Hugh Plommer



Cecil Stewart



Cecil Stewart

Volume IV


Quentin Hughes

Herbert Lynton


Thomas Howarth

Simpson's^ History of
6 |



Vol. II


Cecil Stewart









This Edition first published 1954



Great Britain by William Clowes and Sons, Limited, London and Beccles


INTRODUCTION The Catacombs (2); functional requirements of early Church (2); division of the Empire (4); growth of monasticism (6).
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE History y Characteristics and Style Origins (10); the basilican church (14); chancel (15); atria and baptisteries (16); nave and aisles (i6); mural decoration (18); ceilings (18); floors
(19); exteriors (19); orientation (19).






EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE Churches and Baptisteries Rome (22) ; North Italy (28) ; Constantinople and Salonika (33); Egypt (35); Syria (38); circular
buildings (42).




BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE History> Characteristics and Style
construction of


Periods (48) ; the pendentive (49) ; the squinch (50) ; domes and vaults (53) ; wall concapitals (56)

struction (53); interior decoration (54); carving

windows (57); the basilica (58) ;

the circular or polygonal hall (59); cruciform buildings (59) ; the domed basilica (60) ; the crossin-square (60).


BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE OF THE FIRST PERIOD The Mausoleums at Ravenna (61); the Syrian examples (62); SS. Sergius and Bacchus, Constantinople (64) ; San Vitale, Ravenna (65) ; S. Lorenzo,



(66); Sancta Sophia, Constantinople (66).

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE OF THE SECOND PERIOD Salonika and Constantinople (74); Greece (77); Armenia (80); Russia (81); northern Italy (84); France (94). Sicily (90); south Italy (92); central





BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE OF THE THIRD PERIOD S. Saviour, Constantinople (99); Mount Athos (100); lesser churches in Greece (102); Mistra

page 99




Background Italy (no); France (112); Spain (113); Britain (113); end of the period (115).


S. Gall (118); causes of additional altars (120), separation changes (120) of clergy (121), eastern extension (121), eastern

Types of plan (118);

ambulatory (122), the chevet (123) ; the nave arcade
(125); aisleless plans (125); Cistercian influence (126); baptism (127); burial (128); the monastery builders (131); centrally-planned (129); the

churches (132); Eastern influence (135).





arch and the vault (137) ; barrel vaults (137) ; development of the vault (138); early ribbed

vaults (139); S.

Ambrogio, Milan (140); Durham

Cathedral (142); early difficulties (142); vaulting of oblong spaces (143); sexpartite vaults (144); S. Philibert, Tournus (146); sections of churches
(147); materials (149); buttresses (150); pointed arch (151); construction of arches (153); columns


piers (154).

Application of colour
paint (158);
( I 59)j


marble veneer, mosaic,
different materials

employment of

enrichment of the structure mouldings, arcading, carved ornament, sculpture (159);

towers (168).

ROMANESQUE IN ITALY Lombardy (176); Tuscany (181); Rome (187); southern Italy and Sicily (188).


Milan. Florence (Anderson) Ambrogio. interior (Alinari) Campanile. Apollinare Nuovo. Salonika. Venice. Apollinare Nuovo. Perigueux. Torcello (F. Constantinople (author) S. near Ravenna. detail of brickwork (author') S. Rome (Alinari) Byzantine carving from altar rail. interior (author) Sancta Sophia. S. Sumner) Leaning Tower. Saviour. S. Sumner) 12 Worms Cathedral . interior (Archives Photographiques) 8 S. 2 3 S. apse (author) 1 -S. Basil. Constantinople . (F. Ravenna (author) Marble mosaic from S. Vladimir (D. west front (Anderson) S. showing squinch arches (author) S. Rome (Alinari) S. Prassede. Ravenna 5 6 between pages 72 and 73 Sancta Sophia. Mark's. porch . Front. Milan. Castelvetrano. Zeno Maggiore. Pisa (F. John and Paul. Mark's. near Athens (author) S. Sumner) Campanile. Rome (Anderson) Entwistle) (F. Front. exterior (Anderson) Ambrogio. view from south (Bildarchiv Foto Marburg) Worms Cathedral nave (Bildarchiv Foto Marburg) . Byzantine mosaic decoration (author) S. Perigueux. Sicily (author) Omorphi S. Buxtori) (Sojusfotd) Moscow 9 10 11 between pages 184 and 185 Pisa Cathedral. Torcello (author) S. S. exterior (author) Holy Apostles. SS. Rome (Piramsi) S. Palermo. Ecclesia. 4 Clemente.PLATES between pages 24 and 25 Paul Outside the Walls. Miniato. Dmitri. R. exterior (Archives Photographiques) Trinita di Delia. Apollinare in Classe. Verona. Venice. Sumner) Mausoleum of Theodoric (K. detail of south-west 7 comer (author) Capella Palatina. Constantinople.

H. Loup. Mary. choir aisle vault (National Buildings Record) ij * nave (K H. L. nave (F. interior (F. S. Mellin} Sompting. Wandrille. Deerhurst. nave (National Buildings Record) S. Alban's Cathedral. Caen. Normandy (author) Thaon. Photographiques} 15 16 between pages 232 and 233 Southwell Cathedral. Norfolk (Eric Jarretf) Fountains Abbey. Philibert. Crossley) Hants . Gloucester Cathedral. Christ Church. apsidal end (Archives Photographiques) S. apsidal end (author) Ak-la-Chapelle Cathedral.Plates Monreale Cathedral . York Minster (Walter Scott} Earls Barton. north transept (Royal Commission 18 on Historical Monuments) Tewkesbury Abbey. interior (Foto Mas} Salamanca Cathedral. interior (Bildarchiv Foto Marburg} between pages 208 and 209 13 . Clermont-Ferrand. vault (Archives Photographiques) at crossing 20 21 Issoire Cathedral. Trophime. S. west front (National Buildings Record) Abbaye-aux-Hommes. Glos. cimborio (Foto Mas} . interior (National Buildings Record} Madonna. 22 interior (Archives Photographiques} Santiago Cathedral. Sumner) Autun Cathedral. west front (F. cloister (Courtauld Institute of Art} Tournus. Crossley} Cathedral. Oxford. Normandy (Archives Normandy (author} S. Provence. Sumner) Durham Durham Cathedral. Gilles. Glos. west front (Courtauld Institute of Art} S. nave (National Buildings Record) Romsey Abbey. Normandy (author) S. Northants 14 Ver-sur-Mer. tower (National Buildings Record} Sussex (G. west front (National Buildings Record) Norwich Cathedral. Yorks . Aries. apsidal end (Walter Scott) Castle Acre Priory. south aisle (author) 19 between pages 248 and 249 Notre-Dame-du-Port.

M. H. John's Chapel^ Tower of London (Royal hall m (Royal Monuments) Castle Hedingham. . Yorks. Reserved.Plates ri between pages 262 and 263 23 The walls of Constantinople (Robert Byron) Castle. Essex. Crown Copyright Stationery Office. (Reece Winston) Richmond 24 S. banqueting mission on Historical Monuments) Historical Cam- Photographs supplied by the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments are reproduced by permission of the Controller.

211 ROMANESQUE IN NORMANDY AND ENGLAND Normandy (212). (227).. later stone churches (207) ... external treatment (198).. XVI ROMANESQUE IN FRANCE Southern France (237).. England (217).. XVII ROMANESQUE IN SPAIN Early Romanesque Asturia and Catalonia (249). towers (210). Durham Cathedral (230).... timber churches (205). . lateral entrances (197). XIV ROMANESQUE IN ANGLO-SAXON ENGLAND .. . Scotland and Wales (222). 237 249 257 towns (268). choirs ....Contents vii Chapter XIII ROMANESQUE IN GERMANY Double apses (195). 275 28l .. houses REFERENCES ARCHITECTURAL GLOSSARY . Santiago (252).. later Romanesque Leon. external treatment (229) .. parish churches (233). technique of war (262).. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE Byzantine fortifications (258).. towers and ... page 194 turrets (197). the castle (259).. eastern France (242). castles with rectangular keeps (264) . . . early stone churches (205) . internal treatment (198) .. walled XVIII . northern France (245). INDEX OF BUILDINGS AND PLACES .. examples (200). (270).. 203 Stone crosses (204).. castles with shell keeps (266) .. characteristics naves (225). XV .


and twenty-nine years later wrote: 'I cannot remember a year since when I have not been abroad at least once. Which. I cannot say that I know every building in these volumes. therefore.EXPLANATORY NOTE TO THIS EDITION MOORE SIMPSON was bom in 1856. with the correction of such minor errors . it is obviously the duty of the critic to judge. of Architectural Development i in 1908 the second. except in terms of brevity. Byzantine and Romanesque architecture. took the Chair of Architecture in Liverpool in 1894. This readjustment involves a new Volume II. He was awarded a Royal Academy travelling studentship in 1884.' and in 1905 he published the first volume of his History history. set in order for publication literary material*. This means not only the addition of a new volume dealing with architecture since the accession of Victoria.* It is not surprising. occupied that of London University in 19035 m and was responsible structures. and in 1911 the third. to date chronologically and factually. upon The publishers have decided that these should be brought up architecture. To me. that he had little time to practise He then wrote * : and that his reputation today stands almost entirely these three great volumes. The Shorter Oxford garble. prepare. derived partly from Volume I and partly from Volume II of the The task imposed upon me has been to edit this original edition. Dictionary defines the verb edit as *to new Volume II. In 1879 he made his first journey abroad. but there are very few that I have not seen. eulogistic biography is therefore hard to fulfil. but also a readjustment of the divisions of the work. in- cluding Early Christian. there seemed to be two alternatives : either to leave the bulk of the work as it stood. and 'to or "cook" '. He died 1928. Of his life between these years there is a surprising FREDERICK information. sometimes more The object of these journeys was the study of architectural often. the best for the design of a known being the setting for number of uninspiring Queen Victoria's statue in Liverpool. and the customary duty of an editor to dearth of provide a brief. of these definitions applies in this particular case.

sources are indicated in the list of plates. so that the reader may judge at a glance In many cases. Mark. allowed me to reproduce original The My photographs. For the same reason I have retained. a scale inch has been adopted sections. Venice. because although after the year 386 the altar was generally placed towards the east. and the Church of S. I have omitted north points on the plans. but. Venice. the 'southc east end* of a church instead of the conventional east end' would lead to confusion. of 50 feet to i Wherever for the plans possible. The latter alternative was chosen. and ti e sources of the drawings have been indicated. Mr. because it is by the former titles that these churches are commonly known in England. adding new illustrations. not certain churches in Russia and parts of Germany suffered effort has destruction. in order that the character of it necessary to bring chapters and new up the original should not be lost. titles such as S. Mark's. and buildings are of exceptional size. or to revise it entirely. I have not been able to find out whether or exist. retaining the method and technique which especially distinguish Simpson's History from others. Ravenna. and it seemed to me that references to. It is possible that some of the buildings referred to no longer For example. and San Vitale. Furneaux Jordan for reading the typescript and giving me their who have thanks are also due to those helpful criticisms and advice. I have adopted Lethaby's title of Sancta Sophia. R. been made to secure accuracy of scale. in certain cases. Vitale.xiv Explanatory Note to this Revised Edition as occurred to me and tie addition of such new material as seemed to date . because the cathedral was dedicated not to a Saint Sophia but to the Divine Wisdom (Aytos Soqnav). where the relative size of the buildings described. Sue departures from the rule have been noted below the illustration Every 1 . In the case of the Byzantine Cathedral of Constantinople. Thomas Howarth. say. this has proved impracticable and a scale of 100 feet to I inch has had to be used. there are many variations arising out of particular topographical conditions. however. Mr. Cecil Stewart 1953 . because if they were omitted this history of architectural development would be less comprehensible and certainly less comprehensive. or Word of God. Eric Jarrett and I wish to thank Dr. They are still included here. in preference to the Church of S. Ravenna.

the year of the coronation of Charlemagne. A. 313 and consequently encouraged the erection of public places of worship.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Y | I 1HE student of the early developments of Christian arckitecture is faced with the difficult task of determining the date at may be said to begin. there was also a great deal of Christian an which. And even before the Edict of Milan in 313 there was some Christian architecture. the year when Constantine and Licaiius together issued the Edict of Milan.D. however. Some consider that the abdication of toleration to' Christians the last Roman Emperor classical in 476 marks a turning point architecture. Others prefer the year 3263 the date of the foundation of Constantinople a centre for the development of a distinct style of architecture which was the fusion of influences from both East and West. far archaeologist^ early manifestations of Christian art if significance of later developments. for it was during this period. that the foundations of Romanesque architecture were laid. Some writers such a date. In the eyes of . 64. It is. provides a significant clue to the architecture which developed in Europe and in western Asia. by which time a new and Christian removed from the interests of the classical was being developed in the West. which we name Early Christian. far from being unimportant. a great and Rome and destroyed many of the historic buildings. Up to this time we have no evidence of the existence of a Christian community in the capital. often exceedingly difficult to distinguish the first indications of a new style from the more obvious signs of a dying and decadent one. which granted his studies is JL which consider jt'rit AJD. in style between Others prefer 800. devastating fire On broke out in the igth of July. or decadent like so much late Roman work. we are to understand the The Fire of Rome. but it now seems advisable that some notes should be made of the architecture. But the researches of scholars in Italy during the last two decades have shown very clearly the importance of art and architecture in the centuries between the Edict of Milan and the coronation of Charlemagne.

Functional Requirements. showed little trace of Christian influence. was condemned on the charge of incendiarism and massacred in the imperial circus on Vatican Hill.2 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque the Romans. chancel and apse which be- Chapel in the catacombs of S. but now. has classical columns. The earliest of these chapels. a distinction is made. people. John.D. Christian movement was literally driven underground to the great catacombs on the outskirts of the city. and here we can : see certain forms which were later to become characteristic of Christian architecture in the West. but in their place the Christian sect was formally accused and. has an apse over the chief tomb at one end. for the art of the Roman Empire in the first three centuries A. The decoration of nearly all these chapels is extremely crude. came Early so typical a feature of architecture. and the 313 . Sotere. close From that time until to the site of the present Church of S Peter. Callistus. Tritons and nereids are represented alongside Christian symbols. is the Capella Greca. and is decorated with symbolic paintings of various episodes from the Gospel of S. The catacombs served two purposes the provision of burial grounds and the furnishing of chapels for Christian worship. under the order of Nero. in the Catacombs of S. and one of the most interesting. It is ascribed to the second century. It is possible that to some degree the form . Another chapel. and the figure of Christ follows classical portrayals of Orpheus or Apollo. The extent to which the church plan was conditioned by the requirements of ritual and the Liturgy is difficult to determine. The Catacombs. It is here that we can best trace the germination of that art and decoration which is so important a feature of Early Christian architecture. to i in. in the Catacombs of S. Christian Yet another.. and an episcopal chair in the centre of the apse. the Jews and the Christians seem to have been one first time. capitals and cornices. Sotere. It is rectangular in shape. Scale 50 ft. Priscilla. and much of it is pagan in style and character . in the wtwMmmvfli i^wmtmyj^ yjm After three De Rossi. apparently for the In the first instance the Jews were assumed to be the incendiaries. Cemetery of S. has the main divisions nave. the Christians suffered almost continual persecution.

in many of the early churches...ruled not by men but by the Holy Spirit. and holy water stoups were introduced near the entrance to the church. though the ceremony was still somewhat warm rooms . made special arrangements desirable. those who had been admitted to Communion. and those who had been excluded : and were returning. Neither the Founder nor any of His immediate successors laid down specific directions as to the form of worship to be adopted or the kind of building that was necessary. The second had access to the middle of the temple the nave and aisles and the third was admitted only to the shelter of the portico. which contained a fountain used for washing before service. and was at first performed at riversides. this required no architectural setting... Women were generally segregated. warm East. it is not surprising that the baths should have been converted. and orders of worship framed. presbyters and deacons. of the Church. in galleries accessible from the narthex. Baptism by water was a fundamental feature of the Christian In the early institution.. either in the aisles or. development nor did in the it involve any serious inconvenience in the West the persecution. ideal for this of some of the Roman Such circular buildings proved purpose. through repentance. towards offices elaboration and growing magnificence (especially after the Church had become a state institution) and. to the right path. an institution. on the other* towards increas- ing solemnity and mystery. or atrium. In its early days the Church was regarded as a divine institution rather than as a building. To the first class the most sacred part of the temple (the sacrarium. of so sacred a character as to prohibit admission to outsiders. In front of the church was a cloistered yard.. chiefly to avoid resemblance to Mohammedan custom. but desire for privacy. from which the services could be heard through the doors which led to the nave. The divisions of the church were arranged to cater for three classes the officers of the Church. or narthex. The ceremony was therefore transferred indoors and. The fountain was later abolished. from which they could watch the service. upon the official recognition of the Church. particularly during times of together with adverse climatic conditions. But by the second century appointments had been made to fill the of bishops. bema or sanctuary) was open. on the one hand. Their development need not be traced in had^been detail here. The general tendency was.Introduction 3 of service was dictated by the environment provided in the catacombs and in private houses which may have been used for worship.

It will be noticed that the functional requirements of the early Church involved no remarkable architectural innovations.4 Early Christian. examples are to be found in Egypt. the Emperor was God's Vicegerent on earth. Geographically. terminating in an apse at the sanctuary end. In the Eastern Empire. form which had marked characteristics. eastern and western. especially in the West. we come to an architectural magnificence at Constantinople that has never been surpassed. under Eastern Emperors. the architecture was not limited to Rome or Italy . this architecture persisted. whether in Rome itself. Byzantine and Romanesque arduous for the neophyte and was ultimately simplified by the introduction of the font. imperial power extended equally over state and Church. From the fifth to the eighth century . led to remarkable changes character of architecture in the East. Syria. At first there was little or no difference between the architecture of western and eastern Europe. up to the end of the ninth century. Historically. the result was a building . Division of the Empire. in glittering mosaic. we are presented with a glorious procession of Apostles and Saints. and a long processional nave with aisles. far greater than had been previously permitted. Greece and Constantinople. Architecturally. at of architecture that we have classified as Early Christian persisted. Local development to a far greater extent than had been possible in the days when the imperial stamp was set on all buildings. The type east. with all the formality From the narrow underground cells fitting to the imperial court. at Palmyra in the Nimes in the west or at Treves in the north. which could be conveniently kept at the western end of the church. One style was no longer general over the whole of the traditions influenced architectural civilised world. Asia Minor and Egypt. the dominant features were a forecourt or atrium. attired with all the solemn dignity of imperial senators. and the ceremony of worship became a state affair. which makes the work that is to be described difficult to arrange satisfactorily. but towards the end of the fifth century Greek artistic feeling found opportunities for free expression in Constantinople. a portico or narthex. The contrast between the architecture of the East and that of the West is remarkable. The division of the Empire into two in the parts. Early Christian Architecture. which provided a precarious setting for the prayers of the newly converted in Rome. Nevertheless. In place of the crude figures which were sketched on the tufa walls of the catacombs.

or Word of God. Sicily and France.. In addition to this disaster.Introduction 5 Constantinople was the guardian of civilisation. but also areas outside the Empire. tine architecture Byzantine Architecture. such as Venice. with almost oriental magnificence. since the recrudescence of building activity was largely due to the influence of the Popes. plagues and famines. not Saint) since the cathedral was dedicated not to a Lady Sophia but to the Divine Sophia the Wisdom of the Logos. matters were very different. overran the greater part of the country* and for two hundred years the whole of Italy. is the dominant motif. Geographically. but the had long before peace he brought did not last long. Under Theodoric. Russia. in which the Byzantine technique was developed. The architecture in Italy which followed this event might almost be called papal. In the East. lost her prestige. .. Out of this confusion it is surprising that so much was built and still remains. King of the Ostrogoths. which varied considerably over the centuries. of the Lombards. the under CharleEuropean and the rise of papal power under the Popes Adrian I and magne. There the full glory of the Empire had been recreated. and something that was purely fall The end of the eighth century saw the unification of the different nationalities aesthetic. Histori- cally. there was a lull in the fighting and a slight revival of the arts . Ravenna and portions of Venetian territory. remained in their possession. except Rome. the area that is covered includes not only that under the direct control of the Emperors. towards the end of the sixth century. or the almost monotonous regularity of Early Christian architecture. swept away a large number of the inhabitants. Charlemagne was crowned by the latter in 800 under the title of Emperor of the West. although the revival was assisted by the more settled state of the country under Charlemagne's rule. a spatial concept which was far removed from the load- bearing materialism of Imperial Roman architecture. For the purpose of this work. Leo II (772-816). who ruled Italy between the years 493 and 526. Lethaby's lead has been followed in giving the title Sancta. while Rome and The Eternal City Italy were suffering a long series of disasters. In 586 the Lombards^ a barbarian race. Byzanis taken to be that type of building first perfected at Sancta Sophia. something of the grandeur of oriental state. the field of study is normally taken from the foundation of 1 W. upheld by pendentives. R. in which the dome. and the architecture had about it something of the mystery and drama of the Church triumphant. 1 Constantinople.

and the movement had spread to western Europe. the mode of building has prevailed up to the present day. Throughout the Islamic world the legacy of Constantinople was followed in the building of mosques often almost equal in size and magnificence to Sancta Sophia. all built upon the same lines. S. these for themselves men were already organised in communities and building common meeting places. and especially at Mount Athos. This righteous institution soon earned wealth and power. which prevailed in Russia for many centuries. defined certain rules which revolutionised the Church and laid the foundation for the later of architecture in the West. in the sixth century. New Orders were founded Carthusian. in which a number of men chose to break away from the worldly Church and follow more closely the ascetic life of Christ by giving up all they had and living in solitary retirement. Benedict (c. assumed the title of Caesar reign.6 Early Christian. defeating its original Christianity. far from the great cities of the Empire. claiming kinship with the last of the Byzantine Emperors. declared Moscow as Third Rome.. Ivan the Terrible. purpose but substituting another the spread of Monasteries were established throughout the West- ern world. In Russia. In many parts of Greece. The examples set by these early hermits soon attracted numerous imitators. He eliminated the development elements of oriental asceticism and extreme bodily austerity. and in certain districts of Egypt and Syria their numbers were such that some degree of centralisation seemed desirable. in 1547. By the end of the fourth century. The individual was sunk in the community. 500). But the characteristic architecture did not appear until Justinian's the and the influence persisted long after of the Empire. In Rumania at Sukavita and Voronet churches were built in the Byzantine style long after the Empire had fallen. Byzantine and Romanesque Constantinople in 324 until its capture by the Turks in 1453. to whom the growth of monasticism was chiefly due. fall (Czar) and developed with Slavonic variations the Byzantine style of building. but never with the same refinement. The century which followed the establishment of Christianity as a state religion was marked by an isolationist movement. . which was to be selfsufficient and in which the monks had to work as well as pray. This persistence of Byzantine culture is proof of its remarkable vitality. Cistercian and Augustinian and each prescribed minor variations of design and layout for their settlements. Monasticism.. for it is difficult for multitudes to live lives of pure individualism.

had superseded the timber roof of the Early Christian basilica. and the stone vault which. which developed was the same throughout the West. completely changed the appearance of architecture and is called c Gothic'. it covers the period from the coronation of Charlemagne to the beginning of Geographically. Germany. northern Spain and Britain. Historically. a development of Early Christian architecture. and numerous outbuildings to provide livingquarters. whole of the western world covers nearly the France. There were the long processional nave. j the architecture Romanesque Fundamentally.Introduction Architecture. the Low Countries. basically. It was. the constant use of the arch. this architecture Italy. the twelfth century. having in place of the bema a choir of considerable dimensions to accommodate the monks. . when a revolution in structural methods occurred which. combining the use of stone ribbed reinforcement to the vault with the pointed arch and the flying buttress. for various practical reasons.


which was coincident with the subsidence of the Empire itself. whereas in the Christian church the aisles and the it defined the important spaces of the interior nave and led the eye dramatically towards the altar. which was a characteristic feature of the larger Greek temple. but in the Greek building it surrounded an insignificant cell. such as Syria. fore. We but instead we can trace a gradual decline in skill and in craftsmanship as Christianity developed. look for the crude and early stages of design with which we associate the beginnings of a style. Only in the growing centres of population. In Rome and in other Italian cities the existing buildings were more than sufficient to provide for a dimioishing 9 . not to attract the attention of worshippers outside. was also the distinguishing feature of the Christian church. the first Christian Emperor. took from the demolished Arch of Trajan. it was as though the Greek temple were turned inside out.CHAPTER II EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE History > Characteristics and Style architecture of early Christianity is at the same time It is the product of a growing faith a dying civilisation. An important difference between the buildings of the pagan Empire and those now under consideration is that most of the former were secular. The highest expression of struc- and artistic skill had been reached in Rome in the time of Trajan. unlike the Greek. one cannot help noticing one fundamental difference in outlook which distinguished all Early Christian buildings from classical precedents: the Christian temple.. to those adjoining. which were extural ability cannot. was designed to house and to inspire the congregation inside. and the extent of the decline in the following two centuries can be measured by comparing the sculptured reliefs which Constantine. and THE nascent and decadent. The colonnade. were new houses and civic buildings necessary. in Early Christian architecture. whereas the latter were built almost entirely for the purposes of the new religion. therepressly designed for his own triumphal arch. On the other hand.

which different Porta Maggiore. state: "We know of of much controversy. . The idea that no Christian churches were built before the legalising of proved by the edicts one by Diocletian in 303. Origins. 50 feet below the ground near the discovery Christianity is is a mistaken one. details for Early Christian architecture was almost wholly dependent its forms and upon Greek. it has been supposed that converted basilicas formed the earliest Christian churches. Further. This does not change from the fourth to devise new necessarily prove the incompetence of architects the basilican plan entirely satisfied the forms. it cannot be assumed that the The remarkable basilican church form was particularly Christian. aisles and established in apsidal end indicates that this form was already Rome before Christianity had taken root. To to the monumental lavishness of Imperial because it seems speak of development at all may be misleading.io Early Christian.' 1 Scott 1 ridiculed entirely the idea that Sir George Gilbert Scott. which was converted in the year 370. Roman and oriental traditions. especially in Rome. history during the centuries of persecution. It is possible that the basilican plan had a long. but Texier and Pullan. Byzantine and Romanesque the only buildings of the Early population. The origin of this particular form has been the subject In consequence of its similarity in plan to basilicas. Essay on the History of English Church Architecture. at Rome. though unrecorded. but suggests that needs of the Church in the West. was determined tions. From largely by the poverty of the latter-day Roman Empire. of a pagan temple. notably published by commanding that all churches should be destroyed and all Christian books burned. a technical point of view there were no significant innovaIts development. dating from the first century and having all the essential features of a Christian basilica nave. Rome. and this form persisted to the ninth century. which in preference prescribed the most economical methods of building Roman times. This was the Licinian basilica. some of the old Roman but one instance in which the Roman basilica was transformed into a church. in their Byzantine Architecture. Emperors. The result is that Christian period in Italy which have been preserved are churches. baptisteries and tombs. the Christian type of basilica from existing evidence as though came into being as a fully developed architectural form as soon as without Christianity was recognised.

