. a material related to quartz or sand.1 Water/silica-gel This adsorption chiller uses water as its cooling agent. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . It can release easily the stored water due to a temperature increase. The desorbed water vapour can now directly be condensed in the condenser. first the water is adsorbed by a solid carrier material. With the firing water the adsorbed water vapour on the silica-gel (carrier material) is desorbed again and the silica-gel is regenerated. is used as adsorbent. Activated carbon is produced by roasting organic material to decompose it to granules of carbon – coconut shell. For the purpose in the adsorption chiller. as the maximum degree of possible adsorption depends on the temperature level of the adsorbent as well as on the pressure level in the chamber. As the adsorption process is an exothermic reaction.WP5.2. and bone are common sources. The adsorption chiller is a closed system. The evaporation process depends on temperature and pressure.2 Ammonia/activated carbon The disadvantage using water as cooling agent is that it is not a suitable refrigerant for sub-zero temperature application.4. Therefore. Water evaporates in a vacuum at room temperature and because of that it extracts heat from the surroundings (evaporation energy).2. A cooling of the “chilled water” takes place because of this process.
25 m² CPC collectors are used. 50 kW.2 Methanol/silica-gel The disadvantage using water as cooling agent is that it is not a suitable refrigerant for sub-zero temperature application. water/silica-gel.3.2.3. The system has only a COP of about 0.2 Storage of agricultural products in Haipur/India This solar-hybrid adsorption cooling system for decentralized storage of agricultural products in India was jointly designed by TERI (Tata Energy Research Institute) and DLR (German Aerospace Establishment). as sub-zero temperatures have to be produced. 150 m² collector area) Office building Bremen/Germany (MYCOM ADR 184.108.40.206 Others Sarantis cosmetic factory.1 University hospital in Freiburg/Germany The university hospital of Freiburg operates a solar assisted chilled water production using an adsorption chiller. water/silica-gel.3. The advantage of using methanol/silicagel as adsorbate/adsorbent pair is that it may get activated even at a temperature of 60 .70 ° C. Aharnes/Greece Office „An der Loge“. Dresden/Germany The system is a combination of fuel cell. As working pair water/silicagel is used.3. 2.3. 2. As solar collectors. 156 m² flat plate collectors) Office building Remscheid/Germany (MYCOM ADR 30.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 23 of 102 pages 2. As solar collectors. big volume and limited market choice as there are existing only two manufacturers of adsorption chillers up to now. 70 kW. For applications below 0 °C methanol can be used as an appropriate cooling agent.3.3.3. 2. The system is realised with a collector area of 115 m². Dresden/Germany (Nyshiodo NAK 70. solar system and an adsorption chiller with a chilling capacity of 105 kW (type: Mycom ADR 30 from Mayekawa). The big volume of adsorption chillers results out of the necessity to use large heat exchangers.WP5. 105 kW.3. 2. As working pair methanol/silicagel has been used in the adsorption refrigeration unit. water/silica-gel. This is for the reason that the evaporation enthalpy of methanol is lower than that of water and that the temperature level in the evaporator is lower than it is at climatic applications. Silica gel is a matrix of hydrated silicon dioxide. 2. 170 m² vacuum tube collectors from Seido are used.3 Hospital in Kamenz. The following will show an extract of some plants that realize solar cooling with adsorption chillers. The adsorption cooling system is applied for the decentralized cold storage of agricultural products in India where electricity is not available.3 Operating plants Until now only few plants are realised because adsorption chillers show some disadvantages like heavy weight. Another reason is that adsorption chillers are more expensive than absorption chillers. 120 m² collector area) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . as the heat conductivity of silica-gel is very low. The adsorption chiller used is type GBU NAK 70 with a chilling capacity of 70 kW. The cold water is used for air conditioning of a laboratory building.
water/silica-gel. Good heat and mass transfer. (Source: ClimateWell AB). saturated solution is pumped over the heat exchanger where it absorbs the vapour evaporated in the evaporator. and when it reaches saturation point further desorption at the heat exchanger results in the formation of solid crystals that fall under gravity into the reactor vessel. where the process is reversed.2: Schematic of a single unit thermochemical accumulator. 350 kW. The heat of evaporation is provided either by the building (cooling mode) or from the environment (heating mode).4.4.1 THERMO CHEMICAL ACCUMULATOR (TCA) Physical principles The thermo-chemical accumulator (TCA) is an absorption process that uses a working pair. collector area 60 m² flat plate collectors) Cuernavaca/Mexico (MYCOM ADR 50. 176 kW) 2. where the solution is pumped over a heat exchanger via a spreader arm to increase the wetted area and improve heat transfer. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . The heat of condensation and binding energy release is transferred to the environment (cooling mode) or to the building (heating mode). Figure 2. In this way the solution is always saturated and the net result is a dissolving of the crystals into saturated solution. as this occurs with solution.4 2. The process has been developed by the Swedish company ClimateWell AB.4. This makes it significantly different from the traditional absorption processes in that it is a three phase process (solid. thus creating a form of slurry in the bottom of the vessel. water/silica-gel. Constant operating conditions. but when it falls into the vessel it has to pass through the slurry of crystals. During desorption the solution comes closer and closer to saturation. collector area 2000 m² flat plate collectors) Office building Würzburg/Germany (Nyshiodo NAK 70. water/silica-gel. All other absorption processes are two phase processes with either solution + vapour or solid + vapour. Here they are prevented from following the solution into the pump by a sieve. Figure 2. vapour and solution phases but also with solid sorbent /Ols00/.105 kW) Office building Augsburg/Germany (Nyshiodo NAK 100. 70 kW. This gives the TCA the following characteristics: High energy density storage in the solid crystals. where some of the crystals are dissolved to make the solution fully saturated again. and was patented in 2000. with constant temperature difference between reactor and condensor/evaporator.1 shows the schematic of a single TCA unit. water/silica-gel. For discharging. not only in the liquid.WP5. Thus there is a flow of energy from the evaporator at low temperature to the reactor at moderate temperature. The solution becomes unsaturated on the heat exchanger.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 24 of 102 pages University Dortmund/Germany (MYCOM ADR 30. solution and vapour).
in TSE. The physical properties of the working pair 55 Conde 2004 have been summarised in the literature 50 /Con04/ and empirical equations have ClimateWell 2004 been created for them based on data 45 from a large number of studies over ] the last 100 years.3) the main unit was used only for charging and the slave unit only for discharging. ∆Tequ does vary 15 0 20 40 60 80 100 considerably over the operating range Tsol [° C] of the machine. semiconitnuous operation was possible despite the fact that the process is by nature a batch process. ∆Tequ to the temperature of the saturated solution based on Conde’s equations (solid line) and as measured by ClimateWell AB (filled squares). ∆Tequ. as well as higher COP for heat recovery.4.3: Relationship of ∆Tequ to the saturated solution Figure 2. 60 2. By pumping saturated solution and water from the main unit to the slave unit while pumping back dilute solution. However. Note that there is an inbuilt conflict between the energy density for heat storage and the COP for cooling. it has not been possible to include a solution heat exchanger as crystallisation occurs very easily there. This technology has been developed to the demonstration phase with extensive lab and field testing during 2004.in Figure 2. This makes it similar to a standard single-effect LiBr absorption chiller.4. In prototype 2 (Figure 2. TMC. the 40 C ° [ maximum theoretical temperature lift u q e 35 between the reactor and T condensor/evaporator.2 shows the relationship of temperature.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 25 of 102 pages The first TCA units have been built using water/LiCl as the active pair. Note that ∆Tequ is the temperature difference between the evaporator and reactor and that the temperature difference between the liquids in the external circuits is greater than ∆Tequ for charging and smaller for discharging (both cooling and heating). is constant for a ∆ 30 given set of boundary conditions 25 resulting in constant operating conditions.in Water to slave Vatten till evaporator slavevaporator Pump Huvudkondensor/ TMCout Main evaporator Condenser TMR. However.4) there are two identical units that work in batch mode.4.out Huvudreaktor TMR. In prototype 7 (Figure 2. A higher binding energy for water to the salt will result in higher energy density storage. but lower COP for cooling.4. during charging / discharging.2 Classification of TCA machines Two different types of prototype TCA machines have been developed and tested.4. such as solution 20 temperature (Tsol).WP5. Figure 2. with one undergoing charging while the other can provide cooling.in slavreaktor T TSRout Slavreaktor Slave Reactor Pump Pump TSR.3: Schematic of TCA prototype 2. This limits the potential COP for the machine. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .4.out Main Reactor Substans från slavreaktor Slavevaporator Slave Evaporator Pump Substans till SE.
4. It is not in general possible to provide dehumidification by having a low NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Costs are not available. With 40% heat recovery during the swapping of units. In addition. the regeneration temperature is relatively low. the units are swapped using a number of valves connected between the internal heat exchangers and the external circuits. although other types might be more economically viable in certain cases. depending on the charging rate and ambient C temperature.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 26 of 102 pages When either the unit being charged is fully charged or the other unit is fully discharged. a COP of 75% should be possible to achieve.WP5. although prototype machines have been sold to a number of parties. The main advantage of the technology is the integral heat storage that makes it very suitable for intermittent heat sources such as solar. called ClimateWell DB220. 8 valves for controlling internal processes Tubes connected to the external circuits Condensor / evaporator – Heat exchanger Reactor – Heat exchanger Salt filter basket 180 mm Connection unit Barrel 2000 mm Internal pumps 700 mm 700 mm Figure 2. ClimateWell DB220. The integral storage capability allows the machine to provide up to 50 kWh cooling if both units have been fully charged. is 70% with no heat recovery. The design COP for cooling of the prototype 7 machine. but in heat pump mode a minimum temperature of 5° is required for the evaporation of C water. Here the performance is very dependent on the heat exchange with the ambient and with the air inside the building. although this figure is partially dependent on the cooling rate. The machines that have so far been made are best viewed as prototypes. The main disadvantages of the technology are the limited temperature lift during discharge. There is no commercial production in 2004. being roughly 50-65° above ambient.4: Schematic of TCA prototype 7. The design COP for recovery of heat from the machine is 87%. This is possible to achieve with flat plate collectors.
Accordingly the technical equipment of DEC-systems abandons totally a use of refrigerant medium with high potential of global warming. Another C disadvantage is the cost of the LiCl in the machine. supplying fresh air and controlling humidity and temperature of supply air.5 DESICCANT COOLING FOR AIR-CONDITIONING In general air-conditioning equipment has to fulfil following objectives: Compensation of external loads (thermal transmission through the building envelope and solar gain through window) and of internal loads (latent and sensible heat of persons.WP5. The control of humidity and temperature of the supply air depends on the evaporator temperature of the compression cycle. The ventilation system supplies the fresh air in accordance to the hygienic needs. Desiccant cooling systems (DEC-systems) operate as well as a fully air-conditioning unit. and a delivery system with 12/15° or even higher is preferable. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . However. 2. there are a number of solar cooling plants that have been built during 2004 with the prototypes. less expensive. Italy and Spain. Measurement data are not at present available.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 27 of 102 pages delivery temperature. i. 2. heat recovery wheel heating coil desiccant wheel return air humidifier 8 exhaust air fan 7 6 filter return air 9 5 ambient air supply air 1 filter fan 4 2 3 supply air humidifier Figure 2. machines and other thermal heat sources) Dehumidification/ Humidification of supply air Cooling/ Heating of supply air Supply of fresh air according to hygienic needs Traditional air-conditioning systems are more or less a combination of a ventilation system and a cooling device which is normally a conventional compression chiller. Prototypes have also been installed with heat supplied from district heating in Sweden.e.5. DEC-systems use sorption based air dehumidification with the help of liquid or solid sorption materials and the evaporative cooling effect. Consequently the air-treatment in DEC-systems is based on two physical principles: dehumidification and evaporation. The reliability is still an open question as the technology is still in relatively early stage of development.4. Other. dehumidification is realised by evaporator temperatures below the dew point of the supply air. The compression chiller provides chilled water to cool the supply air. These are located in Sweden.1: General scheme of a desiccant cooling air-handling unit.3 Operating plants This is a new technology as stated previously. salts are being investigated.
The dehumidification is based on sorption which is an exothermal process effecting an air 60 temperature increase.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 28 of 102 pages A standard desiccant cooling system consists on several different technical components which is shown in Figure 2. This most common DEC-system is generally separated by a supply air and a return air stream.whether liquid or solid – can be realised by providing regeneration heat. There is a strict dependency between temperature and humidity due to the adiabatic 0 humidification process. Of particular interest is the coupling with thermal solar energy. That means the % heat of the sorption process which causes a 30 temperature decrease of the supply air is 5 transferred to the return air. 80 The supply air fan sucks ambient air into the DEC-system passing primarily a filter unit. The filtered arsenal research/Austria) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .5. Therefore the open air-conditioning process of a DEC-system can be described and explained by a psychometric chart for moist air. Due to this low driving temperatures economic advantages arise particularly for DEC-systems when it is coupled with district heating or heat supplied from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant.5. DEC-Systems according to this scheme are typically applied ϕ=5% in moderate climates. 2.2: Psychometric chart for moist air showing the state changes for a driven motor of the fan. This warm and dry air is pre% cooled by the rotation heat recovery wheel 7 (3). The required temperatures for an efficient regeneration of the desiccant wheel are in a range of 45° up to 90° C C. Representative air states which appear in standard desiccant cooling cycles using a rotating desiccant wheel are shown in Figure . The cooling potential is enabled by using 40 ϕ = 50 1 the return air humidification. the supply air 3 20 humidifier can be used to control humidity and 6 temperature (4). In practise there is 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 another temperature increase of about 1 Kelvin to the rejected heat of the electrical Figure 2. 8 The filtered ambient air is dehumidified by the ϕ = 10 70 % rotating desiccant wheel (2).5. Following the thermo dynamical principle the temperature and the 4 10 humidity can not be controlled separately. The supply air fan desiccant cooling process (Source: sucks ambient air into the DEC-system passing primarily a filter unit.WP5. fans. To guarantee a continuous operating air-conditioning process the desiccant material which is permanently charged with water molecules has to be discharged/ regenerated also constantly.1. Furthermore it is composed on standard components of air-conditioning units such as filters.1 Physical principles Contrary to thermally driven chillers producing chilled water which can be supplied to any type of air-conditioning equipment the open desiccant cooling cycle produce directly conditioned air. To provide the ϕ = 100 % required supply air state. In Figure 2. heat recovery.2 the ϕ = 20 % psychometric chart for moist air the thermo 9 2 dynamical process is approximately an 50 ϕ = 30 adiabatic one.5. heating or cooling coils and humidifiers. The regeneration process of the desiccant material . In comparison to standard air-handling units the desiccant wheel is additionally implemented which dehumidifies the supply air to enlarge the potential of evaporative cooling.
Regarding the overall performance of the DEC-system especially the heat recovery efficiency has to be as high as possible.5.g. the water molecules bound in the pores of the desiccant material of the sorption wheel is desorbed by means of the hot air (9).2 the thermodynamic term of the COP is defined as: Coefficient of performance [-] COP = Cooling output Driving heat input & mPr ocessAir (h4 − h1 ) COP = & mRe generationAir (h8 − h7 ) The definition of refrigeration capacity and room cooling capacity are: Refrigeration capacity [kW] & & QRC = mPr ocessAir (h4 − h1 ) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 29 of 102 pages ambient air is dehumidified by the rotating desiccant wheel (2). The internal and external loads of the air-conditioned room normally cause an increase of temperature and humidity (5).2 Coefficient of performance The definition of the Coefficient of Performance COP for open air-conditioning methods is based on a thermal energy balance on the system.is generally spoken the quotient of the thermal cooling output and the driving heat input. The DEC-process can be summarised as follows: 1→2 sorptive dehumidification of supply air. In difference to the definition of efficiency the COP can be greater than 1. for instance by hot water generated by solar thermal collectors 8→9 regeneration process of the desiccant material.1 this fact is not illustrated.we consider . The provided regeneration heat effects the desorption process. a heat recovery wheel 7→8 regeneration heat is powered by a heating coil. The heat recovery from (6) to (7) leads to a temperature increase.WP5. In the following process step the exhaust air is heated by a heating coil up to the regeneration temperature (8). e. The driving heat input of the DEC-system corresponds to the enthalpy difference between outlet and inlet air of the regeneration heating coil. The return air passes the second humidifier of the DEC-system which is almost humidified very close to the saturation point (6). i. the water bound by pores of the desiccant material of the sorption wheel is desorbed by means of regeneration air 2. This so called evaporative cooling of the exhaust air is an indirect method to pre-cool the supply air. the process is almost adiabatic and the air is heated by the adsorption heat and the warmed wheel matrix coming from the regeneration side 2→3 pre-cooling of the supply air in counter-flow to the return air from the building 3→4 evaporative cooling of the supply air to the desired supply air humidity by means of a humidifier 4→5 supply air temperature and humidity are increased by means of internal an external loads 5→6 return air from the building is cooled using evaporative cooling close to the saturation 6→7 the return air is pre-heated in counter-flow to the supply air by means of a high efficient air-to-air heat exchanger. The heat recovery wheel only transfers sensible heat between exhaust air and supply air. According to Figure 2.5. The thermal cooling output or use is the enthalpy difference between ambient air and room inlet air. The COP . To enforce the required flow rate the exhaust air fan is finally implemented.e. The dehumidification is based on sorption which is an exothermal process effecting an air temperature increase. this heating coil is driven by hot water. A proper design of the fan is recommended in such a way that the heat added to the supply air is minimised. In Figure 2.5.
electrical and thermal. Thus. a constant latent load is assumed.1 General ventilation systems The general design of a DEC-system is based on the same design conditions.8 kW per 1000 m³/h which corresponds to a refrigeration power range from 7.WP5. which are guilty for conventional air-conditioning system.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 30 of 102 pages Room cooling capacity [kW] & & QRCC = m Air (h5 − h4 ) The Room cooling capacity corresponds to sensible and latent cooling load of the room. Considering a normalised C flow rate of 1000 m³ per hour the air-handling unit treats the ambient air by a refrigeration power of 6. A DEC-system is an overall air-conditioning system which also compensates cooling loads by using ventilated air. This sensitivity analysis takes C. Ignoring these elementary design aspects the ventilation system would lead sooner or later to a sick building syndrome (SBS).3 shows an example for a typical design for Central Europe. Regarding a total energy balance the COP should also take into account all terms of energy consumptions. If the supply air temperature verifies between 15° and 21° the air-conditioning system covers a specific C C cooling load from 4.57 g/kg.448 kW per 1000 m³/h to blow the required supply air into the room. offices or seminar rooms – for comfort reasons the supply air temperature should not fall below 15° C. Furthermore it is unacceptable to force indoor air velocity by increased flow rates of the installed ventilation system. lighting or technical equipment . 2. Figure 2. A cooling load of 4.896 g/kg). hotels.1 kW per 1000 m³/h to 5.5. Figure 2. With open systems.3. For such reason DEC-systems entail greater loss of pressure and therefore more electricity to move the air.3 Limits of the thermo dynamical principle 2. In general a air-conditioning system based only on ventilated air (supply and return air ventilation) compensates the thermal loads . e. During the cooling C period the air-conditioning system provides the supply air with a temperature of Tsupply = 17° and a humidity of Xsupply = 10. e. For Central European countries the ambient air is normally defined by a temperature of 32° and a hum idity of 40% which corresponds to 12 g/kg C absolute humidity.1 kW per 1000 m³/h.8 kW per 1000 m³/h down to 2.5.g.4 lists a variation of supply air temperatures and the calculated refrigeration power which is needed to cover a certain cooling load. Due to latent and sensible loads of the room the return air temperature is Treturn = 26° and the humidity is X return = 11. there are practical and thermo dynamical limits regarding the cooling power. the electrical energy powering the fans is of particular importance as a high number of additional components are usually installed compared to conventional ventilation systems. According to the occupant requirements or standard guidelines the air-handling unit has to provide supply air (temperature.5.g. Consequently the cooling load strongly determines the design of the air-conditioning system. humidity and flow rate) to meet the required comfort conditions.by the ventilated air itself. external loads like transmission through the building envelope and solar gains through windows or internal loads like person. Considering a design case where air-conditioning is required for human occupied rooms – e. The return air is assumed as constant and defined as mentioned above (Treturn = 26° X return = 11.g.5.896 g/kg. Therefore the achievable maximal values regarding cooling power or ventilated cooling loads are analogue valid for desiccant cooling systems and limit their application. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .e.g. only in account a variation of sensible load.130 kW per 1000 m³/h can be covered by the ventilation following the defined design conditions.