He said: 'Christianity unfortunately could not abolish the litigious instincts of our nature. The atrium was a colonnaded court surrounded by rooms. * 5 apply it Rome. so that it differed to some extent from . this is the position of the Christian altar. as it sometimes is. The term basilican church was never used by old writers. and probably its later adoption arose. table. many of these character- temples often had the apse. temples Moreover.' Nevertheless. which were undoubtedly converted into churches. Peter. much may be said for the term if properly defined and restricted . and applied to any large church which has nave and aisles. Rome. then the likeness between Ulpa them and the early churches would be slight. with the tablinum at one end of the main axis which was obviously the place for the clergy.Early Christian Architecture basilicas II were used for Christian worship. open to the sky. and more attractive. and after fifteen centuries of the Gospel the legal profession still flourishes. Be that as it may. theory is that the basilican form was in some way a development from the classical dwelling house. He advanced the practical objection that they were as necessary as before for the purposes for which they were built. as a rule. many points in plan and construction were the same in both basilica and church : the apse at the end. to buildings as different as S. and the columns dividing the nave and aisles. Amiens Cathedral and the Renaissance Church of S. the wooden roof. but if used loosely. But it must not be forgotten that temples. the larger Greek the wooden roof and the division into nave and aisles. since in the times of the persecution a private house would be a natural and safe place of assembly for the early Christians. as from the erroneous idea that the early church was the basilica converted. it becomes worthless and meaningless. not so much from any resemblance between the early church and the Roman basilica. that the central portions of Roman some of the large Roman basilicas (such as the basilicas and Julia) were not covered at all. the only Immediately in front of the tablinum stood the ornamental stone reminder of the ancient sacred hearth. Paul Outside the Walls. also possessed istics. The typical house of the second and third centuries had only one space the peristyle or atrium which could have provided sufficient accommodation for any large meeting. The central part of the atrium was. irrespective of other It is absurd to features. if what Scott contended were true. The worshippers precisely would stand along the aisles. A second.

Rome. for in the Christianity. if we accept the theory. to I in. Agnese and plan of a classical house. that in adapting the central area of the Roman house to the use of a church. It must be assumed. and in many cases the other end of the nave was sepai Such an enclosure is not unknown. Basilica of S. Christian churches can be explained partly on aesthetic grounds. Churches of S. The omission of the colonnade at either end was one of the very few features in which the private house plan seems to have differed fundamentally from the church plan after the recognition of But even so there were some exceptions. Scale 50 ft. Agnese and S. would have to be raised well above the side clerestory openings : aisles to allow for this Christian basilicas. Byzantine and Romanesque the nave of the Early Christian basilica. . and partly by the wish to provide more accommodation.12 Early Christian. In the Casa de Chirurgo and one or two other examples of Pompeii. one of the first changes would be its 1 In order to obtain light and air such a roof complete roofing. was the method invariably adopted in all The extension of the main axis in most After Hubsch and Lowrie. the side columns which divided the nave from the aisles were returned across the entrance. the atrium was roofed and had no impluvium (a basin at the centre to catch rainwater from the roofs over the surrounding colonnade). Lorenzo.

The principal alterations were . case This was in especially the Rome. as these died out no reason existed why temples verted. nal " After Koldeway and Puckstein* The cathedral at Syracuse. in Sicily. the present cathedral at Syracuse. and it is likely that for some time there would be preju- dices against the use of temples for the new faith. and faint traces of fresco paintings of saints on the cella walls can still be seen. For the first cen- tury or two after Constantine only a few of the temples. The most interesting example of such a conversion is probably lines. so that the resemblance to the house plan was very close. and those probably the least important. This was reconstructed in the seventh century. The old religions still had their fol- lowers. Only small alterations. not likely to have happened until some time after the official of recognition to Christian But this is Christianity. were necessary to render a temple suitable for Christian use. However. A third theory that the basilican church was simply a develop- ment of the temple plan is supthe knowledge that ported by certain old temples were con- verted worship.Early Christian Architecture rated 13 from the apse by a screen. yth century alterations in hatched lines. to i in. should not be conat Even the Parthenon Athens was transformed into a church. and dotted Origi- Greek temple shown in black The Cathedral at Syracuse.* or by an arch known as the 'triumphal arch'. would be available for Christian worship. as a rule. Scale 56 ft. where the old pagan religions persisted longer than in any other part of the Empire.

so as was thus transformed into aisles. higher over the centre than over the sides. heat and cold. it was divided into nave and aisles by columns. and were not strong enough to support a vault. by the fourth century the form of the basilican church had been finally established. with their Doric capitals. and the cella walls continued eastward to form a chancel. in addition. and cella walls these were planned and constructed in such a way as to accommodate the greatest number of people at the smallest possible or expense. it was classical houses that certain is covered by timber roofs. could hear portions of the service. Byzantine and Romanesque the building of a wall between the columns of the external to enclose the old ambulatory which peristyle at the sides. It was generally the same height as the nave. An in Asia Minor. or c bema'. version in the fourth century by the complete demolition of the and by the building of aisles outside the external peristyle. The walls were only of sufficient thickness to keep out wet. who were not eligible for admission into the church itself but who. and above them were portions of the original entablature. showed externally as well as internally. all cases. from which . or narthex. who required In large churches a transept. New churches also had to be built.14 Early Christian. which stretched across from north to south without a break. in nearly and to the ever-increasing additional accommodation. the cella low. temples what is is. which The Basilican Church. Such alterations and additions as were made from time to time in the plan were. through the three doors opening into the church. not by piers. the columns of the pronaos were removed. On the north side. The changes made in other temples. semi-circular-headed openings through the walls of in order to connect the aisles with the central part. Whether they were copied from basilicas. which became the nave. perhaps. not cruciform. were similar. the old marble columns of the peristyle. thus became the internal colonnade. The entrance was marked by a portico. due to ritual developments the clergy. and the piercing of narrow. was introduced between the apse and the body of the number of church. not particularly important. which. penitents and others. was greatly enlarged on its conaccording to Texier and Pullan. as a rule. and to carry the roof. and had an apse at the end of the nave called the presbytery. for the use of catechumens. Further. any lateral projections that might occur being very slight and at the extreme east end. It may be defined as oblong on plan. exception is the temple at Aphrodisia.

these The throne for the bishop or chief ranged from one to three tiers . Clemente (PL 4) and S. 8. After n^>$ch. 36) from a very early period. 2 An early example of 1 The Italians. which was enclosed by low walls. Scale 50 ft. Rome. Maria in of the earliest of the Italian examples. the portion reserved enclosed at the sides. by modern reand in many of the Coptic churches in Egypt. each aisle. Maria in Cosmedin. of about the same period. In S. of the central 1 In many of the later churches in Rome. Rome. as the nave. and in the church at Alliante. making the end tri-apsidal. for the clergy is completely This segregation was further emphasised by the introduction of the raised chancel which followed on the custom of burying the dead in crypts. but the desire of the clergy for increased privacy led gradually to the chancel's becoming entirely distinct from the nave. Brianza. to I in. in most of the later churches. the east end of which dates from 824 to 829. Germany the transepts were more central and projected beyond the aisle walls.Early Christian Architecture * 15 it this transept was separated by a triumphal arch*. Maria in Cosmedin. This plan was common in the Coptic churches of Egypt (see p.. priest occupied a central position and corresponded to the magistrate's chair in the apse of a Roman basilica. Cosmedin. In early churches. Milan.* as well apse. near Venice. sometimes at either side. terminated in an apse. Ambrogio. 2 Burial in crypts became general in the sixth century. Examples of this disposition occur at S. This arrangement still exists at Torcello. clergy The lesser and choir were accommodated in front of the principal altar in a portion of the nave S. although spoilt much storation. . which will be more fully described later. . semi-circular tiers of marble or stone seats for the clergy were built around the main apse . adhered to this eastern France and position for the transepts. is one The Chancel. A possible reason for was the demand for extra altars* which were placed sometimes at the ends. making the plan cruciform. whereas in churches in England. but was not introduced into Italy until the eighth century.

Apollinare in Classe. In front of each church was generally a courtyard. Occasionally these rows of columns are duplicated to The Nave and Christian basilica provide additional aisles parallel with the nave. but in narthex formed one side. Baptisteries. Atria and Baptisteries. 28). At the Sanctuary end the nave terminates in an apse. in Istria (p. did not always occupy this frontal position. Many of these courtyards have been destroyed. in south Italy. Clemente. Some of these slabs Rome. or piers. surrounded by cloisters of which the In the centre of the courtyard was the fountain which. The nave roof is always raised The sufficiently to admit of clerestory lighting along its length. Rome. windows are large and numerous. and were filled originally with a lattice work of bronze. from which it was separated only by the width of the narthex. built in the sixth century. Sometimes they were at the sides. the capitals being of marble beautifully carved. Byzantine and Romanesque this most effective feature occurs in the Church of S. . in northern Italy. had been used for ablutions. At Torcello. in early days. and in many churches exist in of marble. which projects beyond the rectangular plan. 32) and Novara. still remains (see p. alabaster S Maria in Cosmedin. near Venice. Old columns and capitals were often used for the nave arcades though not at Ravenna and Torcello and this accounts for the unsatisfactory proportions so conspicuous in many of the basilican churches. Aisles. however. or with pierced still slabs or plaster. and the columns monoliths of either marble or granite j but the latter rarely agree .16 Early Christian. which support a lowpitched wooden roof above the nave. covered by a semi-dome. and occasionally additional apses mark the ends of the aisles. at the end of the the narthex. many glass was of the windows became redundant and were blocked up. is The essential characteristic of the Early an oblong plan divided lengthwise into a nave and aisles by rows of columns. near Ravenna. a baptistery would be incorporated. in which case they were generally connected with the church by a passage. both these examples there is no intervening atrium and only an open space remains. Baptisteries in this position also exist at Pisa and Florence. or atrium. but that of S. The columns and capitals are often fine in themselves. and lean-to roofs over the aisles. When ' substituted in the ninth or tenth century. as at Zara in Dalmatia and at Grado in Istria. Occasionally. the baptistery was immediately in front of the west door of the church. courtyard opposite as at Parenzo.

Maria in Cosmedin each arcade has three divisions of four bays each. Maria in Trastevere. Mark Maggiore and S. Maria in Trastevere. Lorenzo are examples of the former. and even when all are of the same Order they are often strangely dissimilar. and Greek influence was even greater than had been the case in the days of Imperial Rome. old S. Probably. Clemente. and although in the eighth or ninth century Italian called upon craftsmen attempted to imitate their work. Greek Influence. follow the curve of the arches Roman work. and the differences have to be made good. The reason for the piers is not quite dear. proportionate to the height of the columns. 28). however.Early Christian Architecture ij with one another. Much of the building from the fifth century onwards was directed by Greek workmen. some of the old columns were converted into piers and arches were built across the nave and aisles. Rome. they contained many examples of fine Greek craftsmanship. S. 15). Although most basilicas were constructed on Roman lines. and probably earlier. S. it is not uncommon to see Corinthian and Ionic capitals by side in the same church. where. and when no more was available Greek workmen were to supply the deficiency. This was undoubtedly the side reason for their introduction at S. Sabina The of the latter. Rome. screens and other fittings. they were supreme. S. The lintels are generally moulded so as to form entablatures. Peter's.. they may have had something to do with the ritual arrangement. Prassede. The capitals are often of different Orders . separated by two piers (p. and at S. Agnese and S. sometimes by arches. as in S. the differences between II 2 . Paul Outside the Walls. a single pier on either side divides the arcade into two sections of five bays each (p. cornices. When the spaces are arched. in some cases by raised bases. In a very few churches In piers instead of columns are introduced at regular intervals. and sometimes whole entablatures. As carvers of capitals. or perhaps they were introduced because long ranges of columns were considered to be monotonous. they were built to take the thrust of cross-arches which would give a more permanent structural link between the two sides than was possible with the timber truss. method. in the twelfth century. in others by omitting the bases altogether. sarcophagi. especially as in late columns and capitals. The of early Christians fredy made use of old material. openings between the columns and piers are sometimes spanned by lintels. and S. either in height or diameter. Of churches in Rome. S.

Maria Maggiore. a centre of Byzantine influence in Italy. that of the fourth to sixth centuries. springs. and the spaces between the windows themselves. offered a great expanse of unbroken wall surface for decoration. relieved by a little red and black outlining. when the church was built. but in the ninth there was a revival which almost equalled this first great century flowering of Christian art. The basilican churches. Sabina. and although it had been practised by the Romans in the days of the Empire. employed first in the East to overcome the difficulty of supporting a wall whose width was greater than that of the capital below In Rome it was first used in the Church of S. arranged in patterns. simple construction. S. and it was also largely employed in Ravenna. and framed in by white marble. but none of the Roman mosaics is comparable to those at Ravenna (PI. . Whether or not this work is of the fifth century. are among the most beautiful in the capital.18 Early Christian. Maria Maggiore and S. both of the fourth century. 2) Much of the mosaic work is of Greek craftsmanship. time afterwards the art declined. for a At S. They are now concealed inside by flat. 57). as at S. The broad band between the windows and the entablature. Good mosaics also exist at S. To the Greeks was due the introduction of the 'dosseret'. The earliest work. Some of the most notable mosaics are in the Church of S. or divided into panels which were often filled with mosaic pictures. finest. Agnese. Rotondo in the fifth century. Mural Decoration. is uncertain. especially those in which lintels instead of arches were used. and the apses with their semidomes. was the . were either covered with paintings. Prassede. Pudenziana and the octagonal tomb of S. The timber roofs were always of low pitch. This art had its origin in the East. the great extent to which it was employed in Italian churches was due to the predilection of the Byzantine Greeks for this most effective and durable method of decoration. and in the Church of S. Costanza. Stephano (p. Byzantine and Romanesque the two are great and easily discernible. also provided fine opportunities for mosaic decoration which were rarely neglected. of the ninth century. The portion of the wall at the end of the nave over the triumphal arch. or block over the capital from which the arch This was essentially a Byzantine device. and of Ceilings. Sabina another extremely effective method of decoration was used: the spandrels of the arches were filled with small slabs of green marble and porphyry. In the last the white figures on a gold ground.

This would be in accordance with the old Roman traditions. Apollinare in Classe. and the churches of the eleventh and twelfth centuries in all parts of Europe present many effective varieties of it. Maria in Cosmedin and S. etc. Particularly good examples are to be found in the chancel screen S. Of architectural ornamentation there was very little.) are also inlaid with Opus Alexandrinum. since the walls were generally plastered and only occasionally were mosaics introduced. because that city possessed large stores of marbles. but there is every reason to believe that they were originally ceiled in a similar manner and that the trasses were never intended to be seen from the inside. but the aisle and clerestory walls of the Church of S. S. mostly broken and chipped. Maria Maggiore. but about the twelfth many were relaid with 5 . The churches externally possessed little of the richness of the interiors. S. surrounded by bands made up of small cubes of marble of different colours which form delicate patterns . Lorenzo. Ravenna. and no . Maria in Cosmedin. Lorenzo. these in their turn are framed in by broad bands of white marble (PL 3). but the secret of the success of these floors lies in the value of white as a framework for colour & recipe that does not apply to floors alone. most of which date from the fifteenth to the sixteenth centuries. orientation of many of the early churches is is the very reverse of what 1 now customary. one porphyry roundel is nearly eight feet in diameter.Early Christian Architecture 19 deeply coffered ceilings. it Like most other features of Roman- owes its Orientation. The origin to ancient Rome. pulpits. esque work. Many of the fittings in the churches (screens. in the Church of S. richly painted and gilded. which could be sawn into slabs or shaped into minute cubes. Some of the slabs are of great size . The finest floors of this type in the capital are in the Churches of S. Maria in Trastevere. Clemente. Prassede and in the pulpit of Exteriors. Until the beginning In the provinces roofs were generally open with timbers showing ceilings. were arcaded3 the arches springing from slightly projecting pilasters. This arcaded treatment afterwards became universal. This work was especially popular in Rome. such common in Rome in Imperial days . The contrast between the small patterns and big slabs is century very striking. 1 Floors. as was The floors at first were of ordinary marble mosaic. at S. S. This 'Opus Alexandrinum consists of large slabs.

Only two churches. Maria Maggiore. but in the rebuilding of 386 the orientation was reversed. Scale soft. Peter's. S. Peter ad Vinada> have Sanctuaries at the east end. Paul Outside the Walls 5 showing. where nearly every point of the compass is represented. west. The variety of direction is especially great in Rome. in black3 the original church as completed in 330 with the high road to Ostia at the top . to I in. S. a portion of the later basilica. there does not appear to have been any rule. are directed towards the west or north- After Cummings. and shaded. whereas sixteen. The tomb of the Martyr was not removed when the church was rebuilt and re-orientated. John Lateran. Paul Outside the Walls and S. In the case of S Paul Outside the Walls. . S. Maria in Trastevere. the original church faced west. Possibly the variety may be accounted for by the . S. It was very rarely that a church lay exactly east and west. Clemente and S. Basilica of S. including such important churches as S.2O Early Chri$tiany Byzantine and Romanesque of the Middle Ages.

. 21 Generally. windows were omitted.Early Christian Architecture direction of the ancient streets. when the apse was at the east end. but in Rome. though even in the former some of the earlier examples were directed towards the west. The regulation in regard to orientation seems to have been followed more closely in the Eastern Empire than in the Western. as at Ravenna. where so many of the churches had an apse at the west end. it was pierced with windows .

could be any time when funds permitted. which added at would be chiefly mosaics or paintings. In all the Rome. the chief object was to provide an inexpensive building which could be raised in the shortest possible time. covering an area of 80. and in some cases rebuilt entirely. S. There was a large forecourt or atrium. John Lateran. CHURCHES IN ROME S. the careful sixteenth-century measurements and drawings make it possible to say something about its general design and arrangement. unfortunately. S. and although it has entirely disappeared. pulled down when the present great cathedral was built on its site in the sixteenth century. The construction was therefore very simple. was or founded by Constantine in Rome. Paul Outside the Walls was. unhappily. and there remain some thirty basilicas which in foundation belong to the Early Christian period. Of the three large double-aisled basilicas built the largest. and S. and the basilican churches of decoration. over 200 feet square. Peter's. A~^ER almost entirely destroyed by fire in 1823. a 'single-aisled basilica' means a church which has only one aisle on each side of the nave. was larger than all mediaeval cathedrals except 1 By a 'double-aisled* basilica is meant a church which has a central nave with two aisles on each side. was rebuilt four times before 1362 and has since been so radically altered by almost every Pope that it is now completely uninterest- ing to the student of Early Christian architecture.CHAPTER III EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE Churches and Baptisteries the recognition of Christianity.000 square feet. Peter's (324-330) was the oldest and finest of all the Early Christian basilicas. so that the field of useful study is 1 very restricted. 22 . which was slightly smaller but much the same in conception. leading to the church itself which. Rome was soon provided with churches. have been considerably altered. Peter's. Most of them. S.

14 ft Basilica of S. m i. to i . . Peter a \+ Scale 100 /r. After Hubsch. Circus. 23 . Romea showing relation to Nero's in.

100 feet. is so essentially a copy of the original that it may be fairly considered as an example of an Early Christian an almost exact counterpart of S Peter's in design and dimensions. Byzantine Seville. seen from the west end. Peter's the southern however. The only important differences are that the bema is wider and that the columns along the nave carry arches instead of a horizontal architrave. which carry the triumphal arch. Notwithstanding this. The nave has twenty-one bays of excellent proportion far more than in any Romanesque or mediaeval The thirty-six-foot columns have finely-carved Corincathedral. a characteristic of later found in the double-aisled basilicas. and its height. The nave was which the wall surface was panelled with pictures. the great importance of these early churches. is afforded by the lofty Ionic columns. is considerably less than that of a French cathedral which has not more than half its width. end of this 'bema' led to a pair of rotundas. It is . unusual feature. thian capitals which. to the small sanctuary. only ^ was the provision of a large open space. although modern with the exception of portions at the chancel end. which is The central colondouble the average width of a Gothic nave. It has thin walls. incapable of carrying more than its simple wooden roof. In S. Paul Outside the Walls. A pleasant contrast to these basilican church. arose the clerestory. the great trussed the double aisles were surdivided ranges of columns which mounted by An Roman work. appear to form a rich band the whole length of the church. archivolts. which some It is certainly posauthorities regard as rudimentary transepts. Milan and nearly 80 feet wide. erected as mausoleums upon the exact places of martyrdom of the early Christians after the Fire of Rome. and finally. on the main axis of Nero's circus and. The present Church of S.24 and Romanesque Early Christian. few churches convey such an impression of great size. In the three great double-aisled basilicas. Paul Outside the Walls (PL l). this space was in effect a horizontal addition and was reserved for the clergy. Even in its . above nades which defined it carried a horizontal entablature. according to placed mediaeval tradition. as high as the cornices over the main arcades. may have the minds of the designers impressed the cruciform scheme upon of Romanesque cathedrals. fine scale and stately dignity. between the Sanctuary apse and the nave arcade. Over this The roof. together sible that with purely architectural and symbolical considerations. projecting on either side. S.


C/3 .


Ravenna . Ravenna Apollinare Nuovo.S. ClementCj Plate Rome 4 S. Mausoleum of Theodoric.

Paul. of S. rather squat and form part of the fifth-century . Paul. but the intercoltimniation is only about seven feet. to i in. marble columns Outside the Walls. not most beautiful. all the are Basilica of S. very satisfactory rhythm that was characteristic of nearly basilicas. Scale loo/r. instead of upon upon arches as was necessary at S.11 After Hubseh. Maria Maggiore is the largest of the single-aisled basilicas. its size is less than a third of the two great doubleaisled basilicas men- tioned outside to above. has twenty-one bays. of the basilicas Christian in Rome. and it was therefore easy to carry the nave walls lintels. has The so is little been altered that there show that the walls enclose a very fine example of an early basiKlike that can church. The nave. The intro- duction in the sixteenth century of wider arched between the columns at the Sanctuary end has destroyed spaces the 111.Early Christian Architecture restored form. S. . Paul older The Rome. if the the church is still the most interesting. Although S. Maria Maggiore.

After Cattaneo. Byzantine and Romanesque church . until the beginning of the thirteenth century. and the earlier the chancel. The later church then became the nave. when Honorius III destroyed the two apses and threw the two churches into one. The was erected by Constantine and. consisted of nave. Agnese..26 Early Christian. Lorenzo. aisles. The . Indeed. and an apse at the east. and the two alabaster windows above which have been incorporated purely decoratively . as in the Temple of Venus and Rome. showing (right) Scale loo/r.. 5. where it was the custom to provide upstairs accom- modation for women. Agnese. S. to carry arches which are considerably wider and deeper than the tops of the antique capitals. there are some mosaics on the walls which are also of that time. are the only churches in Rome to have a gallery over the aisles. with its mosaic representations of Bethlehem and Jerusalem. the west. so that the two apses were back to back. Lorenzo has original building a most interesting history. S. Lorenzo. the adoption in both churches of the dosseret block. the original fourth-century church of Constantine3 and (left) the larger fifth-century church. both outside the walls. all these are features which may be paralleled in the architecture of the Eastern Empire. to i in. the seventh-century mosaic which fills the semi-dome at S. Rome. adding three more columns to each side. Lorenzo. In the fifth century Pope Sextus III built another and larger church with the entrance at the opposite end. there is much that is character about both churches. Lorenzo. In this state the two churches remained. like S. Agnese and S.. more or less separate from one another. and an apse at the west. The ceiling (c. This feature is more common in early Byzantine architecture. a returned aisle at the entrance (in this case at the east). Agnese and S. The Church of S. and although late in date probably conforms in character to the general design of the more prosperous of the early churches. The Byzantine in treatment of the apsidal arch in S. 1585) is panelled with great richness.

at the very time of the building of Amiens Cathedral in France and Salisbury Cathedral in England. of the fifth and sixth centuries at the sides of the chancel. workmen could be found to execute classical details. chronologically. some fluted and some plain. This fact makes it clear that in Italy. the Gospel and the Epistles were read. the bishop's throne. Italian Romanesque period. 1216-37*. and to execute them well. the low marble screen wall which projects into the nave including in front of the altar and encloses the chancel. with seats for the attendant clergy on either The rest of the inside of the church has suffered as did other Roman churches in the fifteenth century. but what makes them of especial interest is that they are. very much lower than that of the nave. in the thirteenth century. The rebuilding occurred about 1108 and so.Early Christian Architecture floor 27 of the latter was. with the crypt visible below. it belongs to the * 1 . which separate the nave . and behind this. but notwithstanding this the effect of the raised chancel. S Clemente (PL 4). The Church of S. but it was certainly considerably larger than that which took its place. which was partially destroyed before the twelfth century. The new floor. but architecturally it presents so many of the characteristics of the old basilica that it may be regarded as belonging to the Early Christian style. over the old one at a level about three feet above the nave floor. indubitably the work of Honorius III. of course. however. Behind a railing which marks off the bema is the altar. inserted a new floor. as Cattaneo says. The marble Ionic capitals of the narthex are particularly well carved. make out. Clemente now consists of two buildings one above the other. flanked and backed by galleries. The lower is the original church. its canopy supported on four columns. . is side. dating between 514 and 523. is extremely fine. in order to avoid descending to the altar. Most of this screen belongs to the old church. and Honorius. when the present upper church was The plan of the original building is somewhat difficult to built. or pulpits. supported on piers. and utilised the space underneath as a crypt. and it is practically certain that it was fittings and reconstructed in the same place as before and may therefore be regarded as an example of the arrangement common to churches From the two ambones. cut across the middle of the columns at the sides. but the antique columns. It has all the original internal arrangements of an Early Christian church. Some of its old columns are built into the piers which support the walls of the upper church. in the apsidal end.

since eastern and western methods of building occur in both. in which the . south of Trieste. The first extends from the beginning to the middle of the fifth century and includes buildings which. and one of the very few which have survived.28 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque apse. between the last two periods. still from the aisles. and the mosaic decoration of the remain. though designed for the Honorius and Galla Placidia. all the buildings cannot heading. although Greek in detail and execution^ will be included here. Rome. S. however. which was subject to the same influences. during which time it belonged to the Byzantine Empire and was the seat of an exarch. are Byzantine in character (see p. to i CHURCHES IN NORTH ITALY Ravenna. There is not much difference. Clemente. after Rome. Byzantine or Gothic rule. in. The workmen throughout were Greeks. earliest in Italy After Hubsch. contains the most interesting remains of Early Christian work in Italy. whether under Roman. 61). The outside is perfectly plain. The purely Byzantine. Similar to those in Ravenna are the churches in Istria. but the others. The second extends from 493 to 539. who ruled the territories along the Adriatic. These belong to three periods. when the town formed part of the kingdom of Theodoric the Ostrogoth. Western rulers or governor. architecturally. and the third from 539 to 752. which are of ordinary basilican construction. will be considered later. Scale loo/r. Owing to the conflicting be placed under one dome was the central motif. with little of architectural interest which is one of the except for the old cloistered atrium in front.

probably because they are slightly earlier in date. attired in white robes upon a gold . The soffits of the arches are coffered. Classe. of only twenty years was enough to account for a marked change when in quality. but in north Italy. a difference century. Apollinare in Classe. except that there is never a horizontal bema and the colonnades invariably have arches instead of lintels. Both were built by Theodoric. S. all remarkably alike. in Roman buildings. are not excelled by any carvings in Constantinople. antique and Christian. near Venice. and the church interiors were enriched by carvings as fine as Greek workmen could make them. and they are far superior to any of similar date in Rome. and the cathedral at Torcello. capitals and bases were often pilfered from older buildings. outside the gates. Apottinare Nuovo (PL 2). with a flower in the centre of each panel in true Roman fashion. Characteristics. In the sixth architectural progress was very rapid. in the centre of the town. and S. The which principal attraction of the church is is the mosaic decoration. of two periods. the capitals and bases were designed and worked for the positions they occupied. Apollinare in Ravenna and of Parenzo Cathedral. S. and the low marble screen at Torcello. the former being completed in 526 and the latter not until 549. In plan these churches resemble those in Rome. In Rome the columns. the capitals of S. Apollinare Nuovo is much more richly decorated than the other. which provide a magnificent procession of angels and martyrs. the semi-circiilar form being retained inside. Above the clerestory are the original mosaics of Theodoric a series of twenty-six panels representing the miraeles of Christ and episodes of the Passion. they were always semi-circular externally as well as internally. and below are the mosaics executed after the capture of Ravenna by the Byzantines. The basilican churches in north Italy are superior to those in Rome in that the incongruities and bad proportions of so many of the colonnades of Roman churches have been avoided. In refinement of design. One small peculiarity which denotes Byzantine influence is especially noticeable : the apses are polygonal on the outside. after the town had passed to the Byzantine Emperor Justinian.Early Christian Architecture 29 changing government for exactly the same periods as Ravenna. The two most important basilican churches in Ravenna are S. but its general proportions and The column capitals are much coarser^ detail are not so fine. while the columns themselves may have been antique. Apollinare Nuovo.

The chancel is approached by a wide flight of steps a which stretches across the end of the small nave. . is built of thin bricks with wide mortar joints in the manner of the Byzantine Inside. One. near architecture. These are tower. an important feature in the whole composition. decoration concentrated at the apsidal end. Apollinare in Classe. Mistra. Fosca. and they have no counterparts in Byzantine S. The Church of S Apollinare in . the other.. standing solitary in the plain beyond Ravenna. possibly the earliest examples of belfries in western Europe. but decrypt. S. Classe. 90.30 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque background. tached from the church. therefore. They are similar character to those of the Church of Sancta Sophia. and all have in dosserets. The two are connected by a narthex which runs across the west front of the basilican church and around S. and underneath is the north side. but that is much later in date and may have been the result of Frankish influence. The 1 An exception is the tower of the Church of Pantanassa. and they have a rhythmic quality which emphasises the length of the nave and makes them. is basilican. is cruciform in plan and is described under Byzantine work on p. the cathedral. Apollinare in Classe (PL 2). 74). built about 485 (see p. The function of these mosaics is wholly decorative. the finest mosaic is builders. in the Peloponnese. which was once a large town in the Venetian lagoons. ft Two to i in interest stand side churches of great by side in the hamlet of Torcello. Apollinare Nuovo (PL 4). The columns are surmounted by identical capitals. Fosca. 1 sIIkToo little Torcello. the nave being severely plain apart from a frieze of eighteenth- century medallions above the colonnade. Salonika. S. is a circular On A similar tower stands at one end of the narthex at S.

width is about 70 feet. are free copies of Corinthian style. The central apse. the tenth century and the beginning of the eleventh. with niches at the corners. rebuilt in the ninth and again in 1008. The remains of the baptistery may be traced in front of the west door immediately outside the portico. way half to the nave and the other half to the two The columns are the work of Byzantine carvers who. In the centre is the bishop's throne. no two being exactly alike but all extraordinarily delicate. Altogether. of all the examples of the furnishing of the apse that have been preserved. the rest being of a more shallow curve. of which the uppermost two are concentric with the wall. capitals of the at the end of Istria. The main body of the church and the aisles bechancel last rebuilding. carved with animals and birds of purely Byzantine character (PL 3). approached by a straight flight of steps. or rail. TorceUo Scale 50 /r. Under the seats. of later date. with deep undercutting. long to the The proportions are fine : the total After HtSsck. which is divided in the usual aisles. surrounded by a square. A row of six columns divides the choir and presbytery from the nave. of which the most interesting are the Cathedrals of Parenzo and Grado. were almost The capitals as skilled as their forefathers had been in the sixth. The former was built between the years 525 . Between these columns is a low marble parapet. contains six rows of seats. The peninsula of Istria contains a number of basilican churches. to i in. which is the oldest part of the church. a narrow staircase leads to a tiny crypt. Cathedral.Early Christian Architecture 31 basilican church was begun in the seventh century. this is one of the best. It consisted of an octagon of the seventh century.

Constantinople). G. 1887. Parenzo.32 Early Christian. rather unusually. It still re- tains its semi-circle of marble seats for the clergy and its episcopal throne at the centre. Parenzo Cathedral still retains its old atrium. and the baptistery is at the side. G. Scale $Qft. . with its closely set ranks of marble columns. There is only one apse. is beyond. while in the completeness of its plan. which in detail and composition is pure Byzantine. The lower wall surfaces are entirely covered with panelling of variegated marble. Above. the decoration is completed by glass mosaic. Dalmatia. serpentino. has four windows instead of three. to i in. The Cathedral of Grado is very different from that of Parenzo. Quarnero and htria* Oxford. It is very different from the c Opus Alexandrinum' of the churches in 1 Rome. Jackson. which extends over the greater part of the nave. and. the inside walls are severely plain. a cloistered walk some 70 feet square. and the column capitals are nearly all classical Roman which have suffered considerable mutilation. 'The church at Parenzo/ according to Jackson. with a campanile of a later date Opposite the baptistery three doors lead directly into the basilica which. ApolMnare in Classe. There is no atrium.' At the end of each aisle is an apse in the thickness of the wall a favourite arrangement in Byzantine churches while the central apse projects and is polygonal externally. in beauty of execution it is quite their equal. and the latter about forty years later. The glory of the church is in its mosaic pavement of the sixth century. After T. at the end of which is an octagonal baptistery. though slightly smaller. its atrium and baptistery. 1 'is inferior to those of Ravenna in size alone . Jackson. being composed entirely of small tesserae T. very like S. it surpasses them. porphyry. Byzantine and Romanesque and 543 (contemporary with Sancta Sophia. Cathedral. onyx and discs of mother-of-pearl.

tion over the II was similar to that of S. cast from a mould for repetition throughout the church (see p. and fretted among his discoveries was that the one original window still surviving was not carved in marble or stone but was constructed in a kind of concrete. its wooden roof collapsed. This church was dedicated to S John and was attached to the Monastery of Studion. It was basilican. earliest might have been expected that some of the of Christian architecture would be found in the examples capital which was built by. Agnese in Rome in having galleries aisles and a single apse. Its general disposi. The church was thoroughly examined at the end of the last century by Jackson. large slabs and roundels which play so a part in pavements of Roman churches do not occur here. however. Nothing remains at It After Van MilUng&n. The wide bands. Today interest centres on the 3 . that have any connection with Christianity. is not the case.Early Gknstian 33 of different colours which form inscriptions in Greek and Latin. oldest existing church in that city was not built until 463. S. the first Christian Emperor. not domed. Constantinople of buildings erected by Constantine. and named after. CHURCHES IN CONSTANTINOPLE AND SALONIKA Constantinople. Scale Soft. 58). under an unusual weight of snow. John Studions Constantinople. such. or his immedi- The ate successors. nearly a century and a half after the foundation of the city. to I in. when. and remained comparatively intact up to the present century.

little which has recently been rebuilt. to I in. in their Byzantine Architecture^ that both were originally of the fifth and sixth centuries. S. which has now been cleared of Turkish additions. The Church of A$ur Texier and Pullan. which followed the Roman plan in being semi-circular externally as well as internally.34 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque which depict in extraordinarily beautiful detali animals. Texier and Pullan state. although. There was a large apse. as at Ravenna. Salonika. There was thus no triumphal arch. were galleries for women. These stopped against . The church had transepts at the east end that were unusual in that they were colonnaded and separated by the nave arcade. This shows that at that time the old Roman traditions were still strong in the East and had not yet been superseded by Byzantine methods of construction. S. opinions differed as to the most suitable plan. it would be clear that. if the Church of Sancta Sophia. Scale loo ft. Paraskevi.. Paraskevi. Unlike S. in the same town. Two of the earliest of basilican type are S. Demetrius. floor mosaics. birds and foliage. and the columns returned at the west end to form a western aisle. Since 1936 somewhat drastic steps have been taken towards its restoration. Demetrius. Salonika. S. Demetrius has a tragic history. and S. Demetrius had double aisles. and in 1917 was completely devastated by fire. It was captured by the Crusaders in 1185 and pillaged of all its treasures. which continued the entire length Over the aisles of the church. It was converted into a mosque after the Turkish conquest in 1430. Salonika is far richer than Constantinople in early churches. was really built in 495 as some authorities contend. or inner narthex.

as at S. as in the Churches of S. Constantinople. Here developed the Coptic Church. and behind the bishop's chair. Clemente and S. as are those at Torcello and Parenzo. Demetrius is some two centuries earlier than they. Maria Cosmedin. but originally they were filled with pierced screens. Salonika.Early Christian Architecture the transepts. which are placed either in apses or in square recesses built into the thickness of the wall. already described in this chapter. many With the spread of Mohamof the Coptic churches were destroyed.) which were carried The nave arcades were separated in 35 up by the full height of the nave. whose beliefs in the Monophysite doctrine (that Christ was the indissoluble union of a divine and a human nature) led to a schism in the universal Church and the election of an independent Coptic leader the Patriarch of Alexandria. is that this arrangement originated COPTIC CHURCHES IN EGYPT Egypt was a most flourishing centre of Christianity in the third century. Agnese. and S. piers into divisions of four or five bays each. Rome. The east end is a screen of wood with separated from the body of the church by sometimes inlaid with marbles and ivory and often covered doors. Demetrius. which allowed the worshipthe services but effectively shielded pers behind them to follow Egypt long before them from the view of the men below. Over the west end and the aisles are galleries for women. Rome. and even later. or so it difficult thoroughly altered as to make to assess their relative importance. instead of . in the centre. The columns of the internal arcades are generally returned at the west end. At the east end are always three altars. Most of the openings in the gallery fronts are now walled up. S. A number are earlier in date than the churches They are basilican almost without exception. S. The central and most important apse is called the * haikal * . Most of the churches differ from the normal in that the nave is basilican church generally barrel-vaulted in stone. This tri-apsidal arrangement was evidently customary in it appeared in Italy. The seats for the clergy are generally arranged around the haikal. so the probability in the East. like the iconostasis of the Greek Church. medanism. and it is more than probable that they suggested many of the features found in Italian churches. John. with paintings. is a little niche in the wall for an ever-burning lamp.

side by side. Butler ally. n AfterButler. Copts Another important difference is that there are generally three domes. Cairo. with perhaps one or more domes appearing behind. Many of the arches are also pointed. Inside they were decorated in much the same manner as the churches in Italy. There fortress are six i in.36 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque having a timber roof. indeed. churches within the ancient Roman Babylon. Church of Abou Sargah Scale soft. and therefore surrounded their churches by other buildings to such an extent that from the outside they are completely uninteresting. are pointed. as Dr. were naturally concerned to avoid attracting the attention of the Mohammedans. but after the Saracen invasion states in his Coptic Churches in Egypt. The walls are veneered with marble. to (S. showing that this form was employed by the in their churches long before it appeared in the West. Those built on the upper reaches of the Nile and in the desert differ very little in appearance from the ancient temples. except in the earliest between the columns examples. The exteriors of the churches are generally very bare and plain. crowned by a form of Egyptian gorge moulding.. and although . and the dome had The early Coptic for centuries been a feature in the East. Some of the churches were built before the Byzantine era. Some. with its construction and probably builders were well acquainted used it before Constantine went to Byzantium. and many of these decorations still remain. were built inside old temples. which is called a part of the district of Old Cairo. since nothing shows on the outside except plain walls. often Occasionally the walls. over the east end. These barrel vaults. certainly long before Justinian built Sancta Sophia. designs of which are very complicated. Sergius). This use of the dome does not necessarily indicate Byzantine influence. but these paintings are generally of later date than the churches. or else covered with marble the not glass mosaic. When the earlier churches were built in Cairo. piers and fittings are painted. some architectural expression was doubtless given to them externthe Christians. as at Denderah.

The arches of the arcade are The Over pointed. 1 The arrangement is not unlike that in Sancta Sophia. and .. is a baptismal tank * as the Epiphany tank'. with the nave arcades sentative. has a number of interesting features. on the central axis of the nave. Butler states are of the eighth century and the oldest of their type in Egypt. or as reprecentury may be It is a fairly large church. crypt. Sunk in the floor of many respects the S. Egypt. and many of the Coptic monasteries in this region After Butler. Constantinople^ are east built in the same century^ except that there the semi-domes west instead of north and south. Scale soft. is famous as the first place to which the anchorites in the early days of Christianity retired from the world. which Dr. but one. Desert chwches. The Sanctuary is screened off by folding doors. were founded over early chapels or ranean. Over the narthex and aisles runs a known ani two of the apsidal ends still retain their brick domes. supported on the north and 1 south sides by transverse arches. It was here that monasticism began. such as is frequently met with in other churches in Egypt. built in the eighth the narthex. oratories close to the Mediter- majority of the churches follow the basilican plan described above. which was founded by Greeks from Syria in the sixth century. the monastic church of Dair~as-Suriane. the centre of the transept is a dome. to I in. Dair-as-Suriane. north-west of Cairo. Sergius. and so is the barrel vault which covers the nave.Early Christian Architecture they differ in 37 Church of Abou Sargah. returned at the west end to form a narthex. which are plastered outside. beyond which are semi-domes. The desert of Nitxia. Bdow the central dome is a small gallery.

Simeon Stylites Seman all are small. in the mosques. but the planning is often very Only two examples are Byzantine in character at Kalat originaL (see p. Gayet. the others being oblong. special characteristic is the use of exceptionally large blocks of stone. The country was peopled chiefly by Greeks who. in his UArt was from the Dairbaramous. is almost entirely limited to the fifth and sixth centuries. the methods they had been accustomed to employ in their own churches. For many of the doorways and windows have arched openings. Scale soft. states that it A. With one exception the Church of S. but instead of constructing these in several voussoirs. or basilican in plan. the pointed arch is also used throughout for the nave arches and vaults. who completely put an end to Christian building. Unfortunately. the latter being strengthened by transverse ribs built across from pier to pier. as far as it concerns us here. three or five stones laid on their horizontal beds. The latest date that has been found carved on any church is 609. which is smaller. The detail of approach is to . such as were afterwards common in Mohammedan work. in 639 the country fell into the hands of the Saracens. CHURCHES IN SYRIA The story of Syria. Coptic churches that the Saracens learned the use of the pointed arch and the stalactite vault. that as the Saracens compelled the Coptic workmen to build for them. to i in. evolved there a style of considerable ingenuity which might have had great effect on the architecture of western Europe. Egypt. The principal dome over the haikal is carried on stalactite pendentives. however. A similar be found in the treatment of pilasters. or rather. in which the capital and upper part of the shaft are worked in one stone and the lower part of the shaft and the base in another.38 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque In the Church of Dairbaramous. or out of instance. the builders preferred to cut the arch out of a single slab. though quite independent of other Christian countries. the Copts naturally followed. After Hamilton. 62). on which the masons worked architectural features without having any apparent A knowledge of their constructional origin or significance. Copte.

are used interesting of the churches are those in for the nave arcades. The external treatment shows considerably more ornamentation than was the rule in the West. Gilles in Provence a similar treatment is found. It is not suggested that the Romanesque builders copied Syrian churches indeed. and the fluting of the pilasters. having columns in front. Both Syrian and western examples were based on Roman work. churches in found. Where Syrian work differed chiefly from the Romanesque was in its it is interesting. In the Churches of S. centuries greater refinement of detail. is polygonal on both sides. the . and a lack of scale which is caused chiefly by the use of large stones. at Tourmenin. of which S. there is a marked similarity in the work of the different countries. which was doubtless suggested by the columned and arcaded classical remains. Simeon are decorated with two tiers of attached columns. Trophime at Aries and S. but one peculiarity of these churches is the number of additional entrances at the sides. The east end sometimes has three apses. Milan. and this is generally built within the thickness of the wall. as at Tourmenin. crowned by pediments. This method of decorating walls. but there is a certain heavy and cumbersome quality about the architecture. Interiors. The builders. quite independently. are identical with what is effect. also found favour with the later Romanesque builders in the West. set back in the wall behind-. and one. for Syria was in the hands of the Saracens but and not a little curious. The projecting apses of S. Exteriors. an arrangement which has an excellent This method was adopted later in some of the Romanesque Italy. but a single apse at the end of the nave is more common. in Provence. The most which piers. and not columns. is the most famous. Ambrogio. drew their inspiration from the same source and employed it in much the same manner. like a loggia. which start from the plinth and finish under an oversaving course at the top of the wall.. others are polygonal externally. and the mouldings of the pediments and archivolts. The principal doorway is always at the west end. they had no opportunity. The narthex is often flanked by low towers at the ends of the aisles. both eastern and western. Some apses are semi-circular inside and out. to note that although some and many hundreds of miles intervened.Early Christian Architecture carving 39 is very refined and reminiscent more of classical Greek than contemporary Byzantine art. There is always a narthex at the west end. and over this there is often an open The windows are gallery.

Simeon Stylites at Kalat Seman is the most remarkable and interesting. divided into three rectangular bays by the transverse arches. The windows are almost contin- uous in the aisles and there are four to each bay of the clerestory. must have been extremely dignified. closer in general character to the tradithan to the Early Christian basilican churches which have already described. that of the Monastery of S. It consists . to centre to centre. slightly less in span. which spring from stumpy piers. A further point of resemblance is the introduction of transverse arches. Two porches on each side provide additional entrances. yet the effect of the long nave. Simeon Stylites. are thrown across the nave. Roman therefore. and from them transverse arches. Of the churches in which columns rather than piers were used. S. which divide the nave along its length in the manner of the classical Basilica of Constantine. These piers are about 33 feet apart from After De VogUL Church at Roueiha. Roueiha. In the church at Roueiha the arcade consists of three arches on each side. about 10 feet we high. Except for these there is little to give the church scale. I in. T-shaped in plan. The arrangement tional is.40 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque bays being very few in number and of considerable span. Scale 50 ft.

The churches in the north. already mentioned. The most noticeable peculiarity of Early Christian churches generally. The arms are connected by aisles on the canted sides of the central octagon. whereas wood was exceedreason. about 12 feet apart.Early Christian Architecture 41 of four basilicas. were vaulted with stone. spanned the central portion of the building. in what In the is known as the Haouran. and this multiplication of bays is most useful in giving direction and scale. It is larger than any other church in Syria 9 and has no counterpart anywhere. The close spacing of the columns between the nave and aisles necessitates many bays. and from south to north 300 feet. Haouran stone was easily obtainable. even to the Summary. but it was not combuilt later. on which pleted until the sixth century. Apollinare in Classe. the vault was similar to that over the Baths of Diana at Nimes. a Few Gothic churches have. flanked by two smaller apses which were pillar In the centre of the octagon stands the base of the S. and opening out of each is a small apse3 lit by windows. for this doors. grouped together in the form of a cross. which is of the third or fourth century. generally supported by corbels from the clerestory wall. had timber roofs. around a central unroofed octagon. secular basilica of Chaqua. nave nearly 50 feet wide York Minster is the only one in England with this width and not even Milan Cathedral is as wide as S. The eastern arm terminates in a large apse. Transverse semi-circular arches. about 92 feet across. Paul Outside the Walls. and on the extrados of these rested long stones which reached from one arch to another and formed a continuous barrel vault. This is owing to differences in Internally. Stone Vaults. instead of a In the barrel vault a flat ceiling was carried in the same way. Simeon is said to have lived for over thirty S. Simeon died in 459> and the years without ever descending. . In the church at Tafkha. these apses may have been used as chapds. ingly scarce. the basilicas have much greater width and proportion. and also they have their like S. but the churches in the southern part of Syria. less height than the churches which came after .. when compared with the later Romanesque and Gothic. is their spaciousness. Altogether this is a most ingenious plan. No Gothic nave has anything approaching columns much closer together. church was probably begun soon afterwards. everything was of stone. The total length of the church from east to west is about 330 feet. constituting in effect four churches in one.

in the manner of the early Roman tombs. if any. and in Italy it is sometimes as much The as 60 feet. like the basilicas. Each bay of the arcade in S. They differ from Roman precedents in exactly the same way as the Early Christian basilica diifered from the rectangular pagan temple. Only a few. in point of fact. and columns to define the different spaces. intercolumniation is greater. that aspiring tendency which the mediaeval builders achieved. of Early Christian architecture almost cylindrical column It measures only 13 feet 4 inches. The buildings of the former class have thin walls. CIRCULAR BUILDINGS Early Christian circular and multangular buildings in Italy. In place of the peristyle there is the internal colonnade. simple if all the always achieves a satisfactory effect. offer the which the Christian basilica lacked. The one feature size. they fall into two classes those which are constructed with timber roofs. and those which are domed. Paul Outside the Walls. This centralised type of building was chiefly devised for baptism and for burial for those Christian ceremonies which marked the entry to and the departure from the Church on earth. little or no attempt being made at external decoration. as in the cathedrals at Bologna and Florence. in some . and which the later Roman- esque designers considered so important. and : those of the latter have thick walls to carry the dome. even at some sacrifice of spaciousness. are interesting as connecting links between Roman work and the fully developed domical style of the East. Apollinare Early feet. twice the such as are customary in Gothic work. it does not really same obstruction as half the number of piers. but. at Torcello it is and even in the great Church of S. was the sense of height. number of bays (twenty n In Gothic England about 20 In France and Germany the feet from centre to centre is usual. and it is doubtful the Gothic architects in their clustered piers ingenuity displayed by the simple column. Architecturally. is ever succeeded in producing a combination which equals in dignity It may be urged that a multiplicity of columns something of a drawback. were originally intended to be churches.42 the Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque to twenty-four) found in the large Christian basilicas. although not so valuable architecturally as those of similar form built under Byzantine suzerainty. in Classe is 12 feet from centre to centre . Rome. the columns are transferred from the outside to the inside.

Scale 50 ft. Rome. now in ruins. John of Jerusalem. built. this is probably the seret over.Early Christian Architecture cases 43 all. Cambridge. Salonika there are no columns inside at there are domes they seldom show on the outside. The outer colonnade is Corinthian and Ionic. since they are generally covered with a tiled timber roof. Northampton. contend central part was originally open to the sky. Examples in England are S. 1 This circular plan was perpetuated in the West by the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller of S. . Stephano Rotondo. and arched. except at the east. as in S. The accompanying plan illustrates the building in There are twentyits present and its probable original state. Sepulchre. All the columns have been taken from older buildings. one to mark the spot of the Ascension of Christ. to i in. It is divided by piers into eight bays with either five or six columns to each bay. between the reduced copy of it. When 5* Stephana Rotondo. Shaded portions represent later work. with roughly-carved Ionic capitals carrying stone lintels. two columns in the inner arcade. and the restored Temple Church in London. and all have a dosIf Cattaneo's date is correct. S. Much of the outer aisle was destroyed and a wall has been built between the columns of the outer range. was built years 468 and 482. Stephano Rotondo. George. 1 In the Church of S. The central portion is now divided in two by higher columns which were not part of the original design. according to Cattaneo. in Perugia about a century later. Sepulchre. S. in Rome. rities beams of a flat and some authothat this After Cattaneo. Two similar buildings were erected by Constantine at Jerusalem. A Stephano two concentric rings of columns define the central area and the surrounding aisles. On the wall over them rest the tie ceiling. the other to cover the Holy Sepulchre. By far the most remarkable of the cir- cular buildings with timber roofs is that now known as S.

a central dome and vaulted aisles. is outside the walls close to the Church of It S. and the thinness of the outer walls proves that one dome the whole to cover building was never contemplated. to 1 i in. is a building. the daughter of Constantine. is an into a central portion and surrounding massive porphyry columns. now a baptistery 3 of similar plan. the most After Hubsch* interesting of the circular build- domed ings Tomb of S.. attached to the great Church of S. Costanza 3 Rome.44 earliest Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque example of the use of the dosseret. twenty-four internal At Nocera. between Naples and Paestum. in Rome. John Lateran in Rome. It is manifest. and there are no signs now that the central part was ever sunk. but it is much later in date. Baptistery of Constantine. central part has an octagonal dome of timber construction. and the octagonal buildup divided aisle aisle is covered by a flat ceiling level with the springing of the but the building has been so altered at different times that dome. The Tomb of Cos- tanza. was probably built in later the fourth century arid converted into a It is baptistery. to say it is difficult what was the original design. with coupled columns. which are crowned by by eight The capitals of different Orders. that the upper columns to are too slight heavier carry any construction than that now em- ployed. The floor is level throughout. Tomb of Costanza. . The Baptistery of Constantine. however. 1 The Scale 50 ft. Agnese. with smaller columns over them. as it would have been had the building been a baptistery.

and other Whether the two parts of the were built simulbuilding Italy came a taneously is uncertain. is carried up above the springing of the dome to support the tie beams and This arrangement. the vault itself being quite thin. naturally enough. of the type of church. The barrel vault over the aisle theatres is similar to those covering the galleries in the great is and amphitheatres. and very different from the the custom. and a third is cut through to afford access to the chancel. form entrances to the church. or chancel. The is central dome does not it appear outside. from the top of which spring the arches. Above each pair of columns is an entablature. grouped In pairs. since a circular wall support a timber roof. are more carry the central dome and to resist the thrust of the barrel vault that covers the surrounding aisle. Salonika. is a Christian addiis The former 80 feet in diameter. and the outside wall. Costanza. except that they are Two rectangular in plan. S. carried up around is to S. which afterwards beconsisting of a circular nave favourite in Germany. The building is very Roman in all its characteristics. since it dates from the fourth century. which has much thinner walls. these niches all of George. S.Early Christian 45 to granite columns. of covering a vault or dome with a protecting timber roof. like those of the PanAfter Texter and Pullan. example an interesting and an oblong. Salonika. George.. Salonika. probably the circular portion is Roman and the bema. countries. Scale loo ft. George. to I in. tion. theon. apsidal-ended bema. afterwards . into the lower part of which are set eight big niches. whether Roman rafters. or Early Christian. must be regarded as an early example of common in mediaeval churches in the West. and enriched with fine mosaics con- temporary with the building itself. as at S. Over the semi-circular dome is a low-pitched roof. considerably thinned. and is surrounded by a wall 1 8 feet thick.

and by wide. weight exerts a vertical pressure. The church is lit by lunettes in the dome. just above the springing.. semi-circularheaded lights below. and counteracts to some extent the lateral thrust of the dome. its Early Christiany Byzantine and Romanesque concrete vaults of the Romans.46 thick. The wall being carried up. .

of political gravity. The Empire had reached. 330. Characteristics and Style r for colour and reached its zenith. result of many causes. and was inaugurated as the new seat of imperial government on the nth of May. had little material wealth to contribute to an overgrown court.CHAPTER IV BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE History . In these latter days. which contributed greatly towards its success . From the East it inherited a love and a delight in rich materials for interior decoration. from the West. indeed had passed. and had some forty years earlier been foreshadowed by the policy of the Emperor Diocletian in making his It was already recogcapital at Spalato on the Dalmatian coast. dependent on Greek craftsmen. They were on their native soil. who enlarged the old Greek settlement of Byzantium. and had become a serious drain on the public purse 47 . nised that the wealth of the Empire lay in the East. to some extent. and the repulse of the persistent Rome had long ceased to be the centre assaults of the Persians. and that the western provinces. that vast assemblage of buildings had largely housed an impoverished population of slaves A" Constantinople. The city of Constantinople was founded in 326 by Constantine the Great. who were released from the limitations which had hampered their work in the days of the old Roman Empire.. but later it was renamed to commemorate The creation of a new capital in the East was the its founder. was that the first of the great Christian styles and here it had its rise and beggars. it was at first called New Rome. the third century were the maintenance of the wealthy grainproducing eastern provinces. fine For its development it was largely scale and bold construction. the East joins with the West. and the old Greek artistic instinct awoke to new life in the greater freedom of a new city. a new religion and. No longer were there dreams of conquest and extension. besides being a source of considerable expense. a new construction. To signify its political importance. the limits of adminiThe urgent requirements at the close of strative convenience.

The first and greatest period is that of the sixth century. under the dominion of the House of Macedonia (867-1059). Romans and Orientals and disseminated throughout the Empire that fusion of styles which we call Byzan- them tine. controlling the caravan route from Persia and India. its under the Comneni (1081-1185).48 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque without having even commercial importance. flocked to the new Constantinople absorbed the distinctive qualities of Greeks. laid down by his predecessors. This revival was especially marked in Venetian skilled workers out The territories. cence of its architecture. but it was also the artistic focus of the known and world. set a standard and an which influenced all work for many centuries. so that little survived of the architecture or art. Constantine was astute in selecting that particular point where Europe and Asia nearly met. After the death of Justinian. which raged around the questions of image-worship. culminating in the building of Sancta Sophia. From east and west travellers city. all and traders. . artists architects. and the sea and land routes from China (via the Caspian and Black Seas) to the Mediterranean. the Empire was involved in struggles with the Persians and later with the Saracens. encouraged the destruction of much interior decoration and drove many of the most of the Empire. a new and powerful movement. when. It was not only situated on a promontory of enormous strategic value. new and coherent Byzantine style had evolved. but Mark's rivalled Sancta Sophia in the magnifiit was not until some years later. and in appreciating the desirability of associating the new Christian religion with ings relatively free from pagan connections. each of which possesses distinct characteristics. There followed a long-continued ideal dispute known as the Iconoclastic Controversy. surround- The Importance of Constantinople as a cultural and economic centre cannot be over-emphasised. an artistic revival dawned. where S. which seemed essential to the preservation of Roman supremacy in the East. Byzantine architecture is divided into three periods. under Justinian (527-565). In this New Rome it style should predominate. was natural at first that the Roman but before a couple of centuries had passed the Periods. that revival bore fruit. not only in the Empire around Constantinople but also in Italy and France. When Constantine established the new centre of government at Byzantium he was only following a policy. Constantinople. second period began in the ninth century when.