3.130 18 10.3: Design conditions for air-handling unit in Central Europe.0 Spec.776 ° C % g/kg kJ/kg Figure2.57 85.58 6.6 42.5.776 3.787 Enthalpy difference Ambient .50 5.0 6.60 6.0 0.00 12.57 66.0 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Temperature (supply air) [° C] Cooling power (machine) Cooling load (room) Calculation Supply air temperature humdity relative humdity enthalpy [° C] [g/kg] [%] [kJ/kg] 15 10.123 21 10.251 63.00 11.9 45.448 4. 2. the DEC-system provides supply air with a NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .00 40. dehumidification capacity of around 6 g/kg.57 90.57 70.896 56.e.570 43.60 9.795 19 10.73 21.57 8.0 3.2 47.75 20.78 19.80 18.67 12.Return [kJ/kg] Cooling power (machine) [kW/1000 m³] Cooling load (room) [kW/1000 m³] Figure2.WP5.2 Desiccant cooling systems For moderate climates (warm and humid. cooling power or cooling load [kW/1000 m³/h] 7.378 ° C % g/kg kJ/kg exhaust air T RH X Enthalpy Ambient Air 32.55 5.0 1.5.72 14.8 44.0 5.4: Variation of supply air temperatures and the calculated refrigeration power which is needed to cover a certain cooling load. The ambient air is assumed by a temperature of 32 ° and C a humidity of 40% which corresponds to 12 g/kg absolute humidity.466 17 10.62 10. Assuming that the dehumidification performance of the sorption wheel is more or less ideal.85 16.53 5.00 85. The return air is assumed as constant and defined as mentioned above (Treturn = 26° X return = 11.783 4.65 11.104 2.87 15.119 4.57 74.459 20 10.896 g/kg).57 79.0 43.112 3.70 13.83 17.440 3.00 m T RH X Enthalpy Return Air 26.Supply [kJ/kg] Enthalpy difference Supply . C.6 41.00 55. 8.802 16 10.4 46.0 4. i.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 31 of 102 pages DEC Design sealevel 200.00 10.57 96. humidity values lower than 15 g/kg) DEC-systems are a capable application for air-conditioning (/Eic01/).5. Especially in extreme dry climates airconditioning can be based on evaporative cooling without any sorption wheel.447 ° C % g/kg kJ/kg T RH X Enthalpy Supply Air 17.0 2.63 6.65 7.
Two heat recovery wheels in sequence are implemented in system configuration VII. Only DEC-system configuration VI represents a combination between air-conditioning by ventilated air and a cooling ceiling which is provided by cold water of the heat pump.WP5. Cooling ceilings only cover sensible cooling loads. Thi s consideration take into account the C standard design conditions for air-conditioning systems in Central Europe (Tamb = 32° C. V and VI in Figure 2.6 are classified as cascade system configuration. RHamb = 40%).4 Configuration of Desiccant cooling systems Analogue to the immense diversity of conventional air-conditioning system configuration DECsystem design are also manifold.5. heating coil supplied by solar energy Figure 2.5.5 g/kg.g. DEC-systems consist on different components.6 g/kg. heat recovery wheel.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 32 of 102 pages temperature of 15° and a humidity of 9. Without any dehumidification by sorption the air-handling unit (supply air humidifier and adiabatic cooling of the exhaust air) only obtains a supply air temperature of around 20° The humidity values exceed already the required supply air humidity of maximal C. DEC-Systems I.5.5: Configuration of DEC-systems considered as single-stage or cascade DEC-systems (source: Heinrich/ Franske »Solargestützte Klimatisierung«/ Germany) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .and their position in the system itself verify. The humidifier efficiency is lower than 95% and the efficiency of the heat recovery wheel is in practice between 70% and 75%. In such systems an additional heat pump contributes to transfer sensible heat from the supply air to the exhaust air. desiccant wheel. II.5. e. DEC-systems in operation provide supply air temperatures in the range of 17° and 19° C C (standard design conditions). 11. humidifier . 2. heating or cooling coil.5 illustrates promising DEC-system configuration designed for climates of Central Europe (/Eic97/). In two steps the exhaust air is humidified in order to achieve an improved overall heat transfer performance of both heat recovery wheels. IV. Figure 2.5.5 are classified as single-stage system configuration. VII and VIII in Figure 2.
The application of direct heated regeneration air results in improved collector performances but the installation and assembly of the air ducts is more complicate and extravagant.5. The regeneration heat is supplied by a water-air heat exchanger (Source: University Hamburg Harburg / Germany). A detailed description of such a DEC-system configuration takes places in chapter 2. For regions with a humid and warm climate DEC-system with cascade configuration are recommended.5 Desiccant Wheel In practise DEC-systems are commonly equipped with desiccant wheels. Consequently the design of the heat pump leads to smaller capacities which do have two positive impacts.except for DEC-System VIII .6: Schematic drawing of a desiccant wheel compound (left). In this case the DEC-system performance should benefit from adiabatic evaporative cooling in the exhaust air stream because the design evaporator temperature of the heat pump can be higher.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 33 of 102 pages Concerning the applicable solar collector (heat sources) for the regeneration process all DECsystem configurations . Figure 2. During the cooling period ambient air is heated by means of the solar air collector and is used to regenerate the desiccant wheel.5. DEC-System configuration VIII is designed for a direct regeneration air heating. Finally DEC-systems consume less primary energy or operate more efficient than conventional air-conditioning systems. An Example of a desiccant wheel integrated into a cassette is on the right (Source: Klingenburg GmbH / Germany) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . The permanent rotation of the desiccant wheel facilitates supply air dehumidification which results in a continuously operating air-conditioning process. The advantage of this DEC-system configuration is that there is no heat transfer from water to air.WP5. DEC-system cascades with integrated heat pumps and cooling ceilings are more or less the most sufficient system configurations to meet the required comfort demand.5. The heating coil in the supply air stream can also be driven by heat from the solar collector.7 where examples for solar driven DEC-system are presented. Water-air heat exchangers operate normally with a temperature level decrease which would be a disadvantage for the required high regeneration temperatures.are suitable configurations for solar collectors with liquid fluids. The solar heat provides the heating coil mounted in the exhaust air stream just in front of the desiccant wheel. 2. The overall DEC-system performance is improved when the design of the heat pump condensator covers the required regeneration heat. On the one hand the primary energy consumption of the DEC-system is reduced and on the other hand the investment cost of the overall DEC-system is lower. The rotation is driven via a belt drive.
The listed data are provided by Klingenburg.4 Process air B 4.1 19. In such system the desiccant wheel is regenerated by a reduced air-flow.04 3.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 34 of 102 pages The desiccant wheel is quite similar constructed to a heat recovery wheel.27 9649 9649 9543 9543 T T [° [°C]C] x [g/kg] x [g/kg] r [%] r [%] v [m³/h] v [m³/h] mm [kg/h] [kg/h] OUT OUT 48.04 15. As a basic principle a rotating matrix is passed through two air streams in counter-flow.9 Process air A 5.5.7: Performance data for a desiccant wheel which was proposed for a DEC-system in the frame of the European INCO-Copernicus Project DESODEC in Armenia (Source: Fraunhofer ISE / Freiburg / Germany) Table 2. This Figure 2.1 Regeneration air 32 12.87 36. An example of a typical desiccant wheel performance under design conditions is shown in Figure 2.0 54.0 46.87 27.5 18.6 Regeneration air 35 15.0 Process air D 5. ceramic binders and heat resistant plastics.4 Process air C 5.6 70 15.00 8975 8975 9543 9543 T TC]C] [° [° x [g/kg] x [g/kg] r [%] r [%] v [m³/h] v [m³/h] mm [kg/h] [kg/h] ess proc air ir ss a oce pr cleaning section Figure 2.7 19.1 70 14. so that different dehumidification rates appear. The regeneration air-flow is designed by 80% of the process air-flow.1: Performance data of a desiccant wheel design for an air-flow of 3000 m³/h (Source: Klingenburg 1999) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .1 lists performance data of a desiccant wheel which is designed for an air-flow of 3000 m³/h.5. Figure 2.9 9.73 7226 7226 7157 7157 o erati egen r n ai r ir ration a regene T TC]C] [° [° x [g/kg] x [g/kg] r [%] r [%] v [m³/h] v [m³/h] mm [kg/h] [kg/h] T T [° [°C]C] x [g/kg] x [g/kg] r [%] r [%] v [m³/h] v [m³/h] mm [kg/h] [kg/h] ININ 32. In comparison to heat recovery wheels the matrix of desiccant wheels is additionally coated with solid desiccant material. Typically applied solid materials are silica-gel or zoelite and other hygroscopic chemical compounds.6 Regeneration air 35 15.00 15.96 59.05 27.57 5.19 48.00 48.73 36.5.0 48.5.00 85.7.19 15.96 5.57 4.8 18.7 represents performance data for a desiccant wheel which is applied in a DEC-system of the European Project DESODEC in Armenia (INCO-COPERNICUS Programme of Commission of the European Communities).91 7898 7898 7157 7157 OUT OUT 59.0 53.91 3.0 48. Inlet air Outlet air Dehumidification rate [g/kg] [° C] [g/kg] [° C] [g/kg] 32 12.0 47.5. C ININ 85.27 4.00 15.6 shows the general construction.2 6.4 7. including glass.0 44.05 48.00 32. The shown desiccant wheel is designed for a volume flow of 8 500 m³/h.2 10. The regeneration heat is provided by flat-plate collectors which generate a regeneration air temperature of 85° in the design point. The temperature and humidity values of both process air and regeneration air differ. The basic material which forms the supporting structure is a mix of different fibres.WP5.5.9 Regeneration air Table 2.0 50.0 60 15.6 60 12.
The 40 ϕ = 50 % energy associated with the sorption and desorption processes is equal to the latent 1 heat of condensation plus a differential heat 30 of sorption. Germany NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .8 illustrates both the ϕ=5% 80 dehumidification mode and the enthalpy mode. According to statements of desiccant wheel manufactures typical dehumidification capacities are in a range of 4 to C.2) on the process side of the ϕ = 10 % 70 wheel. During the test the rotation speed was verified by values of 10. If the desiccant wheel rotates with 8-14 rotations per minute. enthalpy recovery process is Figure 2.8: Psychometric chart for moist air The showing the state changes for represented on the psychometric chart along dehumidification of air in a desiccant a line which connects both inlet air points for wheel (Source: Arsenal research) the two streams – see again Figure 2. As mentioned above at high rotation speeds the enthalpy recovery 10 desiccant wheel performs as an enthalpy recovery wheel. The supply air is dehumidified (state 8 change 1 . 1 Test facilities at University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart. The maximal dehumidification capacity occurs with 15 rotations per hour.9).9 illustrates some measurement results1 of a market available desiccant wheel. Especially in wintertime heat and moisture recovery from the return stream 0 is required thus the overall performance of 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 the DEC-system benefits from the desiccant wheel only by increasing the rotation speed. Providing a regeneration temperature of 70° and C rotating the wheel by 15 rotations per hour the dehumidification leads to values of round about 6 gH2O/ kg Dry Air. It is beneficial to have a low total ϕ = 100 % heat of sorption. Depending on the values of humidity and regeneration temperature the dehumidification capacity is a function of rotation speed. it performs as an enthalpy recovery wheel. Using the desiccant wheel in the dehumidification mode the rotation speed is generally in the range of 6 .D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 35 of 102 pages In dependence of the rotation speed the desiccant wheel operates in two different modes – on one hand the dehumidification mode and on the other hand the enthalpy recovery mode.12 rotations per hour.8.5. the state change is also affected by the heat stored in the rotor 20 matrix on the regeneration side.5. Figure 2.WP5. The performance of desiccant wheels is mainly characterised by the dehumidification capacity which describes a number of bounded water per kilogram dry air.5. The desorption of ϕ = 20 % dehumdification the water bounded in the desiccant material 9 2 on the process side is activated since the 50 ϕ = 30 % vapour pressure of the water bound in it exceeds the partial pressure of the water vapour in the warm regeneration air.5. In addition. 6 gH2O/ kg Dry Air for a regeneration temperature of 70° To operate the desiccant wheel with an optimal performance the rotation speed is one of the important parameter. Figure 2. The return air is heated up to a sufficient regeneration temperature which flows through the regeneration side of the 60 wheel (state change 8 . 15 and 20 rotations per hour.
25 – 4.WP5.50 – 3.50 – 3. Figure 2. New Proprietary SiGel. Sieves Al oxide. The cleaning sector is used only if it is intended to prevent soiling or entrained olfactory impacts.5 m 0.10 – 4.10 – 6.0 m 0.0 m Table 2.5. Consequently the temperature increase of the supply Sciences Stuttgart/ Germany) air is lower which results in an improved performance of the overall desiccant system. Sieves SiGel. Mol.60 – 5. Sieves SiGel. Silicates. Silicates. The list does not claim to be exhaustive (Source: Handbook IEA SHC Task 25.5.10: Influence of the required air-flow on the diameter of a DEC-system is an important of the desiccant wheel (Source: Klingenburg / issue during planning phase Germany) especially for an installation in existing buildings. For example the DEC-system is designed for an air-flow of 12 500 m³ per hour the diameter of a sufficient desiccant wheel is air-flow [m³/h] around 2000 mm.9 is a schematic illustration of such a system with an additional fresh air zone.30 – 4.9: Influence of rotation speed and regeneration side is pre-cooled by the cooler temperature on the dehumidification capacity of a desiccant wheel (Source: University of Applied ambient air.25 – 4. New Proprietary SiGel.10 shows the influence 1 000 of the required air-flow on the 500 diameter of the desiccant wheel.0 m 0. there is a hygienic benefit. Mol.5.0 m 0.0 m 0. Mol. Am. Stored heat Regeneration temperature [° C] in the matrix on the regeneration Figure 2.g. AlTi. In addition the heat transfer from the regeneration side to the supply air side is also minimised.5 m 0. LiCl SiGel. e. Sieves 45 000 25 000 - Wheel Size 0. This particular zone is passed by fresh ambient air and reduces the percentage of exhaust air transfer to the supply air. Focusing on the general design of 4 000 a DEC-system the desiccant 3 500 wheel diameter strongly 3 000 determines the geometric 2 500 dimension of the air-handling unit 2 000 itself. Mol.5.0 m 0.2: Manufacturers and product description of sorption dehumidifiers. matrix diameter [mm] Dehumidification [g/kg] 10 000 15 000 20 000 30 000 35 000 40 000 Company Munters USA Munters AB Seibu Giken Nichias DRI Klingenburg PorFlute Rotor Source NovelAire 5 000 Country of origin USA Sweden Japan Japan India Germany Sweden US US Desiccant SiGel. Mol. 2003).D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 36 of 102 pages Some manufactures of desiccant wheels offer additionally a cleaning sector located between the supply air and exhaust air stream. 1 500 Figure 2. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .50 – 3. New Proprietary SiGel. Silicates.0 m 0. Sieves SiGel.5. AlTi. The dimension Figure 2.
5.g. where cooled contact surfaces are humidified with a concentrated liquid sorbent material using the falling film technique.5. In contrast to the case of the solid sorbents. They also should not contain any volatile material other than water. Particularly with regard to the coupling with solar thermal NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .collector area. The sorbent material is diluted during dehumidification of the air. Figure 2. Since 2003 a pilot DEC-system design for a volume flow of 1500 m³/h is implemented at Fraunhofer Solar Building Innovation Centre (SOBIC) in Freiburg/Germany.6 DEC-system with liquid sorbent materials Open desiccant air-conditioning systems with liquid sorbent materials work according to the same principle as all open processes: ambient air is dehumidified by means of sorption and cooled by water evaporation.5. According to the strict limitations for ventilation systems in which materials come in direct contact with the environment the used solutions should be non-toxic and environmentally friendly. Prices for desiccant wheels differ strongly on the size of the air-handling unit. e.. 2. on the applied materials and on the manufactures itself. liquid sorbent agents which consist principally of salts dissolved in water are mainly used. It is important to mention that desiccant wheels are not an independent market product but are purchased by manufacturers of air-handling units. Another concept is focused on a compact central evaporative cooling unit. Figure 2. The tested system performance allows an optimistic market perspective for such desiccant cooling system with liquid sorption material. In cooperation Menerga and the University of Essen/ Germany developed such compact DEC-system which is shown in Figure 2.2 shows a list of desiccant wheel manufacturers provided by the handbook of IEA SHC Task 25. but absorption. Ambient air is dehumidified in the absorber. In practise there are different ways to assemble such DEC-systems with liquid sorbent material.12. In an air-flow regenerator it is Figure 2. In such liquid desiccant system water serves as the refrigerant. In practice. lithium chloride or calcium chloride.11: Schematic drawing of a desiccant heated up to 60-80° and re-concentrated.11 shows a DEC-system with liquid sorbent material optimised for solar operation. it is possible to achieve an energy storage density of up to 280 kWh/m² by using a special internally cooled absorber without diminishing the dehumidification potential of the concentrated solution. These hygroscopic salts lower the vapour pressure of water in solution sufficiently to absorb humidity from the air.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 37 of 102 pages World wide there are more than 9 manufactures of desiccant wheels. C cooling unit using liquid sorption and Heat recovery from the air and the sorbent solar(source: Menerga/Germany) driven material increases the efficiency and saves regeneration (Source: ZAE Bayern . The sorption heat is transferred to the exhaust air through a composite circuit system and an indirect evaporation cooler so that the ambient air is dehumidified and cooled at the same time. A downstream cooler cools the dry air below room temperature.5. When using the usual aqueous lithium chloride solution as a sorbent. the water bonding mechanism is not adsorption. Table 2.WP5.11 is a schematic drawing of the system with liquid sorption and solar regeneration which is developed by ZAE Bayern/ Germany. Energy can be stored by Germany) storing diluted and concentrated sorbent separately.5.5. A large number of working fluid pairs are available for closed absorption refrigerating machines but there are only a small number of suitable materials for open liquid-based systems.
However.13: View of the IHK building in events and both were originally only equipped Freiburg / Germany (Source: with an air ventilation system without airconditioning function. not least. the physical separation of supply and exhaust air-flows could help establish them in combination with solar systems.5. The DEC-system was designed as a solar autonomous DEC-system. conditions in Fraunhofer ISE/ Germany). In summer the ambient air is heated by means of the solar air collector and is used to regenerate the sorption wheel. the rooms during summer were very often uncomfortable.5.5. 2. The top floor of the building is designed with large glazed facades to the east.1 Freiburg/ Germany In Figure 2.5.7. so it has been decided to install an air-conditioning system. Due to this architectural design the cooling load of both seminar room and small cafeteria located on this top floor – correlates with solar gains during sunny and warm days.3. lower possible regeneration temperature with the same dehumidification potential due to cooling of the sorption process. The design values for the desiccant air-handling unit are listed in Table 2. heat recovery and evaporative cooling return air solution cooler.7 Examples of DEC-System plants 2.12: Schematic drawing of a central evaporative cooling unit operating on the principle of a liquid sorption and solar regeneration (Source: Menerga / Germany) Desiccant cooling systems with liquid sorbent materials are more complex than systems with rotors and are not yet available on the market. and the potential of efficient energy storage and.13 is shown the Chamber of Trade and Commerce for the south-west region of Germany (IHK Südlicher Oberrhein).5. Some fundamental advantages such as potentially higher overall efficiency due to greater potential of heat and refrigeration recovery. heater regenerator exhaust air supply air ambient air water pump solution pump absorber Figure 2.WP5.5. the west and the south. The air-handling unit is directly ducted to the solar air collector system without any back-up heat and thermal storage.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 38 of 102 pages energy the desiccant cooling is an attractive technical concept to reduce primary energy consumption for air-conditioning. The building is located in Freiburg and was constructed in 1992. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Both seminar room and cafeteria are mainly used for meetings or other Figure 2.
In many days in summertime of the south-west Austria the cooling load was covered by the NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . in the western part of the of 2000 l water puffers the energy for cooling building (Source: Arsenal research and heating. 2.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 39 of 102 pages Table 2. The research house is used for seminars and conferences on the one hand and on the other hand.5. A tank outdoor.7. as reference system.14: The DEC-system is installed heater provide the regeneration energy. The real performance of the system for the period between July 2001 and January 2002 was investigated by Fraunhofer ISE/ Freiburg.WP5. Adiabatic evaporative cooling mode. but except on two days the design value of 60% relative humidity is met. it consists of an office infrastructure. in which return air is used for regeneration.2 Hartberg/ Austria The research house is located in the Ökopark Hartberg which is about 3. It is a building with two floors (each about 140 m²) with a glass facade in the south (in the lower part there are 11 vacuum tube collectors). During operation in winter the solar air collector is used for preheating of fresh air before it enters the heat recovery system. system the office building is air-conditioned in summer.5.5 km in the south of Hartberg in Styria (South/East of Austria). It can be mention that the maximum room temperature corresponding to the comfort zone is exceeded only during a very few hours. According to the design study it was estimated that the system would save about 30% of primary energy compared to a reference system. Desiccant mode. The heat to regenerate the desiccant wheel is supplied by two options. Solar collectors or a mobile pellet biomass Figure 2. The absolute primary energy consumption of the reference system was calculated as 25922 kWh and that of the desiccant cooling system with solar air collectors as the heat source as 18162 kWh. additional heat to regenerate the desiccant wheel is required Based on the results of a measurement campaign and the experience with such a system it could be mentioned that the operation mode “adiabatic evaporative cooling” is quite sufficient. The energy figures are valid for the entire year.5. An air-handling unit with heat recovery and a conventional compression chiller for dehumidification and temperature control was assumed. electrical power for the fans and liquid water to humidification is required 2. Concerning the cooling this DEC-system operates in two modes: 1. In case of high solar gains the heat recovery wheel is not operated. The humidity value is exceeded more often. The DEC-system is designed for an air flow of 6000 m³/h which corresponds to a cooling capacity of 30 kW.3: Design values for the desiccant airhandling unit at IHK building in Freiburg (Source: Fraunhofer ISE / Germany) The DEC-design requires an additional fan compared to standard systems. Using a biomass/solar driven DEC/ Austria). including the heating season. is heated in winter and is supplied by fresh air in the intermediate season.
The heat produced by the photovoltaic modules is transferred into a 14 cm wide air gap.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 40 of 102 pages operation mode “adiabatic evaporative cooling”.3 m/s and the maximum temperature level increase is between 10-15K. The thermal efficiency of the ventilated photovoltaic system is rather low (12-15%). In any case.3 Mataró/Spain The building was equipped with four conventional air conditioning units. amongst the cooling systems that can be coupled with low to medium temperature solar thermal collectors. Germany) 3500 m² used surface. The common regeneration ventilator is volume flow controlled to provide a regeneration temperature between 50 and 70° C. which is exhausted by the desiccant cooling regeneration fan. 2. A desiccant cooling plant with a process air Figure 2.6 2. The desiccant cooling system is coupled with combined solar thermal energy system. On the other hand. this topic is part of the wider problem regarding the exploitation of solar energy for power generation. Consequently if the obtained results should be somehow NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . because flow velocities in the many parallel large air gaps reach only 0.5 cm air channels are between 3 and 9 m/s and efficiencies are considerably higher (in the range of 50%). Two additional air collector fields in the façade (50 m²) and roof (105 m² at 34° tilt angle) increase the temperature level to the required regeneration air temperature. Days with higher values of humidity require the necessity of operation mode “desiccant cooling”. This corresponds to 93% covering of the cooling demand of 44000 kWh. Concerning the performance of the plant: with a yearly irradiance of 1020 kWh/m² on the vertical south façade and 1570 kWh/m² on the shed roofs the combined solar thermal energy system is calculated to produce nearly 70000 kWh useful thermal energy (April to October). Due to the scientific analyses there are important results on the control strategy development. also the traditional mechanical vapour compression chiller shall be included. The compressor can be operated by the solar driven engine either directly or via a preliminary conversion into electrical energy.5. 2.15: Public library building in Mataró volume flow of 12000 m³/h was installed in a (Source: University of Applied public library building in Mataró (Spain) with Sciences Stuttgart. a low global efficiency of the cooling system has to be expected. where the cooling energy was provided by heat exchangers from a central electrical compressor chiller.WP5. The complete volume flow through the ventilated PV system of 3000-9000 m³/h passes three parallel air collector fields so that flow velocities in the 9.6. in the range of collectors working temperature under investigation. Optimised control strategy minimises significantly the heat demand to drive the DEC-system and additionally it leads to an improved system operation with a high efficiency and reliability.7. The building had a ventilated photovoltaic façade (244 m²) and shed roofs (330 m²) with a total electrical power of 55 kip.5.1 OTHER COOLING SYSTEMS Organic Rankine Cycle In principle. On one hand a PV-solar air preheating system is installed and on the other hand solar air collectors provide the required regeneration air temperature. One of the air conditioning units for the children’s reading and multimedia room with 510 m² surface areas was replaced by the desiccant cooling plant and provides cool fresh air via 15 ceiling air outlets.
the effect of regeneration is negligible. etc. 0. A number of solutions have been designed for a variety of heat sources (solar energy.2: Efficiency in function of maximum cycle temperature. For very low driving temperature.WP5. in place of water allows the achievement of the main following advantages: successful exploitation of low temperature heat sources with an elevated turbine efficiency (up to 85%). due to the reduced RPM of the turbine and the consequent moderate peripheral speed. such like hydrofluorocarbon. grows with the maximum cycle temperature as reported in Figure 2. Despite this general framework. Differently for a top operating temperature around 300° the ratio between the Rankine and C.0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Maximum cycle temperature (° C) Figure 2.6. simple start-stop operations and good part load performance (especially beneficial for the coupling with a discontinuous source such like solar energy)..6. with a quiet operation. due to the high molecular mass and the appropriate critical parameters of the working fluid. According to this premise.3 Efficiency 0.2 0.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 41 of 102 pages encouraging. the use of low grade heat for the production of mechanical / electrical energy in Figure 2. the overall efficiency for the conversion from the thermal energy of the carrier fluid to the mechanical energy available at the drive shaft. so the real cycle tends to approach a Carnot cycle.1: Schematic of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). cooling would simple one of the several potential applications. Concerning this. In conclusion. The use of working fluids. except essentially for the irreversibility due to the expansion in the turbine. within an ample range of power outputs (from few KW to some MWe) and of maximum operating temperatures (from 70 to 350 ° C). due to the absence of moisture in the vapour nozzles. geothermal fluids.2. the corresponding Carnot cycle decreases to some 0. small size plants has been experimented since ’70. perfluorocarbon. by means of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) engines (see Figure 2. EXCHANGER First of all.6. biomass.1 0. low mechanical stress of the turbine and direct drive of the generator or the compressor (without reduction gear). long life and minimum maintenance requirements (considering also the reduced fatigue damage previously stated).1). ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE VAPOUR COMPRESSION CHILLER a brief description of a solar CONDENSER driven vapour compression chiller has been considered EXPANSION VALVE useful in order to get a complete TURBINE REGOLATION COMPRESSOR VALVES overview of solar cooling systems and to give an EVAPORATOR estimation of the advantages HEAT related to the use of thermally SOURCE HEAT driven machines. it must be assessed the technical practicability of this CONDENSER technological option. no erosion of blades.6. process waste heat). the use of low to medium temperature collectors to drive vapour compression machines is certainly viable NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .6.
so that condensation temperature overtakes evaporation temperature and heat flows from the cold reservoir to the hot reservoir. so the values shown in figure are fairly realistic. hypothesizing a maximum working temperature up to about 200° for the collectors un der investigation. transport of solids. which. which impacts also on running costs and dramatically increases the system complexity. even though the coupling between solar collectors and vapour compression chillers is possible. but this type of application is beyond the objectives of the present study. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . due to the introduction of the ORC turbine. The function of the ejector may differ considerably according to the type of process considered. and gas recovery. causing at the exit a low pressure region.WP5.2-0. the global efficiency of an C ORC can range from little less than 10% to little more than 20%. according to the selected solar technology: the inferior limit is referred to conventional collectors working at 70° and the upper value to C parabolic throughout collectors working at 200° C. which amount to more than 15% of the heat of combustion of the fuel. 2. it is to be noted that in this case the losses of the diathermic oil boiler. Therefore this device can completely replace the conventional mechanical vapour compressor within a refrigeration cycle: really it allows to boost the pressure of the working fluid coming from the evaporator. when working as a heat pump and the opportunity of using the electric grid as a storage device. constitute the conventional refrigeration cycle.5. and the expansion valve. even if solar assisted systems for the production of cold via a preliminary conversion into electrical energy should be considered encouraging. However. a number of drawbacks with respect to thermally driven machines are present: low COP within the range 0. In fact the range of working temperature of ORC is compatible with these type of heat source and adequately small size engines (equivalent to 10-500 KW of cooling capacity) are commercially available. Therefore. Details about its use in refrigeration and air conditioning cycles will be given afterwards. A heat source delivers low grade thermal energy to the generator. in addition to the evaporator. which on the other hand cover the most important segment of the cooling market. The basic components of this system are the ejector. are eliminated. together with the mechanical compressor. The cycle is carried out as it follows.6. On the other hand steam ejectors are valuable for several other uses. fully based on mature technologies with limited expectations of development for both the ORC turbine and the vapour compression chiller. especially high cost per unit and heavy management in case of required cooling capacities smaller than 100 KW.3 the arrangement of these components is illustrated. such as high temperature solar thermal systems and photovoltaic. including seawater desalination. The grade of the energy required by this process makes it to be in theory suitable for the coupling with low to medium temperature solar thermal collectors. other technologies are to be investigated. In Figure 2. Furthermore. and the circulation pump. the generator. the condenser. Specific positive aspects of these cooling systems are the full reversibility with a significantly higher COP.6. due to the limitations that will be briefly discussed in this section.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 42 of 102 pages from the technical point of view. remarkable additional investment cost. On the other hand.2 Ejector air-conditioning system The operation principle of steam jet ejectors is the entrainment and successive compression of vapour via the energy supplied by a heat source. removal of non-condensable gases. where the liquid refrigerant is vaporized at high pressure. The resultant driving vapour is accelerated through the primary nozzle till the flow becomes supersonic. but the current interest in this application is scarce.
NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . where it is evaporated in order to produce the required cooling effect. occurs in the diffuser refrigeration system.WP5. until the value pertinent to the condenser is Figure 2. A further pressure recovery.4: Ejector internal structure (a) and associated pressure profile (b). section.6. which induces both a EXPANSION VALVE sudden static pressure rise and a reduction in velocity of the mixture EVAPORATOR to subsonic conditions. due to the back CONDENSER pressure resistance of the condenser. The condensate is divided into two streams again: one is pumped back to the generator.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 43 of 102 pages Hence the vapour from the evaporator is entrained into the ejector and combined with the driving vapour in the mixing GENERATOR section. Then the mixed steam flows to the condenser where it condenses. The resulting stream undergoes a transverse shock PUMP EJECTOR inside the constant area section of the diffuser.6. The obtained vapour is finally entrained by the ejector.4.6. rejecting the corresponding heat to the environment. while the other expands via a valve to a low-pressure state and enters the evaporator.3: Schematic representation of a steam ejector reached. The ejector configuration and the variations of pressure inside it are shown in Figure 2. thus completing the cycle. HEAT SOURCE VAPOUR FROM GENERATOR VAPOUR MIXTURE TO THE CONDENSER VAPOUR FROM EVAPORATOR MIXING SECTION NOZZLE SECTION CONSTANT AREA SECTION DIFFUSER SECTION PRESSURE GENERATOR CONDENSER SHOCK EVAPORATOR POSITION Figure 2.
In Figure 2. On the other hand the freezing point and the specific volume are rather high. where moving parts are not present and higher volumetric flow rates can be processed simply by increasing the diameters of the tubing. The last term is very small compared to the first one. such like solar thermal collectors. hence the COP of the cycle can be assumed as in direct proportion to the ejector entrainment ratio (ER).D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 44 of 102 pages The working fluid is normally water. /Eam95/). This parameter is defined as the mass flow rate ratio of the entrained vapour to the motive steam and can be estimated from the expansion and the compression ratios.) are available. such as halocarbon compounds (/Sun99/). However the last aspect is not so critical for steam ejectors. Therefore it can be valuable to apply to different working fluids with a lower boiling point. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . the COP of the cycle can be improved basically by rising the motive steam temperature.6. HFC-245fa. the total energy input in an ejector refrigeration cycle consists of the low grade heat required by the generator and the work consumed by the circulation pump. Provided that in refrigeration and air-conditioning cycles the upper and lower temperature limits can not be varied too much. On the other hand. unless a more advanced and costly technology is adopted. The main limitation of these substances is the relatively fast deterioration as temperature grows. when the driving heat is supplied by solar thermal collectors. etc. such like the low cost and non-toxicity or flammability.WP5. When the motive steam is generated by a low temperature heat source.5. /Des02/).6. It can be noticed that the ER increases with the generator and evaporator temperatures. owing to its several advantageous properties.5: Example of graph for the calculation of ideal values of the ER (Source: El-Dessouky et al. as a result. Nevertheless in the range of temperatures below 100 ° numerous compounds (HCFC-141b. vapour of the motive and the mixed steam respectively. the reciprocal of the ER as a function of the compression and the expansion ratios is reported (/Pow94/). C As it can be drawn from the previous description. defined as the pressure ratios to the entrained Figure 2. which characterizes its performance (/Laz83/. while decreases with the condenser temperature. The curves are obtained by solving the balance equations for the one-dimensional steady-state model of the ejector. the use of water requires to operate the whole loop below the atmospheric pressure. The working fluid is water and all processes are considered isentropic. a significant increase in the working temperature leads to a dramatic reduction in efficiency. the entrained ratio and.
these modifications of the basic cycle lead to a loss in simplicity. is modest. thus the system works without vibration and noisiness and consequently the deterioration is reduced. capital and maintenance costs are lower in comparison with other processes. when solar thermal Motive Steam Temperature [° C] collectors are used to drive the cooling system. even if compared to that of an Organic Rankine cycle under the same driving temperature. or other moving parts are present. thus the coupling with a fluctuating source.WP5. ejectors are available commercially in an ample range of sizes. 3) the development of multi-ejector cycles. such as solar energy. 0.95 can be achieved for the mixing chamber. the increase in ejector efficiency with the motive steam temperature is moderate. to preserve the optimum operating point for the ejector. Nevertheless. the following critical drawbacks limit the importance of this technology. via the vapour from the evaporator.6. and to cool the condensate before it enters the expansion valve. therefore to operate at low generator temperature can be valuable for solar driven cycles but the COP is further reduced. as a result of the irreversibility of the ejector functioning. and the formation of the shock wave. to expand the functioning range of the system.6 the theoretical ER has been plotted as a function of the motive steam temperature. since ejectors are formed of a single unit connected to tubing of motive.2 performance. Actually the COP of a real ejector refrigeration cycle is markedly lower. even if external conditions. to heat the condensate before it flows into the generator. when the motive steam temperature grows. the COP is very low. In effect the efficiency of both the nozzle and the diffuser of a well designed steam ejector does not exceed 0. such like temperature and flow rate of the different streams. range of temperatures.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 45 of 102 pages In Figure 2.4. the improvement of the ejector 0. are changed. C). Clearly.8 Entrainment Ratio NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Figure 2. mostly related to the friction in nozzle and diffuser. the use of steam ejectors in air-conditioning and refrigeration cycles is supported by numerous favourable aspects: the configuration of the cycle is remarkably simplified. considering the useful temperature (Tev = 8 ° T cond = 30 ° C. Various solutions are available to improve the performance of an ejector refrigeration cycle: 1) the inclusion of a pre-heater and a pre-cooler. no valves.6. Consequently the COP of an ejector refrigeration cycle is normally not higher than 0.0 Therefore. it seems to be effective to 60 80 100 120 140 operate with basically low heat source temperature. which is really the main attractive of these systems.6: Theoretical ER as a function of motive steam Furthermore.6. while a value of about 0. via the above-mentioned chart assuming an 0. as a result the required collector area can dramatically grow. and mixture steam. 0.4 respectively.6 evaporator and a condenser temperature of 8 and 30 ° C 0.9. the mixing process between two streams at different velocities. via the ejector exhaust at the exit of the circulation pump. in particular when the driving heat must be supplied by solar thermal collectors: ejectors are designed to operate at a single optimum point. 2) the use of a variable position nozzle. As it can be observed. against a limited improvement of efficiency. the ER can reach at the most a theoretical value not much higher than 0. is problematical. In conclusion. entrained. a deviation from it results in a dramatic deterioration of the system performance. rotors.
1 shows the schematic of this type of solar heating system.1 Description of the methodology The approach adopted to perform the comparative analysis between the different solar cooling systems can be synthesised in the following main steps: Estimation of the cooling and heating loads for two typical reference buildings (both for residential and office application) located in sites representative of different European climatic conditions. But. opening new perspective of development of this technology. Figure 2. Comparison of obtained results. through a second heat exchanger. in this paragraph. different technical solutions can be profitably employed. on the other hand. In this system. is introduced. The value of Tmin depends on the type of NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . the recourse to solar energy for air conditioning in buildings represents a suitable choice not only to reduce the final energy consumptions but also to enlarge the utilization field of solar energy.7. Assumption of a reasonable fraction of consumed primary energy to be replaced by means of solar energy. the level of commercial maturity. Evaluation of the requested collectors area to attain the desired primary energy saving by means of a suitable simulation model. applied to a general solar heating system. etc. which can be used in principle for a wide range of thermal applications including space heating and air T < Tmin conditioning.WP5. functioning as a heat pump during the winter season. which can be helpful for a rational choice between different options. Calculation of the related primary energy consumption attained by an electric compression chiller.User manual). In this context. PHIBAR f-Chart method. The obtained results will be. Figures 2. solar energy is collected and stored in a liquid storage tank via a heat exchanger. the system (Source: F-Chart . In the closed-loop configuration. the fluid can be pumped directly to the user in an open-loop system. For this kind of solar heating systems. from the storage to supply thermal energy to the load. based on an energy saving approach. has been used to perform the thermal analysis of each solar assisted air-conditioning system under investigation (/Duf91/). The calculations have been restricted to commercially available technologies where there is reliable performance data for cooling machines. a classification method.7. analysed considering the system capital cost. This choice could be based on techno-economic considerations. and assumed as reference system for the analysis.7.1: Schematic of a general closed-loop solar heating when required by the user. a preliminary screening criterion. the thermal energy is delivered when the temperature is above a specified minimum useful temperature (Tmin). Choice of suitable thermally driven cooling technologies to be simulated and definition of performance data based on commercially available machines.7 COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES UNDER INVESTIGATION Solar systems have the main purpose of replacing fossil fuel based systems so as to attain a primary energy saving. Since the main objective of this work is to support the selection of the most promising solar cooling technologies for a further analysis in the following steps of this task of NEGST project. Alternatively.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 46 of 102 pages 2. possible limit for accessing to subsidies. Thus. heated liquid is pumped. subsequently. the presence of technological barriers and any other key factor in order to reach a final assessment of the most promising solar systems for cooling. is therefore necessary. 2.
it depends on the particular installation.5 23.2 18.8 2. representative of different European climatic conditions. the mean ambient temperature and the relative humidity of each site.4 14.4 18. representative of warm humid climate Frankfurt (Germany).5 15.7.IT RH H [%] [KWh/m²] Ta [° C] Site #4 Frankfurt .9 13 17. An auxiliary heater provides to supply thermal energy when the solar input is insufficient to meet the load.7 3.DE RH H [%] [KWh/m²] Ta [° C] RH [%] Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Year 67 85 133 170 204 218 220 194 153 114 73 59 1690 13. The simulation model adopted in this study is well appropriate to analyse thermally driven chillers (in particular absorption and adsorption cooling cycles).6 3.6 13.1 11.0 80 78 77 74 73 71 72 74 75 78 80 80 76 66 74 104 147 183 201 213 200 155 106 66 52 1567 11 10.5 19.5 15. two typical reference buildings corresponding to residential and office sectors have been NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . to solar assisted DEC systems too. Site #1 Palermo .9 14.8 25.3 22.9 21.7.1 21.7 10.6 85 80 75 69 69 69 68 71 75 81 84 86 76 Table 2.8 19.2 12.6 86 78 71 75 72 71 71 72 74 81 85 86 77 23 43 74 114 150 152 162 134 93 55 28 18 1046 1.WP5.9 16. average values of COP and driving temperature have been assumed over the entire year. this method can be applied.8 23. 2. representative of hot humid climate Athens (Greece).1 6. representative of hot dry climate Milan (Italy).6 9.5 17.5 13.1 Architecture For the loads calculation. for thermally driven air-conditioning applications.1 10.1 24.2 7.8 22.2 15.1 10. 2.1: Monthly average climatic data (H = monthly global solar irradiance on horizontal plane – Ta = average ambient temperature – RH = average relative humidity). even if in this case there is a strong dependence of the functioning temperature from the external air conditions.GR RH H [%] [KWh/m²] Ta [° C] Site #3 Milan .8 11.5 25.1 shows the monthly average value of global solar irradiance on horizontal plane.2 Reference locations The comparative analysis has been carried out considering four reference locations.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 47 of 102 pages application: for residential space heating. Nevertheless.7.0 2.8 19.3 17. which are characterized by a minimum driving temperature under which they cannot operate properly. in principle. carried out by means of EnergyPlus simulation software (/EERE/).7 71 71 68 62 59 53 48 49 56 65 72 72 62 33 50 96 129 162 179 188 164 117 73 36 28 1255 1.9 20.3.8 6. Tmin is the indoor temperature of the building.3 Heating and cooling needs 2. To overcome this difficulty and to perform however the performance analysis.7 19.4 15.2 12. representative of temperate climate Table 2. The selected European sites are: Palermo (Italy).3 220.127.116.11 5.6 18.IT H [KWh/m²] Ta [° C] Site #2 Athens .
80 3.4 Schedules Residential Building The schedule for lighting and people occupancy are shown in Figure 2.7.3. It is a three-story building with a total effective floor area of 1080 m2. Surfaces U-value [W/m2° C] Moderate climate 0.7. 2.00 0.7.3: Internal loads.3 Internal Loads The internal loads for people occupancy. equipment etc.7.7.WP5. The total air-conditioned area of the building is 1020 m18.104.22.168 1. are shown in Table 2.50 1. The building is oriented along east-west axis.2 Construction In a recent study (/Pet04/).7. Figure 2. 2.20 Table 2. the U-values for building envelope components.7. In the present simulations. The operation of equipments is assumed to 100% over the day.20 0.2. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . are used.3. building age group and different insulation standards. lighting.30 0.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 48 of 102 pages considered.20 2. carried out on the Mitigation of CO2 emission from the building stock.20 0.80 4.3.7. corresponding to a building age from 1975 to 1990.2 shows the selected values.3.2: The architectural design of reference building.2: U-value selected for the simulations. Each storey consists of three apartments (two of 122 m2 and one of 98 m2) and has a height of 3 m.00 Warm climate 0. The architectural design of the building is shown in Figure 2. 2. the characterization of the European building stock and the U-values of building types are defined according to climatic zone. The effective glazed area of the building is 135 m2 (1/8 of total floor area).7. Table 2. Parameter Value Residential 25 m2/person 10 W/m2 1 W/m2 40 m3/h person Office 8 m2/person 10 W/m2 5 W/m2 40 m3/h person People occupancy Lighting Equipment Air-change Table 2.50 Roof Façade Floor Windows Cold climate 0.