The Empire had time shrunk to less than half its size. The immediate result was a great revival of the arts in the West by this and a decline in the East. belonged to this latter part of the second period. although built two centuries after the collapse of Constantinople. The The Paleologus period (1261-1453) represented the last great flowering of Byzantine architecture. They are. who assumed control in 1261 after entering into a treaty with Genoa. Novgorod and Moscow the splendours of the Empire were reproduced. architecture is The essential characteristic of Byzantine the carrying of a dome over a square space. the painted churches of Sukavita and Voronet rank among the most remarkable examples of Byzantine achievement. This is generally achieved by the use of pendentives. of inspiration to European art and architecture. The shrunken Empire was confined to Constantinople. but the seeds already sown flourished with surprising magnificence even beyond tecture the limits of the original Empire in Russia at Kiev. the Byzantine style continued to make itself felt. and piece by piece the Empire was lost. was subjected to attacks Most of the from the Normans and the Venetians.Byzantine Architecture 49 existing churches in Constantinople. the portions of a hemisphere which its remain when ii its sides are cut vertically and top horizontally. third great period was associated with the family of Paleologus. in Armenia and in other parts of the Empire. Meanwhile. already involved in straggles to regain its possessions in Asia Minor from the Seljuk Turks. The Empire was now faced with the gradual advance of the Turks. The Pendentive. which are curved triangles composed of bricks or stone laid between supporting arches. and the quality of its archihad to depend on simplicity rather than on expensive materials and enrichment. until in 1453 Constantinople fell to Mohammed the ConSo terminated the history of Constantinople as a source queror. which now rivalled Venice as a trading power in the Mediterranean. and even in Constantinople the Mohammedan successors copied its essential structural principles in the building of mosques for the Faithful. and the Byzantine Empire. Salonika and Greece. in effect. In 1204 Constantinople fell to the Crusaders and the city was looted on a scale hitherto unparalleled. It was no longer wealthy. : in Rumania. power in the West was growing. 4 . and the Fourth Crusade provided the western powers with the opportunity to attack the capital itself. Throughout the Balkan world.

1 claimed that it originated some centuries beuncertain. commonly called the 'squinch'. second this the A qumc ' expedient. for to raise a dome. The adopted in effecting the passage to a circle. Choisy fore. 1883. in Asia Minor. fore Christ. tives. demanded a constructional skill far beyond anything that had been achieved before. Rivoira. . the stones being laid across the corners to make sixteen sides. was more common and more This consisted of an satisfactory. arch which. changed the space to be domed into an octagon . that the Romans. wherever the remains that the Byzantines should spring some 150 feet above all the other parts of the building. then a second course laid so that the plan be- came thirty-two-sided. pendentive may have originated. in his Lombardic Architecture (1910). it were the first to grapple with the problem of its use in a building as vast as Sancta Sophia . and. so that it The Squinck.50 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque the diameter of the hemisphere being equal to the diagonal of the square below. pendentive could logically be traced from Etruscan times later the Byzantines. in small buildings. This was generally employed over an octagonal plan. or pseudo-pendentive. T. Nevertheless. the dome 1 UArt de bdtir chez les Byzantins> Paris. While the Byzantines could not claim to have invented this method. since there were buildings of an earlier date in which it was adopted. and were simply con- tinuing a well-established practice. springing across the angles of the square. pendentive was not the only method In place of penden- the Byzantines sometimes substituted corbelling. on piers and arches. 107 feet in diameter. maintained with a wealth of documentary evidence that the use of the Pendentives. they must be given credit for being the The origin of the pendentive is still first to use it on a large scale. but recent excavations at Ur in it Mesopotamia suggest that may even have been adopted some four thousand years beG. From change to a circle presented no difficulty.

ELEVATION Simple dome. Simple and Compound Domes. both being parts of the same hemisphere and the height of the dome being only a little greater than. starting directly Melon-shaped this is the usual term given to domes having convo: lutions similar to those of a cantaloup. In the simple dome. all gave and were consequently used in all important buildings. In the compound dome. the dome and pendeBtive were in one. but in large pendentives were introduced above to transform the octagon into a circle upon which the dome could rest.Byzantine Architecture 51 might be placed directly upon this. The area on the underside could be treated in two ways : either by a series of smaller arches (see PL 7). the dome was greater height. three methods were followed. Compound dome 3 the dome being a hemisphere set above the pendentives. . that of the side semi-circular arches. Domes were of two Mnds : simple and compound. either a simple 1 1 hemisphere or melon-shaped. In the first period (sixth century). or by the creation of a hood-shaped angle niche. the pendentives and dome being part of the same hemisphere.

height by a vertical outer face. Section through the dome of the Church of S. enhancing the external appearance and providing a vertical surface for windows and decoration. but there was a . In the later periods (eleventh and fourteenth centuries). and the angles were often enriched by marble shafts. The melon-shaped dome was reinforced by the convolutions. the windows were always in the drum. Luke of Stiris. which acted as ribs and to some ELEVATION Compound dome with drum. the dome was raised upon a cylindrical wall or drum. showing thickening of lower part of the The carrying up of this face was a good expedient constructionally. In the second and third periods there was no radical change in the plan of the church. extent did away with the need for pendentives. which formed on the outside a pseudo drum..52 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque from the top of the circle formed by pendentives or from the octagon formed by squinches. for it provided weight above the dome to form pseudo-drum. leaving the surface of the dome unbroken . where there were no drums the windows were in the dome itself. immediately above the springing. In churches having domes over drums. haunches of the dome and helped to neutralise its thrusts. In some cases the lower part of the dome was thickened for half its Lighting of Domes. The drums were seldom circular in plan externally. but many-sided.

seldom employed concrete. One rod defined the inner radius of the dome. although in some cases cut stone was employed. as in Early Christian examples (see pp. and in the final period cement or tiles. were of no great thickness. Mark's. and Roman. The walls and piers were generally of brick . above these the bricks or stones would be laid in a series of arches or layers. the beds of the bricks did not radiate from the centre of the dome. the Byzantines adopted many expedients. so that the dome visible from the outside was the same dome as seen from the inside. The only exceptions were at Ravenna. generally built of brick. In their brick domes. timber-framed cupolas of a distinctly oriental pattern were added in the thirteenth century. For their small domes of stone. Byzantine domes and vaults. Copper or lead. although they adopted the plan of few and large piers. Byzantine construction was more skilful than Roman . marked decrease in size. and more science. A little coaxing* was required at the apex to close the aperture. The stones were laid with quick-setting cement. Venice. but approximately from * points on the springing line opposite. The domed buildings in Ravenna were constructed of hollow earthenware jars or urns. each inclining towards a back retaining wall. The Byzantine builders. lead-covered. had been obliged to dispense with it almost entirely. only the lower courses would be built with centering and laid to radiate in the usual manner. the only centering consisted of a revolving central post. as in the Assyrian and Egyptian vaults. Such domes had low-pitched timber roofs above them to protect them from the weather. there was less of brute strength about it. the other the outer. so formed that one jar filled into the mouth of another. with rods fixed at the top which could be moved at will to wherever support was required. having little or no timber. In their barrel vaults. most of which they learned from the workmen in Asia Minor who. To avoid the use of wood centering. were laid on the extrados. Wall Construction and Materials. where lofty. and the work on the construction of the dome probably proceeded in a leisurely manner. Altogether. 43-45)3 and at S. but otherwise there was no difficulty. one course being allowed to set before the next was added.Byzantine Architecture 53 much slits. and a tendency for the drams to become taller and the windows so elongated that they became Construction of Domes unlike the and Vaults. where domes were covered by a separate tiled roof.

the walls were sometimes faced entirely with stone. Externally. in the churches of Greece. it was carried over the architecture. they were about an inch-and-a-half thick. the lower portions of the walls were panelled with thin slabs of marble. brick was used in bands of about five courses. and to overawe the spectator with the splendour and richness of their design and execution. together with the vaults and domes. courses of brick and single courses of stone in turn. where a good building stone the churches were often built in two or three available. were generally covered by glass mosaic. that is to say. and stone or marble.54 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque throughout. the carcase of the building was built first and allowed to settle before the mosaics and marble This was a linings for the doors. and bricks on edge were placed in the vertical joints between the This treatment was exceedingly decorative. sound practice. The bricks were like those used by the Romans. had to conform to a standard pattern laid down by the . In the first and second periods. alternated. for no injury could result to the decorations through the dampness inherent in new work or through uneven settlement of the structure. The various surfaces were used to provide a series of pictures of Biblical incidents and characters to teach and assist the illiterate. brick 5 or marble. the upper parts. although stone and combinations of stone and brick were sometimes used. windows and walls were added. and many stones. In the third period. or bricks would be set diagonally to provide string courses. cut and polished so as to show their figure' to the best advantage. courses of brick and stone were used together in varying proportions. but more often. triangles or squares and arranged in bands. In the magnificent walls and towers which guarded the land side of Constantinople.. variations were adopted to relieve the flat surfaces of the walls .. Internal finishes were invariably of an Interior Decoration. Byzantine mural decoration was in close harmony with the Where mosaic was used. when finances were low. the walls and domes were more often plastered and decorated * with paintings in oil or tempera. The arrangement of the decoration. and all details of design. vaults and domes without interruption.. single courses of brick. This technique was simply a continuation of the old Roman tradition. with from five to ten courses of stone in between. large and flat. and the mortar joints were generally of the same thickness. was not In Constantinople. was occasionally cut into diamonds. applied character.

when mural painting took the place of mosaic work. or was enthroned. highly decoration of curved surfaces.Byzantine Architecture ecclesiastical authority.. where the light is way than can be achieved more likely to be evenly distributed. the artists showed much greater freedom in design. it was often little more than incised work. Mosaics are ideal for the stiff. incorporating horizontal slices from porphyry or marble columns encircled by lacing bands of inlaid cubes. Although they undercut sparingly. and that the deep undercutting suitable for soft stone was inappropriate. when artists appear to have . In contrast to the western practice of shading. and the modelling was very slight. cases marble. In all periods the floors of the churches were treated with mosaic work. and encouraged the elaboration of non-representational ornament. while the Virgin stood. but even this is simply an all-over decoration. which followed very closely Roman prototypes. they carved it on capitals and on the slabs of pulpits. each having his particular character inscribed in coloured letters on a golden background. 55 The majestic head of Christ Pantocrator gazed down from the dome. parapets and other fittings. and the craftsmanship was of great refinement and delicacy. Byzantine carving was not deep . And all around. because the glass takes and re- The figures were flects on flat the light in a far more effective wall areas.* the four Evangelists. Such statues and portrait busts as have survived are of a purely Roman character. every available space was filled with episodes in the life of Our Lord* and with a procession of saints and martyrs. and even in the final phase of Byzantine development. they used the drill freely at all periods to form little holes of deep shadow. white highlights were used to suggest modelling and form. The finest mural carving is in the spandrels over the two tiers of arches in Sancta Sophia. Constantinople. The Byzantines loved the interlacing endless knot . simple in outline and clad in conventional drapery. in the conch of the apse. tall and dignified. There was still no attempt at naturalism. But it must be remembered that the material used was in nearly all Carmng. manuscripts In hand. occupied the pendentives. The designs were generally geometrical in character and composed of many coloured marbles. The oriental outlook which stimulated the iconoclastic movement resulted in a ban on sculptural representation of the saintly or divine form. In the last period of the Empire. with the incidental introduction of Christian emblems.

Byzantine column capitals j on the Demetrius. It endless. mechanical appearance avoided. 17). Salonika. the figure being suggested by simple incised lines. in his Mediaeval Art. W. R. however. Lethaby. left. Byzantine capitals often had impost blocks. After Texier and Pullan. The origin of these is uncertain. Capitals. and on the a base of the iconocapitals and the stone panels which formed which extended across the eastern end of the that screen stasis showed church and cut off the High Altar from the nave (PL 3). wind-blown acanthus. above them.56 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque less restricted little been tion by ecclesiastical domination. it has been suggested that they were simply an expedient to give additional height to Roman columns which were being used second hand from classical buildings (see p. From S. Mark's capitals in reciprocal positions were substantially alike. figure representaattempt at natural expression. slight differences being due to the fact that the workmen were left The result free to interpret the given design in their own way. The variety in the capitals was that in the finest churches is true Sancta Sophia. San Vitale and S. that the delicate projecting carving of Corinthian types of capital was relieved of the weight above by the interposition of the plain dosseret block. The finest Byzantine carving is to be found in miniature works in ivory and steatite. was that a broad effect was produced and a hard. or dosserets. suggests. which was so .

but are oval in plan. monoliths of marble. much decorative features as a precaution against the columns* splitting or scaling. but 12 to 18 inches deep. they are not placed on their natural bed. Many Byzantine capitals were free renderings of the antique Corinthian . A few of the columns are similarly banded in the middle. The mullions in the second period retained the earlier proportions. but were enriched with attached shafts of circular or octagonal section. was often filled with thin marble slabs. Such are those in a little tomb at Messina. not capitals. The use of the dosseret was also particularly valuable when there was a At Sancta Sophia. and in a small ruined church at Olympia. Windows in the first period were semi-ciroilarheaded openings. either single and of no great size. being monoliths. Windows. but very rarely. many others followed the Sancta Sophia form. to about a third of its height. for a thick or rectangular impost. The columns were. showing brick and stone construction. like those in Roman work. of Columns. They might almost be termed corbels. The lower portion of each window. These strips might be no more than 3 inches wide. They were placed in the middle of the opening and had capitals with small projections at the sides. columns are met with which are not the usual cylindrical form. the most effective the latter being carved in imitation of basket-work. . as a rule. but Byzantine walling. and had an entasis. because of the weight over them and because. sculptured on the outside.Architecture 57 reduced below as to rest only on the centre of the capital. which allowed a certain of 1 Occasionally. 1 Many of the columns in Sancta Sophia have annulets (bands of bronze) immediThese are not so ately under their capitals and above their bases. the occurred only over some of the subordinate capitals. or of considerable width and divided into two or three lights by columns or thin strips of unmoulded marble. great projections at the front and back in order to reach to the inner and outer faces of the wall.

Byzantine and Romanesque light to shine through. Whether the glass was coloured or not seems uncertain. amount of part was filled or stone.narrowslits. in their work on Sancta Sophia. but in the eastern examples it was customary to provide additional lighting in the aisles. .58 Early Christian. Roman were chiefly lit by clerestory windows. 'it is hardly possible to conceive of the great windows being anything else Oi FEET After T. which were with slabs of marble. Lethaby and Swainson. involving. tall. Plans of Byzantine churches fall into five main categories. and in Syria the shortage of timber and the abundance of stone encouraged the development basilicas 1 its Simpson did not consider this at all obvious because the church with modern glass seemed to him over-lighted. left open. squares or richer patterns.semi-circular-headed and relieved on the outside by brick- The pierced openof the slab infilling were someings times fitted with glass. Jackson. the first two being merely wellof already developments established classical forms. and the walls of the aisles were blind . 3 however. that essential structural feature the dome over a square space. It must be borne in mind. from than white glass.' l Plan Types. I THE BASILICA Details of the basilican type of church have been described in previous chapters. sometimes work decoration. cement the third pierced with circles. G. say that although coloured glass may have been used in the smaller windows of the church. The differences between those built in Rome and those built tinder Byzantine suzerainty are slight. that it is exceedingly doubtful if an absolutely clear glass could have been manufactured at the time of the original building. Grado Cathedral. alabaster. and the last three purely Byzantine contributions. The upper windows were very simple. In period. Byzantine window. as has already been remarked. and the use of coloured glass would not have produced an effective lighting for the highly-coloured mosaic decorations.

which had five domes. The pool. Constantinople) exist in the Byzantine area. Venice. which were essentially bathrooms and naturally assumed the shape that was common in both public and private baths among the Romans. Mark's. Ill THE CRUCIFORM BUILDING The origin of this form probably lies in the interest in symbolism which had been stimulated by the discovery of the wood of the Cross by S. mother of Constantine.. Yet again. The basillcan type of building was not developed by the Byzantines after the first period. Sergius and A rotunda seems to have been considered more appropriate for baptisteries. both being built at an early stage of Byzantine architectural history. in contrast to the rather severe marble panelling of the Roman basilicas. Perigueux. in the second period. This plan was copied at S. . Helena. this plan was most inconvenient and unsuitable to the Church ritual. or bath. The circular form was not particularly important examples (San Vitale. Circular domed buildings have been found in the East and West. and as baptism was a private sacrament it did not require space for a congregation. Bacchus. crossing was marked by a dome. one over each arm and one over the crossing. and most examples were designed expressly as mausoleums or memorThe arms of the cross were generally very short. occupied the centre. religion nor the ambitions of the skilled architects of the II THE CIRCULAR OR POLYGONAL HALL Like the basilica. and the ials. George. 45). The most famous example of the first period was the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. and only two Ravenna^ and SS. and the Pantheon at Rome is the largest and noblest example of this type. the difference lies in the lavish richness of decoration which was applied in the East. in Salonika (see p. Similar to this is the Church of S.Byzantine Architecture 59 of barrel vaults over the nave in place of the Roman limber trasses* mosaic Internally. which was probably a pagan edifice subsequently transformed into a church. suitable for church ritual. chiefly because it did not satisfy the demands of the Orthodox age. the centralised domed hall is directly descended from pagan architecture. Front. and at S.

and the examples are numerous but much smaller than those churches associated with the first period. The cross was since visible only from above. The central dome. two supporting but smaller apses which were com- monly cut in the thickness of the wall chambers. fearless logic and science. Nothing like it was ever attempted again in Byzantine times . as a rule. The solution was found in Sancta Sophia. where the central dome received its longitudinal extension by the support of two semi-domes of equal span.' V THE CROSS-IN-SQUARE This plan belongs exclusively to the second and third periods. Although one dome was raised higher than the rest.6o Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque IV THE DOMED BASILICA the production of The supreme achievement of the Byzantines was an harmonious design which combined the horizontal axis required by ritual with the vertical axis which is determined by the dome. this combination was attempted by the setting of domes on the crossing arches of the basilica. with like results. continues in south-western Europe as the orthodox form of a Christian church. it remains to this c day. was supported either on piers or on columns. Constantinople. Irene. and the angle spaces were roofed either by vaults or by smaller domes. as Choisy says. but it formed a compact and unified whole which. . In the Church of S. the nave and transepts were carried higher than the corners of the square. which was completed some years before Sancta Sophia. daring. At the eastern end there was a projecting apse and. since the central space was insufficiently emphasised and the longitudinal direction was too strongly marked. at Angouleme and Cahors. which was raised on a drum. the result was unsatisfactory. a marvel of stability. Similar plans were developed in France in the second period. with regional variations. The whole structure might be little more in the angle than 30 feet square.

and The interiors generally comall square or octagonal externally. The earlier (450). By their aid variety was given to the plan. The have already been mentioned on pp. After d'Agincourt. Ravenna which fall within this period. They were always two storeys in height and finished with semi-domes. 28-30. or contemporary with. are some of the most interesting and inspiring in existence. and do not exist in the churches of the second and third periods . Rome and to have disap- The Mausoleums at Ravenna. prised a large central space divided from an enveloping aisle by piers. which contains the tomb of Galla Placidia. These two buildings are the exceptions mentioned above. and they are inspiring by the rare beauty and originality of their plans and the great charm of their propor- and details. were semi-circular niches formed by columns. as is suggested restorations. apart from the mausoleums of Galk Placidia and 450 Theodoric at Ravenna. they were all churches or baptisteries. They are interesting because they are anterior to. although often catalogued basilican churches at among Byzantine buildings. and which up to a climax in Sancta Sophia. c Mausoleum Galla of Placidia. to I in.CHAPTER V BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE OF FIRST PERIOD led THE tions buildings which belong to the first period. plan and transverse section. between which. unless. 61 . is a brick cruciform building. the great church at Constantinople. having a simple' 1 dome which rests on square 3 Scale 50 ft. The principal examples were all built between and 550 1 and. they occurred in the Gallienus. for few arrangements are more effective. they seem to have come into being with Justinian's reign in modern Baths of peared at his death. in most cases. These niches are characteristic of early Byzantine work. Their eclipse is to be deplored. additional space to the central area and scale to the building. Ravenna.

The cathedral is circular inside and has four niches to fill the corners of the square. The wall of the lower storey is arcaded and much thicker than that above. exerting no outward thrust and resting Mausoleum of Theodoric. This treatment is quite different from that of the later periods. the removal of which originally surrounded by an arcade has probably enhanced the appearance of the building. to i two storeys high and decagonal in plan. 3 feet thick. The use of piers is a new development. in addition there is an inner octagon defined by piers. level.62 Early Christian. The cathedral at Bozra (512) and the Church of S. and upper-floor plan. At Ezra the internal shape is octagonal and niches are similarly placed. Byzantine and Romanesque walls above the barrel-vaulted arms of the cross. as a lid on a is elevation (right) section.. The building Scale 50/1. where gold is invariably used for the back- ground and the Christ is bearded and awe-inspir- The Mausoleum of Theodoric (c. must be regarded as the connecting links between the Early Christian domical buildings and those of purely Byzantine type. rather than the Ravenna mausoleums.. and was and the monolithic drum is entirely original (PL 4). Such a dome is simply a After d'Agincourt. 520) is remarkable for its dome. George at Ezra (c. in which the groundwork is blue and green and Christ is depicted as a young and beardless shepherd. 515) are both square externally. but the detailed carving of the cornice and doorway is pure Byzantine. The Syrian churches. (left) on the drum dustbin. and ground-floor plan. dead weight. The Syrian Examples. Altogether. The interior is covered with particularly beautiful mosaics. 107 feet in circumference. columns either single or coupled had . marble. the monumental character of this mausoleum is a striking testimony to the power of Roman traditional design. and 470 tons in weight. in buildings of similar plan. for hitherto. Ravenna. which is carved from a block of Istrian solid ing. is 30 feet in diameter. which is set back to form an open terrace all around at first floor This upper part is circular inside. in.

Scale soft. is most unusual probably the earliest example of its kind.Byzantine Architecture of the First Period 63 been employed. 30) and at Scale Soft. to I in. This inner octagon is reduced above by corbels is to a figure of sixteen sides* carrying the dome. and the oldest domed church in Constantinople. Similar examples still exist at S. Another example of a square church is at Kalat Seman (c. the square becomes an octagon by the insertion of the same at Ezra. which in not hemispherical but pointed. . pierced is with windows. 550)3 in northern Syria. After Texier and Pullan. Torcdlo (see p. disappeared. niches at the corners in exactly way as in the church The church joined by a a at Kalat Seman church. Sergius and Bacchus. is basilican dual arrangement which was not uncommon. Treves. The and octagonal dram. Inside. Cathedral at Bozra. After De VogM. SS. originally had a basilican church joined to it which has now entirely George at Ezra. in which the square is surrounded by aisles. to I in.

The dome is pierced by eight .64 Early Christian. helping to carry the gallery which runs around the church over the aisles The four . not seen again until resuscitated by the Italian architects of the After and was Van MilUngen. by no frieze and on the a raised inscription in Greek This is virtually the letters. where old traditions lingered long. Instead. SS. only example of Byzantine work in which the classic entablature is retained. it disappeared entirely. Sergius and Bacchus the niches are defined by columns. shown by the fact that The mouldings of means is this enta- blature are debased but coarse. for it provides a form of ribbed reinforcement to the dome. and columns also stand between the piers on the sides. This is primarily a constructive device. although an apology for a cornice exists at Sancta Sophia in two or three places. which form a continuous entablature around the central area. Constantinople. ConstanScale 5 oft. early date of the church s although the columns of the gallery level have arches over them. Rena ssance i fo the fifteenth The dome of ^ church It is is particularly interesting. the dome is divided into sixteen compartments. Byzantine and Romanesque in plan SS. The resemblance between the churches in Syria and the great Church of SS. and in its application over the octagon no pendentives are employed. Sergius and Bacchus. Sergius and Bacchus. Except in certain parts of Italy and the south of France. At SS. those of the ground floor support lintels. to i in. Sergius and Bacchus (527-535) is obvious. of r the melon-shaped type. each alternate section coming above the angles of the octagon and the inside surfaces being concave in plan.

2 In contrast. Above this panelling are mosaics which. The design of San Vitale is remarkably similar to that of the Church of SS. the outside. Its height from the floor to the apex is about 70 feet. further to emphasise its importance. In no other church is the beauty of the 'figure* displayed so skilfully. dispense with buttresses. and there has been much controversy respecting which was the earlier foundation. San Vitale* Ravenna. 5 . Sergius and Bacchus. rather than the horizontal which was noted at SS. The construction of a very light dome by means of hollow pots architrave or terra cotta amorphae After enabled the builders to Cmmmngs. just above the springing. for he considered that apart from those in the chancel they had been 'barbarously modernised*. Ravenna. I in. this is one of the most effective interiors in existence. which is built of large 1 Van Millingen (Byzantine Churches in Constantinople) and Rivoira (op. The walls of the church are lined with marble.) both suggest that the design of the church at Constantinople was copied from Ravenna. very San Vitale. but the exterior forms completion.Architecture of the First 65 windows. though it is now certain that San Vitale was later in its 1 San Vitale is slightly larger. an octagon and not a square. this view is not held by most ii authorities. which amply light the octagon. Every side of the inner -octagon has its apse. Fergusson (History of Architecture} and Hamilton (Byzantine Architecture and Decoration) consider the reverse to be the case. Sergius and Bacchus. But. Scale looft. the gallery stops against it on either side. and few churches of even larger size are more imposing. Altogether. which forms the entrance to the bema and is wider than the others. to effectively arranged in panels of deep red framed by cippolino and other light-coloured marbles. The columns in the lower storey support arches. by their wealth of design and rich and oriental colouring^ make San Vitale the supreme example of Byzantine interior decoration. with the exception of that at the east end. although there is evidence of much restoration. cit. 2 Simpson was not impressed by the mosaics.