7.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 49 of 102 pages (a) People occupancy (b) Lighting Period: 15 April – 14 October Rest of the year Figure 2.4: Time schedule of people occupancy (a) and lighting (b) in office building.7.7. Office building The schedule for lighting and people occupancy are shown in Figure 2. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . The operation of equipments is same as lighting schedule. (a) People occupancy Week days Saturday (b) Lighting Week days Saturday Figure 2.4.3: Time schedule of people occupancy (a) and lighting (b) in residential building.WP5.
00 0.WP5.00 -4.00 0.17 -15.72 -31.00 1.00 0.00 0.25 -9.00 0.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.28 -9.75 9.06 27.00 0.00 -13.45 0.16 13.39 Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total 0.5 Energy loads Table 2.05 22.00 76.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -21.32 -20.00 0.00 0.29 -16. Site #1 Site #2 Site #3 Site #4 Palermo .93 12.00 89.11 13.46 0.08 0.IT Frankfurt .39 -8.5: Energy loads for office building.00 0.43 -26.78 -61.88 0.00 2.00 -41.17 7.00 93.60 -10.00 -58.00 0.63 -180.89 -10.21 Table 2.00 0.22 -13.00 -10.44 21.81 24.00 0.39 -8.60 -46.95 -25.61 0.65 0.83 Month JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Total 0.19 -78.54 -40.17 -30.7.01 9.00 4.00 -7.97 18.21 0.86 5.00 0.00 0.66 8.16 0.65 0.00 0.26 -11.49 -40.61 17.34 -19. The cooling and heating loads are indicated in KWh per square meter of conditioned floor area.33 12.00 0.22 -25.00 57.00 11.13 18.00 0.00 0.20 -34.00 -53.63 0.00 0.00 3.00 0.01 0.00 0.IT Frankfurt .00 2.IT Athens .00 0.00 0.00 0.DE Cooling Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Heating [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] 0.00 0.44 13.00 0.58 -21.72 -14.00 0.90 0.3.00 0.00 0.32 0.00 0.4: Energy loads for residential building.00 0.4 and Table 2.43 19.65 4.00 0.00 -4.7.71 0.69 -38.00 0.88 -93.00 0.GR Milan .38 0.24 0.40 -37.7.5 show the results of simulations for each type of building under investigation.00 0.00 0.82 -59.64 0.00 2.00 -17.00 67.52 -29.50 -221.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 50 of 102 pages 2.63 0.00 0.00 -6.50 0.33 -15.00 44.92 -19.46 -52.00 -12.00 -20.00 0.00 0.20 4.00 0.00 0.03 6.00 0.89 0.00 0.69 -13.00 0.27 -10.00 -12.88 22.00 13.28 -8.00 0.00 3.32 11.00 0.92 6.00 -12.00 0.34 0.20 17.7.00 0.22 -304.75 10. C Site #1 Site #2 Site #3 Site #4 Palermo .14 0.25 18.83 0.19 0.00 0.00 -42.36 -38.00 0.31 Table 2.DE Cooling Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Heating Cooling Heating [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] [KWh/m²] 0.61 0.00 0. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .42 -30.IT Athens .53 -11.00 0.27 -14.7.00 0.82 -16.03 6.00 0.38 0.52 9.37 -11.16 -227.31 -46.00 0.00 0.00 0.83 15.87 15.00 0.GR Milan .66 4. The simulations have been conducted considering internal set point temperatures of 20° and C 26° for winter and summer season respectively.00 0.45 0.
on the contrary numerous configuration of solar thermal assisted air-conditioning systems do exist. typical values for the main parameters (COP and driving temperature) have been assumed on the basis of information reported in the previous chapters. System # Cooling technology 1 Water/LiBr . Since the air to be conditioned is directly treated by this type of system.AHE cycle 5 6 Adsorption chiller (Water / silica-gel) 7 8 Desiccant air-conditioning systems (Desiccant wheel) 9 Solar collector Flat-plate Evacuated-tube Stationary CPC Parabolic trough Parabolic trough Flat-plate Evacuated-tube Flat-plate Evacuated-tube Table 2.4 Configuration of solar cooling systems On the basis of initial overview of the market of air-conditioning systems in Europe. Table 2. Finally. common flat-plate or evacuated-tube collectors can be used. Considering the fact that this type of chiller is very similar. the following main technologies have been taken into account for the present analysis: The absorption chiller represents the first cooling technology to be analysed. Nevertheless. in the present analysis we consider only the coupling with low temperature collectors (flat-plate and evacuated-tube collectors). air collectors could be favourable employed too. thus its performance figure can be drawn from the results obtained for other similar technologies. this type of solar collector will not be taken into account.4). is characterized by design parameters comparable to other low temperature cooling systems previously considered.7.6 shows the nine configurations of solar driven cooling systems identified for the present analysis. Other applications. even though has not been explicitly considered in the present analysis.Single Effect 2 Absorption chiller 3 Water/LiBr . to the previous systems and. The configurations considered are: single and double-effect cycles using water/LiBr as working pair and the advanced AHE cycles using ammonia/water as working fluid. For each configuration.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 51 of 102 pages 2. such like organic rankine cycle (OCR) or ejector air-conditioning systems. are characterized by a modest coefficient of performance (typically less than 0. an interesting application but still at a development stage.7 NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .WP5. a low driving temperature characterizes it.7. in the present analysis. Finally. thus a large amount of collector area per m² of conditioned floor area is required for driving the system. the third configuration is represented by a desiccant air-conditioning system using solid sorption materials. which can differ from each other both for the type of cooling cycle and the type of solar collectors. moreover. From the survey of air-conditioning systems.7. it is quite simple to identify as reference conventional cooling technology the electric compression chiller. Table 2.7. which can be in principle coupled with low to medium temperature solar collectors. from an energetic point of view. owing to the limitations of the simulation model to consider this type of collector. Each of systems is coupled with the more suitable low to medium temperature solar field to supply thermal energy. This technology. The second type of cooling system is represented by an adsorption chiller using water/silica-gel as carrier material (the most common sorption material used for this application). making these technologies scarcely attractive for the applications examined in this study. Given that the desiccant regeneration temperature is quite low.Double Effect 4 Ammonia/water .6: Solar cooling system configurations considered for the investigation. is represented by ThermoChemical Accumulators (TCA).
6 75° C 45° C DEC (Desiccant wheel) 0. supply and return air conditions. quite the opposite of ammonia/water absorption chiller. Design parameters of different solar cooling systems Type of cycle Absorption chillers H2O/LiBr H2O/LiBr NH3/H2O Single Effect Double Effect AHE-Cycle 0.015 kg s-1 m-2 Collector-store heat exchanger Heat exchanger effectiveness: 0.WP5.72 2.7 1.6 Heating COP 45° C 45° C 180° C Heat supply temperature Adsorption chiller (H2O/Si-gel) 0. assuming a value of 45° for the supply te mperature. In consequence of the strong dependence from external. an average value of 0. Other absorption technologies. but.0 N-S 45° 1. including TCA. Collector parameters Type of collector Test intercept [-] Test slope [W/m²K] Collector orientation Collector slope Concentration ratio General solar heating system parameters Storage volume to collector area ratio 70 litres/m² Negligible UA of auxiliary storage tank Negligible Pipe heat loss Tank-side flow-rate/area: 0. for cooling cycles working only as refrigerator.5 and 3.7. This is accomplished by means of common low temperature heat distribution systems for space heating. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .7 0.74 0.8 South 45° - Compound parabolic (CPC) 0.56 N-S 45° 60 Table 2.1 0. for DEC systems average values for the above-mentioned parameters. Since the analysis is performed on annual basis. Moreover.8 Cooling COP 85° C 150° C 180° C Driving temperature 1.7 65° C 45° C Table 2.7. With regards to collector efficiency curve parameters. Table 2. the heat supplied by the solar field is directly used to meet the load during the winter season.5 Parabolic trough (PTC) 0. COPs of 2.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 52 of 102 pages shows these values.4 for the conversion efficiency from primary energy to electricity has been assumed.76 1. Finally.7: Main design parameters of cooling machines adopted for the present analysis. test intercept and slope have been obtained first by linearizing the respective efficiency curves (which values have been carried out from average test values or from mean data available in literature) and then by applying the corresponding formulas for converting test results from European to United States format.8 summarize the main parameters adopted in the calculation with PHIBAR fChart method.3 South 45° - Evacuated tubular (ETC) 0. in order to assess the primary energy consumption. as well as adsorption chillers can in principle also be used for heat pumping in winter. For the reference electric compression heat pump. are not at present commercially available for such an application.78 4. corresponding to common design conditions.7. have been assumed over the entire year. C In the present analysis AHE-Cycle using ammonia-water is the only machine simulated as a heat pump.0 have been assumed in the present analysis for cooling and heating respectively.8: Values of the main parameters adopted in the calculation with PHIBAR f-Chart method.7 Load heat exchanger effectiveness Flat plate selective (FPC) 0.
12 0.10 0. SITE #2 .WP5.28 0.10 0.37 0.12 0.10 0.10 60% 0.16 % of PE-saving 70% 0.08 0.13 0.7.12 0.11 80% 0.08 0.31 Table 2.10 0.Results of the analysis.12 0.12 show the results obtained for three reasonable fraction of consumed primary energy to be saved.7.25 Table 2.21 0.9: Palermo (IT) .21 0.5 Results In the present analysis an effective floor area of 100 m² and 200 m².22 0.19 0.16 0.08 0.12 0.30 0.Heating: 5916 KWh 12557 KWh Absorption chillers DEC Adsorption chiller (Desiccant H2O/LiBr H2O/LiBr NH3/H2O (H2O/Si-gel) wheel) Single Effect Double Effect AHE-Cycle FPC ETC CPC PTC PTC FPC ETC FPC ETC Type of collector Specific collector area needed to attain the desired primary energy saving [m²/m²floor area] 0.10 0.14 0.Heating: 7850 KWh 13258 KWh Absorption chillers Adsorption DEC chiller (Desiccant H2O/LiBr H2O/LiBr NH3/H2O (H2O/Si-gel) wheel) Single Effect Double Effect AHE-Cycle FPC ETC CPC PTC PTC FPC ETC FPC ETC Type of collector Specific collector area needed to attain the desired primary energy saving [m²/m²floor area] 0.14 0.18 0.11 0.14 80% 0.24 0.46 0.9 to 2.7.19 % of PE-saving 70% 0.12 0.20 0.14 0.11 0.1 Residential building application Tables from 2.MILAN Application Annual loads PE-consumption Solar cooling system Type of cycle Residential – Floor area: 100 m² Cooling: 4417 KWh .40 0.09 0.7.16 0. for residential and office building respectively. 2.14 0.09 0.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 53 of 102 pages 2.ATHENS Application Annual loads PE-consumption Solar cooling system Type of cycle Residential – Floor area: 100 m² Cooling: 6717 KWh .10 0.08 0.13 0.24 0. have been considered.09 0.26 0. SITE #3 . applied to the reference residential building.5.10: Athens (GR) .Results of the analysis.Heating: 18046 KWh 19455 KWh Absorption chillers Adsorption DEC chiller (Desiccant H2O/LiBr H2O/LiBr NH3/H2O (H2O/Si-gel) wheel) Single Effect Double Effect AHE-Cycle FPC ETC CPC PTC PTC FPC ETC FPC ETC Type of collector Specific collector area needed to attain the desired primary energy saving [m²/m²floor area] NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .7.17 0. SITE #1 – PALERMO Application Annual loads PE-consumption Solar cooling system Type of cycle Residential – Floor area: 100 m² Cooling: 7627 KWh .24 0.14 0.7.08 60% 0.
55 Table 2.24 0.44 0.7.26 0.80 0.54 0.54 0.30 0.55 0.49 0.45 0.52 1.59 0.56 0.68 0.48 0.62 0.7.57 0.50 0.80 1.11 0.32 0.56 0.63 2.58 0.75 0.41 0.64 1.12: Frankfurt .18 0.71 0.10 0.Results of the analysis.23 0.7.85 2.72 0.48 1.78 1. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .49 0.59 0.11: Milan (IT) .72 1. SITE #4 .58 0. the values of collector areas needed for a square meter of floor area to be conditioned.20 0.13: Required collector area per square meter of conditioned floor area and respective annual solar fraction in residential building. Case study: RESIDENTIAL BUILDING – PE-saving = 70% PALERMO System Configuration Ac/Afloor fsol [m²/m²] [-] ATHENS Ac/Afloor [m²/m²] MILAN Ac/Afloor [m²/m²] FRANKFURT Ac/Afloor [m²/m²] fsol [-] 0.Results of the analysis.68 0.38 0.10 0.35 0.53 0.WP5.35 0.72 0.62 1.35 1.57 0.12 0.62 0.32 0. In the table are reported.32 0. Furthermore.70 0.13 summarize the results obtained for 70% of primary energy saved.92 2.63 2.49 1.09 0.57 0.59 H2O/LiBr–SE FPC ADS DEC H2O/LiBr–SE ETC ADS DEC PTC CPC H2O/LiBr–DE NH3/H2O H2O/LiBr–DE 0.19 0.10 0.54 0.08 1.62 fsol [-] 0.37 0.55 0.66 0.52 0.50 0.18 0.31 0.63 0.09 0.68 1.72 0.55 0.7.64 0. Figure 2.90 0.81 0.52 0.67 0.63 0.49 0.90 0.56 0.16 0.57 0.49 60% 1.5 compares graphically the required specific collector areas obtained for the different configurations taken into account.21 0.21 0.11 0.Heating: 22721 KWh 20053 KWh Absorption chillers Adsorption DEC chiller (Desiccant H2O/LiBr H2O/LiBr NH3/H2O (H2O/Si-gel) wheel) Single Effect Double Effect AHE-Cycle FPC ETC CPC PTC PTC FPC ETC FPC ETC Type of collector Specific collector area needed to attain the desired primary energy saving [m²/m²floor area] 0.67 fsol [-] 0.10 0.72 1.12 0.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 54 of 102 pages % of PE-saving 60% 70% 80% 0.87 2.56 Table 2. together with the corresponding annual solar fractions.26 0.90 80% 2.67 0.53 0.47 0.16 0.55 0.25 % of PE-saving 70% 1.35 1.12 0.67 0.49 0.21 0.75 1.08 1.12 1.47 0.12 0. Table 2.FRANKFURT Application Annual loads PE-consumption Solar cooling system Type of cycle Residential – Floor area: 100 m² Cooling: 1120 KWh .68 0.7. grouped by collector technology.49 Table 2. in the same graph are reported the yearly values of global and 1-axis tracking solar irradiance on tilted plane.58 0.35 0.57 0.58 0.78 1.
5: Required specific collector area for different technologies and climates grouped by collector technology.86 Milan R = 0.Results of the analysis. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .00 Palermo R = 1.PALERMO Application Annual loads PE-consumption Solar cooling system Type of cycle Office – Floor area: 200 m² Cooling: 18651 KWh .60 2.21 0.29 Athens R = 0.40 2.08 0.25 0. R represents the cooling/heating load ratio. Tables from 2.09 60% 0.20 1.10 0.40 0.17 0.24 Frankfurt R = 0.37 0.80 0.5.12 0.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 55 of 102 pages Residential building .19 0.00 1. SITE #1 .14 to 2.2 Office building application Analogously.19 % of PE-saving 70% 0.15 0.15 0.28 0.12 0.11 0.05 200 0 FPC + LiBr single effect FPC + Adsorption FPC + DEC ETC + LiBr single effect ETC + Adsorption ETC + DEC PTC + LiBr double effect PTC + Ammonia/Water CPC + LiBr double effect Global irradiance Direct irradiance (1-axis tracking) 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 Figure 2.7.80 1.Heating: 12366 KWh 28956 KWh Absorption chillers Adsorption DEC chiller (Desiccant H2O/LiBr H2O/LiBr NH3/H2O (H2O/Si-gel) wheel) Single Effect Double Effect AHE-Cycle FPC ETC CPC PTC PTC FPC ETC FPC ETC Type of collector Specific collector area needed to attain the desired primary energy saving [m²/m²floor area] 0. applied to the office-building case study.22.214.171.124.14: Palermo (IT) .29 Table 2.14 0.20 Solar field specific area [m²/m² floor area] 2.40 1.13 80% 0.60 1.23 0.WP5. Yearly solar irradiance on tilted plane [KWh/m²] 2.12 0.09 0.24 0.17 show the results obtained for the same fractions of consumed primary energy to be saved.20 0.PE-saving = 70% 2. in this sub-paragraph.10 0.50 0.00 0.13 0.11 0.60 0.10 0.
7.Heating: 44227 KWh 48328 KWh Absorption chillers Adsorption DEC (Desiccant chiller H2O/LiBr H2O/LiBr NH3/H2O (H2O/Si-gel) wheel) Single Effect Double Effect AHE-Cycle FPC ETC CPC PTC PTC FPC ETC FPC ETC Type of collector Specific collectors area needed to attain the desired primary energy saving [m²/m²floor area] 0.17 0.43 1.24 0.24 0.42 1.15: Athens (GR) .54 0.45 1.11 60% 0.23 0.WP5.78 0.38 0.84 0.Heating: 60861 KWh 53380 KWh Absorption chillers Adsorption DEC chiller (Desiccant H2O/LiBr H2O/LiBr NH3/H2O (H2O/Si-gel) wheel) Single Effect Double Effect AHE-Cycle FPC ETC CPC PTC PTC FPC ETC FPC ETC Type of collector Specific collectors area needed to attain the desired primary energy saving [m²/m²floor area] 0.63 1.14 0.60 1.46 0.7.36 0.59 0. the values of collector areas needed for a square meter of floor area to be conditioned.38 0.95 0.18 0.18 0.14 0.05 0.53 % of PE-saving 70% 2.19 0.20 Table 2.7.10 3.30 0.17 80% 0.Results of the analysis.83 3.86 1.65 1.63 1.86 1.32 0. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .81 2. In the table are reported.84 0.18 0.01 0.38 0.18 80% 3.17: Frankfurt .53 0.46 0.24 % of PE-saving 70% 0.59 80% 1.16: Milan (IT) . SITE #4 .Heating: 18722 KWh 33469 KWh Absorption chillers Adsorption DEC chiller (Desiccant H2O/LiBr H2O/LiBr NH3/H2O (H2O/Si-gel) wheel) Single Effect Double Effect AHE-Cycle FPC ETC CPC PTC PTC FPC ETC FPC ETC Type of collector Specific collectors area needed to attain the desired primary energy saving [m²/m²floor area] 0.FRANKFURT Application Annual loads PE-consumption Solar cooling system Type of cycle Office – Floor area: 200 m² Cooling: 2662 KWh .28 0.73 0.64 60% 1.18 summarize the results obtained for 70% of PE-saved.26 0.65 1.17 0.85 1.53 0.18 2.13 0.91 0.95 0.95 1.ATHENS Application Annual loads PE-consumption Solar cooling system Type of cycle Office – Floor area: 200 m² Cooling: 17868 KWh . SITE #3 .12 0.15 0.21 0. Table 2.MILAN Application Annual loads PE-consumption Solar cooling system Type of cycle Office – Floor area: 200 m² Cooling: 11472 KWh .25 60% 0.20 1.03 2.12 0.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 56 of 102 pages SITE #2 .15 0.7. together with the corresponding annual solar fractions.59 Table 2.56 0.31 0.11 0.Results of the analysis.08 2.60 1.Results of the analysis.39 Table 2.69 % of PE-saving 70% 0.43 0.31 0.11 0. grouped by collector technology.60 0.19 0.
7.6: Required specific collector area for different technologies and climates grouped by collector technology.58 0.47 0.67 0.54 0.19 0.81 0.90 0.42 0.26 Frankfurt R = 0.48 0.56 0.00 2. Figure 2.47 0.05 2.80 1.86 0. R represents the cooling/heating load ratio.91 1.86 0.19 2.20 0.84 0.65 0.48 0.53 0.12 0.7.37 0.58 0.13 0.69 0.57 0.31 0.00 1.53 0.58 0.55 0.03 1.PE-saving = 70% 3.26 0.7.00 Palermo R = 1.53 0.20 2.60 0.62 0.56 0.31 0.6 compares the required specific collector areas obtained for the officebuilding case study.69 0.WP5.67 fsol [-] 0.59 0.81 0.11 0.58 0.52 0.52 0.00 0.80 0.57 0.95 Table 2.60 2.55 0.18 0.53 0.20 1.62 fsol [-] 0.11 0.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 57 of 102 pages Case study: OFFICE BUILDING – PE-saving = 70% PALERMO System Configuration Ac/Afloor fsol [m²/m²] [-] ATHENS Ac/Afloor [m²/m²] MILAN Ac/Afloor [m²/m²] FRANKFURT Ac/Afloor [m²/m²] fsol [-] 0.59 H2O/LiBr–SE FPC ADS DEC H2O/LiBr–SE ETC ADS DEC PTC CPC H2O/LiBr–DE NH3/H2O H2O/LiBr–DE 0.24 0. Yearly solar irradiance on tilted plane [KWh/m²] NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .15 0.40 0.46 0.80 Solar field specific area [m²/m² floor area] 2.04 0 400 200 FPC + LiBr single effect FPC + Adsorption FPC + DEC ETC + LiBr single effect ETC + Adsorption ETC + DEC PTC + LiBr double effect PTC + Ammonia/Water CPC + LiBr double effect Global irradiance Direct irradiance (1-axis tracking) 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 Figure 2.51 Athens R = 0.57 0.23 2.18: Required collector area per square meter of conditioned floor area and respective annual solar fraction in office building.14 0.40 1.15 0.10 0.21 0.40 2.95 Milan R = 0.73 0. Finally.38 0.20 3.60 0.60 1.12 0. Office building .14 0.54 0.83 3.57 0.69 0.95 0.24 0.
NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .5 7.6 295. SOLAR DESALINATION 3.7 14. able to meet almost half of the minimum standards fixed by WHO.0 4. in comparison with the previous one. Qatar. COUNTRY Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom TOTAL Total capacity [10³ m³/d] Per capita capacity [l/d] 26. It is to be noticed that nearly 50% of the total capacity is concentrated in 3 countries only (Saudi Arabia.5 673. drinking and process water has to be transported. renewable water resources shortage is not a very critical issue for European countries and as a result desalination technologies are not significantly widespread. the application of desalination technologies still involves a limited area. was 37.3 61.1 3. corresponding to some 15% of the full amount. at the end of 2003 the total seawater desalination capacity worldwide. in such conditions.2 26.3 11.1 OVERVIEW OF TRADITIONAL DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES According to the data reported in the most recent IDA desalting plants inventory (/Wan04/). which represented the best result as ever.350 plants.1. industrial and agricultural) are included.8 million m³/d since December 2001.5 4.000 l/d per capita or even more is installed. USA.0 4. As a result.5 219.3 3. This situation is already being carried out in arid Middle East regions or small islands where the population lives from tourism. with a marked rise in cost. Despite these impressive figures. Kuwait a desalination capacity of 1.9 0. when all uses (residential.7 238.9 11. in some cases over long distances through pipelines or by ship. This not uniform distribution is due to the peculiarity of desalination market. both installed and contracted.7 3. In effect.4 Table 3. in countries such like UAE. In any case.9 4307. The economic barrier makes desalination technologies attractive for installations in areas.2 1. which is mainly influenced by the water supplying cost. and treated.9 1. in most cases.2 13.2 10. coming from 10.2 0. while considering the leading 15 countries altogether a good 80% of the worldwide installed capacity is reached.WP5.3 289.9 76.7 12. Virgin islands. where the natural renewable water resources are not sufficient to satisfy the needs of the people and the development of the society.1: Total and per capita installed desalination capacity in EU-15 countries in December 2003. UAE).8 million m³/d. Vice versa. the capacity has increased of 4.5 2419. Really. Gibraltar. Antilles.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 58 of 102 pages 3. A slight weakening in the market trend has occurred during the last two-year period.1 1. the water produced in desalting plants can economically compete with that coming from other traditional water supplying methods.3 3.
0 4. it can be observed that more than 90% of installed capacity is included within this range.7 22.3 74.4 0.9 609.8 77.4 70. General reasons of this countertendency in EU-15 are the lesser availability of fossil fuel.0 17.5 6. COUNTRY Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom TOTAL # of Capacity plants [10³ m³/d] % total capacity RO [%] ME/VC [%] MSF [%] ED [%] Energy consumption [GWh/y] 47.3 48.2 0.7 100.5 31.9 21.5 221.0 0.8 0.0 89.5 229.2 20.900 m³/d (/Wan98/) of 1997 to the 2.0 62.9 48.8 0.3 100.2 15.4 31.0 33.4 0. desalting plants based upon nanofiltration process are also included in the reverse osmosis (RO) category.0 0.0 2323.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 59 of 102 pages The data reported in Table 3.0 87.8 53. it appears to be convincing to assume the data in Table 3.000 m³/d of 2003. growing from the 529.1 0.0 11. Similarly multi-effect evaporation (ME) and both mechanical and thermal vapour compression (VC) plants are arranged in a single group.6 8.0 84.5 0.0 7. This is an absolutely opposite situation in comparison with Middle East.3 1.9 Table 3.9 96.4 25.4 96.0 0.0 4.3 69.0 41.0 640.5 93.9 0.1 18. as for as thermal processes are concerned.1 732.0 3. Netherlands.6 3.2 as representative of all seawater desalination installations. where multi-stage flash (MSF) covers nearly 80% of total installed capacity. curbing the final cost as much as possible. The main exceptions are Spain.0 150. In this regard. since often such processes are applied in combination.2 79.3 0.1 100.4 7.1.6 229.8 25.6 0.1 81. the more reduced capacity per unit which makes it costly water NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . due to the presence of large coastal regions and numerous small islands.3 20.0 2. Table 3.4 91. The share of each technology is not simple to distinguish: a reasonable approximation is to divide the total capacity in half between ME e VC. due to necessity of producing large quantities of fresh water. and Greece.3 403.7 0.7 6. their contribution to the total capacity relevant to this technology is however negligible.6 63.1 show that in EU-15 countries little more than 10% of worldwide desalination capacity is installed and the daily water production is normally of few litres per capita. In particular it is to be remarked the expansion of these technologies in Spain: installed capacity has been more than quadrupled in six years only. Therefore.6 5 4 5 0 24 80 29 5 132 27 6 287 2 77 683 18.3 550.2 0.0 2.0 5.2: Proportion of processes for desalting plants rated at 700 m³/d or more in EU-15 countries As for the proportion of the different processes.9 36.0 92.1 77.0 4. The data are limited to desalting plants rated at 700 m³/d or more.9 0. On the other hand.4 2125. it is to be stated that.0 0. This assumption has been followed for all performed evaluations.0 0.6 96.0 3932.0 90.2 shows that reverse osmosis (RO) is by far the dominant desalination technology in European countries.1.0 83.1 3.0 8.2 0.2 0.1.0 0.2 0.0 9329.0 15. Italy.3 6.1.1. In Table 3.0 0. Thanks to this outstanding development Spain has become the fourth country in the world for installed capacity and succeed in covering an important fraction of national fresh water requirements for residential use.4 4558.8 10.2 77.WP5.7 11.0 195. according to the classification adopted by the IDA Inventory.0 0.6 24.2 14.419. which roughly constitutes the minimum size for applications on industrial scale.2 the contribution of the major processes to total installed capacity is shown.
1. where about 35% of world total desalination capacity powered by renewables is installed. if any. to electrical energy and the same average values of energy need per m³ of produced water for the different processes given in /Wan04/.3: Desalting plants powered by renewable energies in EU-15 countries.1. LOCATION Milos Syros Kimolos Almeria Cadarache Gran Canaria Berken Patmos Planier San Nicola Süderoog Kimolos Megisti Symi Aegina Fiskardo Kionion Symi Thirasia Bari Marettimo Aegina Nisyros Lavrio Attiki Lavrio Attiki Salamis Las Marinas COUNTRY Capacity [m³/d] 1800 960 100 72 60 50 20 20 12 12 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 Process Renewable energy Greece Greece Greece Spain France Spain Germany Greece France Italy Germany Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Italy Italy Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Spain ME RO ME ME RO MVC MSF OTHER RO RO RO OTHER OTHER OTHER OTHER OTHER OTHER OTHER RO MSF RO OTHER OTHER RO RO OTHER OTHER GEOTHERMAL WIND GEOTHERMAL SOLAR SOLAR WIND SOLAR SOLAR WIND SOLAR WIND SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR WIND SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR SOLAR WIND SOLAR SOLAR Table 3. 11 of them are powered by wind and 2 of them by geothermal energy.000 m³/d coming from 97 plants. The solar source (photovoltaic. Finally. exceeding 700 m³/d in 4 cases only.3 the complete list of European plants NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . a rough estimation of electrical energy consumption for water desalination in EU-15 is presented. the presence of an adequate electric grid. The assessment has been carried out assuming the same conversion criterion from thermal. In effect these installations usually pursue demonstrative aims. the less critical characteristics of raw water. A slightly improved situation occurs in EU-15.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 60 of 102 pages produced by thermal processes. solar thermal collectors. which reach a significant size (over 100 m³/d) in 12 cases. as for the remaining plants. solar pond.WP5. while in a limited number they are utilized to satisfy the municipal drinking water needs of small communities. renewable energies are still exploited to a negligible extent to power desalting plants: actually the installed capacity worldwide is little more than 9. In Table 3. In contrast to the remarkable consumptions described above. driving 84 plants but normally the capacity per unit is extremely modest. solar still) is by far the most used.
During last years. Italy has been interested in seawater desalination since ’60. Nevertheless. as denoted by the common use of the term. is still the world leading manufacturer of MSF plants and in the list of top manufacturers several further national companies (Snam Progetti. Ansaldo. Despite the level of excellence achieved in desalination industry. Italy. and Greece. almost the total of operating desalting plants has a capacity of 700 m³/d or more. the referred market and technology data are the typical worldwide data. which electrical energy consumption can be assumed in 4-7 KWh/m³. mostly located in small Greek islands. Since most of these installations are EC funded projects. lower if brackish water is the raw water. southern Spain. According to the data reported in the most recent IDA inventory. there’s a significant utilization of desalination processes. A special case.000 people at least with a minimum installed power around 150 KW. referring mainly to RO technology. However. such as Netherlands. since it does not even reach 0. above all in the field of thermal processes. if seawater is the raw water. there is an increasing number of installations.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 61 of 102 pages reported in IDA inventory is given. but having no connection to the NEGST project. as regards the dominant technology of RO. servicing small communities or tourism industry. the equivalent electrical energy consumption in EU-15 for desalting water is of the order of magnitude of 104 GWh per year. it is not possible to extract market data for Greece. At the present time renewable energies contribution in the considered countries is really modest. coming from demonstrative plants or designed to fulfil the municipal drinking water requirements of villages. in the framework of the activity of research. development and testing on concentrating solar technologies.WP5. the application of these technologies is not so extensive on the national territory. As it can be observed. there is not an organized market for desalination systems. where the market shows an impressive growth. the prevailing process is by far RO. in December 2003 a total capacity of about 674. the largest number of applications is located in Greece. COUNTRY GREECE Some information about market trend In Greece. there are not typical representative market data. which are plentiful in this country. there is an R&D effort to develop thermal driven systems. Fisia Italimpianti. The state of application of traditional desalination technologies in European countries can be summarized by the following focal points: a remarkable desalination capacity is installed in Spain only. In fact the main European plants powered by renewables in general and by solar energy in particular are here located. etc. delivers the insignificant figure of 247 m³/d. respectively in Milos e Patmos Island.1% of total installed desalination capacity. Vice versa the absolutely largest capacity solar desalting plant has been erected at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA). an Italian company. Specifically solar energy.000 m³/d was installed. when the first applications on industrial scale took place. considering all applicable technologies.) hold a prominent position. is the wide use of desalination systems in the marine sector. Most of them are located to the islands. Due to the international character of this sector though. being especially suitable for fulfilling the fresh water requirements of small islands. Fantuzzi Reggiane. which is able to meet the residential fresh water needs of a community of 4. in few other countries. placing th ITALY NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Thanks to this long tradition. It is to be noted that the last one is a solar still operating since late ’60. _________________________________ Finally. some interesting remarks about the current trends in market are reported below for some countries. referring mainly to the existence of a strong local solar thermal industry. though to a more limited extent.
2. with a peak in concentration in Sicily and especially in the numerous small islands near Sicily. In Figure 3. the installed capacity was 700. Mallorca. SPAIN In Spain there are a lot of desalination plants due to some reasons. but the rising attention towards energy efficiency is leading to a significant expansion in application of RO. Therefore the development of the desalination market would require mid-long term supporting policies. In the first one. the vapour is condensed by the effect of cooling. while in Canary Island was 350. it could be come out the use of membrane process as reverse osmosis (RO) (87%) and electro-dialysis (ED) (9%). MSF is still the most utilized process with more than 40% of total capacity. but corresponding to only 12 l/d per capita. the high water consumption in zones with irrigated agriculture and the tourist infrastructure which increases the consumption in drier seasons. Obviously desalting plants are mostly located in Southern regions. the seawater is sprayed in a space heated by steam produced by a conventional boiler. 3. With regard to the proportion of the different desalination processes. This could be the stimulus for a wider exploitation of renewable energies.2 3. In a single effect evaporator there are two main parts – the evaporator and the condenser. etc. which is particularly penalizing in a scenario of national energy generation inadequate to fulfil the internal demand. Finally the impact of emissions from desalination processes on the environment could be a critical aspect to make the erection of large capacity plants tolerable by local communities. but only RO compete with distillation processes in seawater desalination. The sprayed water evaporates and there will be a separation between the salts and the water in the form of vapour. Moreover the increase in installed capacity during the last six years period has been less than 30%. steam is used to heat the seawater and induce evaporation. So desalination of seawater (42%) and brackish water (58%) is one of the ways of meeting water demand.1 a Single Effect Evaporation desalination process is represented. due to the presence of a solid national industry.1 MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATION Physical principles In order to introduce the working principle of Multiple Effect Evaporation (MEE). qualification and quantification of the water demand. Actually. Most of desalination plants in Spain are situated in Levante. access to energy. the cold seawater is used to condense the vapour that was previously separated from the salts. as already explained. In 2000. Both the Evaporator and Condenser are heat exchangers. Andalucia. Murcia. we will introduce first the principles of single effect evaporation (/Des02/) and also the single effect direct solar evaporation (/INE99/). A further barrier is the elevated energy consumption per m³ of desalted water. The vapour is conducted out of the evaporator and will go through the condenser in order to obtain the distilled water. using the seawater before being distillate.1.2. RO and ED. The share relevant to this process has grown from little more than 20% in 1997 to nearly 26% in 2003.4: Market trends in some EU countries (Source: country data delivered by NEGST WP5 participants). This limitation to specific areas of the country is due mainly to the economic factor: in general the production cost is very high compared to the typical supply charge. which currently give a negligible contribution. In the evaporator.000 m³/d in Spain (around 800 plants). being water highly subsidized by the government. not sporadic actions in consequence of drought periods. as a result of the testing of different solutions according to the variability along the national territory in raw water characteristics. Table 3. and Canary Islands and in Spanish cities of the North of Africa. Regarding the used technology. quite modest in comparison with other countries affected by fresh water shortage problems. could be appointed out the irregular rainfall of our geography.000 m³/d (around 90 plants).D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 62 of 102 pages Italy in the 11th ranking worldwide. Also ME/VC and ED give an important contribution of around 17% and 15% respectively. are used for brackish water desalination. Both of them. the peculiarity of Italy is the absence of a really dominant technology.WP5.000 m³/d (around 300 plants) and in Murcia was 149. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . In the second. In the condenser.
2: Single effect solar evaporation desalination process (Source: /INE99/) The single effect solar still is formed by a shallow container with insulation in its bottom part and with a transparent cover with some tilt on top. Figure 3.1: Single effect evaporation desalination process developed in the framework of the CYTED Programme – (Source : /Des02/) Sub-programme VI: SOLCYTED.e.2.. Several prototypes were developed (see /INE99/).2.3 a Multi effect evaporation system is schematically represented. This Programme involved Portugal and Spain and countries from Latin-America. In Figure 3. Multi effect evaporation is conceived to avoid the losses of the single effect evaporation. i.2. /INE99/.2 a schematic representation of a single effect direct solar evaporation desalination process is represented.2. In /INE99/ a summary of such systems is presented.2. Single effect solar evaporation is also not very efficient but it is interesting to understand its working principal. Water vapour in contact with the cover (colder) will condense and will form a thin film of water that will slide to the lateral channels and will be collected in the form of distilled water.WP5. In Figure 3. In the shallow container the seawater is introduced.1 of this document and are all considered low capacity production systems.2. the amount of water produced is less than the amount of heating steam used to operate the system (/Des02/).D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 63 of 102 pages This system has very little industrial applications since its thermal performance ratio is less then one. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Some of these will be described in section 3. By effect of the solar radiation incident on the transparent cover the water is heated and it evaporates. is a compilation of the results of a project Figure 3. The project title is “Produccion de agua potable para pequenos consumos humanos” and in its framework different aspects of production of drinkable water for human consumption were studied. In these systems the energy that results from the condensation of water in the transparent cover is lost by the system.
.2. Indirect solar evaporation systems were also the object of the studies performed under the framework of CYTED project (/INE99/). goes through the condenser joining the distillated water produced in the other elements and the condensation heat is used to preheat the seawater that goes to the first element. A schematic representation of this multi effect can be seen in Figure 126.96.36.199: Schematic representation of a Multi effect evaporation system (Source: /Des02/.e. solar evaporation (Source: /INE99/) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . i. The vapour produced is transferred to the second element transporting the heat that will be used to produce again evaporation of the brine. In the case of multiple effect solar evaporation. In the last element the vapour that is not transported and used in another element. the hot steam produced by a boiler is used in a heat exchanger to evaporate de seawater and produce a first separation between water (in the form of vapour) and brine (seawater with a higher salt concentration).page 150) The conventional multi effect evaporator is formed by n simple effect evaporators. All this process is described in a detailed way in /Des02/.WP5. In the first element. but solar evaporation can also be considered with systems where the solar collectors are separated from the distillation unit – indirect solar evaporation. the solar distillation system is an integrated system (solar collection is performed in the same device that performs the distillation). there is also the possibility to re-use the heat resulting from the condensation of vapour that.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 64 of 102 pages Figure 3. The single effect or multi-effect solar evaporation described can be called direct solar evaporation. in the simple effect solar evaporation is lost through the transparent cover. which is delivered in this second element by spray nozzles as in the first case.2. These systems were always considered for remote application considering the need for a small production Figure 3.4: Schematic representation of multi effect of water (low capacity production systems).
In this type of multi-effect distillation unit the heat necessary to the evaporation process could be delivered by solar collectors of different types or by burning biomass (/INE99/).6 and Figure 3. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Single effect solar evaporation plants.2.2. Argentina.2. Indirect solar evaporation systems were also the object of the studies performed under the framework of CYTED project..WP5. Figure 3. are seldom used in Industry. In /INE99/.2.6: Modular solar still – El Chaco Salteño. are given.2. Figure 3. are used where fresh water demand is low and land is inexpensive (/Bla03/). examples of solar evaporation. Several prototypes were constructed and studied in CYTED project.2.2 Research and demonstration systems 3. The fact that they can be constructed in a not very expensive way and that there operation does not require very special technical skills makes them an interesting solution in some developing areas. although not very efficient.7.5: Multi-stage indirect solar evaporation (legends in English are missing) 3. Two examples are shown in Figure 3.6 shows one of the prototypes tested in the frame of CYTED sub-programme VI. They are mainly used in marine vessels. These systems were always considered for remote application considering a small production of water.2.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 65 of 102 pages Figure 3.5 is a schematic representation of a multi-effect evaporation system for small productions.3 and VII of /INE99/).1 Low capacity production systems According to /Des02/. either with single effect or multieffect. In section 3. Produces water for a group of families living in a rural remote area with plenty of salt water (Source: /INE99/). which we can call conventional plants since they will not use Solar Energy in a direct or indirect form.2.2. Figure 3.2. several of these single effect evaporators were studied and different prototypes are presented (see chapters III. the single effect evaporation plants.2.
.2 l.2.e. only small scale NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 66 of 102 pages Figure 3.1 l/m²/d.2. integrated heat exchanger and flat plate collector the was installed as a pilot plant at the Brasil coast by the Solar Institut Jülich (SIJ) and was designed by MÜLLER and SCHWARZER (/Mül03/). Other facts that gave a larger development to MSF (multi-stage flash) evaporation are lower cost and apparently high efficiency.7: MED-pilot plant of by the SIJ in Brazil (Source: /Mül03/) 3.2 Medium and large capacity production systems Multi effect evaporation plants have been used mainly in the Chemical Industry and their first industrial use was in the sugar industry in the 19th century (/Ahk86/). a specific multi-effect productivity of 25. In the second half of the XX century.WP5. i.6: Asymmetric CPC coupled to distillation unit (Source: /Joy93/) a In Figure 3.2. heating the first stage of the MED with a heat exchanger. The heat transferred between the flat plate collectors and the distillation unit work by thermosyphon effect. specially when large size plants are considered (/Bla03/).7 it is possible to see a picture of a MED-system with 6 stages.2. The daily production is of 50. scaling and corrosion and the development of multistage flash processes stopped the development of Multi effect plants (/Des02/).2. The first desalination plants of the multi effect evaporation type suffered of problems like fouling. Figure 3.