Lethaby points out the remarkable resemblance of the plan a construction that one conception. is very plain. rebuilt. The dome is completely hidden by wails and by the low-pitched roof above.. The dome as it now is octagonal. that nearly every feature can be traced back. The date of this church is not known. and is about 70 feet wide. century it was burnt down. Scale zoo/r. W. . R. but on a scale so startling and with so daring might be tempted to regard it as an original But there can be no doubt. to I in. Whether the original roof was similar in design it is impossible to say 3 but in any case some covering must have been used to protect the dome of pottery below. concentric with the internal colonnaded apses around the central area.66 fiat Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque bricks with thick mortar joints. it must have been second in size only to that of Sancta Sophia. Lorenzo y Milan. In the Church of Sancta Sophia we find a synthesis of the various types of architecture already described. restored. Milan. The dome fell in 15713 and the church suffered rather badly when it was The plan is a square with a projecting apse on each side. Lorenzo. The plan of the Church of S. Up to the we have eighth century it was the cathedral of the city . in the eleventh After Hubsch. S. from the many buildings which preceded it. originally. although Milan is situated the recognised sphere of influence of Constantinople in beyond the first period. 5. Constantinople (PL 5). Lorenzo in Milan bears such a remarkable resemblance to the other examples cited that it is included here. built in a rather shallow curve. though it certainly must be as early as the time of Justinian. and in the twelfth. stands Sancta Sophia.

over 20 feet wider than any of the great Roman halls. and removing the two halves from one another. and the whole dome was rebuilt with a slightly higher sectlon 3 In the form in which it now stands. Lethaby and Swainson suggest that this biapsidal arrangement was due to the change in the orientation of churches which took place in the period between the building of 1 Mediaeval An 2 1904. 537. and it was completed on the 26th of December. Nothing had been built before equal In extent nave of Sancta Sophia . At the west end is a narthex. Plan.Byzantine Architecture of ike First of Sancta Sophia to that of SS. At the east end there Is a slightly projecting apse. 532. out of which open smaller niches. supported right and left by ranges of arcades as in a basilica/ By supporting the central 1 dome with two semi-domes. 205 feet long and 26 feet wide. none can boast of an unbroken floor space of over 200 feet in length and more than 100 Each end of the nave terminates with a large semifeet in width. and wider by far than the nave of any Gothic cathedral. are so separated from the nave by screens of columns and great piers It forms a magnificent that the nave may be said to stand by itself. No church in the world can compare with Sancta Sophia in its internal architectural effect. and although the cathedrals of Rome and Florence have central areas which are wider than the nave of Sancta Sophia. but to the originality of its plan. as a result of an earthquake. the extent of its nave. also c dedicated to the Divine Wisdom'. which is linked with galleries over the side aisles. which had been totally deto the stroyed by fire at the beginning of Justinian's reign. Sergius and Bacchus. In plan. be conceived as formed by dividing SS. the desired horizontal extension to the plan was achieved. which forms a very fine entrance porch. This is not due to the area it covers. Twenty years afterwards. then 3 above the void s raising a still higher dome. circular apse of the full width. hall. a portion of the dome collapsed. and Isidonis of Miletus. nor in the remaining nine hundred of the Empire was anything like it attempted again. with the galleries over them. The construction of the new church was begun In February. The side aisles. . Sergius and *It 67 in two. semi-circular internally and polygonal on the outside. and the perfect proportions which exist throughout between its different parts. Above this is the gallery for women. The architects were Anthemius of Thralles. years Sancta Sophia was built upon the site of a basilican church. one on each side. the church is nearly square.

Plan and cross section. with section Sancta Sophia. Constantinople. Scale 100 ft. to i in. through Salisbury Cathedral to the same scale. 68 .After Salzenberg.

and in the columns which divide the centre from the sides. but at Sancta Sophia a dome and two halfdomes take the place of the three intersecting vaults of the Roman It is. terminated in that manner. and so did the porches of the Baptistery of Constantine and the Tomb of Costanza. . At first sight there is not much likeness between a building such as the Basilica of Constantine and this church. in the disposition of piers and external buttresses. true that there is poetry in the plan of basilica. apses containing altars are found at both ends . and of the same height. but on analysis they In each the central space will be found to have much in common. Peter. there is considerable resemblance between the two buildings. Rome. had a chancel apse approaching in width the 100 feet which is the span of the semi-circular ending at Sancta Sophia. These are penetrated by the smaller semi-domes over the side apses. and because the position of the narthex. in fact. upon which the eye involuntarily rests immediately on Supports of Central Dome. Rome. The semi-dome over the central eastern apse is a trifle 1 In an early basilican church at Orleansville. at the west end. 1 Where the church is greatly superior is in the heightening of the central portion by a dome on pendentives so that it becomes a crowning feature of the interior. The conception of this great central hall may. The dome is supported on its east and west sides by transverse arches. to which all the other parts lead and entering. because dual altars are contrary to the custom of the Greek Church. by the central apse at the east end and by the arch over the opening to the gallery at the west end. is divided into three. but these churches have little in common with Sancta Sophia. But even supposing that some use was made of old foundation the present western apse is not likely to occupy the position of the one which served as chancel to the original church. the Eastern church to which the Hall of Justice cannot lay daim. be claimed to be essentially Roman. in Africa. Buildings with apses at both ends were by no means uncommon in Roman work. An oblong chamber in the Baths of Diocletian. are the semi-domes. The peculiarity in the plan is more probably due to natural development. beyond which. at Rome.Byzantine Architecture of the First Period 69 the original Sancta Sophia and that of the existing church> and which would necessitate a reversal of the position of the altar. but in the main proportions. which can never have had two altars. because not even the old basilica of S. and in other churches of later date elsewhere. effectively disposes of the idea that an altar can ever have been placed there. of course. notably in Germany.

Section through i in. as in the Basilica of Constantine. and in the domes of the Pantheon at Rome and the Cathedral at Florence there are no pendentives at all. Columns. 75 feet in depth and 25 feet wide. for not only were these partially supported by the walls underneath them. and S. form the most outstanding features of the outside. Similar buttresses were not necessary to support the longitudinal arches After Salzenberg. tives. are octagonal. Sancta Sophia. . Rome.70 Early Christian y Byzantine and Romanesque 1 On the north and south higher than those over the side apses. Scale loo/r. 2 The domes over S. and in the latter the walls below the iome. dome and semi-domes. and stood up above the aisle roofs These . the same height as the transverse. for in the former building the plan is circular. London. Constantinople. to running east and west. but their thrusts were counteracted by the semi-domes at the ends and by the big piers which formed part of the buttresses to the other arches. but this would have cut into the semi-dome most awkwardly and would have destroyed the rhythm of the three openings. and the pendentives have consequently much less projection and are altogether slighter. sides of the central square are longitudinal arches. and between these four arches are the penden2 probably the largest triangular pendentives in the world. Considerable abutment was necessary to take the thrust of the great transverse arches running north and south. Peter's. 1 The most original and striking characteristics of the Simpson considered that the central eastern apse might with advantage have been higher still. start from octagons. This was provided by immense masses of masonry. which were carried across the aisles on arches. and the dome itself. Paul's. in order to emphasise the Sanctuary.

Cologne and Bologna Cathedrals and S. Peter's. : nearly 180 feet from the floor. the height to the cornice. the apex of which is lighted. The church is lit by large windows in the aisles and and in the side walls under the longitudinal arches. Beauvais. This was a most successful device. The exterior at first sight causes disappointment. The brick walls are plastered over and distempered in bands of red and white. A few of these mosaics remain untouched. but most of the wall area has been plastered over and is only now being uncovered. dimension does not convey a true idea of the height of the interior of Sancta Sophia. Below. and is far higher than any of the English cathedrals. which have an average height of only 75 feet. galleries forms a very remarkable feature. but it is as high as Chartres. whereas at the gallery level there are six. for each apse has only two columns below 3 to support six above. but their chief value is that they give scale to the church. true that this is not so high as the vaults of Amiens. lofty altogether bigger than those above. and does not appear to have been attempted before. and to the crown of these arches. The following are the principal dimensions the nave is 107 feet wide and 225 feet long.. and here the superimposition is even more remarkable-.. and by smaller windows in the large and small semi-domes. a ring of forty windows lights the great central dome and Lighting. which are slightly stilted. and especially of the carved marble spandrels and the mosaics in the upper part of the church. Paris." nearly 130 2 But this last feet. and the dome. Exterior (PL 5). because nearly half of its central area is covered by the great dome. there are only four columns on each side. There are storeys. Dimensions. 107 feet in diameter.Byzantine Architecture of ike First Period interior are the screens of 71 marble columns and arches which sup! arches.. Rheims and Notre-Dame. Rome. the upper ones and the columns of the lower storey are more do not consequently. this is also the height of the big semi-domes. port the side walls and galleries under the The columns are of great beauty in themselves. although a like multiplication of columns is to be found in the treatment of aisle and triforium arcades in Romanesque churches. Columns and arches of similar proportions form the small apses at the two ends. which marks the springing of the great arches. 2 It is . stand immediately above the lower. including the sloping walls between 1 Some of the finest views of the church are obtainable from these galleries. is 73 feet.. In addition. The church is now overbut this would not have been the case when the windows were filled with pierced slabs or with less transparent glass.

. and helps church. especially in the East. and very little shows of the domes themselves . . resting on its plain square base. Shadow is the cheapest and most effective ornament a building can have. 1 The four to produce the pyramidal effect so noticeable in this minarets... are unfortunately among the ugliest in Constantinople. where it is far more telling than in our duller climate . Is covered with dull lead. but they emphasise the great mass of the church and are therefore of some value. which are modelled on Sancta Sophia. each 15 feet 8 inches deep on the soffit... but that little serves to carry the eye upwards to the central dome. The lower portions of the semi-domes of the east and west are hidden by sloping walls. and there is plenty of light and shade on the exterior of Sancta Sophia. 1 and sixteenth The later piled-up pyramidal outline is even more marked in some of the Turkish mosques in Constantinople. None of the associates with the East is seen.J2 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque Its the windows at rich colouring which one generally base. added by the Turks in the fifteenth centuries. more than compensate for the absence of ornament and colour.. but the grand simplicity of the dome. the great scale of the projecting buttresses on the north and south sides and of the great semi-circular arches in between them.


Byzantine mosaic decoration S. Constantinople Plate 6 . Saviour.Holy Apostles. Salonika. detail of brickwork S. Mark's. Venice.

exterior . Front. detail of south-west corner Gapella Palatina. showing squinch arches Plate 7 S.S. Mark's. Perigueux. Palermo. Venice. interior S. Perigueux. Front.

Gastelvetrano. Dimitrij Vladimir S. near Athens Trinita di Delia. Sicily Plate 8 S. Basil. Moscow . Ecclesia.Omorphi Typical minor Greek church.

which had been converted by Vladimir. Salonika. and only a few are as large as the other examples described in the last chapter. in Armenia. under its old name. as well as the remarkable domed churches which were built in Aquitaine in imitation of Byzantine work. Irene. and in Russia. in Athens and Its neighbourhood . Under this heading are also included a few churches built beyond the dominion of the Byzantine Empire in northern Italy and in Sicily. are always admirable in proportion. A the dome. in Constantinople. drum under 1 This is partly accounted for by the fact that in the Eastern Church the greater part of the congregation stands^ and does not kneel or sit as in the West. and has much in common with that of the second. at the end of the tenth century. Constantinople.. none can compare in size and importance with Sancta Sophia. Thessalonika. But the old artistic Greek spirit still survived throughout the Empire. and although the churches are small they are often interesting in plan. Only two buildings of importance appear to have been built in the centuries between the first and second periods Sancta Sophia. which remained Christian notwithstanding Persian persecutions and Mohammedan invasions .. Because their architecture differs in many respects from that of the first period. The churches of this period are. 73 . they have been included in this THE chapter. Prince of Kiev. This is due to the diminished strength and imof the Empire. Constantinople. which provides side lighting and leaves an uninterrupted surface for the decoration of the dome. and are decorated with a rare richness of marble and characteristic feature is the incorporation of a small mosaic. was the second city of the Eastern Empire . and S. in Salonika* which. as a rule. small inducement to build extensively.CHAPTER VI BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE OF THE SECOND PERIOD second period includes the churches built in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. and to the constantly recurring external portance wars and internal dissensions which afforded the people little 1 .

and in such cases the largest covers the crossing and the others are subordinated to it. certainly of that period. is ascribed by Its details are but in its plan and general ordinance it resembles the churches of later date. forming an unusual which was later adopted at S.74 Plans. The churches differ in many important essentials from those already described. The narthex runs around three sides of the church. Between the dome and the pendentives is a low drum pierced by windows. and local characteristics distinguish. which form so fascinating a feature in nearly all early examples. This diminution in height and width at the east end is a characteristic of most Byzantine churches.. Sancta Sophia^ Salonika. Texier and Pullan and others to the sixth century. Venice. Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque No hard-and-fast rales can be laid down for the plan- ning of churches in this period. surrounding the central area. The internal a cross with an oblong. the churches of one country from those of another. In none of the churches of this period are found the colonnaded niches. Some have additional domes. Mark's. so that the vaults over these portions feature is diminish in height at each break. arrangement which was possibly used here for the first time. an After : r and Puiian. the central portion being covered by a dome and the remainder by barrel vaults. it was not a com- mendable feature. This dome is not a perfect circle. . In one respect they all agree all have that distinctive feature of Byzantine work. The bema not quite so wide as the nave. Scale looft. Sancta Sophia. to i in. and the central apse is slightly narrower than the bema. CHURCHES IN THE EAST Sancta Sophia^ Salonika. to some extent. it may have been form is rebuilt. while this made possible a slight reduction in the overhang of the pendentives. but is slightly flattened on four sides. Salonika. : the central dome. since there is great variety.

Above the galleries. basilicas. S. Nearly all were transformed into mosques. During the second period many important churches were built in Constantinople. Irene occupies the site of a church built by Constantine and is rebuilt by Justinian. to i in. and have windows similar to those in Roman buildings and in the Church of Sancta Sophia. it has always been known as the old church*. of two from part farther entrance being square in plan and covered by a dome which rises above the the the roof on a drum pierced by twenty windows. To some extent its plan Is basilican.Architecture of the 75 and a very effective one. Early Christian consists The nave divisions. piers are columns which support the over the aisles. and that this accounts for the great barrel vaults across the nave. nearer part is The plan and rectangular in covered with a vault. with the consequent defacement or 1 Simpson considered it possible that the original building may have been built in the first instance as a basilica rather than as a church. because it Introduces an element of perspective by giving the appearance of greater length. Irene. Piers on each side After Van MHHngen. and has been for centuries. indeed. But there is no literary authority for this . Irene y Constantinople. S. or Ecclesia Antiqua Notitia> regio secunda . but the existing the result of a second rebuilding in the latter half of the eighth century. Constantinople. but the church bears more resemblance to the Basilica of Constantine church Rome common in than to the more wooden-roofed. the walls are carried galleries up between the wide barrel vaults which cross the nave. Codin De aed. which are curiously Roman in character and scale. S. 73). 1 The church is now. (p. for It Is divided Into nave and aisles. Other Churches in Constantinople. used as an armoury. ' 3 . and necessary utilitarian alterations have largely destroyed its ecclesiastical character. mark the divisions of the Between these Scale ico/r. nave. simple elliptical in which the domical surface and the pendentives are continuous. Constantinople. of which eleven still survive and three are mentioned here.

of S. S. S. in his hand a scroll with an appropriate quotation from the Scriptures. The on richly roofs of the After Van Millingen. Most of the churches were built of thin bricks and had brick domes and barrel Three apses were generally provided. Scale 50 ft. remarkable for lofty. Theodore. cross All are raised decorated drums. After many churches The church its Van Millingen. and three supporting but smaller domes over the terminal bays above the exonarthex.j6 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque covering-up of much of their Christian decorations. fortunately. A similar treatment was usual in the drums of the domes. melon- shaped dome of twelve concave compartments. but the plan and rebuilt The Church general design suggest that it was in the eleventh century. The central area sides bounded on three at the by a rectangular barrel-vaulted which is ambulatory with cross vaults corners. S. another example of the cross-in- . to l ft. a feature teristic characin is of Constantinople. Constantinople. arms are barrel-vaulted and Saviour Pantepoptes is are finished externally as gables. each holding Constantinople. It is an excellent and early example of the true cross-in-square plan. This. to I in. Scale soft. There is a dome over the central area. still retains its mosaics depicting Christ (in the centre) surrounded by the Apostles. and shows the great interest in external decoration which developed in the second period. Theotokos Pammakaristos. and these were round on the inside and polygonal externally. and the external angles were often decorated with columns linked by arched cornices. later cross-in-square is type. The Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos (The All-Blessed Mother of Christ) was built in the eleventh century. and is interesting in that it provides a link between the domed basilican plan and the vaults. Theodore is of old foundation.

and it has of the irregularities of setting-out which are to be found in most Byzantine churches. Saviour Pantepoptes. Apart from on the Greek mainland. but its span is the width of the bema alone. but more becomes part of the church. Con- Scale 50 ft. Two types of design are common . there was of the no great city Byzantine Empire. are barrel- The arms of the cross vaulted. to i in. stantinople. . expressed polygonally on the outside. . provincial outposts Salonika. Greece After played only a small part In the development of Byzantine architecture during the Van Millingea. there are a few churches in the neighbourhood of Athens. Nearly all the churches are square in plan. they are sufficiently interesting to be worthy of study. As representative of the second period. the dome is set on a low dram and its considerable. and Is lighted semi-circular-headed by twelve windows. and its classical cities had become merely first S. or apses. since it covers a central space which is the full width of the bema and two side chapels In the latter. sometimes open. The dome Is divided by square square type. country was poor. with no projections other than an apse. but all are relatively small and only a few have the rich mosaic and marble decoration which was usual in Constantinople. at the twelfth century. It was this latter type which was to be fully developed 1 Byzantine Churches in Constantinople^ London.of the 77 was founded.and the angle chambers are covered with cross-groined vaults. the . or restored. is generally is incorporated at the west end. at the east end. the one was usually employed for larger churches. It ribs Into bays. The two periods. In the former. There are three apses. often enclosed so that it A narthex. and provide a most important architectural link between the second and third periods. 1912. It is considered by Van MUlingen 1 in to be the most care- fully built of all the later churches none Constantinople. Churches in Greece. diameter dome is raised on a lofty drum. the other for smaller. However.

their height from the floor to cross arms are narrow and lofty. frequently greater than best-known examples of the Larger Churches in Greece. to the their arms. The are the Church of Daphni. springing the central dome is width. four equal arms branch detail in the next chapter. from the centre. Scale soft. The result is a church which is really square in plan. the springing of the barrel vault being equal to the diameter of the . which are doubtless responsible for the excellence of its proportions. StiriSj PhociS:.y8 in Early Christian. of their they are striking because is often as much as three times of the vaults. Byzantine and Romanesque Greece during the third period. north of the Gulf of Corinth. Two churches of the Monastery of S. to form an octagon. and the total length of the church. and that of the apex of the total width of the church. Luke in Phocis. forming a Greek Cross. After Schultz and Barnsky. and the larger of the two churches in the own Nicodemus. and then by small pendentives to form the circle. The is 52 feet also. and in each case the transition from the square to the round drum of the dome is effected by squinch arches across the angles of the square. and which is described in more In both types. including the apse but excluding the narthex. near Athens. larger type of building in Athens. to I in. its height just double 52 feet. but presents a cruciform appearance the churches are small. Monastery of S. Luke of There is little difference in size between the three. The church at Daphni show that it was set principal dimensions of the out in simple ratios. The diameter of the dome is 26 feet. Although The height of the loftiness. Greece. externally as well as internally. S.

The Church of S. instead of The central area is covered by a low dome. are to be found in the well-preserved Church of S. The great head of Christ from the dome in magnificent and terrifying majesty. with crosses added afterwards. and which has a central dome of little more than 10 feet in diameter. but a supreme Overlord. on the outside. and as nearly all this facing has been borrowed from older classical buildings. dome is characteristic of many smaller churches in Greece of the second and third periods. The frieze above the principal entrance consists of an ancient Greek calendar of festivals. It has in Smaller Churches in Greece. Nicodemus. it is of considerable The Small is Cathedral in Athens and archaeological interest. carried on four columns. The Monastery of St. Inside. It is richly decorated outside with saw-tooth brick bands and patterns. The mosaics are among the most lovely in the world. burdened with all the sins of mankind. Luke of Stiris. 1901. and although they have suffered by restoration they are still the finest examples of their age. which appears externally as a figure of sixteen sides with a tiled roof. 1 Adjoining the large Church of S. Luke of Stiris 3 Phods> London. see Schultz and Barnsley's finely illustrated monograph. dedicated to the Panagia. the church still retains its original inlaid marble floor and a great deal of glass mosaic and marble wall decoration. in Phocis. 1 For particulars of this church and its adjoining smaller church. but one apse projects.. and on one face of the single projecting apse is an archaic The treatment of the outside of the relief immured upside down. The tiled covering adheres closely to the curve of the dome and continues to the corners of the octagon. . some curious cut brickwork in the form of CupMc lettering.Byzantine Architecture cf ike 79 dome. beyond this is an exo-narthex which also acts as a side porch for the larger church. variegated tile is only 40 by 35 feet externally. a smaller church. is Luke addition a large narthex divided by columns. difference being that. in Athens^ originally built in the eleventh century. This is not the familiar Lord of loving kindness. the only 3 three. faced entirely of marble. At the corners are embedded Corinthian capitals. was so drastically restored in the nineteenth little of the original remains other than the plan and. in the latter. probably the smallest building in Europe honoured with the It is also the only church in Greece which is title of Cathedral. which is of a simple cross-in-square plan. Similar decoration and a similar plan.

those in Greece. characteristics of their own. but high. The cross oblong. when the Turko-Tartarian hordes swept over the land. The exterior is commonly relieved by blind arcading along the and occasionally by the application of low relief decoration and intricate patterning in stone around the door and window inopenings. according to an inscription on its walls. . and the most important of these is the cathedral. The most important examples of Armenbe found at Ani. and it is reasonable to suppose that many of the churches were begun during that time. The domes at the crossings are raised on lofty drums like those in the smaller Athenian churches. if any. The windows of no horizontal eaves-projection. but also possess certain distinctive When they were built is uncertain. the heads of which are arched so walls. further development became impossible. conical stone roofs. and that by the close of the thirteenth century. Ani. A tall and graceful blind ian architecture are to above is flat. The Cathedral. but a number are extended. Byzantine and Romanesque sides of the semi-circular archivolts over the is down the the drum. since it was common in the East centuries before. some of the churches are square and of the usual Byzantine type. and it is unlikely that any major contribution to architecture was made after the thirteenth. and are generally faced inside and out with fine squared stone. but on the outside that the wall triangular niches. in the year 1010. the capital. The churches in Armenia resemble. the western and eastern arms being arms occasionally terminate apsidally on the inside. The most interesting features of this building are its pointed arches and vaults and the clustering or coupling of the columns in the Gothic manner. in tenth century was certainly the richest and most prosperous period of Armenian history. but the domes do not show externally for they are hidden by steep. many respects. giving a trefoil or quatrefoil plan. It was built. and there is no reason that the pointed form should not have been employed in this period. and are covered with tiles or lead. and there therefore Churches in Armenia. The other portions of the churches generally have semi- circular or pointed barrel vaults. In plan. but it is probable that few. there is no evidence to suggest that any rebuilding took place. of the existing churches are earlier than the tenth century. While it does not follow that these arches were built at the beginning of the eleventh century. The east end has usually three semi-circular apses these are polygonal and separated by two side. The churches are small.80 Early Christian.

at Scale loo/r. the development of cultural and commercial relations between Constantinople and Kiev were encouraged. At a later date four more aisles were Byzantine tradition. similar In character to that at the Cathedral in Pisa' 81 was built about fifty relieves the flatness years later and pierced by narrow windows. in their designs. and plan and was twelve smaller domes. 25 feet in diameter.Byzantine Architecture of the arcade. having two additional bays on the west and an extra It was originally nearly square in aisle to the north and south. roofed by a central dome. Grand Duke of Kiev (988). The plan is straightforward. Am Cathedral. and it was only natural that they should follow. II 6 . Kiev. The history of Russian architecture begins with the conversion to Christianity of Vla- As a dimir. Architects from Constantinople were employed in the construction of the first churches. direct result. most important example of their work Sancta Sophia. to I in. Scale Soft. drum. Kiev (1036). Armenia. which was a brick crossdomed basilica. to I in. was the Church of Sancta Sophia. being of the cross-in-square form but with the eastern and western arms about twice the length of the side bays* Churches in Russia. the The oldest and After Lotikomski. of the exterior walls and the circular After Strsygmsskt.

partly to In the twelfth for aesthetic reasons. nevertheless. The Byzantine dome was quite new to Russia. the number of domes was increased and. This church possessed a remarkx iUt In form three ^ ^ ' T / - i able series of frescoes. The building suffered greatly in the last war. partly further developments took place. was smaller and simpler than the church of the same name at Kiev. and in Novgorod it was transformed into what became the most striking From the simple inverted saucer feature of the Russian skyline. thus helmet. The external diameter century of the dome was increased at a point above the springing. the most interesting Sa 11 *' Clmrch of the Saviour at Nereditsa was Nov ofod* o (i 198). but after the fall of . that Byzantine architecture underwent its curious Slavonic change. a certain barbaric splendour which was far removed from the classic simplicity of the churches in Constantinople and in Greece. which had a single bulbous dome to mark Scale 50 ft. covering every available wall space. Byzantine and Romanesque added. since they often appear to have been placed without regard to the internal arrangements. ^ V T-U-u i. It was not at Kiev but at Novgorod. domes nor surmounted by curious bulbous domes. No rule can be laid down regarding the number of : drums assumed a new for their location in relation to the planning of the church. The Cathedral of Sancta Sophia. i ess similar in character. The tall cylindrical drums. all more or After LoukomsM. Constantinople in Throughout the Middle Ages. Russia was directly inspired by its art and its architecture. giving an unusual lateral extension to the plan. but they had. high above the roof line of the church. it was essentially a cube. and the destruction of the frescoes was a serious loss.82 Early Christian. w e being surmounted by six domes raised flrilN^fc^r on high cylindrical drums. which was completed a few years after the construction of the church. with rounded apses at the east end.. became mere external decoration to the main structure. Many churches IiBii5i '"ffffr were erected in the Novgorod region. j the crossing. Each aisle terminated in a round apse. the tall. some 570 miles farther north. the top surface of the off throw snow and giving it the onion shape which became a Russian characteristic. Novgorod (1052). or hemispherical outline was evolved a shape like that of a Turkish dome being steepened. at the same time. the character they were heightened to such an extent that they appeared like turrets.

A tall pyramidal structure^ derived from the traditional Russian wooden steeple. Scale soft. Although this style After Buxwn- S. Turks a artists and architects were invited and Germany to undertake the These activities were then Moscow. was Introduced over the crossing in place of the central dome. Basil. to I in. . Saviour^ Nereditsa. Moscow. to I m.Byzantine Architecture of the that city to the 83 to from Italy activities. Scale 50 ft. near Novgorod. After S. centred in Russia. By the middle of the sixteenth century the architecture had become so thoroughly Russianised as to deserve classification as a distinct style of its own. which was rapidly becoming the focus of a new unified The churches continued to follow the traditional Byzantine ground plan and the traditional mural decoration internally^ but were profusely decorated with Renaissance ornament outside.

In Venice and Sicily the 'new' architecture may have been merely a return to the art of Justinian's time. and the travellers* tales of the glories of the city. artists undoubtedly excited the imagination of western and had a palpable influence on art and architecture. Altogether it is a most bizarre and complicated building the most fantastic development of Byzantine architecture imaginable. one which is unique. but in central France where . Terrible in 1554 to commemorate the conquest of Kazan. Apart from the churches in Ravenna. and those taking part in the Fourth Crusade (1204) concentrated their energies on the sacking and looting of Constantinople itself. distinct flowering in art and architecture that was essentially ByzanTo some extent this was the product of growing trade and commerce was a in the Mediterranean. being linked by an intricate series of corridors and passageways. CHURCHES IN THE WEST The boundaries of the Byzantine Empire varied considerably throughout the centuries. has an almost symmetrical plan. consisting of nine variously all shaped chapels surrounding a larger. described in the last chapter. The plunder which was carried back to western Europe. although the Empire had dwindled and no part of Italy remained under its control (despite close commercial ties). By the eleventh century.84 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque cannot be considered to belong to the second period with which this chapter is chiefly concerned. centrally-planned church. there was a tine. but in a much result of the Crusades. the Vasili was begun by Ivan the Rlazhenni. mention is made here in order to complete this part of the story. The troops of the greater degree it first three Crusades travelled via Constantinople. One example only will be cited. in the Red Square (PL 8). but most of its forms can be traced back to the Byzantine style. Basil in It Moscow. The eight bulb-like domes It are each different and painted in the most brilliant colours. Nothing like it exists either in the West or in the Byzantine Empire. and although the government in Sicily lay in the hands of Norman conquerors. but was not completed until 1679. yet combines nearly all the features that are typical It is the Church of S. During the reign of Justinian (527565) they were extended as far west as Spain and included the whole of Italy and Sicily. there are no significant monuments of that period in the West.

Each pier is penetrated by openings. and their crowns slightly lower. Mark was of beginning of the ninth century upon a proportions similar to those of the church at Torceilo (see p. S. branching out on all sides 3 support the pendentives and the domes. because the same Byzantine spirit animates both. and . From these piers there spring barrel vaults which. but it is relatively small and. the whole of it could be put inside the nave alone of Sancta Sophia. The arcades between the piers in the nave and transepts perform the same duty as do those in Sancta Sophia. 31). There are five domes^ the two larger being placed over the nave and crossing. Constantinople. In Sancta Sophia they have a constructive as well as 1 Of the basilican church only the lateral and west walls remain3 possibly portions of the walls of the east end. Although S.Byzantine of the are to be like it 85 numerous domed churches been experienced before. and at the newly-formed crossing four big piers. The domes over the transepts and chancel are narrower by the width of the coupled columns which are placed against the big piers a particularly happy method of obtaining the diminution in width before mentioned as characteristic of Byzantine churches (see pp. It was partially burnt down during an insurrection in 976 Thus it remained until about 1063. with domes. each the full width of an aisle. were built. of giving scale to the interior. but for the transepts and narthex. The larger domes are 40 feet in diameter^ and their crowns nearly 100 feet above the floor. the two churches are often compared. cross plan. The nave columns were removed. The at the original Church of S. Mark's is in many important respects different from Sancta Sophia. the lesser domes are 33 feet wide. It would appear. that it reproduced Justinian's Church of die Holy in Constantinople. Mark's looks like a large church. can be understood by reference to the pkn. S. from a description by Procopius. but there the resemblance ends. Byzantine architects. the arched heads of which correspond with the arcades between the piers in the nave and transepts. 2 The alterations by which a basilican Apostles church with wooden roofs was transformed into a church of Greek restored two years later. with corresponding piers at the west end. 2 This church was destroyed by the Turks in 1464. 74-75). its important alterations were made which completely 1 The present plan was entirely the of plan and appearance. Mark's^ Venice.

. Mark's they merely carry mean little lead from one great pier to galleries. Mark's. which he knew from experience to be extremely effective in a design. After Hubsch. Scale looft. galleries to I in. would have served no practical purpose. The aisle walls have round-headed windows^ and are .86 Early Christian. whose galleries contrast very unfavourably with In Venice. in S. less than 3 feet wide.. Venice. Mark's. This feature is undoubtedly one of the principal defects in 8. Byzantine and Romanesque an aesthetic value. Heavy dotted line indicates the limits of the original basilica. since in western countries the sexes were not separated to the same extent as in the East . which the other. but these apologies for galleries were probably retained because the Greek architect wanted an excuse for side columns. large their spacious counterparts in eastern churches. S.

Many are like those in Constantinople. and are simply bad painting transmuted to mosaic. since slabs of various dates. and are separated by vast expanses of plain gold mosaic. is Sophia. upon a Byzantine structure. or to define the division between the marble veneer on the ground storey and the covering the upper surfaces. The principal capitals are modified Corinthian. sixteen in each. one of which is crowned by a bulbous dome of eastern outline . the pulpits. which was executed in the Constantinople in the beginning of the twelfth century. an exceedingly delicate example of Byzantine workmanship covered with gold and silver plate. others are regrettable according to whether they are The earlier. The capitals of the columns show great variety of design and much skill in execution. with their interlacing bands and flat decorative design of peacocks and other birds. The Internal Finishes. dimly lit by the The later mosaics small semi-circular-headed lights in the domes . The chancel is raised a few feet above the of the are the church. many from the old basilica. or dosseret. with its mixture of large slabs and small j . century. Nothing could be less effective. are clearly defined. just above the springing. and beneath the chancel and a portion of the crypts. as at S.Byzantine Architecture of the carried 87 of the is up the full height of the church to the barrel vaults. nor could the design be more suitable for this material. and nothing could possibly be more effective. less suitable. the pala d oro (now modified to form the altar-piece). mostly of the eleventh or twelfth early or late in date. There is more carving inside S. crowned by the impost block. nor.. in a decorative sense. Mark's than is customary in Byzantine churches. already referred to (p. were designed by Renaissance painters.. parts of which belong to the original church. Irene. mouldings are very sparingly used. have been inserted in the gallery fronts and as wall linings in other parts of the church. and famous marble floor. by windows principal in the domes. Some of the mosaics are very beautiful. The fittings are very rich and include the iconostasis with the figures of the Virgin and the Apostles . The as in There are no drams. 56). are the work of Greek craftsmen from Constantinople. pendentives and domes. The single figures. proof that drums were by no means universal in churches. Nothing more than courses or very small cornices are introduced to break the of the vaults. As in other Byzantine churches. or groups of figures.

to ridicule its bulbous domes. while there is sufficient resemblance between the different parts to produce a its symmetrical whole. These were for the most part brought from earlier buildings of different periods. which depicts the arrival of the remains of S. It has a glamour which is felt at first sight. Mark's is due partly to its situation. surmount worked to receive them. and within possible to recapture. as Ruskin said. in Probably nobody today holds the opinion that was once so warmly championed: that the irregularities of its surface are due to design and were meant to symbolise the waves of the sea. and the square plinths on which they rest. devoid of all the marble bijouterie of the late Renaissance. S Mark's is. Mark to their final resting place. but a most effective jumble they make. bound with alabaster instead of parchment. Mark's . the most fascinating facade in Christendom.. and which increases with * each visit. has suffered much from alterations its Although S. in the background is portrayed the church. 1 being specially . the saint's haloed head peeping over the edge of the coffin to see and bless his funeral escort. partly to . its gingerbread ornament. A curious. also. at which most of the columns which flank the doorways were time..88 Early Christian^ Bymntime and Romanesque 1 arranged In an Intricate pattern. even now. added. Mark's and additions > it Is still a Byzantine church. the atmo- sphere of almost oriental mystery which pervaded so architecture of the Eastern Empire. the impost mouldings which them. a vast illuminated missal. and partly to the fact that. It is easy to find fault with the outside of S. studded with porphyry pillars instead of jewels. And yet it may be claimed that this long. Columns rarely stand directly over one another. and written within and without in letters of enamel and gold. * * its objectionable mosaic pictures of inflated Renaissance cherabs > and the huge expanse of glass in the upper part of Its big central window. low building has. the variety in the detail and the modifications in each division afford endless interest. What the church was like in the thirteenth century is seen in the enchanting mosaic over the door in the north-west corner. colour (especially in the delightful contrast between the porphyry columns and green marble jambs surrounding the central doorway). much of the The Exterior. even more than richly furnished interior it is still in Sancta Sophia. or underneath the arches they are apparently intended to support . The casing of the external walls with marble was begun in the thirteenth century.' The charm of S.

Mark's. except at the sides. S. there should have come eastern art forms and ideas. No other cathedral can boast of an atrium comparable with the Piazza of large square in which has a charm of its own and is probably the only Europe in which greenery is totally lacking* S. to I . S. Little where in places the plain brick arches and S. that it is only natural that with the merchandise port it imported. Venice. six columns over one solitary shaft. Padua. But Venice can hardly be regarded It occupies such an exceptional position. and with the plunder that it acquired as a result of the Crusades. at the comers of a building. for the East. After Fergusson. of the original face of the exterior shows. Scale looft. are still visible. walls. Anthony. although very contrary to what one expects in a western church. Front at Perigueux in Aquitaine S. as the as a western city. In the thirteenth century the low brick domes which still show internally were surmounted by bulbous cupolas of an oriental pattern. Anthony. in. decorative character. who had observed the superimposMon of columns at Sancta Sophia. is unique in its style and its setting. 89 they are arranged with a glorious disregard of custom which is quite refreshing. Only a Greek Constantinople. Mark's. It was copied in the Church of S. The effect they produce is bizarre but not unpleasing. Padua. customary in Byzantine work. could have felt able to disregard criteria by placing. and which their unconstructional. Mark's was not without its imitators.Byzantine Architecture of the fact.

94). Two other churches in north Italy possess peculiarities in plan which bring them under the head of Byzanis a very confusing building. |s ^ . Three tiers of squinches are used in the angles of the square. built in 1008. but the plan here is more elaborate. for the east end is lengthened and divided into a chancel and side aisles of two bays each. apparently sought. Externally. The Church of S Anthony . and the vaulted aisle runs round the apse. minaretbewildering jumble like spires which give the whole . near Venice. The first is the little chapel of S. Fosca. to i in.90 Early Christian. Originally it was square in plan. Mark's. it becomes cruciform. 31. and probably the basilican church alongside it. Sicily and the altered considerably externally. Fosca. of the same by city (see p. which was built at the end of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth century. At Padua. built in 879 . Fosca. tine. Satiro. amngement doubtless suggested the earlier and more important S. Early in the eleventh century. S. Greece and Sicily. for there are seven domes instead of five. to which are added two tall. Internally. Anthony. Torcello. in Milan. 66). The Milan example has been and papally enclosed by a wall of later date. The interior is sulking chiefly because of its height. after the fire at the end of the tenth century.an almost oriental quality. and the second the Church of S. at Torcello. Anthony is a of domes. round and pointed arches are used indiscriminately. in order to arrive at a circular base for a dome that was never built . wjth an apse on three of its S. Mark's. the effect is rather hard and cold when compared with the rich gold mosaic finish of S. A somewhat similar arrangement is followed in the Church of S. set upon a broad round drum. Satiro and S. Lorenzo. This church. like so many small churches in Constantinople. Venice. Fosca. Churches in Sicily. and Romanesque and was the model for the Church of S. additional length was (see p. were the work of the Byzantine Greeks who helped in the first restoration of S. the Church of S. instead there is a timber roof. described on p. sidcs-and possibly on the fourth cae soft. Padua. but as the domes are simply whitewashed. however . and the squares in the corners are vaulted. and there is a sad want of skill in the adjustment of details.

It is The first is the Church of the Martorana (1143)3 which was Admiral. when Sicily was part of the Byzantine nor are there any relics of Saracen times. In 1588 the main front was pulled down and the western arm prolonged to form a Latin cross. But are amply compensated for All the examples are in or Palermo and all have domes.Cataldo (1161)3 which S Catjddo ' Palermo * - has a cross-in-square plan and three domes defining the nave. and rise Byzantine world. The are unlike any in the above the square walls of fine ashlar They like great bubbles. there are which has been called the most beautiful Chapel Royal in the world. 191-3). with four Corinthian columns to carry the dome. in 1038^ had to the assistance of the Byzantines in an to out the Saracens. to allow for occasional window openings is at the base. chiefly the by the number of churches of the work of Greek and are invariably raised on squinches. The earliest church in Palermo dows are pointed. in which Norman singularly absent. but instead the domes are stilted Norman period which are Mohammedan craftsmen. Only one apse projects Sca!e 5 ft to ' * m ' . Inside some fine Byzantine mosaics. except two large basilican bedecked with Byzantine mosaics (see pp. John of the Hermits (1132)5 which has five domes set on squinches. It has a nave of five bays. Under Norman inkingship. two over the nave and three smaller over the choir and transepts. All the arches and winS.. Mary of the of the cross-in-square type. Church of S. originally named S. The second church is sweetly the Capella Palatina (1143)3 in the Palace. plastered. Thirdly. and painted a dull reddish-brown. crossing and choir. There are three other important churches exhibit in Palermo which Byzantine features. There is no definition of a drum. with a dome raised high on squinch arches at the eastern end (PL 7). cheek by jowl with some sentimental Renaissance frescoes.of the 91 south of Italy were governed by Normans who. the heritance was developed to produce an architecture thai had a peculiar hybrid quality. The north transept is heightened to form a domed bell-tower. Nothing remains of the of the period of Justinian. All the wall areas above the marble dado are covered with there is the the finest mosaics in western Europe.

The central bay is covered by a dome raised high on a drum and capped by a low-pitched conical roof. is thoroughly Byzantine in structure and plan. support twelve arches which divide the interior into nine bays. but many of the buildings have the same mingling of Byzantine and Saracenic influences that we have noted at Palermo. Most of the surviving examples. Romans. each about 5 feet square. The other building. Mark at Rossano have true cross-in-square plans . Almost identical in 1 and with roughly-blocked Architecture in Italy. One is significant. is now a It is a cross-in-square building with three round a central dome set above squinches and carried on apses. on Two other buildings must be mentioned. like S.. Cummings l to the middle of the ninth century. London. but also because it is one of the very few examples of secular architecture in the Byzantine tradition that have survived. It is La Piccola Cuba. which form a square and carry a stilted dome. Greeks. once the Church of Trinita di Delia. now an orange grove. beneath which. originally. having four columns. but lacks the customary interior decoration. a fountain played. It consists quite simply of four pointed arches. Nothing remains of the period of Byzantine dominion. . Outside it is very pleasant. without bases capitals. Four columns. The windows are fitted with fretted plaster screens. Domed Churches in Southern Italy. a little garden Mosk which was situated in the Royal pleasure park. Cataldo at Palermo. Castelvetrano. Byzantines. Saracens and Normans in turn played their part. but on lower drums. Two churches La Cattolica at Stilo and S. and two others the cathedral at Molfetta and the small Church of the Immaculati at Trani have naves with three domes in line.92 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque at the eastern end. A.. relieved only by a series of flat. rather solid in appearance. golden-coloured. however. mausoleum. The little Church of La Cattolica. The four corner bays are similarly covered by domes. pointed arches and the dome which crowns the composition. which mark the crossing. the outside by and the cross-in-square plan is disguised the heightening of the corner bays. Saracenic in character (PL 8). The influences which moulded the civilisation and the art of southern Italy are identical with those which affected Sicily. being ascribed by C. Apart from a Renaissance tomb it is quite bare inside. which measures only 25 feet square. not only because it is particularly delightful architecturally. are slightly earlier than those at Palermo. with antique capitals. 1928..

l in. but instead of columns to carry the are atrium. arc Rossano . An unusual feature central dome. are carried on squinch arches. by low-pitched. built during the eleventh and twelfth centuries in the . structure and plan is the Church of S. and the is aisles are covered by half- barrel-vaults.Byzantine Architecture of ihe 93 at dimensions. The domes over the nave Molfetta Cathedral. but all three are octagonal outside and covered Domed Churches in France. Rossano. tiled roofs. The remarkable group of domed churches. and in front of the church there is a monudramatically sited on high rocks 3 and both are ments to the diffusion of the cross-in-square' After Cummifigs- S. Scale Soft. In the cathedral at Molfetta the nave is separated from the by three broad round arches. to form which is typical of so much Byzantine architecture of the second and third periods. conical. Scale soft. The the parabolic section of the other two are hemispherical . to l in. Mark. which spring from cruciform piers a each composed of four half-columns.

and the idea of copying its plan may have had some appeal to the builders in the south of France who. The simiin plan and dimenlarity sions between S. and upon their return they may well have desired to reproduce in their homeland something of the style and magnificence which they had seen in Constantinople.. Front may also have gone there for their inspiration. Etienne. On the other hand. 1905. Byzantine and Romanesque of France. are mentioned in this chapter because they bear such a close relationship to Byzantine architecture. so far as its main structure was concerned. and because they are of a style which was not later developed in the evolution of Romanesque and Mediaeval architecture. Mark's was : copied from the Church After Spiers. Perigueux may be taken as the centre of the region. Front 3 Perigueux. By 1120 S. according to R. Mark's was completed. that it was. and who had already devised a method. and the great five-domed Church of S. Mark's. cannot be accidental. was rebuilt after a fire in 1 120 (PL 7). Architecture East and West. 86). Front which. S. may have stimulated the development of a new type of architecture in the region. Mark's. of building a dome on pendentives over a square space. In this town there are two domed churches S. Venice (see p. The early Crusaders were largely directed by Prankish leaders. and it is therefore possible that the architects of S. Phene 1 Spiers. . in fact. in part. Scale 100 ft. peculiarly their own. London. 86). of the Holy Apostles at which Constantinople. had for more than a century been building churches with domes. to I in.Mark's (p. sixty miles from Perigueux. was still standing in 1564. built. It has also been suggested that the existence of a Venetian colony of merchants and artists in Limoges. excepting portions of an earlier church which form a kind of narthex at the west end. Compare with plan of S.94 Early Christian. about 1050. Front was built earlier than S. Front and S. 1 S. French authorities are inclined to the belief that S.

but unlike S. for. and there are no detached shafts the piers. Mark's. was inclined to introduce improvements of his own bring the resemblance to S. instead of copying the old by M. whereas at S. . Mark's they are all of the diameter. or would have omitted them in the design of any building similar to S. an architect who. In S. across the angles of the square instead of radial to the curve. Front* The five of S. Mark's. and not thoroughly at home with the construction he had adopted. Nor are these pendentives simply a part of a sphere. It is obvious that the designer was unhappy about the stability of the pendentives. Mark's. At Angouleme and Fontevrault. Mark's and S. Front are on the eastern walls of the constructed with horizontal beds. he set them well behind the topmost course to form a gallery. rise over each arm and over the crossing. the domes spring but at naturally from the pendentives. to and of S. as in all Byzantine work. however. * 5 in Comparison Between S. as in the transepts and choir of S. Mark's the of the old basilica is retained. all carried on pointed transverse and longitudinal arches. for instead of allowing the domes to spring from the face of the pendentives in the Byzantine manner. The most remarkable triple apse differences are. Front the three apses are placed at the east end of the choir and transepts. Frontj like those of S. it does not look so large as its prototype. like corbelling. to reduce the span and therefore the diameter of the domes. Mark's. which spring from four heavy square piers pierced Front the domes are with narrow. This in itself is an argument against Byzantine workmanship. both built a few years earlier. for no architects closely associated with Byzantine architecture could have failed to notice the fine effect such breaks produced. of construction adopted there was followed in Angouleme. The different theories is the further complicated by the feet that the Church work. they have a curve of double flexure. to be found in the detail construction of the pendentives and domes: The pendentives in S. in order to reduce the overhang of the topmost courses. S. Front lacks the arcading between the big piers which helps to give the scale of S. semi-circular-headed openings.of tJw 95 the at founded about 984 and only repaired In 1 120. Front was* after 18565 almost entirely pulled Abadia. In S. and because of this omission and the complete absence of any wall decoration. Cahors and Fontevrault. Mark's closer than it originally. about 40 feet.

The transepts have considerable projection . Solignac. the terminate in square towers. are not. Most of the other large domed churches in the area are aisleless. in all the larger churches (Angouleme. The reason for this steepening was probably that the outside could then be protected with tiles laid directly on to the surface . Etienne. but ovoid. such as those of Mouthiers and Berneuil. as a rule. which generally separates the barrel-vaulted nave and chancel. are domed. Some of the smaller churches. Comparison between Byzantine (left) and French (right) methods of dome construction. Front. spherical. The typical Cathedral of Angouleme (1101-1119) may be taken as a In plan it is a example of an aisleless domed church and Between each tower and the crossing is a narrow bay which finishes with an apse on the east wall. and are in no way cut off from the rest of the church. which are from two to four bays long. Perigueux. exclusive of the at the crossing. Front can hardly be said to be but they are merely the width of the great piers aisles. with a considerable thickening of masonry at the top to provide a The domes steeper outer surface. the domes begin as in S. Latin cross. However. Around the chancel the apses are somewhat unusually placed. Churches. have only one dome. Fontevrault. S. and Cahors Cathedral.96 Early Chnstian y Byzantine and Romanesque S. in the Byzantine tradition lead covering was usual and therefore no increase in the pitch of the dome was necessary. supporting the domes. Souillac) Aisleless Domed without bay the naves.

either outside or inside. was made to solve this problem by narrowing the chancel so that it was only a trifle wider than the space between the piers of the nave. with an aisleless plan. This roof and the are win- Plan of Angoulme Cathedral. 246). The chief objection. Scale looft.Byzantine of the 97 in Issoire Cathedral^ arrangement being similar to that there is no ambulatory aisle. just as well be vaulted. much importance of light can be obtained from plenty not a matter of aisleless the side walls. an accident. to the aisleless plan is the danger of the chancel's being unnecessarily wide. which since. Eastwards is out of apsidal-ended chancel encompassed by an ambulatory. The result is a complete chevet. which chapels open. is avoided by the projecting transepts. while any effect of incongruity. as in Angers Cathedral. the arrangement is more ingenious. except Only the the crossing can be seen from the outside^ for the narrow transept bays are barrel-vaulted and the hidden by the covering timber roof. which was built a little later. so to speak. however. naves in these examples are domed is. There is no doubt that the plan can be employed on a That the large scale with excellent effects. but at Fontevrault. is dows in the domes. Here the square at the crossing is made narrower than the nave and is separated from it by an arch of fair an proportions with narrow openings on either side. is not They could felt so arcading on the one might expect because their place is taken by which produces much the same result. both outside and in. which give scale in Roman and Byzantine buildings. The want of columns between the piers. joined to an aiseless nave. to i in. which has a similar plan (see p. At Angouleme an attempt as much side walls. n 7 .

and that the Gothic technique of building. in Venice. with its vertical aspiration. which will be discussed later. is to . In the examples we have mentioned. had effectively taken their place.. lacks the simplicity of the barrel-vaulted nave. The domed form is suited better to a centralised arrangement than to a Latin cross plan. we shall never know. however. however. or even in the local remains of Roman domical buildings which might have survived up to the eleventh century. It is. its ribbed vaults and traceried windows. central motif. the disposition of domes of equal diameter along the axis of the nave inevitably produces a series of separate compartments without a dominating Whether the inspiration for these domed churches be found in Constantinople. certain that by the middle of the twelfth century no more domed churches were constructed in France.. Byzantine and Romanesque The aisidess domed church.98 Early Christian.

and ornament is used very sparingly. They are. that because they in the East. they surpass in many respects the architecture that preceded them. but erected for the private prayers and meditations of a people suffering almost constant war with the Mohammedans It must not be inferred. the last of the Byzantine Emperors was crowned. Apart from one church in Constantinople which. 99 . either in quiet sequestered dramatically upon almost inaccessible cliffs. buildings cannot compare in size or magnificence with those of the earlier periods. Constantinople (PL 6). They are simpler in design. Indeed. though of old foundation. extraordinarily small. it was not until fourteen years after the restoration of the imperial dynasty that steps were taken once more to basilica. where S. Saviour at Constantinople was founded by Justinian and took the form of a It was rebuilt in the eleventh century and. The two areas: on Mount Athos early times to be regretted that a complete record of better known are concentrated in a peninsula at the north-east of Greece where monastic communities were established from very and at Mistra. a country which seems to have played a minor role until the last tragic phase of the Empire. for they were no longer designed for the pomp and ceremony of a church militant. are small they are architecturally insignificant. was so thoroughly altered as to justify its inclusion here. makes sad reading. however. a provincial capital in the Peloponnese. suffered greatly during the Fourth Crusade. Saviour. in fact. nearly all the examples are to be found in Greece.CHAPTER VII BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE OF THIRD PERIOD THE Its story of the culminating period of the Byzantine Empire. The number of these lesser churches is surprisingly great. like many other churches in Constantinople. between its release from the Crusaders in 1261 and the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. and it is them does not yet exist. The Church of S. they are invariably sited with great skill. they valleys or possess a quiet charm and a classic simplicity that is all their own.

These mosaics represent a remarkable flowering in the latter-day history of Byzantine art. In its present form the plan is. Church was more It is interesting to note that the mosaics at S. On the peninsula to this day not only . feeling for pictorial composition than was evident in work. Saviour is the last of Byzantine art in Constantinople. fell to the Turks. where they played their part in stimulating that great revival of the arts which we now call the effort. a After great freedom from tradimore varied use of Van MilHngen. of Mount Athos are preserved many buildings.. Saviour are contemporary with Giotto's famous frescoes at Padua (1303-1306)5 and although there is nothing to suggest a connection between the two. as one might expect. The were suffering from the gradually city of the Turkish invaders.. They are characterised by tional forms. Constantinople. near the present monastery of Iveron. century was a time of freedom from control. converted into a mosque. colour and a much more earlier adventurous Plan (restored) of S. their similarity is undoubtedly due to the new spirit of the age that was affecting In one way the fourteenth life and thought East and West. when the Scale soft. Throughout the Middle Ages it was regarded as a holy land. so that Mount Athos. but also the spirit and habits of Byzantine religious life. discipline of the rigidly enforced. S. upon any and empire scale. and in another. Legend ascribes the foundation of Athos as a site for the ascetic life to the Virgin Mary. and its chief attraction lies in the remarkable series of mosaics which still cover considerable areas of the interior. at that time Renaissance. and as a result many increasing pressure craftsmen were escaping to Italy. In 1430. Saviour. to I in. stantinople to fall into the and was soon after was the first Christian sanctuary in Conhands of the Mohammedans in 1453. sharing the fate of Salonika. a residence for monks and hermits. but the first historical records date from the ninth century. who is presumed to have landed at the Port of Clement. very irregular.100 Early Christian^ It Romanesque rebuild the church. Athos.. it was a time of scarcity and unemployment. but was allowed to continue its monastic autonomy upon payment of tribute.

and in many cases which are miniature editions of the its This tri-apsidal treatment is. some strategic point stands a tower. kitchen and stores.. The arrangement of this court naturally it is varies according to the limitations of the site. but have certain additions by which they almost merit inclusion in a special class of their own. The churches stand in the middle of the courtyards and are of the cross-in-square type. and the ruins of S. Finally. cloister. Instead of occupying one the Orthodox church is invariably situated centrally.of the 10! Turkish rale brought no vital to the on Attios. W. Hasluck (Athos and the Monasteries). and a single strongly-defended gateway provides the only entrance. and accommodates the refectory. Mary of the Mongols at Constantinople. according to F. and these are reserved for the readers and chief dignitaries l Of! of the is monastery . Nearly all the fifteenth to the eighteenth century. There are now twenty by the surroundabout five thousand monks drawn from Greece ing Slavonic countries. 1 the narthex abnormally gives access to side chapels large. The most its and the one which distinguishes is it from western of a the position of the church. have similar arrangements and are therefore just as likely to have inspired this Athonite treatment. thirteenth century. except where these were inavoidable. and centuries the period normally included in Mount Athos affords unequalled opportunities for the by the planning and design of that conglomeration of constitutes a Byzantine monastery. . The tranAfter Haxhtck. at which was a part of the defences and a place of refuge in the event of attack by pirates. twelfth century. septs terminate in apses. instead of in the customary square ending. but more or less rectangular. the library. presumed to have come from Armenian sources. infirmary and monastic cells. surrounded by a court. Elias in Salonika. but Church of S. There are no windows on the outside of the lower floors.

a circular gilt candelabrum which provides the most effective and dramatic lighting to the singular elongated figures that line the walls. or bema. the churches are richly decorated with mural paintings. from the nave. but there are many variations in detail and in character. over the side chapels and frequently over each end of the narthex. This. the introduction of sculptured plaques. Occasionally tiles are inserted in the outer face. Immediately beyond the crossing stretches the iconostasis. which forms a framework for two rows of icon pictures and which cuts off the chancel. and Bulgarians. Until a thorough survey is undertaken. which follow the customary scheme in which every saint and martyr has his or her appropriate place. At Dochiariou. The bema inevitably has three apses. is the standard arrangement of buildings at Athos. From the central dome there hangs by chains the corona. Each monastery has its own particular atmosphere. At Chilandari. then. and additional domes are placed over the apses at the east. betray north Balkan influence. Churches in Greece. the churches are plastered and painted in horizontal bands of reddish brown and white.IO2 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque original church . It is not possible to mention here more than a few of the lesser churches in Greece. either to define the architectural lines or simply to provide decorative patterns . Inside. which usually has a dome carried on eight or more columns. one cannot even be sure that those mentioned are the most important. and the numerous carved doors. Probably no other country contains so many . a carved and gilded wooden screen with doors. and at Russico one is presented with a scene that could only be paralleled in Holy Russia or in the stage settings of which caters for Serbs Prince Igor or Boris Godunov. to imitate courses of tile and stone. The materials used in the construction of the churches and monastic buildings are generally rough rubble masonry. as a general rule. the church displays Moldavian features in the elongated proportions of the drums and in the use of buttresses . the central one containing the altar . the north flanking apse is used for preparing the Elements and the south as a treasury for the most sacred relics of the monastery. From the water of this well the various rooms in the monastery are ceremonially blessed each month. In front of the church is the phiale. however. or sacred well. The roofs and domes are leaded and of a very low pitch.