) The plant consists of three subsystems: the solar collector field. These last systems are much more common when associating solar with Multi-stage evaporation. The electrical energy required by the different pumps is provided from the main grid.2.2. the heat accumulator and the sea water evaporator. The plant is in an excellent condition and maintained by two fulltime technicians (/Eln01/). in Abu Dhabi. Some examples of operating plants are given below.5.WP5. The 18 effects are arranged above each other. a technical and economical comparison of Solar-assisted heat supply systems for a multi effect seawater distillation unit was performed considering different collector types – CPC. The 18-stage MED-plant was manufactured by Sasakura and Sanyo of Japan. Figure 3. Parabolic trough and evacuated tube CPC.3 Abu Dhabi Since 1985. Several examples of these systems are referred in /Bla03/. mainly in Africa and Middle-East. The specific results of this study are referred in section 3.2. In a recent study (/Bla03/) performed in the frame work on European project – DGXII-FPV AQUASOL Project 2002-2006. but in the last decade.2. a thermally stratified heat accumulator with a capacity of 300 m³ is incorporated in the design to provide the thermal energy required during the nighttime. In order to ensure that the evaporator can run 24 hours per day during sunny days. It is powered by 1. A simplified schematic of the plant is shown in Figure 3. flat plate collectors. (Sasakura usually builds large-scale desalination plants. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . The examples given use different collector types .8 and a pictorial view in Figure 3.8: Plan of the solar thermal driven desalination plant at Abu Dhabi (Source: /Eln01/).D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 67 of 102 pages MED plants were built. a new interest in MED plants was found and they are now technically and economically competing with MSF (/Bla03/). The plant is equipped with vacuum technique and chemical water pre-treatment. In this case it is also and indirect solar evaporation with the difference that the energy needed for the distillation process is not solar-only.9. Examples of operating plants are more easily found outside Europe. a solar MED plant with an average capacity of 80 m³/d is in operation successfully.flat plate. 3.2. UAE.2. In medium and large MED plants it is also possible to use the heat produced by a solar system to assist the heat supply system.2. evacuated tubes and parabolic-trough concentrators.860 m² of evacuated tube. The specific heat consummation is 49 kWh/m³ distillate at a sea water temperature of 35 ° and a hot water temperature of 99 ° (continuous C C operation).
(2003).Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft und Raumfahrt e.9: Picture of the desalination plant at Abu Dhabi. model 3001 (see Figure 3. These projects have been develloped by the Spanish research institute CIEMAT . The collector field as an area of 2672 m2 and is formed by parabolic trough collectors manufactured by ACUREX (USA). NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . in Spain. The project had two phases: Phase I – to study the reliability and technical feasibility of solar thermal energy in seawater desalination Phase II – to develop an optimised solar desalination system by implementing in the system initially installed at the PSA those improvements that could make it more competitive with conventional desalination systems” In this project a Multi-effect Distillation plant was installed in 1988.(Source: /Eln01/) Report of a new plant with a much higher capacity is referred in /Bla03/ to be reported by Vermey.2. a parabolic trough solar collector field and a thermocline thermal energy storage tank (115 m3). J.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 68 of 102 pages Figure 3.WP5.V. In /Joy93/ are reported the results of the project developed between 1987 and 1993. Medioambientales y Technologicas and the DLR .10). 3.2.2. This plant was formed by a 14-effect MED plant.4 Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) Projects in the field of Solar thermal desalination system have been developed In Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA).Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas.2.W. since the 80’s.
by incorporating s double-effect absorption heat pump to the MED plant. to do a cost analysis of this technology and compare it with others as can be seen in Fig.3 to 2. while the remaining 110 kW are recovered by the heat pump evaporator at 35 ° and pumped to usable C temperature of 65 ° For this. the heat pump needs 90 kW thermal power at 180 ° The C.WP5. The implementation of these improvements was carried out and concluded in 1993. Taking this into account.e. energy consumption of the desalination system is thus reduced from 200kW to 90 kW.2.9 kWh/m³. number of kgs of distillated produced by 2300 kJ heat input). The production capacity was about 3 m³/h at 12 h/d in a yearly average. PSA. with theoretical studies performed during the project. The avaluation of this plant showed a performance ratio higher then 9 (i.3 to 2. 11. C. From the first phase of the project it was possible to conclude that two important improvements would be: a) the plant electrical demand could be reduced by replacing the initial hydroejector-based vacuum system with a steam ejector system b) the plant thermal demand could be 50% reduced. The heat pump delivers 200 kW of thermal energy at 65 ° to the MED plant.5 MWht/day) then what was needed – 3 MWht/8 hours daily operation.” A conventional MED plant needs to cool the final condenser with seawater in order to condense the steam produced in the last effect. The amount of cooling water required by the condenser depends on the seawater temperature. It was also possible. 2/3 of this cooling water is rejected back into the sea. Thus. The energy delivered was much higher (6. The nominal output of this installation was of 3 m3/h.36 €/m³. The C desalination process in the plant evaporator body uses only 90 of the 200 kW. thus wasting an important amount thermal energy (~110 kWh at 35 ° C). To eliminate this waste of energy. the price could be reduced from 3. Therefore. it is NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .10: Parabolic Trough Collectors. With the second phase of the project.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 69 of 102 pages Figure 3. the thermal energy consumption of the desalination system was reduced by 44% from 63 to 36 kWh/m³ and the electric consumption by 12% from 3. it was possible to detect several technical problems associated to the improvements introduced and to find ways to overcome these problems (see /Zar94/ for details). Spain (Source: /Zar94/) The collector field was an already existing field in PSA and was not specially installed for the MED system. a double-effect absorption heat pump was coupled to the final condenser. This graph can only give qualitative information since the costs are not converted to €.
3.5 AQUASOL Project The AQUASOL project .11: Water production cost – Comparison of MED technology (Coventional and Solar) with Reverse Osmosis (Conventional and with PV).2. The CPC collector field is coupled to a thermal storage and sill have as backup a gas boiler.12 and described in /Col03/. The objective of this project is to improve the present techno-economic efficiency of solar MED systems and reduce the cost of water production.WP5.2.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 70 of 102 pages possible to conclude that Solar MED technology shows slightly higher costs then Conventional MED technology. It is based on the experience gained in the previous projects of PSA (/Zar94/).“Enhanced Zero Discharge Seawater Desalination using Hybrid Solar Technology” .2. b) Development of a Double Effect Absorption Heat Pump (DEAHP) optimised and fully integrated within the MED process to reduce the energy input needed and to improve the overall energy efficiency of the process c) Reduce to zero any discharge from the process by recuperating the salt from the brine. The choice of the CPC collector is justified in /Bla03/. Figure 3. The project will develop three main technological aspects: a) development of a stationary solar collector of the CPC type to supply heat at medium temperature (70-100ºC).is a on-going project financed in the 5th Frame Work Programme. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . The advanced solar dryer is schematically represented in Figure 3. An advanced solar dryer system will be designed and developed in the project.2. allowing a 24 hour operation of the MED plant.
5 Euro/GJ the cost of the solar assisted MED plant should be of 125 Figure 3.AQUASOL Project (Source: /Bla02/).2.WP5.2.13: Schematic representation of the set-up of the solar assisted distillation plant . NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .2. Taking into account the technological improvements to be obtained in the Aquasol project and considering that the MED plant will have a solar contribution of 50% to the total energy required for operation of the plant it is possible to determine the cost per square meter of solar collectors needed to obtain the same cost of production of water as a conventional MED plant (/Bla02/). which constitutes a demonstration installation. /Col03/). The graph below shows that for a cost of Natural gas of 4. Figure 3. Figure 3.13 shows a schematic representation of the set-up of the new Solar assisted distillation system to be installed at PSA.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 71 of 102 pages A partial prototype of this dried has been tested at INETI and a final version will be constructed in Greece for production of salt from see water. Almeria.12: Advanced solar drier design (Source: Euro/m2.
seen in Figure 3. This is generally done by condensing steam of conventional power plants on a bank of tubes that carry seawater which passes through the vessel. only a small percentage of this water is converted to steam (water vapour).3 3. almost exploding or flashing into steam. since boiling will continue only until the water cools (furnishing the heat of vaporization) to the boiling point.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 72 of 102 pages Figure 3.3. The capacity C of installed plants ranges from 4.1.000 m³/d (/Buc04/).1 MULTI-STAGE FLASH EVAPORATION Physical principles Conventional Multiple Stage Flash (MSF) sea water desalination systems work at temperatures of 90-120° and consist of up to 40 stages with suc cessively decreasing pressure. sea water is heated in a vessel called the brine heater.000 to 500.WP5. The sudden introduction of the heated water into the chamber causes it to boil rapidly. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .2. depending on the pressure maintained in this stage. called a stage.3.14: Estimated equivalent solar hardware cost versus fossil fuel cost to obtain the same cost than a conventional MED plant with a 50% solar contribution to the total plant energy requirement (Source: /Bla02/). Figure 3. causing the water to boil immediately. In the MSF process.3. where the ambient pressure is lower (operated under vacuum conditions). This heated sea water then flows into another vessel.1: Diagram of a multiple stage flash plant (Source: /Bur00/). 3. Generally.
Most of the systems for desalination used in the Arab region are parts of multipurpose systems. Corrosion is easier to control with MSF compared to multiple effect distillation (MED). However. although there is a clear tendency towards MED and reverse osmosis (RO) (/VdB02/). The MSF technology is for smaller systems not economically feasible (/Mül02/). The energy efficiency increases with the amount of stages. 3. Precipitation of inorganic material may occur within the chambers. The technology is mainly applied in big systems with a daily capacity of 4000 to 57000 m³. fouling and corrosion. Heat exchange with the saline water does not occur through heat transfer surfaces. because the design is less complex. Furthermore. Biocides may be added as well to reduce growth of bacteria. MSF is also insensitive to the initial feed concentrations and to the presence of suspended particles. An enlarged temperature difference between the first and the last stage increases the energy efficiency. The top brine temperature is limited to about 110° by the risk of C scaling. in turn. It is possible to operate the combined heat and power plant with a MSF/MED plant (heat) in combination with a RO plant (electricity). leaving the heat recovery section. which makes MSF a more expensive technology than MED and only economically competitive when energy costs are very low. The incoming feed water going to the brine heater cools the tubes. it is also poss ible to operate at lower temperatures by C. its water demand. thermal desalination plants cannot use the by-product electricity as an efficient energy source. there is therefore no risk of reduced heat transfer by scaling. It is however a disadvantage that the operation of the turbine (especially for counter pressure plants) and the heat generation is directed by the heat demand of the desalination plant.3 Integration of Solar Heat in Multiple Stage Flash Evaporation Plants There are two different system concepts for integration of solar heat in multiple stage flash evaporation plants. This way less energy is required than if the heat and power were generated separately. A MSF system normally consists of 15 to 25 stages. which decreases the dependency on a specific desalination technology. and can be reduced by applying acid or antiscalants. i. heats the feed water so that the amount of thermal energy needed in the brine heater to raise the temperature of the seawater is reduced (/Buc04/). This. The first option is to replace this external energy supply (usually steam that comes from a conventional power plant) by solar generated steam.3. MSF is still an important process for seawater desalination. Typical values range from 20 to 60 kWhthermal/m³. which work with combined heat and power plants. 3. However. The preheated brine. However. the enlarged exchange area and a more complex operation method with higher demand of monitoring result in higher investment costs. The following technologies are available to produce solar generated steam: Direct steam generation (DSG) with medium-temperature collectors such as parabolic trough collectors (PTC) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . but an increased inlet temperature leads to growing problems with scaling.WP5. Conventional MSF systems are operated at temperatures between 90 and 120° as mentioned above.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 73 of 102 pages The steam generated by flashing is converted to fresh water by being condensed on tubes of heat exchangers that run through each stage. these products will not end up in the product water because of the concept of the process. The main advantage of the MSF process is the ease and reliability of the process. Further can the electricity surplus be sold or delivered to the grid or other consumers. The product water contains about 50 ppm of total dissolved salts. A steam or gas turbine generates electricity and the desalination plant (MSF/MED) uses the waste heat for the required temperature. This way. Then the multiple stage flash process begins.2 Energy Consumption and Costs The most important disadvantage of MSF is the higher energy consumption.e. directly preheating the brine.3. is heated by an external energy supply until it reaches its top temperature. the more capital intensive MSF/MED plant can be operated at full load and the RO plant can react on water demand fluctuations.
D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 74 of 102 pages Pressurized collector loops using water or thermal oil as heat transfer medium.3. C Pumping of the sea water to the site and through the MSF unit is powered by 415 wind turbines each with a capacity of 200 kW.3.2: Flow diagram of the MSF process and the “solar field”. This thermal storage ensures that the top brine temperature is constant to avoid unstable operation of the desalination plant. Figure 3.4.36 x 104 m3/hr of Figure 3. fresh water for a typical day in June at about 2 p. it is pumped through the “solar field” which heats it to 60° The “solar C.6 m.2 shows the general flow diagram on the multistage flash evaporation process and the “solar field”. with high technical expenses. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . The solar collectors are rectangular concrete tubes. 3. Garga in 2002 shows an example of a mobile MSF plant by Sun Utility Network (/SUN03/).2 Thar Desert in India A MSF plant with a fresh water capacity of 52. and then driven by solar energy. Solar collectors heat the brine during daylight and a conventional energy supply drives the MSF plant during night time.52 km² was taken into operation in 1980 in the Thar Desert of India.WP5. half buried in the ground.5 x 106 m³/a and a collector area of 11.600 of these collectors on each side of the desalination unit each with the length of 609. As the heated seawater leaves the desalination plant. There are 9.4. The system uses evacuated tube collectors and operates at a process temperature of 115° The maximum production capacity C. through which seawater flows and is heated by solar energy.4 Operating plants 3. A small hot brine storage can be used to avoid the effect of solar irradiance transients.m.P.3. The advantage of this second concept is that the operating temperatures of the collector field can be much lower and very simple collector technologies can be used such as the concrete tube collectors that were used in the MSF system in India described below. of the system is 200 m³/d. The heated heat transfer medium is then sent to a boiler which would generate the steam required by the MSF plant. field” consists of tubular concrete collectors. These solar desalination systems have been thermo-economically evaluated by GarciaRodriguez and Gomez-Camacho (/Gar99/). This example shows that the MSF process can be downsized.3. Evacuated tube or parabolic trough collectors can be used for this purpose. The heated seawater with a temperature of about 60° is distilled in a MSF unit. Water at 60° C is flash evaporated in the desalination unit to yield 1.3. 3. The other option is to use the solar field directly as brine heater.1 Sun Utility Network A study carried out by H. Economic analysis of the scheme shows that the MSF system is compared in favour with the existing fossil fuel fired desalination plants of the equivalent capacity (/Raj80/).
Several collectors and materials. which would meet the above criteria.3 shows the cross section of the collector used in the present scheme.25 x 107 m3 of fresh water. (2) Cost effectiveness. there is an added advantage for picking it as the collector material. Figure 3. Figure 3. The clay content (a necessary ingredient of concrete) of the That soil is high (15%). The desalination unit is the regular MSF type.4: Distillate outputs for different months NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . The method for calculating the output is very well known (/Sil66/) and those methods have been used in the present case. (/Bri63/) for the production of about 1. Figure 3. For different months the output of the unit has been calculated.67° The present design C. The present configuration was decided from strength considerations of concrete together with the need to maximize the surface area exposed to solar radiation. Apart from meeting all of the above criteria. if any. operates for 24 hr while for the month of March it works for 19 hr and for the month of January only 9 hours.3. the crossover taking place at about 8 years (/Raj80/). There is no output during the months of July. The cost of water from the present scheme compares favourably with that from a fuel fired MSF plant.3. The MSF unit for the present scheme is a 20-stage evaporator with terminal temperature difference (TTD) of 1. were looked into. thereby reducing the cost.3. The integration of figure 4 than gives us the yearly output of 5. (4) Durability and ruggedness to last the life of the plant.3: Cross section of the solar collector. The distillate output starts as soon as the outlet temperature from the “solar field” reaches 32. Figure 3.3.4 shows the output for various months. and finally concrete was chosen as the collector material. As can be expected the output from the desalination unit depends upon the brine temperature entering it. August and half of September since in these months the sky is mostly cloudy . For the present scheme the solar collectors should meet the following criteria: (1) Ease of fabrication and maintenance. and thus local raw materials can be used effectively in making these collectors. is simply an extrapolation on the design by Brice et al. The heated seawater from the “solar field” goes to the desalination unit for production of fresh water. (3) minimum corrosion with seawater.WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 75 of 102 pages The solar field is the most important component of the system since it provides the energy to effect desalination and the right choice of solar collector is important.2° Thus for the month of June the scheme C. More over these months can be used for yearly maintenance.36 x 104 m³/hr of fresh water.
Even though that. one has to note that the main characteristics of this kind of technology are: the small size as regards production of water. Figure 3. MED and MSF technology present operating conditions that impose use of vacuum tubes or concentration principle for the solar technology to be selected.1: Desalination Processes coupled to solar thermal energy More specifically.4. such us the Mediterranean countries. distillation systems powered by thermal energy appear to be a potential solution.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 76 of 102 pages 3. as small scale electricity production by solar thermal energy has been proven to be unfavourable to a small scale. and with reference to the above mentioned characteristics. there is a large number of possible combinations of thermal solar energy and desalination processes (Figure 3. though technical feasible. on a theoretical basis. interest focuses at decentralized cases. Nevertheless. These systems though are in the phase of experimental investigation. etc) and multi-use context (heat or fresh water production depending to user’s needs). such as small communities. a significant development of small scale applications takes place. waste heat. the following systems are referred: [A] Multi-Effect Evaporation (MED) [B] Multi-Stage Flash Evaporation (MSF) [C] Solar Still [D] Humidification – dehumidification There exist some other thermal solar desalination concepts as well. With reference to the distillation technologies mentioned. In general. When talking about solar thermal desalination technology for small users. major constraints are imposed by the unfavourable NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .WP5. Reverse osmosis (RO). with reference to a conventional source On an application basis. especially in small scale applications. systems that operate with electricity/mechanical power. More specifically. focusing mainly at RO technology. thermal desalination technology is considered simple and easy to implement. not connected to the grid.1). Electrodialysis (ED) Systems. Additional advantages are the existence of a strong local solar thermal industry in most Mediterranean countries and the possibility to operate the system in a multi-source (solar. with possibility to support and maintain the system locally. e. remote islands.g. as we do not talk for production plants high degree of autonomous operation. even in countries with low-level technical infrastructure.4. are out of discussion.4 APPLICATIONS FOR SMALL USERS During the last years. membrane distillation. and they do not seem to be mature enough in terms of entering the solar thermal market in the near future. such us Thermal/Mechanical Vapour Compression (TVC/MVC). thermal desalination remains an option. isolated areas. Nevertheless. in practice many of these are unlikely ever to be used. On the other hand. especially for countries with high solar potential and water shortage problems.
while the fresh water recovery is performed at the condenser. constitute of a basin. The interest and. on the other hand. Recovery or not of condensation heat that can be used for the pre-heating of saline water. As regards the solar part of the system. considering the significant increase to the system’s efficiency. This can happen by the coupling of a conventional solar still with a solar collector field and hot water storage tank (active solar stills).D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 77 of 102 pages development of the multiple-stage distillation technology in small-scale. The basin is covered with a thin material film. minimum operation and maintenance requirements and friendliness to the environment.4. letting penetration of solar radiation (Figure 3. which appear to be proper for small scale applications. as the provision of heat in temperatures of 85-95oC.1 Solar still Solar stills (conventional greenhouse type) appear to be simple and environmental friendly installations. this need appears to be more emerge in the case of direct evaporation (humidification-dehumidification process). thus making a hybrid solar desalination and water heating system which can provide simultaneously distilled water and hot water. collected thermal solar energy is used for the evaporation of saline or brackish water. demonstrating ease of construction using locally available materials. refer. with regard to the desalination. consequently. In fact.2). However.1. as in the case of solar stills operation temperatures are lower due to the high thermal losses imposed by the configuration. and especially those coupled to flatplate solar collectors. More specifically many researchers propose the direct heating of saline water. current analysis focus at the technologies of Solar Stills and Humidification-dehumidification. Their main disadvantage is the low output in distilled water in comparison with other desalination systems.Principle of operation Conventional solar stills. Through the concept of thermal desalination technologies. Tradeoff between the above alternatives. interest focuses at the referred issue of materials choice. as well as a transparent cover. containing the water to be evaporated. on one hand. while another issue imposed is the achievement of optimal efficiency by solar collectors in high temperatures of operation. to the significant restrictions on the materials of the collector. acts quite positively to the requested evaporation process of saline water. This parameter is considered crucial for the evaporationcondensation desalination processes. and.WP5. to the temperature reduction on the heat exchanger. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . it has been proven that an increase of saline water temperature leads to significantly higher outputs. Technological solutions present alternatives on the basis of: The way collected heat is exploited. and these solutions will not be examined. 3.4. These technologies can be examined as a promising alternative decentralized solution. 3. thus presenting significant advantages for their use in decentralized areas. in order to maximize absorptance of solar radiation. of black colour or simply painted black. in their simplest form. as well as the solar collector's technology.4. while others propose the use of a heat exchanger.1 Conventional Greenhouse type Solar Stills . presenting the potential to be coupled with flat-plate collectors.
elastic carpets or plastic material.Construction Materials With reference to construction. joint to satisfactory mechanical properties special care has to be taken for the insulation.) upward streams of vapour and air are developed. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Nevertheless. It is evident that as temperature difference between the cover and the basin-water surface increases. and low absorptance of solar radiation. in order to ensure high transmittance. mainly due to the higher basin temperature. The proposed arrangements refer to a double glass cover. higher temperature imposes higher thermal losses of various parts of the installation.4. due to the temperature difference between the water (high temp.Alternative configurations The slope of the cover of greenhouse solar stills might be single or double. Indicative values for water temperature between 50-70° are referred. the temperature of the air-vapour mixture becomes higher as distance to the basin decreases. on a feed back flow and counter flow.) and the cover (low temp. such as increasing the wettability of the glass cover inside surface (special treatment). Under the context of increasing performance for a solar still. On the other hand. the remaining water film would chill very quickly by the night-time. . During this motion of upward streams. or both. etc. the creation of upward streams will be more intense.WP5. Condensed water is formed as a film in the cover. A practice that increases performance of the system refers to the increase of the basin temperature or decrease of the cover temperature. while one has to note the use of linoleum carpet ingrained with asphalt the cover is made of glass or special treated plastic (for maximizing the flow of condensate on the cover). flowing to the collection channels aside of the still. In this case. reaching 80° at the C C daytime of high radiation. and the materials used. thus the adjustion of the water layer thickness would permit heat storage through the system. a single slope still has less convection and radiation losses and the shaded region may be utilized as an additional condensation surface. What has to be noted is that on the basis of motion of the sun. thus the evaporation would stop. and especially through the contact to the cover. especially beneath the seawater evaporator basins in order to reduce ground heat losses . condensation of part of the vapour occurs. thus the production of water higher. In case the conditions let evaporation during night-time.2: Greenhouse type Solar Still basin surface. the installation might operate as a heat storage unit. production would continue during the night as well. In fact.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 78 of 102 pages The principle of operation is very simple. The remaining part of the mixture gets colder and moves to the Figure 3. in different seasons and site locations the maximum radiation may be higher for a double slope still and the performance may also be better. One has to note though that under this situation. adding a secondary condenser. In the free space between the cover and the basin. the following can be pointed out: the basin is usually covered either with black paint. other simple practices are referred as well. Reduction to the thickness/depth of the water layer in the basin is expected to improve the productivity of the still. putting black dye to the water. while the latter is dependent to the water layer thickness (thinner layer leads to higher temperatures). as a consequence of the stored heat into the water-layer during the day.