They are villages or towns. the features of the period. which owe their name (which means *the monasteries in the air') to their remarkable position on the summits of gigantic rocks which rise like monstrous sugar-loaves up to 1800 feet from the Thessalian plain. in only six remain inhabited. The interior is fully frescoed. are to its buildings. fourteenth-century foundation. little whitewashed church of S.. controlled by the monks above. constructed upon the cross-in-squait either whitewashed or faced with roughly crowned by curvature or conical. Some two hundred miles to the north-west of Athens. follows the Athenian style. and no longer accessible. all in low relief. on the barren plain one of the most charming of the many churches in the Attic countryside (PL 8). from and though often in ruins are services on the name-day of the saint to which they are and keep an ever-burning votary lamp.Byzantine places of worship In proportion to of the Third its 103 are far for population. Of these. on the eastern. These monasteries are among the most fantastic remains of ByzanOnce there were thirty. . one finds only two columns to support the dome on the western side. such use of classical remains is very common. west of Athens. and two piers. depicting peacocks and various animals entwined in a pattern of leaves. beyond Patisia. over the central dome. nearly half had disappeared before the middle of the sixteenth century. for the most part. one to ground corner. It stands on possesses and is marked by four ancient cypress trees. Sotkos. enriched with angle columns. Its dome. and is carried on freestanding piers in place of columns on the west side. and dark red tiled roofs which. and the tiny dome is carried on four debased Ionic columns . Occasionally. and relieved by lines of brick or tile at each course. Faded frescoes still adorn the interior. is ruins. little and un- pretentious plan. which are an internal prolongation all The of the apse. have been built into the walls. About a hundred years ago several of the monasteries could only be reached by means of a net and winch. are the monasteries of Meteora. in the heart of Greece. and on the two walls which divide the apsidal end on the east. The rest are. especially in the vicinity of Athens. the majority being of tine architecture. and a number of fragments of Byzantine sculpture. and today Omorphi Ecclesia ('Beautiful Church*). but more settled conditions in the early part of this century have led to the provision.

carrying complex arched cor- nices.104 Early Christian^ and Romanesque of a simpler. In distinct contrast. Holy Apostles. Theotokos Pammakais Constantinople (see p. churches. though in elevation every feature Afur TexurandPullan. and all are constructed of brick. The interior is plain and empty of any enrichment. duct of the Venetian occupation in the sixteenth century. Stephen is tiny and of the cross-in-square plan. contrived of bricks set angle-wise to give the effect of successive orders of dentils. is strong. The the Monastery of S. there is Instead. ICT Ul proportion. The solitary dome is cemented over on the outside. though only 55 one of the largest churches of the period. here is an architecture reduced to bare essentials. in Salonika. Salonika. The whole of Bricks is richly patterned. pedestrian approach. Baarlam has. The city of Mistra. elegant. It was built in the fourteenth century and is the most elaborate example of the Byzantine use of decorative brickwork. grey and forbidding. five domes rest nal drums. are all That of S. is of the Holy Apostles. as are the barrel vaults which cover the arms of the cross. which lies on the foothills of . on corners. Apart from the curious Renaissance doorway. a magnificent representation of the Last Trump. Mistra. to i in. 76). The Church feet by 60 feet externally.. one over the crossing and one over each of the angle spaces. adorned with frescoes. and constructed of limestone smeared with whitewash. in harmony only with the barren character of that bleak and cragged coast. in the narthex. a proon the south-east coast of the montory Peloponnese. octagowith brick columns at the tall. considerably disfigured by the Turks. are arranged in herring-bone fashion. Nicholas at Monamvasia. and IE the surviving six monasteries. in squares and in diamonds (PL 6) The the exterior . a proScale soft. at In plan it resembles the S. no ornament outside of any kind. There are five domes. which are crowded into minute courtyards. the Church of S. Church of ristos.

the entrance being situated in the northern wall A 1 over the windows which series of arches. Of the domed basilican churches. . enriched by blank arcades and. For two hundred prospered. Inside. Inside* by some of the most beautiful frescoes in the world. The western end is hollowed out of the cliff face. and attained considerable eminence as a seat of Byzantine culture and learning . is an unusual feature which may be traced to Prankish influence. bell-towers and fleur-de-lys ornaments. similar in character to some of the earlier bell-towers of Aquitaine and unlike any in the Byzantine world. it was the last outpost of the to fall For nine years after the capture of Constantinople. are of the two-column. with trefoil arches and an ovoid dome. so that there is no narthex. the Church of Peribleptos is the most interesting. and three are domed basilicas with aisles. Then in 1462 the city. are seen here In combination with Byzantine architectural details. there is a cloister walk. cross-in-square plan. and has only recently been recognised as the most important centre for the study of latter-day Byzantine art and decoration. Mistra had maintained a precarious existence in the of growing from the Turkish armies. so bringing to a close the Empire and Greek dominion in Europe. planned along the north and west sides of the church. and the only purely Byzantine city in the world. which is entirely novel. to the Turks. The city was still inhabited up to the beginning of the nineteenth century. the frescoes have broken away completely from the almost stereotyped forms New subjects and new scenes are of the earlier Byzantines. It has a bell-tower. 153). and JVUstra became a Emperor reigning as Despot.qf the 105 Is Mount Tagetus. all of the fourteenth century. which is now attached to a convent and has been partly restored. Architecturally it Is chiefly Interesting because western elements (reminders of the Crusaders' dominion). in the form of pointed arches. the most important is the Pantanassa. Three of the churches. 1 This arrangement is characteristic of Romanesque arch construction (see p. arranged in 'orders' light the dome. For a the district was held by the Crusaders^ but In 1262 It was most famous Byzantine centre to the the son Empire. some two-and-a-half the IE the Pcloponnese. fell. and the pressure remainder of Greece. Of the former. Most of the churches are built of rubble relieved by vertical and horizontal courses of brick.

and whether the Greek spirit might once more have After Hamilton.xo6 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque presented In a way that has no precedent. amongst many other architectutal features. man tyranny. The evidence at Mistra. and to the Byzantines we owe. Saviour in it Constantinople . . There is evidence there of a Renaissance which might have surpassed anything that had gone before. we can never tell. was not Pantanassa 3 Mistra. even in its later stages. last years of the Empire there was little opportunity to build upon but in those any extensive scale. that particular contribution. negligible. to the Byzantines we are in no small degree indebted for the stimulus which they gave to the fine arts in the West. In the field of art there is certainly evidence of that early Renaissance spirit which we have already noticed at S. indicates a remarkable revival of Byzantine culture. Gone Is the staid tranquillity and in its place emotional and pictorial values are dominant. as Gibbon and many Byzantines classics we To the later writers suggest. the pendentive. and which is only now being appreciated. at Mistra is coupled with new in features architecture. are largely indebted for the preservation of the and for the protection of the western world from the encroachment of the Turks . The Byzantine achievement. come into its own if Greece had been spared the intolerance of OttoScale soft. though slight. the dome. supported over a square space by means of that striking device. to I in.

with the Edict of the Eastern Emperor commanding the destruc- tion of images (726). the Avars driven out of Hungary. in the first instance.D. After Charlemagne's death in 814. the Saracens were driven back into Spain. inspired partly by Roman precedents and. The Pope then excommunicated the Patriarch. even if he still styled himself Caesar Imperator. Third. 800. Charlemagne. and the Patriarch excommunicated the Pope. erected still more by the Byzantine monuments that had been two centuries earlier by Justinian upon the soil of Italy. if not superior. the Empire split up and new 107 . Rome.CHAPTER VIII ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE Historical Background ON Christmas Day. Under Charlemagne. it was obvious that the Emperor at Constantinople was no longer able to defend or protect the western provinces of the old Roman Empire. was crowned Emperor and Augustus in the of S. First. but unity could only be achieved if there were a powerful secular commander. there was strong dissatisfaction in the western Church Second. the monarchy became the strongest instrument of government and conquest which Western Europe had witnessed since the great days of the Roman Empire. There were three good reasons for the coronation. there was an urgent need for a leader to defend Christian faith and territory from the Saracens who. had swept along the northern shores of Africa and crossed to Sicily. in the preceding century. This event provides a convenient starting-point for the study of the revival of art and architecture in the West. Peter. A. This discontent encouraged unity among the sects of the western Church . and a Papal state was established which made permanent the rife between Rome and Constantinople. King of the Franks. and the claim that the Patriarch of Conwas on an equal. footing to the Pope of Rome. The whole system of public control was transformed and the foundations of the Feudal System laid . Art and architecture participated in a renaissance. to Spain and far stantinople into France.

Map showing Principal Centres of Romanesque Building. .loS Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque f .

of the new Empire and is Nevertheless. but co-macinm simply means c a body of masons '. and who were responsible for the design of the cloisters of S. he had to Church. Rome. Paul Outside the Walls. It Is true that the number of buildings still can be attributed with certainty to Charlemagne and his were established In the civil is very small. with its : Comacini should not be confused with Cosmati. But all was not He had a government. and he had brought In no respect was that civilisation civilisation. and especially to architecture. The theory that the diffusion of Romanesque architecture in the eighth and ninth centuries was achieved by a group of Lombard masons called ComaciniV from the neighbourhood of Lake Como. In the previous century the monks of the Order had followed to some extent the building methods prevalent in Rome the basUican plan. istics Between the eighth and tenth centuries the essential characterof the Romanesque style were determined. influence that was to prevail. Christianity had taken deep root throughout western Europe. (See 1 p.109 introduced ideas of West.) . tecture northwards existed from Italy. and the Shrine of Edward the Confessor at Westminster. is c without historical basis. the name of a Roman family who produced distinctive mosaic and marble work. the the countries which succeeded it was cer- tainly concentrated and there upon the erection of churches and monasteries. 188. in the stimulus it gave to art. The great monastic Order of the Benedictines was at first mainly responsible for the prodigious activity in ecclesiastical matters and for many of the earlier phases of architectural development. The fact that the architecture in Germany and France was largely inspired by Rome does not mean that it developed under One need not infer a regular progress of archiItalian influence. and a wave of church-building was passing over all lands. It probably originated in the resemblance of the word comadnus to Como. whether at Como or anywhere else. for it Romanesque was the Roman. for in the cities of Gaul there architecture still many monuments of classical Roman which could provide exemplars to Carolingian and later builders. and the beginning of the eleventh century marked a new era of development. no reason to doubt the appropriateness of the title to the style of their building. and that the descriptions of the that arose in the ninth century are much too to abbeys successors accurate reconstruction possible. not the Byzantine.

a new movement which. perhaps. From the north we note another in a symbolic treatment influence. or Lombards. bulky thrust of the vaults. developed with great The carvings and formed a striking condisplayed a semi-barbaric symbolism trast to the refined beauty and delicacy of Classical and Byzantine But these carvings. had a art. which was conquered by Charlemagne was unskilled in building craft.no nave and for long. an infusion of vigorous new blood and because they indicated heralded the overthrow of the Classical tradition and the approach northern art which was to prevail up to the middle of of that great the fourteenth century. This is not surprising when one considers the troubled state of the country. . once fairly under way. and there is no evidence to show that its buildings possessed any of the features which "afterwards were distinctive of Lombardic architecture. rapidity and produced lasting local Roman remains and was only indirectly influenced by the art of Rome and Constantinople. bards. formed their model But not Before the eleventh century opened. originally rendered with a robustness foreign to the East. and complex in plan because their functions were multiplied. the temptation to antethe cradle of civilisation. The Teutonic race of LangoItaly. if sometimes rude and unskilled. The walls thickened. was the reintroduction of Structurally. style did not appear in Italy until the ninth century. Their crudity may be forgiven. and roofs of timber. which manifested itself chiefly on eastern traditions but of ornament based. although the sites of earlier structures. There is always date a building. and the number of buildings erected close of the then was relatively few. especially if documentary evidence is followed. the all-important feature with the result that the timber roof disthe vault. powerful character of their own. The Romanesque in 774. are now recognised as belongseventh. Many churches still to the Langobards of the existing which were formerly attributed and ninth centuries. and partly through wishful who saw Italy as thinking' on the part of certain Italian scholars. intersecting or was used only as a cover to appeared from the larger churches. the vault beneath. columns were protect in proportion since workmen feared the replaced by piers. eighth erected on ing entirely to the eleventh or twelfth century. had begun It was largely inspired by results. Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque aisles. This confusion arises partly because of the existence of documentary evidence which provides * records of early establishments.

As evidence of the dose connection between the Eastern Empire and it may be mentioned that Mien towards the end of the eleventh century. Some of the modifications introduced were improvements. of the Charlemagne's empire at the included north Italy. and consequently bear a close relationship to the contemporary architecture in the rest of the Empire. and partly because of its independence as a separate state. but were considerably modified. designed to meet the exigencies of ritual requirements and to exploit new methods of construction. Mark's is a proof of how little it was influenced by western developments. 90-94) and only a few examples can be Pisa. like Venice. others were simply retrograde. maintained. eastern influence was extremely strong. the work of Pisa Cathedral was at a standstill for lack of funds. The new feeling which in the eleventh century made such headway in Lombardy and western Europe met with limited success elsewhere in Italy. who could no longer draw upon the assistance of Greek skilled labour. the northern half of greater portion of Germany and Austria. when the Normans took over control. in the Papal territory around Rome. Farther south. therefore. most of the Romanesque churches in Lombardy were built their rule. Some of the architecture has already been described (pp. It follows. a large trade with the East. through of North Fot the next two hundred years the German Emperors were all-powerful there. After his century and more of confusion over the boundaries of the kingdoms which arose from the rains. partly because of its position as an Adriatic port having close commercial and artistic ties with the East. because of the inferior skill of the craftsmen. due to the fact that Pisa. until 1040. 1 Florence scarcely existed. too. Venice was unaffected. in 951 became. which for two or three centuries was the most important town in the district. S. The old methods of building were not ignored. France.Ill since most churches are of old previ- ously built on. and Lucca and Pistoja followed the lead of Pisa. earlier traditions still held their own. Otto the Great the the and a German Empire and Italy also. 1 3 . the Byzantine Emperor came to the rescue and found the money. especially in the matter of detail design. The south of Italy was from 871 a Byzantine colony frequently harassed by Saracen raiders. In Tuscany. the Early Christian basUican form remained supreme.

Byzantine and Romanesque Romanesque. 94-98). central France in Aquitaine there is a number of domed churches which can only be classified as Byzantine and which have already been described (pp. short-lived. therefore. remains of ancient works were few and unimportant. even if the superficial decoration is Byzantine. when these features do occur. Of Classical influences. there are innumerable traces in the south. France. in the former. could claim complete control over but a small portion . and possesses the advantage of suggesting the main sources from which it was derived. The origin. In the north the churches of that period are mostly fully-developed Romanesque. the King of France. in early days. which from 535 to 827 was under Byzantine control and then fell classified as to the Saracens. they are found in conjunction with others which belong The hyphened strictly to another and earlier art movement. Similar conditions occurred in Sicily. however. the resemblance in most cases is probably accidental. It has been considered better. notwithstanding that the influence which caused the difference in the latter country hardly existed in The Saracens had been driven out of France long and although here and there a detail may suggest Saracenic before. Moreover.. the century. and possess all the traits customarily associated with work described under that head. essentially eastern in character.. and yet. and it is very doubtByzantine Emperors ful if Byzantine craftsmen ever entered the country . however. and triforium galleries. but it is confusing. In France the churches exhibit almost as much variety as their contemporaries in Italy. the number of these buildings still existing is probably only a small fraction of those standing in the eleventh Roman of the south is almost entirely based on In the north.112 Early Christian.and twelfth-century work of Northern Italy and that of the rest of the country. crossed from south Italy. had no footing in France. for in 1060 the The Normans Saracens* reign was. in others the Romanesque. where Roman buildings were plentiful. clustered piers. has been coined for the work heading^ Byzantine-Romanesque. such as ribbed and vaulted naves. is The architectural result of these conflicts a vast difference between the eleventh. and the people were of a different race. whereas farther south. for in some cases the Byzantine influence is paramount. language spoken was different. detail The models. to group under one heading Byzantine those which are domed and have structures that are and under another Romanesque those in which the long nave and basilican plan predominate.

Seville was not captured stronghold. the and Brittany were to all intents Normandy masters . but most Spanish churches are later. in both south and north were other virtually ruled their large domains as they They acknowledged the King in Paris as their suzerain 5 but in feudal days was a very doubtful force. until 1492. and this was followed by other successes. Britain was Europe. Granada. with the exception of the mountainous districts near die Pyrenees and the north-west part along the Bay of Biscay. no wonder. Burgundy. was part of the or or apart from differences of race and language and the absence of Classical remains. until the whole of the northern half of the country was in their possesvanced. until 1248. But when Rome recalled her legions in the first half of the fifth century. and some eight or ten which belong to the eleventh. closely resembled the Britain. in his Gothic Architecture 9 in Spain. the architecture of the south differed much from Spain. the country fell into the hands of the Saxons and the people returned to paganism. sion. mentions two churches in Barcelona which were probably built in the tenth century. The result was that the Romanesque architecture of northern Spain Romanesque of southern France.113 of what is now France. In her development of Romanesque architecture. and in the midst of all the lawlessness of the Dark Ages the Church was the only possible source of art and civilisation. at the beginning singularly detached from the rest of Britain was never a part of Charlemagne's domain. so that 8 any churches that may have been built were n . was in the hands of the Moors until the eleventh century was far adSpain exercised little influence ment of Romanesque The triumph of the Christians began with the recovery of Toledo in 1085. executed by superficial Moslem craftsmen who remained in the reconquered districts. that of the north. eleventh century. The introduction of French culture and art was the most im- portant formative influence. to. on the early developbecause the whole of the architecture. nor the Moors last Street. eager to displace the Moslem population. with the addition of a proportion of Moslem detail. Towards the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth century there was a steady influx of French Crusaders. country. at the of the of . In the half of the twelfth century more than half of France dependent on. the Kings of England .

There is. after his baptism. therefore. The Saxon chronicles state that the Danes * 5 everywhere plundered and burnt as their custom is . In the sixth century the Irish Church. ban. 1000. Architecturally. as a proselytising force. and that of Ireland declined. the few examples which have survived have particularly interesting characteristics of their own. however. show how widespread was Irish influence. churches abroad dedicated to S. the keeping of Easter. and of those that respect. Probably many of the churches built under Sweyn's son. Columba. S. and the fame of its teachers extended over the S. left Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque In Ireland Christianity continued after the Romans England and. for towards the end of the eighth century the Danes began a series of raids which culminated in the submission of the Saxons to Sweyn in 1013. however. were fortunate many were pulled down fifty years or so later by the Normans. Mdlitus. was not to prevail unmolested in this country for long. was second to none. and when driven from there passed with The number of S. The great point of difference between them. Gall and other monks into Switzerland. from the evidence of manuscripts. were demolished for the same reason. and of the architecture which we call Anglo-Saxon nearly all was built after A. Bishop of country in 596. The second conversion of England to Christian- from the mission which Gregory the Great.D. Columba converted greater part of north-western Europe. Columba. Chad and S. and the last foray of Sweyn's seems to have been unusually sweeping in this Not many churches escaped the fire. The Roman monks and their adherents early came into collision with the followers of S. in order to be rebuilt on a larger scale and in a more sumptuous fashion. In the following year AugusPaulinus and some forty other monks of the tine. Gall.114 destroyed. and after that the power of the Papal Church increased. flourished exceedingly. and the numerous old Irish manuscripts which have been discovered in Switzerland and Germany. His near-namesake. Their success was immediate. Benedictine Order landed in the Isle of Thanet. Nevertheless. In a few years the whole of England was once more Christian. little still standing that was built before England came under the influence of the Normans . settled in Burgundy. S. was settled in Rome's favour by King Oswy of Northumbria at the Synod held at Whitby in 664. In the ity dates Rome5 sent to this . Canute. there is little to be seen. Columnorthern and western Scotland. Christianity.

new ideas. and they can hardly from the neighbouring royal domain of France Both were Italians : Lanfranc came from Pavia. of They certainly did not bring the them from the north. was sufficiently distinct in its character to deserve a title of its own Gothic. in the Abbey of S. was still the quarry for ideas as much as it was a quarry for building materials. must not be regarded as a terminus to one phase of architectural development. There can be the the Normans obtained their inspiration originally from Lombardy traits . through Normandy. A new era dawned. and in 1140. took the place of the old. Rome. and the growing power of the masonic guilds. Denis is merely a great off again junction to which many lines converge. in the first half of the eleventh century. Germany. and then branch It is only a to different countries with regional characteristics. due largely to the increasing interest taken by the people in ecclesiastical matters. . The building of the choir of S. This date. in the greater part of Italy they never entirely abandoned them. great architecture of Lombardy. Denis near Paris. craftsmen. had. began his Norman when Edward Abbey at Westminster. Hastings. indeed^ by the was evident the Confessor. in feet.115 field of sculpture. The nationality of the two prelates who exercised much influence over William I and his successor supplies the clue to its origin. volume of the story point of convenience at which this particular of architectural development may conclude. and other parts of France. although they soon introduced special their which work from contemporary buildings in Italy. Men were in no haste to throw over the old traditions . Anselm was a native of Aosta. After the of Romanesque architecture in England is developments in Normandy and. End of the Period. a new and revolutionary style was born which. to a extent. the aid of Normans. which coincided with the gradual weakening of the hitherto overwhelming pre-eminence of the monastic Orders. their architecture with have obtained it which. lost the pre-eminent position in the arts which it enjoyed at the time of Charlemagne. New forms. both through its early churches and its still earlier imperial monuments. But now a less conservative tendency manifested itself. though owing much to the Romanesque. though convenient. Until the middle of the twelfth century the development of the new ideas proceeded slowly and methodically.

all of which were seriously to affect modes of construction and of detail design. second. In England alone is one able to follow.1 16 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque Arrangement. Spain. the development of Romanesque archidifficulties if tecture. On the one hand there was the undoubted unity of aim which was inspired by a united Church. its own climate and its own particular kind of building materials. these first difficulties. which are mixed in varying proportions in different areas. Another is that early work. and that later work is But most important of all. but on the other there was the independence of each national groups with its own tradition. to study the detail design. the ornament and the decoration which played so important a part in the total aesthetic effect of the Romanesque style* After this we shall consider the story of each Germany. refined. and that the later mode was inevitably an improvement on the earlier. further difficulty is that one is continually tempted to make assumptions which are not always borne out by facts. particularly in is always crude. chronological sequence. and the pitfall which the student of Romanesque and Gothic must avoid. in the chapters which follow. but was forced by some inflexible law to derive everything from someone A of these assumptions sculpture and decoration. proposed. with its long connection with Roman building technique. Normandy and England prefacing each with notes on the important architectural characteristics.. country in turn important examples. and the northern. and following with descriptions of the most Italy.. . France. Saracenic and Lombardic. and which make it impossible for the student to identify the architecture as one unified style. it is surmount. is the assumption that no designer ever thought of anything new for himself. to analyse the kinds of structure that developed from the plan. In Italy there were four formative forces : Roman. in a logical. if not to In an endeavour to avoid. to consider the planning requirements of the church in different areas . The architectural historian is confronted with he attempts to present a consecutive narrative many of the development of Romanesque architecture in western Europe. else's previous achievements. But in France there are two stories the : southern. after given by paying only slight attention to the initial stimulus the Normans. Byzan- tine. and third. with its experimental striving towards an original style. The chief is that variations in structure always followed a logical order.

to Viollet-le-Duc the original church according Dark Ages. like the church at Silchester. three bays of which alone remain. Basse CEuvre. of S. In these early churches. or else have been so altered and added to that their original designs are difficult to make out. In this church the arcades are low. and apse at the east end. had an unbroken tran. and in place of columns there are piers which support semicircular arches. which may 1. Peter's and S.17 originally have been painted. arcade and the clerestory* which is considerable. Denis. The majority have disappeared. The church of Basse CEuvre (sixth or seventh century). They were built during the period of migration which we call the MOST Europe seem From severely simple.basilican plan.IX ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE Planning of the very early Romanesque churches in western to have followed the typical Early Christian . They either been razed to the ground. near Paris. those that remain it appears that the most usual plan was a nave with single aisles and only one few were tri-apsidal. unlike the later Romanesque . to I in.Scale 50 ft. Beauvais. The space between the Sectional view of Church of Basse CEuvre. gives a fair idea of the simplicity of these early examples. Beauvais. and were A Church at Silchester. is a plain surface. sept dividing the apses from the nave and aisles in the same way as at S. I in. Paul Outside the Walls at Rome. Scale at section 50 ft. It provides a link between the Early Christian basilican form and the true Romanesque.

in fact. the cemetery. The walls carry timber trasses with a boarded ceiling. together with the herbarium which supplied the dispensary and the kitchen. is the infirmary and beyond. in effect. the west window has a brick arcMvolt of great delicacy. It shows a group of buildings occupying an area of about 500 feet by 425 feet. and consequently triforiums to the nave. : In the monastic church of Montier-en-Der (c. for neither funds nor workmen were forthcoming to treat the wall surfaces with marble or mosaic in the Early Christian manner. On the the north side are the Abbot's lodging. but this is exceptional.. the guest house. the school and the doctor's quarters. The south side provides the essential accommodation for the monks the cloisters. with its long aisled nave. 998) there are galleries over the aisles. connecting links between the East and the West. the pattern being a most unusual one. which are laid with care. by a considerable extension of the presbytery to the east and the addition of transepts* which resulted in a cruciform shape. Gall. From the ninth century onwards the planning is of the greater churches in western Europe exhibited great advances over the simple arrangements of the early churches. 1 . In the Basse (Euvre more deliberate design is visible outside. this space is very rarely arcaded or decorated. There were also others which were circular in plan. They are.1 18 Early Christian y Bysantine and Romanesque 1 examples. Most of them developed the basilican plan. and which was originally presented to the Abbot of that monastery early in the monastic establishment ninth century. between the civilisation of the Byzantine world and the new religious and artistic movement which at the beginning of the ninth century was in its infancy. on the east. Types of Plan. a 'project' for what was then considered to be a perfect monastery. A most interesting is documentary record of a great provided in the manuscript plan which was discovered in the library of S. The arches on the side windows are of rough red tiles alternating with stone voussoirs . library. This plan is. Next. Gall in Switzerland. THE CRUCIFORM PLAN S.. and are of great interest because they show unmistakable evidence of an eastern influence which was absent in churches built after the close of the Romanesque period. and the western wall faced with small squared stones (about 6 inches square).

R. N. E. Threshing floor. KEY A. GaU. Cemetery. Cloisters. Infirmary. all with which forms the core of the The is by two of Plan of a ninth-century monastic establishment after the manuscript pkn of S. and cattle byres. House of Novices. Calefactory^ with dormitory over. Workshops.H9 refectory. dormitory 5 To the for west are the farm yards. Church. B. C. K. Bakehouse and Brewhouse. Farm buildings. Guest houses. S. P. I. D. O. Q. Cellars. Poultry houses. G. M. Gardeners* quarters. H. . L. Unnamed: Abbot's Lodging? J. Refectory. Kitchen. School house. Doctor's quarters. F.

but was not developed in France and England. The most important of these are (i) the need for additional altars. Lincoln. However. While the undoubted examples of Carolingian architecture are very few. and lay brethren. (3) relic worship. a considerable in the church was essential. which accommodate altars. which accommodation had to be provided for the numerous lay brethren who worked in the fields belonging to each monastery and who were little more than agricultural labourers. It also required modification in the case of Cistercian monasteries. . this arrangement presented many difficulties if the church of the monastery was also the church of the people. as were York. (4) alterations in rules relating to baptism and burial. or if the Church was a cathedral pure and simple. Additional Altars.120 Early Christian^ Bysantine and Romanesque columns into a nave and aisles. . : occasioned chiefly by the large increase in the number of clergy and monks . as at Canterbury. which en- couraged pilgrimages and necessitated planning for the circulation of crowds . and so many of the examples in France. etc. 1 in In the case of a large monastic establishment. The crease in size of the eastern plan of S. his chair. had etc. the nave were a Cistercian monastery the nave was for the their altar was placed at its east end. Norwich. Durham. in which their representative. this plan for S. but it would be satisfactory so long as the nave in addition to the choir was given up exclusively to the monks. At first the practice number of altars 1 At Fountains Abbey. The aisles of screened off for the use of the monks. Gall did not show the inarm which was the most remarkable architectural development in the following centuries . unattached to a monastery and served by secular canons. and the modifications which were introduced. There are two apses. Beverley. and a number of additional altars arranged down the aisles and along the centre of the nave. Gall provides proof of the degree of refinement and completeness which had already been reached in the monastic system* Causes of Changes. The advances in planning. (2) the insistence on more marked separation between clergy and laity within the church.. The double apsidal ending is one of the most characteristic features of German churches. are traceable to various causes. Winchester. one at each end. and the recorded descriptions generally too vague to enable reasonable assessment to be made. the Bishop. The one altar (or even the three which are occasionally found at the eastern end of an Early Christian church) was insufficient.