4).3: Double basin solar still be carried out as double-effect distillation.4. for further distillation. When more than two stages are involved. The re-utilization of latent heat of condensation.1. can Figure 3. This can happen if the plant is connected to a heat source. The indirect configuration leads to an increasing performance. Alternatively the heat driven from the collector could be indirectly supplied to the still through a heat exchanger and a storage tank placed just below the basin (Figure 3.4. However. and for example for a double basin system (Figure 3. The temperature level of the heat source enables the use of flat-plate collectors (or of solar ponds). thus utilizing the latent heat of condensation. The heat supply by the solar field to the solar still might be direct or indirect. this is generally known as a multi-effect distillation system. The alternative is to increase the number of stages. the saline water is circulated between the still and the collector with a small pump. In this report interest focuses at the solar energy coupling. also. The above configurations refer mainly to single-type stills. and does not affect the lower basin. The additional production resulting from the multi-effect still compared with that from the simple solar still should be justified.WP5. it has been proven that the process of flowing water over the glass cover has a good effect on the upper basin distillate output.2 Active solar stills – Coupling to flat-plate solar collectors As stated above. such an indirect still-collector system will protect the collector from corrosion and scale deposits caused by saline water. The overall system efficiency will be reduced due to the chances for lower temperature heat supply to the still and more energy losses. with the additional cost incurred in the more complicated multi-effect still.4. led to the construction of a wick-type collector-evaporator. The heat derived from the collector is directly supplied to the still and increases the rate of evaporation of the still. as stored solar heat in the storage tank might be used for production at the night time.4.4: Active solar still – Indirect coupling to solar collectors NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 79 of 102 pages The fact that a reduction in the depth of brine in the basin of the single effect type still improves the productivity of the still. however.3). increasing of the temperature difference between basin-water and the cover is expected to increase productivity of the plant. mainly due to the higher basin temperature.4. The advantage of the wick is to keep the brine as shallow as possible while avoiding dry spots. 3. Figure 3. In this configurations. In the first case.
they present a high level of utilization.4. More specifically. especially if one considers the seasonal character of water demand. based upon the general principle of solar still operation. joint to the eventual technological complexity of multiple stage solution.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 80 of 102 pages In general the combination of solar thermal heat source with a solar still leads to higher performance of the system. An interesting fact for active solar still systems is their capability to provide simultaneously distilled water and hot water (hybrid systems from the users point of view).4 Techno-economical characterization of solar stills – Case studies As it has been pointed out through the analysis. The case of active multiple stage solar stills. Under proper planning of the system a 100% increase of the produced water quantity / day might be achieved (see paragraph 3. Of course this output is achieved under the assumption that there is not draw-off for hot water demand. Nevertheless.1.1. while in the winter hot water is also a concern. under the proper design. and minimum operation and maintenance requirements. Thus. an average value of 25-40% is referred for the cold months. experimental and theoretical results predict a 100% output increase in the case of active solar stills. with the assumption of typical average values for solar radiation and solar still efficiency.26 MJ/kg) where : n: H: A: Qevap : Thus. during 60’s and 70’s a lot of installations have been developed through out the world. economical terms become unfavourable. the performance of a conventional solar still might be calculated by the following simplified relation: P= n⋅H ⋅ A Qevap overall efficiency of the still solar energy incident to the greenhouse area (MJ/m²) aperture area of the greenhouse (m²) latent heat of vaporisation of water (2.5 lt/m². Under this context. experiments have shown that for multiple stage. In terms of efficiency. Respectively. joint though to a low output in distilled water in comparison with other desalination systems. for conventional solar stills.4. is considered rather marginal. for the case of active solar stills. given the scale of application.3 Performance characteristics of solar stills Solar stills are applications addressed to small users. Thus. This value is verified through relevant research work.WP5. with reference to the decentralized character of these solutions. there is a demand for high temperature operating conditions in order to present efficient evaporation and condensation. referring to capacities less than 20m³/d mainly. as their water production is low. presents interest on a theoretical basis. while in the summer the respective value is 30-60%. The solution of vacuum tubes. as they present ease of construction.4. calculated daily production of water is 2. and considerable space requirements. being higher at the period around summer. a value of 6 lt/m²/d is referred. Characteristic is the case of single NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . comparing to passive systems. In addition. using locally available materials. 3.3). This figure denotes the thermal energy used for evaporation (and finally used for the production of m kg of condensed water) divided to the incident to the system solar energy. solar stills are a promising decentralized solution.1. referred as a general rule of thumb value for conventional solar stills. 3. the use of flat-plate collectors is not suggested. as the efficiency of the solar field will be poor at the operation temperatures required. On an approximate method.
interest focuses at systems coupled to solar energy. The vapour carrying capability of air increases with temperature. i. as in many areas. the term multi-effect is used. Thus. The humidification-dehumidification technique is especially suited for seawater desalination when the demand for water is decentralized.4. one has to study the trade-off between cost and performance increase. such us flexibility in capacity. This benefit might lead to a high degree of system utilization. Their capacity ranged from 12-40 m³/d of distilled water with a black surface area 2008-8600 m². the use of a working fluid (air). which were constructed at that period on four Greek Islands to provide small communities with fresh water.WP5. the use of a storage tank is also possible.2.2 Humidification-dehumidification While conventional solar stills have inherently a major problem of energy loss in the form of latent heat of condensation of water. ensuring high levels of performance. What has to be noted is that the availability of heat in temperatures 85-95° would act quite C positively to the evaporation process. gained output ratio).1 Principle of operation The basic principle of humidification – dehumidification desalination systems is the humidification of ambient air through heated seawater (seawater evaporation) and condensation of water vapour from humid air by contact with a cooling surface. heat exchanger in which salt water is preheated by the latent heat of recovery. The process takes place at ambient pressure and at temperatures usually between 50oC and 85° thus the C. in the case of active solar stills. In addition. the installation cost increases as well. while in the winter this demand decreases. This term does not impose multiple stage operation. the condensation occurs in a C C.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 81 of 102 pages basin solar stills. the demand for water is high in the summer months. use of flat-plate collectors is feasible. geothermal. lead to a significant improvement in the efficiency of solar desalination units. As in the case of solar-stills. burdened by the cost of the solar-field. caused by the direct contact of the heating element (solar absorber) and saline water.1 kg of dry air can carry 0. and more specifically to flat-plate collectors. in the case of direct heat supply systems. 3. moderate installation and operating costs. Nevertheless. thus an issue is imposed. regarding research towards the development of high-performance flat-plate collectors in the specific operating conditions. For the process of humidification-dehumidification. Coupling to a solar field of flat–plate collectors increases significantly the productivity of such systems (6 lt/m²/d). recovered energy or cogeneration). solar desalination processes based on the humidification dehumidification principle.4. 3. but denotes the ratio of heat input to heat utilized for distillate production (GOR>1. and the potential of hot water availability might be more important. In the case of indirect systems. flow of saline water through the collectors leads to significant restrictions on the materials of the collector. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .e. the heat supply by flat-plate collectors might be direct (direct pass of saline water through the collectors) or indirect (heat exchanger presence). thus imposing a topic for research. separating heating element (absorber) and saline water limits to a great extent problems by the presence of scale deposits and corrosion. On a level of techno-economical analysis. Several advantages of this technique are referred. simplicity and the possibility of using low temperature energy (solar. Potentially. This analysis should take into account the potential of active solar stills to produce hot water as well. although this is feasible. heat storage could ensure the operation of the system for a period exceeding the day-time. One of the main problems that operation of various installations has demonstrated is the presence of deposits of scale and corrosion which deteriorate the unit’s performance. In this report.5 kg of vapour and about 670 kcal when its temperature increases from 30° to 80 ° Generally.
WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 82 of 102 pages
188.8.131.52 Types of systems- Performance Characteristics Two types of MEH (Multi Effect Humidification) are referred: open-air/closed-water cycle and open-water/closed-air cycle. - MEH – open- water/closed-air In these systems (Figure 3.4.5), heat is recovered by air circulation between a humidifier and a condenser using natural or forced draft circulation. The saline water feed to the condenser is preheated by the evolved latent heat of condensation of water, which is usually lost in the single-basin still. The saline water leaving the condenser is further heated in a flat-plate solar collector and then sprayed over the packing in the humidifier. Resulting brine water is rejected. There have been developed several pilot MEH units – open-water/close-air. With reference to the results of the respective studies/experiments, one may point-out the following : The condensation heat recovery might reach 70% of the evaporation heat (GOR:3-4.5), while a production of 12 L/m2/d without thermal storage can be achieved Increasing of the water temperature at the inlet to the humidifier of the MEH unit, and air circulation is essential for raising the performance of the system Natural as well as forced air circulation systems are referred. For the latter, although the higher circulation of air (at least up to a limit) seems to increase the performance, one has to consider the energy consumption of the fans
Heat Source ( 75...85°C)
Hot Sea Water
Preheated Sea Water
Cn o v ect i on
Figure 3.4.5: MEH open-water / closed-air cycle system diagram
- MEH – closed-water/open-air In these systems (Figure 3.4.6), the closed water circulation is in contact with a continuous flow of cold air in the evaporation chamber. The air is heated and loaded with moisture as it passes upwards through the falling hot water in the evaporation chamber.
ur nat al
Cold Raw Water Distillate
WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 83 of 102 pages
Flat Plate Collector Heat Input
Seawater Water Recycle Distillate Cold Mixed Air
Air Outflow Air Inflow
Figure 3.4.6: MEH closed-water/open-air system diagram
After passing through a condenser cooled with cold seawater, the partially dehumidified air leaves the unit while the condensate (distillate) is collected. Water is recycled or re-circulated. Incoming cold air provides a cooling source for the circulating water before it re-enters the condenser. Systems with closed saline water cycle ensure a high utilisation of the salt water for fresh water production, although the production of fresh water, as resulting by the experimental installations, has not been proven to be higher than in closed air systems. Referred study of the effect of air flow-rate on the production efficiency, presented a maximum value. The reason for this is related to fact that the increase of the airflow rate, leads to an increase to the heat and mass transfer coefficients in the humidifier and condenser but eventually decreases the operating temperature of the system.
184.108.40.206 Components materials - Characteristics The most important component for a humidification-dehumidification system is the heat exchanger / humidifier component. In general, the use of plastic materials is suggested, in order to prevent corrosion phenomena. On the other hand, the main problem with plastic material is the questionable resistance in the presented operating temperatures. Polypropylene has been demonstrated as a favourable material. The direct/indirect heat supply configuration has a strong influence to the characteristics of the heat exchanger/humidifier component. More specifically, for a direct system, heated saline water from the collector flows directly through the humidifier, while for an indirect system, the configuration has to ensure the heat transfer to the saline water or the humidifier. Typical heat exchanger geometry consists of tubes placed on perforated plates and supplied by special joints. This makes the eventual dismantling and replacement easier. In the case of direct systems, a well-performing geometry for the humidifier is vertically suspended tissues or fleece, made of polypropylene and over which, the hot seawater is normally distributed. The condenser is a polypropylene bridged double plate heat exchanger through which the cool brine is pumped upwards. The condensate runs down the plates and trickles into a collecting basin. Referred configuration can be implemented to indirect systems also. More specifically, in the case of a heat exchanger presence between the collector and the saline water, the system configuration can be the same. In the case that the hot water of the collector flows through the humidifier, pipes of hot (fresh) water have to be adjusted to the tissues. For the humidifier material, the solution of textile tissues is also a cheap and efficient solution. The geometry of packed tower may also be used for the humidifier, depending on results to be achieved and design conditions. The humidifier material (e.g honeycomb paper, etc) should generally be of such a size and shape as to provide a high contact surface and a low pressure drop, as it has an effect on the thermal efficiency and productivity of the unit. The operating conditions of the condenser refer to lower temperatures (potentially reaching 50° thus the use of plastic material is more fea sible. An horizontal tube bundle through which C),
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WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 84 of 102 pages
the brine coolant passes in counter-current flow to the fresh water stream surrounding the tube bundle is the most used configuration. As regards the solar part, in terms of materials, and especially for direct heated systems the restrictions due to the contact of saline water with the collector remain, as in the case of active solar stills, directing research to this topic. 220.127.116.11 Techno-economical characterization of solar humidification-dehumidification systems Concluding the above analysis, solar humidification-dehumidification systems, present a rather improved efficiency when compared to active solar stills. Construction is simple and can be based in locally available materials for most components. Nevertheless, a level of complexity appears as regards mainly the humidifier, but the condenser as well as. For these components, the use of polypropylene might solve corrosion problems arising from the contact of saline water to the humidifier/condenser surface, while a simple and cheap solution for the contact surfaces might be textile pads. The coupling to solar energy and more specifically to flat-plate collectors is a proven solution. Achievement of high-performance in operation conditions of 85-95° would act quite positively C, to the evaporation process, and consequently to the efficiency of the system. In addition, direct heated systems are favourable in terms of energy exploitation (as there is no temperature reduction in the solar part – desalination system heat exchanger), but there is an emerging issue referring to the restrictions to the materials of the collector. Most humidification-dehumidification systems referred are experimental/pilot plants, presenting various configurations. Although a fair amount of simulation studies and experiments have been conducted, further design simulation is required to fully understand the complicated effects of air and water flow rates, the optimum size of individual components or modules of the unit and to generate a comprehensive model for the system – both technical and economical. An arising speculation refers to the burdening of the installation cost with the collectors cost, but there one has to see the potential of these systems to operate in a hybrid manner (fresh water/hot water production) also, as in the case of active solar stills. Concluding, research, so far conducted, has demonstrated the potential of solar humidificationdehumidification technology as an alternative for small capacity desalination plants, up to 10 m³/d. 3.5 COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGY UNDER INVESTIGATION
In this paragraph, a comparative analysis between different seawater desalination systems driven by low to medium solar thermal collectors will be performed. Concerning the desalination processes, a preliminary screening has been carried out, based upon the information reported in the previous sections. Really the interest will be focused on multi-effect evaporation (ME) only, evaluating different plant configurations. The reasons of the exclusion of other possible systems are summarized as it follows: Applications for small users, such like solar stills and humidification-dehumidification, are characterized by a modest performance ratio, thus an enormous collector area per m³/d of installed capacity is required, limiting the interest in these technologies to regions where land availability is not critical; Multi-stage flash evaporation (MSF) requires a higher operating temperature than ME to achieve an equal performance ratio, is less flexible with respect to the load variations, has a higher power consumption, and is more sensitive to plant size both in terms of efficiency and cost; Cogeneration is valuable for large scale applications and normally requires the use of high temperature concentrating solar technologies, therefore, owing to both these aspects, an investigation of the potential for the combined power and fresh water production by solar energy would go beyond the aims of this work.
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1. The reasons to restrict the range under investigation to the aforesaid value are even more urgent for desalting plants driven by solar thermal collectors. the use of thermal vapour compression (TVC) has been considered.5. drawing the ejector entrainment ratio from the diagram reported in Figure 2.6 makes it preferable to utilize. while PTC only are suitable to raise the pressure up to 10 bar.6. is reported in section 2.5. under the same motive steam conditions. In addition. due to the working temperature of at least 140° required to d eliver vapour at about 65 ° This relatively C C. number of effects would produce an intolerable growth of the heat transfer area. On the contrary. It is to be noted that single-effect absorption heat pump has not been considered. the basic ME process has been assumed as the reference system. since it C. Again the only difference of the reverse cycle is related to the increase in the evaporator and condenser temperature. due to the modest growth of the entrainment ratio with the motive steam pressure. an ejector. using H2O/LiBr as working pair has been included in the analysis. since the overcoming of this limit impose the application of advanced concentrating solar technologies.7.2 (/Mil97/). according to the motive steam pressure. It is to be noted that a reduction in the number of effects would allow to operate the system at a lower temperature: as a rule of thumb 4 effects are equivalent to 10° Clearly.2. The related values assigned to the parameters needed for the current estimation are listed in Table 3. On the other hand. both evacuated tubular and medium temperature parabolic trough collectors (PTC) can be used to work with a pressure reduced to 3 bar. The most useful solar technology under this driving heat source temperature is constituted by evacuated tubular collectors (ETC). since the upper limit for the top brine temperature is 63° because of scale formation pro blems.2.1 Selected solar desalination systems As previously stated. The first value roughly matches with the lower limit of the range of application of the ejector technology. and so it is not justifiable in practice to exceed this limit. The increase in PR has been calculated.2. the total system efficiency would be depressed. Regarding the second one. Being the driving temperature still around 180° P TC must be used to drive this process. including in the process a steam jet ejector which entrains the vapour from the last effect and compresses it up to the pressure required by the first one. relevant to the functioning as chiller. C.6.1: Values adopted for the assessment of the basic ME (Source: /Des99/).D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 85 of 102 pages 3. The detailed description of the absorption cycle. leads to an increase in their efficiency and makes it possible to use less advanced products. Finally the potential of boosting the basic process performance via a double-effect absorption heat pump (DEAHP). which allows to reach a COP of about 2. The operating principle of the ejector is equal to that described in Section 2. but being the PR of the process roughly in direct proportion to the number of effects. an excessive increase in the C.3. although ME-TVC plants working with pressures up to 45 bar do exist (/Ala05/).WP5. to cut down the collec tors working temperature is attractive.5. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Parameter Value Number of effects Driving heat source temperature Boiling temperature in the last effect Performance Ratio 12 70 ° C 35 ° C 9 Table 3. the benefits coming from raising this parameter beyond 10 bar are nullified by the increased value of the steam. which has been fixed to 3 and 10 bar respectively. which allows roughly an equal gain in efficiency mostly preserving plant simplicity. with an inclusive efficiency of nozzle. Two different operational conditions have been considered. except for the different temperature limits. high value combined with a COP of 1. diffuser and mixing chamber equal to 0.
On the other hand the scaling up of the obtained results affects within limits the economic performance of the system only.5.7. 3.2 the five solar desalination systems selected for the analysis are summarized. This value has been chosen being the current investigation focused on small users application. 3.5.75 75 36.5. The analysis has been performed using the PHIBAR f-Chart method. the production of a quantity of distillate.1.64 0.53 0.85 224 13.64 0.5. desalination mostly concerns South Europe countries and Spain in particular.15 0.3 Results In Table 3. which is the rounded off value of the heat of vaporization of water at 70° for C. as shown in section 3.2: Summary of the investigated systems. which has been omitted at this stage of the study. relevant to a general solar heating system.5.2 Calculation methodology The main hypotheses and the methodology adopted for the calculation are here briefly discussed: The system is supposed to be located at Almeria. In Table 3. The collector area for each system has been determined by iteration. The daily load has been calculated as stated before.7 ME-DEAHP 1.77 102 27.5. are also indicated.6 ME-TVC-10 1.76 100 27.3. able to meet the domestic fresh water requirements of more than 50 people.3. the obtained results for the 5 systems under investigation are reported.0 ME-TVC-3B 1. The load to be fulfilled has been calculated. System NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .83 202 15. The collector and the general solar heating system parameters adopted in the calculation are again those listed in Table 2. since.9 ME-TVC-3A 1. such like driving heat source temperature and desalting process performance ratio.5 Table 3.WP5. Load Solar Collector Area Specific water production [GJ/d] Fraction [m²] [(m³/year)/m²] ME-BASIC 2. assuming a thermal energy consumption of 2300 KJ.7. equal to the system PR.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 86 of 102 pages System Performance boosting device Type of Temperature collector [° C] PR ME-BASIC - ETC ETC PTC PTC PTC 70 130 130 180 180 9 14 14 15 20 ME-TVC-3A Ejector working at around 3 bar ME-TVC-3B Ejector working at around 3 bar ME-TVC-10 Ejector working at around 10 bar ME-DEAHP Double-effect absorption heat pump: H2O/LiBr as working pair Table 3. expressed in Kg.56 0. The plant capacity has been fixed at 10 m³/d. The values adopted for the two main parameters required for the energy comparison. This is not a restrictive approach. until the solar fraction is equal to 1 only in the month with the best weather conditions. in the same way as the comparison of solar assisted airconditioning systems presented in section 2.3: Collector area required by the investigated systems and annual specific water production.
System Water production increase Additional devices ME-TVC-3A ME-TVC-3B ME-TVC-10 8% 99% 100% Ejector using motive steam at 3 bar Parabolic trough collectors Ejector using motive steam at 3 bar Parabolic trough collectors Ejector using motive steam at 10 bar Parabolic trough collectors Double-effect absorption heat pump with H2O/LiBr as working pair ME-DEAHP 164% Table 3.6 for all systems.5. by adopting an appropriate load modulation and a relatively short term storage.4 the main elements for the comparison between systems are summarized. even in the month with the worst climate. Therefore. the solar fraction is nearly 0.WP5. in Table 3. Finally. on the other the additional devices required and the related extra costs. It is to be noticed that. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 87 of 102 pages The focal point is represented by the collector area: the specific fresh water production on annual basis can be easily drawn from its value and the related solar fraction. in principle the plants can be operated without the contribution of no backup source.4: Key elements for comparing systems using thermo-compression to the basic ME process.5. power consumption and plant complexity are listed. On one hand the gain in terms of annual water production per m² of collector area with respect to the basic ME process is considered.
for residential and office buildings. have not been included. could become competitive in sites characterized by heating loads comparable or greater than cooling loads and an adequate level of direct solar radiation. with respect to the area relevant to flatplate collectors. Quite the opposite. the choice of the most appropriate type of solar collector to be coupled with the remaining cooling technologies and the comparison between the resulting systems has been limited to the global energy performance. such like absorption chillers using NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . together with Greece. the present total energy consumptions related to the cooling of buildings should come to around 105 GWh per year. in Europe solar driven air-conditioning systems are still in a development stage. This phenomenon is especially marked in South European countries: in effect over 60% of the total EU-15 energy consumptions related to air-conditioning is concentrated in Spain and Italy and these countries. basing upon the present trend. On the other hand several cooling technologies. advanced solar technologies. a wide range of solar cooling systems have to be evaluated in a complete investigation aimed at the selection of the most promising ones. due to the correspondence of their efficiency and working temperature to those of a single effect water/LiBr absorption chiller. seems to be a valuable option to mitigate the consumption of conventional fuels due to the cooling requirements. From the related results. On the other hand.WP5. Moreover. as a result of the wide spreading of air-conditioners. leads to a dramatic increase in the required area to meet a given cooling load. the specific collector area significantly increases (up to 50%) and the energy benefit compared to flat-plate collectors is strongly reduced. Similarly Thermo-Chemical Accumulators (TCA). it can be drawn that evacuated tubular collectors seem to be the most suitable solar technology to be coupled with low temperature cooling systems (single effect water/LiBr absorption chillers. a first screening criterion is the COP value: in fact the modest energy performance of a cooling system. In this scenario. which is on the other hand commercially available. CONCLUSIONS A notable increase in power demand in EU-15 area during the hot season has been observed in the last years. for ETC characterized by an efficiency curve closer to the average of the products presently marketed. which abounds in these regions during the hot season. For the purposes of this work. Really. In this case. Clearly. the aforesaid cooling technologies driven by ETC seem to be absolutely the most energy effective solar cooling systems for installations located in hot climate regions. including future improvements in the collector technology also related to the development of dedicated products. with a consequent further dramatic increase in the summer power requirements. despite these systems represent an interesting technology but still at development stage. according to the type of user (only cooling or both heating and cooling).7. when driven by low to medium solar thermal collectors. Considering also all the possible different configurations for each technology and the various types of usable collectors. and the amount of primary energy to be saved. According to the most recent forecasts. the ratio between cooling and heating loads. this evaluation may deliver different indications. the specific collector area requested to save the 70% of primary energy is about one half.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 88 of 102 pages 4. it appears to be plausible that this figure shall be correct to a significantly higher value. the exploitation of solar energy. it is expected a rate of growth of the air-conditioned demand at least similar in the near to medium term. it is to be stressed that the estimation has been carried out with reference to high performance ETC collectors. Nevertheless. are currently available on the market. which can be in principle powered by low to medium temperature solar thermal collectors. as demonstrated by the limited number of plants currently in operation. cooling machines based on a reversible cycle. However. presented in section 2. or even less according to the location. are also distinguished by the higher values per capita. the climate conditions. This is the main reason of the exclusion from the energy analysis of technologies. DEC systems or adsorption chillers). such as parabolic trough collectors having a high performance figure. To limit the number of the systems to be compared. such like Organic Rankine Cycles or ejector air-conditioning systems. For example. Furthermore.
based upon the data reported in the IDA most recent inventory. Finally. This figure corresponds to the fulfilment of the fresh water requirements of nearly 3000 people. Furthermore the growth of desalination market has been less rapid in latest years and it is expected to keep this trend. appears to be more limited compared to thermally driven cooling systems. if the use is limited to residential civil needs. thus one order of magnitude smaller if compared to the consumptions associated to airconditioning in the same area.5. an adequate performance ratio must be reached via an increase in the number of effects and. but the capital cost. moreover it must be driven by an advanced concentrating solar technology. ME plants are currently erected starting from a capacity around 500 m³/d in order to achieve reasonable economies of scale. also desalination demand is concentrated in the most populated countries of South Europe (over 70% of the total desalination capacity is installed in Spain and Italy). Quite the opposite. the reduced working temperature and the adequate flexibility to the load variation. could have real perspectives of development. On the other hand. simple to install and manage. the multi-effect evaporation seems to be the most qualified candidate for the role of reference desalination process to be coupled with solar thermal collectors. for cooling a localized production is needed and both absorption chillers and desiccant cooling systems for small-scale applications are by now commercially available. using H2O/LiBr as working pair. the inclusion of a double-effect absorption heat pump. the key distinctive factor of solar desalination is the fact that the application of conventional desalination technologies is on its turn limited to particularly favourable conditions. due to several favourable characteristics. causing a reduction of about two-thirds of the required collectors area. Furthermore to reduce the required collector area. which is comparable to the value pertinent on average to solar cooling systems. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Besides the quite different impact on the EU energy present and future resources. which could support the dissemination of solar desalination. Concerning the last aspects. appears to be interesting. Other aspects to be considered to assess the solar desalination potential are the significant power consumption of around 2 KWh per m³ of produced water and the contribution to the initial investment coming from the cost of the required solar collectors area and the related problems of land availability. In addition the opportunity of distributed production. The estimated figure is around 104 GWh per year. In conclusion the work relevant to the development of desalination systems driven by solar thermal collectors must concern principally the improvement and cost reduction of small capacity ME plants. such like the relatively high performance ratio. which is the main target of the NEGST Project.WP5. which is normally extremely sensitive to the plant scale. Besides the basic ME process. since the further penetration to the market of solar thermal collectors. On the other hand.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 89 of 102 pages ammonia/water as working pairs. In other terms. considering also that fresh water can be easily stored and transported over a relatively long distance. in the plant complexity and dimensions. such as parabolic trough collectors. Actually. would rise dramatically. a collector area of around 4 m² per person can be assumed for the basic ME. as for cooling. in particular if a more cost-effective concentrating solar technology will be available on the market. but above all with other traditional water supplying methods. some indications for a pre-selection of the most promising plant configurations can be drawn from the results reported in section 3. as a result. Clearly smaller capacity systems aimed at specific applications are in principle possible. A similar assessment of the equivalent electrical energy consumed for brackish and seawater desalination in EU-15 countries has been carried out for desalination. would significantly benefit from the commercialisation of pre-assembled products. Therefore a centralized production in a desalting plant of significant capacity is certainly more convenient. This represents a notable discriminating factor. On the other hand the resulting system is by far more costly and complex to be designed and operated. solar desalination must compete not only with fossil fuel based desalination processes.
which can be equally adopted in this case. For an extensive analysis. In fact. when the motive steam pressure is not sufficiently high. the decrease in the required collector area is not significant. whether for cooling or desalination. presence of technological barriers and so on. for higher motive pressures. A definitive evaluation of the most promising solar cooling and desalination systems and their level of interest as a possible incentive to the market of solar thermal collectors will be analysed in detail in the next steps of the NEGST Project Work Package 5. Otherwise. unless advanced solar technologies are used. other aspects such as level of commercial maturity. the decrease in the area is very reduced with respect to the DEAHP. In conclusion the results presented in this study constitute a preliminary step towards the assessment of those technologies. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . that are most suitable for the coupling with low to medium solar thermal collectors. economic potential.WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 90 of 102 pages On the contrary thermo-compression via a steam jet ejector does not appear to have a great potential. must be deeply investigated.
D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 91 of 102 pages ANNEX A – Country data on conventional cooling systems The following fact-sheets summarize information about the national market.) 3.WP5. size. cost.3% of inland trade..8% The break down for the Private clients 3.. airCooling Equipment (Grocery.5% Energy contracting 9.1% Food trade 13.9% clients includes only data Automotive 4. Mechanical engineering + steel manufacture 5. and the market trend.0% Grocery production 28. Gastronomy 2.9% 100% NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Refrigerant Cooling (commerce and industry) 12% Commercial Cooling + Freezer chests 13% This amount covers the Small Cooling/AC-machines (commerce) 23% inland and external Large Cooling/AC-machines (commerce) 25% trade.0% Free time business (Hotel . efficiency. Available national data concern: AUSTRIA GERMANY GREECE ITALY SPAIN SWEDEN Country Indicator AUSTRIA Remarks Market sharing by Percentage of several cooling technologies (2002) sold by The data are based on the manufactured ACtechnology the Austrian AC.and Adsorption) In 2002 the turnover of Components 3% this market was 1300 Large Cooling Plants (industry) 5% Million (incl. market place) 6% conditioning and heat Cooling + Freezer chamber 6% pump technology).3% Other 7. business Others 5% segment of cooling.and cooling manufacturer: and cooling equipment in Extra Cooling Technology 2% Austria. (Ab. such as the typical application.9% Construction industry 14.break down: activities. 100% 38% of the turnover is gained by external trade Client groups .5% Chemical industry 7.
Editor . earth ground coupled heat exchanger. Wien. R. G. This thermal driven cooling technology is highly wanted by both the solar collector industry and some governmental institution. etc. external shading devices etc.WP5.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 92 of 102 pages Typical size Efficiency Cooling technologies on the Austrian AC. Trends can be summarised as follows: Products should be more environmental friendly More energy efficient Reliable and robust Improvement of existing technologies (mainly compression chiller): Reduction of the energy consumption in a range of 30 – 50% Reduction of refrigerant leakages Reduction of refrigerant volume per cooling capacity Improvement of LCCP (Life Cycle Climate Performance) R&D for technology beside compression chiller: District heating providers are interested in thermal driven cooling machines. Kühlung und Klimaschutz: Technologien. Consequently the non-active cooling (night ventilation. There are three running pilot projects for solar cooling systems in Austria. References: Simader.: Klimatisierung. August 2002 NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . N. experts see basic trends for next 20 years. running expenses. Research and pilot project are ongoing to provide cold water by ab/adsorption cooling machines driven by district heating network.A. For such cooling or air-conditioning appliances. Depending on the operating conditions and the technology Costs (plant cost.Austrian Energy Agency. where active cooling systems are absolutely needed.and cooling market separated by the ranges of cooling capacity: Extra Cooling Technology > 150kW 1% (Ab. Diplom Thesis at FH Pinkafeld (Studiengang BTM). maintenance.and Adsorption) Large cooling plants (industry) > 150kW 3% Other < 10kW 3% Refrigerant Cooling < 150kW 4% (commerce and industry) Refrigerant Cooling > 150kW 5% (commerce and industry) Large Cooling/AC-machines > 150kW 6% (commerce) Large Cooling/AC-machines < 150kW 9% (commerce) Other < 150kW 11% Small Cooling/AC-machines < 10kW 58% (commerce) 100% N.: Analyse der österreichischen Kältewirtschaft. Wirtschaftlichkeit und CO2-Reduktionspotenziale.A. 2005 Rausch M. More demo plants and research activities on solar cooling technology both on the overall systems performance and the component level are expected.) Market trend: In general architecture should avoid high cooling loads for residential and tertiary building sector in Austria.) becomes more and more relevant.
etc. Fachinstitut Gebäude-Klima e. Market share of RAC (compression cooling)  33. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 .G. Construction trend: increase of split systems to more than 50 % at the expense of single duct systems.0 % multi split systems 46. market growth until 2020 10 % per year. but domestic air conditioning less common. Transportation-Energy (DGTREN) of the Commission of the EU – Final Report – Volumes I-II-III – April 2003 3. Dr.5 billion Euro).. rate in non-residential sector is significantly higher Costs (plant cost.5 billion Euro (with inclusion of air conditioning for cars and small cooling and refrigerating units: approx.-Ing. Production volume : Approx. References: 1. 1000 Euro/kW running expenses. 40 million m² conditioned area. COP = 2-3 RAC dominant system type in households.3 % single packaged systems Absorption chillers  Absorption chiller units for cooling and refrigerating are not of significance in comparison with compression chillers.WP5. Wo steht die Kältetechnik in Deutschland und weltweit? – Prof. Decentral application in individual rooms not available on the market . all other systems are single-stage) Typical size Efficiency Small RAC systems < 10 kW cooling capacity Small units: approx. FGK. Fachhochschule Karlsruhe . yearly growth around 150. 2200 companies dealing with cooling / conditioning systems.2000 Comment: Barely no market data for German traditional cooling market available. : Approx. 2. approx. 70 systems. 40 % is produced for export. 1. Split systems slightly cheaper (mass production) maintenance.) Market trend: In recent years growing interest for thermal driven chillers. Germany – 2005 – personal communication 5. increasing demand expected (10-30% two-stage systems installed.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 93 of 102 pages Country Indicator GERMANY Remarks Market sharing by Mainly climatisation of public and industrial buildings. Johannes Reichelt. 8. Energy Efficiency and Certification of Central Air Conditioners (EECCAC) – Study for the D.4 % split systems 10. Small systems: approx.5 million AC systems installed. Installation per year: ca. Up to now only central systems installed. the technology bigger part of systems are supply air systems for heating and cooling (compression cooling).3 % single duct systems 10. production volume: approx.000 systems. in 2020 energy demand for air conditioning will probably be 40 times higher than in 1990 . Energy Efficiency of Room Air-Conditioners (EERAC) – Study for the Directorate-General for Energy (DGXVII) of the Commission of the EU – Final Report – May 1999 2. required cooling power per m²: 100-120 W/m². Global trend for Germany: huge increase of air conditioned areas.V. BINE themeninfo I/04 – Klimatisieren mit Sonne und Wärme – 2004 4. Bietigheim.
Running expenses refer to the electricity consumption: 0. there are no significant changes expected. this portion is expected to increase significantly during the next years. ICAP SA. Maintenance costs are estimated about 50 €/year. due to the increasing penetration of natural gas Depending on the operating conditions In Greece there is no production of such units. maintenance. apart from the increasing penetration of thermal driven systems (due to natural gas penetration). what has to be pointed out is a gradual but constant increase of mostly Chinese products penetration.) For a larger system of 5. except assembling of central air-conditioning units Typical size Efficiency 3.09 €/kWh. Market trend: From a technological point of view. etc.3 KW.5 KW the cost lies within the running expenses.5 KW for split unit COP around 3 Costs (plant cost. and the domination of inverter type systems.WP5. range of 250-500 €. as regards vapour compression systems. For a typical split unit of 3.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 94 of 102 pages Country Indicator GREECE Remarks Market share technology by Vapour compression chillers (split units) (99%) Thermal driven chillers for industrial applications (<1%) For thermal driven chillers. References: Air-conditioning. 1998 Recent articles mainly from specialized magazines in the field of energy NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . the respective range is 600-1000 €. As regards the market. characterized by lower prices. Sectorial Study.
RAC units correspond to about 77%.Associazione dei costruttori di apparecchiature e impianti aeraulici (2004): Indagine statistica sul mercato dei componenti ed impianti di condizionamento dell’aria. (http://www.it) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . maintenance. the market share of RAC: split and multi-split systems 92% single duct and single packaged systems 8% The remaining market share (∼1%) is held by thermal driven chillers for large-scale applications. COP lies within the range 2. For multi-split units is around 1500 €. Up to 2.5 ÷ 5 from small to large Depending on the type of system and the systems. there is a significant increase in the interest towards thermally driven chillers References: CO.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 95 of 102 pages Country Indicator ITALY Remarks Market share technology by Vapour compression chillers represent 99% of the market.coaer. Italy is the largest RAC consumer and the largest manufacturer in the EU. In particular.WP5.AER .) Market trend: In the last years a notable market growth has been observed for small compression chillers (up to 40% for room air conditioners and in particular for split and multi-split units) A small reduction of sales (around 5-6%) has been observed instead for large scale systems Lately. operating conditions. etc. running expenses. From 17 to 350 KW for large compression chillers (water or air cooling). Efficiency Costs (plant cost. For a typical split unit the average cost is around 450 €. Among these.5 MW for thermally driven chillers (absorption water/LiBr for air conditioning). Typical size Up to 7 KW for split units.
7% corresponds to commercialresidential installations. Regarding the market.ciatesa.5% products come from Oriental Countries. while that air condensed chillers increases its market till 70-80%. Efficiency Costs (plant cost. etc. 64. References: AFEC (Asociación de Fabricantes de Equipos de Climatización) (www. water condensed chillers is below 30% of the total.com) NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . Typical size < 7 KW for domestic use (for split units) 7-70 KW for commercial-residential use > 70 KW for industrial applications COP fluctuates within the range 2. (www.es) CIATESA Aire Acondicionado. Thermal driven chillers for industrial applications (12%) During 2003 the market of air conditioning increased 20.WP5. Market trend: The market of inverter type systems is increasing in spite of these systems are more expensive.5 ÷ 5 Depending on the type of system and the operating conditions.) Euros more expensive. The inverter type systems are 180 maintenance. what has to be pointed out is 61.6% due to the increasing of domestic systems because of high temperatures in the last years. Among these.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 96 of 102 pages Country Indicator SPAIN Remarks Market share technology by Vapour compression chillers represent 88% of the market. Due to high water consumption and to “legionella bacteria” in the cooling towers. For a typical split unit the average cost is within the running expenses. but the energy consumption is lesser.afec.3% corresponds to domestic systems and 23. range 400-800 Euros.
stem.se.D1: Technical status report on solar desalination and solar cooling Date: November 2005 page 97 of 102 pages Country Indicator SWEDEN Remarks Market share technology by Compressor driven chillers in single buildings. although this market segment is still small Underground storage using aquifers or boreholes. running expenses. Success factors. N.Current Situation and Potential Market Development. Technology.A. together with France. In 2002 there were 800 customers with an installed capacity of 500 MW making it. References: Frohm. STEM (2004): Energiläget 2003. Andersson O. E:277/2001. Typical size Efficiency Costs (plant cost. Sales have increased significantly over the last 5 years but it is impossible to judge how much these are used for cooling. maintenance. often in combination with heat pump system for winter heating.A. (2002): Fjärrkylans framtid och potential. Benefits.Potential. Direct and indirect evaporative cooling. etc.. G. (2004): District Cooling in Europe . Sweden. cooling being supplied either to the ventilation air or to ceiling cooling panels and also room fan coils.A. & Martì i Ruiz. 3. H. Free cooling. Eskilstuna. C 2. Increased interest in providing local cooling using thermally driven cooling processes.WP5. The estimated market for district cooling is 2 TWhcooling by 2010. Warsaw Poland. www. Absorption chillers running directly from the power or district heating plant. Fjärrvärmeföreningens Temadagar Fjärrkyla. F. 40% of this capacity is for year round base load. Nordel (2003): Heating and Cooling with UTES in Sweden . Increased installation of comfort cooling in commercial and public buildings due to perceived warmer summers and increased internal loads. the largest market in Europe. In Presented at IEA Seminar Cooling buildings in Warming Climate. In 2002 there were 40 large scale aquifer stores and 200 stores with more than 10 boreholes. June 2004. and several feasibility studies have been recently made for similar new projects. Not all of the borehole stores are used for cooling however. Absorption chillers running from district heating. N. Hellström and B. In Proceedings FUTURESTOCK 2003. these are used both for individual buildings or in combination with district cooling. but not quantified are: Increased use of air-air heat pumps in domestic and small office locations. where the cooling is supplied from: 1. Feldhusen H. Examensarbete nr. NEGST – NEW GENERATION OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS is a project financed by the European Commission DGTREN within FP6 . often from lakes where the temperature at the bottom is 4° year round. Westin P. (2001): District Cooling – Present Market Assessment. District cooling. Stockholm: Kungl Tekniska Högskolan. There is one system using snow storage from winter to summer. avdelningen för Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik. These projects are for relatively large cooling loads. N.) Statistics process compiled are of in the being Market trend: The trends that can be found. Energimyndigheten. Compressor chillers. Generally the cooling is supplied as free cooling. with heat supplied from district heating. Institutionen för Energiteknik. Concerning underground storage. District cooling has increased from 180 to 600 GWhcooling in the period 1998-2002.
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