To the east is the high altar. as in the Abbaye-aux-Dames. or more. Two plans of eastern extension were followed In the latter half of the eleventh century. when the choir extended westward of the crossing into the nave. in most cases. while the chancel stand out beyond the aisles. as in the later Even cathedrals. The earlier and simpler plan consisted merely in lengthening the chancel by the addition of two bays. To the west of the choir clergy. the entirely east with seats for the officiating laity seem to have had in the transepts. In England. To the altars from the nave and erected viding one altar at the eastern end of the From the eleventh century onwards the laity. Georges. are typical examples of the simple elongation of the chancel. separated by a lofty screen 5 are further chapels. in Gloucester bays and Winchester Cathedrals one bay. or in abbey churches which were not monasteries In Westminster Abbey the choir still occupies three cathedrals.121 was. Albans Is typical. the transepts naturally appertained to the nave. showing that additional altars were even . and . a continuation of the nave) was screened off and exclusively for the clergy* except on days of festival when the church was open to all. Caen. Normandy. The extension west- ward of the choir was more marked in cathedrals to which were attached. The arrangement of S. between the transepts and the The aisles were lengthened as well. as the nave. each pier of the nave had an on Its in the did not of Clergy. to the of pro- for the use of the and laity was complete. they were completely cut off from the chancel by walls. and beyond this. the Church of Cerisy-la-Foret. as at S. BoscherviUe. Gall. to In the Abbey Church of S. effective separation from the transepts was easily obtained by means of choir stalls or screens. all access to additional altars which were placed When the choir was of the crossing. S. The transepts square. although someeastern apses times. of the nave. yet they desired privacy. The churches to the people from whom they derived so this -Income. in Norwich Cathedral two bays. Alban's. the aisles finish of each has an apse. Here the choir extends three bays into the nave and beyond the crossing. and have apses or altars on the east then considered walls. Eastern Extension. In both. is the altar for the laity. in the of S. and a whole section to the in effect.

1066) and of Canterbury Cathedral (c. . the aisles formed culs-de-sac. 1070). An eastern ambulatory. Gloucester Cathedral being 1 The probably the first example. In black. and where pilgrims came in vast numbers. This was a very serious objection in churches where pilgrimages to shrines and were frequent. In France it seems to have been introduced early in the following century.. 1179-1184. but unless the altar was illustrating eastern extension. relics Eastern Ambulatory. It is impossible to say in which church this plan was first adopted. which may have been adopted in a few instances in the tenth century but did not become general for nearly a hundred years. The apses to the aisles were swept away.122 necessary. to I in* placed within the inner circle the problem of circulation still remained. ambulatory plan was Canterbury Cathedral.. with some hesitation. in outline. Early Christian. cathedral at the time of Lanfranc. or even in which country it was first conceived. Byzantine and Romanesque Hommes. 1070-1077. The chief drawback to the above plan was that circulation around the east end was difficult . 1090-1110. Verona. and the aisles continued behind the High Altar. but in England not until 1089. ascribes to the tenth century. shaded. with a gallery over. eastern After Willis. Stephano. solved the circu- lation difficulty by providing an ambulatory behind the central apse.. occurs in the Church of S. Scale ioo/r. The later and more complicated plan. Plan 1 Simpson considered that the difficulty of circulation had been overcome in some of the early circular churches. which Cattaneo. Caen This was also the original plan of the Abbaye-aux(c.

Scale 50'ft. though slightly different plan for providing the necessary This is not strictly speaking an ambulatory. suitable circulation. 1 120) an Romsey Abbey Church. still exists. S. 229). at Cfaartxes. as at Morienval Church at Vignory. The The was east end of Romsey Abbey Church (c. an important detail which will be referred to later (p. and Canterbury Cathedral the murder of Thomas Toulouse. In some of the earliest examples the outside wall of the ambulatory forms an unbroken semicircle. a Becket. project beyond the curving most churches apses These apsidal . S. Tours.123 especially favoured in bodies of saints and of the or crowds. Saturnin (Auvergne). The Chevet. but in wall and contain altars. ro i IK. Denis. crypt of the original built early in the eleventh century and has an ambulatory which. The ending is thus square. as at S. but the aisles are continued east of the chancel. in. Martin. loo/r. to i (Oise) and S. was continued above. Paris. it is almost certain. and open into a passage behind the high altar..

Paris. were windows. 1030. and in those parts of the south of France where the Roman tradition was strongest. as at S. but in Le Mans Cathedral (1230) there are as many as end and the remainder thirteen chapels surrounding the choir. Toulouse.124 chapels at Early. Scale loo/r. /7\ i m^^^^rr^--T-f:-^^^-^" A 7 J j M>i'' ' i ' / . Paris. . Germany. The chevet plan in its cathedrals built in simple form was fairly general in English times. Christian*. I in. In most early examples there were only three chapels. but afterwards gave place to a square termination. Sernin. as a rale. probably because the projection of the chapels is considerable and the windows in them could not give sufficient light to the ambulatory. as at Notre-Dame du Port. although sometimes there were five. seven at the at the sides . were small. and occasionally four. this ending was maintained in Romanesque churches in Italy. c. and almost without exception semiBetween them. Romanesque it when French influence was paramount. as at Vignory (Haute-Mame). This ambulatory with chapels the characteristic ending of nearly all the great churches of northern France is called the * chevet'. between these are windows. But in the north of France the apse was defined by T *Vr i /|\ ! [ /}\ I ! . In Notre-Dame. Sometimes double aisles were carried chapels. to from which opened a number of round it.K' X'' \ :/ ! - / !\ \/ X'' V /' \ ^UAJ/^ii/^J/xL^l-U^N Notxe-Dame. Clermont-Ferrand. curving round the apsidal ending. the chevet is of a simple kind. which gave the east end a complexity absent from the a range of columns with the aisle 3 simple apse of the early basilicas. first Byzantine and Romanesque circular in plan. It will be recollected that the Early Christian termination was a simple large niche . and the number and size of chapels increased.

however. diminish in diameter from base to capital. at Driibeck (c. and others contemporary or of slightly later date in Germany. was re- in in nection with the Early Christian churches of S. In the basilica there are only three. origin to Roman Cathedral at AJbi (c. The reasons for the difference are that the mediaeval builders rejoiced in recesses. Clemente. in feet. to the its 1282). Edmund's (c. ATo&i Arcade. In and S. in the cathedral there are twelve. . piers of the columns every third bay. IOGO) and columns and piers alternated. 2 The without aisles of the belong to the same same period. centrally vaulted space. 17 and 28). this number was doubled. so the alternation of large and small supports appear to have anything to do with vaulting requirements. following classical precedent. were built. and S.125 The contemporary existed in was a in for from quite days.. before the not vaulting . the aad it St. but in barely one modern church out of ten are they . and deplored 'the fetish of the aisled plan' which still held the field early in the twentieth century. In some of the early were combined with columns. is the direct descendant of the Basilica of. Rome (pp. 1089-96) in Canterbury modelled in 1 1 10. Miniato. and side They differ only in the number and size of these recesses. 1 detail of some interest in these churches. *In mediaeval days the aisled plan had its A circumambulatory advantages . No one can seriously maintain that columns and piers are not obstructions to the service of the present time. but for modern congregational purposes aisles of any width are an anachronism.* . carry transverse arches. 1 All these churches were introduction of roofed. which is typical. Michael. Both buildings have the wide. is that the columns are generally monolithic and. exclusive of those round the apse.Constantine. with an entasis. 1020). Thus the and number four at Norwich. Florence (1013)5 P*ers which were introduced ^ every third bay did. It is difficult to believe that they country. to the same style of building and The aisleless plan of southern France owes rather than Early Christian tradition. 2 Simpson considered that the aisleless plan had many advantages. Aisleless plans. Hildesheim (c. At S. dispensed with. Very different from the many-aisled churches of northern France are the churches entirely south.. a feature crossing . internal buttresses taking the thrusts of the vault.

126 Early Christian^ Bymntim and Romanesque the reduplication of parts (which the Romans. and free from crosses and ornaments. he declared for a square ending. Bernard. the Puritan of the Middle Ages as he might be called. An example of this is shown in the extremely interesting sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt. Until the end of the eleventh century the Benedictine Order was all-powerful in determining matters of church planning and ritual. the curious carvings and paintings which attract the worshipper's gaze and hinder his attention. that we are more tempted and to spend the whole day in wondering at these things rather than in meditating the law of God. and sculpture and painting shall be excluded the glass shall be of white colour. . was declared by S. a Plan from V. was founded. wrote. of the dangers attending the construction of great squares of vaulting a few inches only in thickness. *of the vast height of your churches. This Order was inaugurated in protest against the extravagance of both Benedictine living and Benedictine building. why at least do they not shrink from the expense? l S. and were afraid. avoided). G. Cistercian Influence. if men are not ashamed of these things. perhaps.' down He further stated that *no towers or belfries of wood or stone of any notable height shall be erected. to C I say naught. So many and so marvellous are the of divers shapes on every hand.' he be unnecessarily elaborate and over-enriched. aqueducts and other similarly designed buildings. G.. 'shall be of the greatest simplicity. declared. Gothic churches. their immoderate length. . a rival Order.' and he seems to have disliked triforiums. which appears plain by comparison with later the most famous member of the Order. The Abbey Church of Vezelay. the costly polishings. their superfluous breadth. but in 1098 the Cistercian. for they are generally absent from Cistercian churches. trans. Coulton. except in the Colosseum. Inasmuch as an apsidd eastern ending was universal Sketch-book. in Benedictine churches.. de Honnecourt's 1 Apologia ad Gwllelmum. ' laid 'A church. For God's sake. varieties to read in the marble than in our books.' he stringent rules for his followers. Bernard of Clairvaux.

It Ireland and Scotland of an early date. new plans. built before the beginning of the twelfth century. In the days of the early Church. baptism and burial. The of Chiaravalle. such as Old Sfaoreham. in the deventh-century cathedral of Rochester. a separate baptistery 'Here Order/ a square church which was designed for the Cistercian . 124). with chapels extending beyond It. Las Huelgas. Germany and Belgium. built long before S. when pagans were being converted in large 1 numbers and adult baptism was is general. outside Burgos In Spain. but they did not in fact adhere to such simplicity for long.. It is a cathedrals mistake to suppose that the marked feature of English and churches their eastern rectangularity is due to tion.' l 127 It architect. Add. there are examples In Italy. the only difference being that the chapels are more numerous than was thought necessary before^ and are rectangular.tsqw thirteenth-century * written^ Vesci une d'Cistiaux. etc. The square east end was an English tradioccurred in the Abbey Church of Romsey.and early twelfth-century parish churches in England. in churches in Cistercian influence. until the Renaissance upset form. Nor is the square east aid found only in Britain . Barfreston and Patrixboume. Bernard's ment of church planning is difficult of It has been exaggerated by of the great French cathedrals and effect to writers* The The attention to It and. destroyed their traditions. had some influence on church planning. France. which was Benedictine in foundation (see p. near Milan. ki fu the his a en the Jcve!?r- To what extent S. Dareth. Maulbronn In Germany and Fumess and Bulldwas in England* show a remarkable uniformity. Bernard's instructions in the main were followed. but reversions to an old one. Two important rites of the Christian religion. They are not. It Is found in pre-Norman churches at Bradford-on-Avon and Dover Castle. All that the Cistercians did was to revert to the simplicity of the Early Christian plan. Bernard became a power. and in countless eleventh. continued to develop the But in churches built for the Cistercians in other countries. They follow that early basMican plan which had a transept at the extreme east end. Baptism. however. S.

but it is unlikely that the somewhat unusual western planning of these last two cathedrals was due to baptismal requirements. *in case of necessity'. 195-6). brought about a change. to may generally at the the In is been different. bet outside at <jx^?tk::: of S. In 813 the Council at Mayence 1 It has beea suggested examples was designed as.128 /?. in Ely it occupies a good position in the south transept at the west end 3 and in Peterborough it is placed in a similar position and has a bay to itself. had devoted thdr lives to the desire to pay special honour to those who the advancement of religion or had lost its defence. Jearij Poitiers. the objection to cremation.. near the south this is undoubtedly its original position as a rale. but in 563 the Council of Braga gave permission for burial in churchyards. although with western towers it not infrequently occupies the the tower. its previous great the customary position of the 2 door. the insistence on burial in consecrated ground. but this is unlikely (see pp. on the south side. could perform the rite in any in the IE extent. but on no account within the walls of the church. that the western apse in some of the German a baptistery. or immediately to the east of it. However. But as the IE is any had of each building would have no country was this done. and bodies wore buried in the cata- combs or in graveyards outside the city. 2 In Winchester and Chester Cathedrals it is on the north. the of the deceased or of his relatives to secure the most sacred above in all.. no building on be definitely to have of even the and the It be expected that a for so important a in churches after the intro- as duction and that a for the rite. but its original lost. In parish churches end of the aisle. ^ . :*ntinc was a for the not in the as Into the Bat and the to In of the the in as a is to be built well and Asti . the In the early days of Christianity the sanitary laws of still prevailed. It was strongly at first.

IE in whole the and S. notably southern Italy.. of the nave. chancels raised over crypts are far from uncommon. The best Zeno. R. MIniato. 186). France and England.r.r. an example of the latter arrangement. held at to and rr:^t^r the be it the mas ?. but in the two Florence and Verona just mentioned. or monasteries. under the control of an abbot (in the case of priories. almost without exception. It is two by this In many of the early of plan. the in wwi. 1 2 . The greater and more important churches formed the nucleus of conventual establishments. and consequently in those parts of western Europe which under its influence. in Germany. 1 860-61. It the feet was (p. Ashpital. and sub- The Monastery. sequent somewhat doubtful. Journal. closed. although the is the crypt is not visible from the of . to overrate the fine effect produced in is It is possible that alterations additions have destroyed the original design. In more northern Europe. In Trani Cathedral. Verona. and S. But the west ends of the crypts That all were so originally are.v /L!*\: and dead.LB.u. tfae^ church may be regarded as typical. Florence are in S. for the of the not The 7a-c. the front of the crypt is open and arcaded. the crypt extends under nearly the whole area of the chancel.-^. Apollinare is stated to have been finished in 549.A. under a A.129 decided that *no one be In a J but a left It abbots. and the vista from the nave down to the crypt and along the length of the chancel above is one of the effective features to be found in Romanesque church architecture.. Raised chancels were contrary to the rule of the Byzantine Church. bodies. the crypt is entirely sunk or the nave floor raised to the level of the chancel.. As S. the Council of Braga's ruling appears to have been a protest against an existing custom.-s. as In S. or worthy priests. or and to the list .. But the size of the crypt of the and below the chancel.

130 l and the was used as a the or it was the a of the and was of in all of the Ms diocese* The and as site. monks and A . Brewhouse. Chapter House. The cloisters were generally square and placed for warmth on the south side of the nave. (Guest rooms over. convent simply means a religious association. Scale 200 ft. Infirmary? Refectory. (Cistercian). 1 It is a mistake to call a settlement for monks a monastery and a settlement for nuns a convent. whether of monks 3 friars or nunsj a monastery means the actual group of buildings 3 whether for monks or nuns. F. naturally. was the similar. a covered way5 between the living quarters of the the church itself. H. Abbot's house. which pro- vided a in plan link. by the devoted The Ground plan of Fountains Abbey 5 Yorkshire i in. to KEY A.) C. Cellars. D. The Chapter House a place of assembly where the monks would gather to discuss the business of the monastery was approached from the east side of the cloister. Cloister. G. J. Guest houses. such variations of limitations were. B. to the monastic These included the cloisters. E. Church. Calefactory. life. I.

>e. the herbarium. . The church was the most important and dominant architectural feature. provision was buildings. The theory that the monks built their own churches and that they were active artists. their own hands executed everything/ but the evidence to support this statement is lacking. l Texier considered that * until the thirteenth century most churches were built by monks. etc. then. equally delightful detail. which included the >roV.c. The of the was was to the as the or or The the the by the the the The as was for the for of the The the to the the of not for the but the the Infirmary. the fish pool and the orchards. by watch-towers. laundry. especially in the cloisters and Chapter side. universal plan. Within the grounds cemetery. lay On the the guests. intervals The whole an at and surrounded by strong walls.A\ In Cistercian n:ona>terics the 1 3i was rectangular in shape. masons and designers is now no longer held. The the undercroft^ on of the the in the sacristy. The Builders. but the They were built in ancillary buildings are not without interest. for the all rr^'LbJ At of the in the buIldingSj for the lay on the church. the out- wide arable fields. might have been a monk skilled and while Benedict's rule provided that 1 This subject has been thoroughly investigated by R. constituted the principal of the to mediaeval monastery.. Swartwout in The Monastic Craftsman* 1932. involving similar but slighter constructional skill and incorporating. This. While there may occasionally have been a cleric with architectural ability. the same materials. for the cloisters.. or vessel's were stored. just as there in botany or mathematics. the Houses. E.

robed in imperial purple. Arnold. 2 Wyclif. magistery of nearly a thousand have been concerned with the today. Select English Works. They of tect was an the to With the archiand who of the employers. when the tomb was opened in 1165. the for There to is no of of the as In the conin the did but the is not the the The or in no But use to the of to be built** 1 so mediaeval Bordered and for*. 1360): *They conspire together no of their craft take less for a day than they have much which might themselves. The building has a marked .' 2 hinder the earnings CENTRALLY PLANNED CHURCHES We were fortunate in being able to cite the illustrate the S. and that none of them shall do steady true work of other men of their craft. 780). and here he was found mshrined. in the cathedral at Ak-la-Chapdle (c.. We are equally lucky in having. Matthew Paris expressly warns us that for a building to be attributed to a particular Abbot only means that he arranged for it to be built and provided the funds.. although he should by good conscience less. Ed. There is singularly up-to-date in the following criticism of by John Wyclif (c. . the are our were largely financial They not so very but records indicate that they the tradesmen of today. 1 Even as far back as the thirteenth century. T.132 R\^n^Ki due if all the left rsrrJrt?:!. an authentic example of a circular church of the same period (PL 12) This was built as his tomb house by Charlemagne. Further. Gall manuscript to changes which had taken place in the development of the basilican plan up to the time of Charlemagne. seated on a throne. there is no were particularly pious men. or by or and the by lay archimason.

the 4/1*1- Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapdlc. The example at Brescia is more important . not multangular. but supposed. first Scale soft. 44). Chapcllc the (c and the Its of Saa Ahc-la- p* 65). Churches of this type are also found in Italy. here the central part is domed. with its arched corbel courses. the outside. but otherwise the differences are slight. is a church similar in size and plan. such as the Tomb of an intersecting vault divided into square and triangular bays by transverse arches which cross from the piers to the aisle wall. the surroundbeing circular and vaulted./frj/jfitYlttn? 133 the By/antinc feeling^ It consrst* of an within a by turret staircases. at Bologna and Brescia. Both churches have galleries which are arcaded on the front. This type of vaulting suggests that the church does not date from the time of Charlemagne. The vault is not a continuous ing the aisle barrel vault. as was formerly Roman is Costanza (p. The outside wall is octagonal. also In Germany. wall on the the is by a On one was of this is a a The Yitak. too. Original plan at I in. although two centuries later in date than Charlemagne's church. as in circular buildings. pilaster below the low-pitched timber strips and openings under the eaves . to At Ottmarsheim.

eleventh or twelfth century.. Gross-in.. the cruciform portion being defined by four piers. is. Theodore. small churches in Constantinople (p. of the cross are covered by high barrel and the apses by semi-domes at a Church of Germigny-les. In plan the church.134 Early Christian* Byzantine and Romanesque Brescia Cathedral. Scale soft. Further remarkable evidence of is Byzantine influence afforded by the remains of mosaic decora- . Above the crossing rises a moderately lofty square tower. which is said to have been built at the beginning of the ninth century. with a dome which is almost The arms certainly a recent innovation.Square The curious Church of Germigny-les-Pres (Loiret). more interesting than the circular buildings. to I in. is like S. Apses. in orthodox Byzantine fashion. encloses a Greek cross. its side apses.lower level. In plan it consists of a square which. which in plan resemble horseshoes. in some respects. provides further evidence that the church belongs to the Plan. roof. save vaults for Scale Soft. to I in. 76) and numerous Greece. project from the sides.

Martin de Londres. until 1076. of which apparently only the When aisle was covered. who died at Metz in 1040. formed by four apses around a domed This type of plan was never central square. The Church of S. Paul states 2 that between the years 990 and 1000 pilgrimages to Palestine were general. which have already been described under Byzantine work (pp. and detached from. had visited Jerusalem four times. Emperor of the Eastern Empire. M. and that one Foulgues Nerra. To what extent these centrally planned churches were the result of eastern influence is a point that may be argued. Croix. . For there can be no doubt that many of is even more important. but what was its plan? Constantine's church. Eastern Influence. with their renewed interest in centralised planning. small indeed in contrived in a new manner of building. His work was destroyed. the central part being open to the sky. freely permitted to enter Jerusalem on payment of a small legal toll. Their plans are quatrefoil. to King Alfred 3 who 'made a church. 135 which Viollet-le-Duc considered unique on French soil. For four piers emarea bedded in the ground carry the whole erection. great possibilities. a great apse. 94-98). 1016) and that of S. the first to be built there. built a circular church around the Tomb. the Crusaders reached Jerusalem in 1099. is evidence of the power of ByzanThe fact that. Scale 5o/t. It is well known that during the Romanesque period the south and south-west of France had commercial relations with the The remarkable group of domed churches around Perigueux. Montto i in. both In southern France.Architecture tion In the eastern apse. the small circular churches were Inspired by the Church of the Byzantine Empire. about 120 feet in diameter. are of a similar type. majour.! Croix. they at once began the rebuilding of the church . The church as it. was basllican.' 2 In his Histoire Monwnentale de la France* : . but instead of following the Eastern 1 There is a very interesting reference in William of Malmesbury Gesta Pont. developed in western Europe until the architects of the Renaissance. Constantine Monarchus. .y 199. but about 1040 his namesake. Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. realised Its S. Christian pilgrims were tine influence. He built it to the east of. with four chancels of elliptic plan round the edge. then existed was therefore well known. Montxnajour (c. Anthyme S. . which he placed around the spot where he believed the Tomb to be.

allow for indefinite expansion in by multiplication length. but only two survive intact. The result was a western circular nave the building of Constantine Monarchus. Toxnaso may be taken as typical. which ends with an apse. a c third. to I in. In the centre eight columns support a vaulted gallery which forms a triforium. and an oblong benia. Byzantine and Romanesque Emperor's plan of a detached church. 1 Built by Bishop Conrad. In England there were fifteen examples. which the finite circular form..and an eastern oblong chancel.. Giovanni al Sepolcro at Brindisi.. they built their chancel on to the circular church. about 15 feet in diameter. at Northampton and Cambridge.136 Early Christian. Romanesque architecture had to fulfil the needs of a growing society. tive it might be It architecturally. the last Temple Church in London. in Poitou. system made such plans unsuitable. a plan which could. covered by a dome. Domini in similitudine alias it 2 Although the Templars may have taken the plan from Jerusalem^ had been employed before. was severely bombed in the war. could not do. and the Temple in Paris which was de2 stroyed at the Revolution. tralised The circular and centype of plan did not persist beyond the Romanesque period. Toxnaso. S. and probably had a Byzantine origin. The development of the western monastic Conclusion. the Rotunda at Constance. plan that of bays. near Bergamo. Scale soft. such as S. 1 the church at Charroux. Bergamo. 'sepulchrum 9 Jerusalimitani * was therefore the basilican prevailed. There can be little doubt that the church as rebuilt supplied the plan for many Templar' churches throughout western Europe. The small Church of S. Tomaso. . or chancel. however attracS. It has a circular nave.

especially in domestic work. especially in England and but the desire for security from fire. could not have been covered in a sound and satisfactory manner.. Timber roofs might3 it is true. to some extent. led to the adoption of the stone vault. and in south-western France. The vault was no invention of the Romanesque period. the main weight of the walls being supported by surrounding arches. like those of the Romans. are solid. where a tradition of domical construction had been developed. it carries only a light panel of stone (the tympanum). being advantage I The lintel occurs occasionally over small windows and doorways. But although the forms remained much the same. the outer covering being bedded on top of the vault itself. which was the alternative. it was abandoned before the close of the Romanesque period in favour of vault construction. have been employed. necessary for congregational and ritual requirements. as in the Early Christian churches and were. of a barrel vault over an aisled church is that. they are only a foot or so thick. Barrel Vaults. however. The significant features of Roman- esque construction are the arch and the vault. the barrel vault and the intersecting vault. however. Of the two forms. the methods of construction adopted by the Romanesque builders -especially in the intersecting vault are in many respects different from those of earlier work. Some Romanesque barrel vaults. for permanence and Italy monumental effect. and without the vault the large floor spaces. the wide openings between columns and piers could not have been bridged. Generally.CHAPTER X ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE Structure ^ ' *HE Arch and the Vault. The use of the dome. In the majority of cases. and both were extensively used by the Romans. 1 Without -* the arch. and it spans the larger doorways in many churches. the former was well known to the Egyptians and the Assyrians. and a protecting timber roof is superimposed One practical disin the same way as on intersecting vaults. 1 137 . did not spread beyond the orbit of Byzantine influence.

because they are too far apart. projecting from the sprang from pilasters. namely the piers . as c on piers. Diagonal Ribs.. The earliest Romanesque intersecting vaults. where the vault springs Both these advantages were known to and thoroughly appreciated by the Romans. 266). they appeared arches (or wall ribs) were introduced so that the infilling of each bay (or severy. on arches as well presses equally on voids In the words of Sir George Gilbert Scott. 1 Simpson regarded this as a blessing in disguise. The vault then face of the wall or pier. rested on four arches.138 Early Christian. . or groin' lines. 1 and solids. A second and more important disadvantage is that good clerestory lighting is imsince any side windows have to be kept below the possible. because he thought the principal light to a church should come from the west end. and as their span was less than that of the below it. the strengthening of the especially in Burgundy and Auvergne. were never popular in England in Romanesque John's Chapel in above the galleries and terminates in a semi-circular apse(seep. longitudinal vault. and second. were continuous. Byzantine and Romanesque it continuous. These transverse arches do not carry the vault as they did in the Roman building known as the Baths of Diana at Nimes. of the vault. The next development was the most revolutionary of all. has Advantages of the Intersecting Vault. by arches which spring from barrel vault at intervals with transverse the piers of the arcade. Development of the Vault: Transverse Arches. thus concentrating it more efficiently on the piers. it concentrates the thrust and weight of the vault on the points best it permits capable of receiving them. These arches or attached columns. appearance s is partly overcome in many twelfth-century churches. The intersecting vault two important advantages over the barrel vault. to use the more architectural term). an illogical arrangement of divided substructure and continuous so far as it affects internal superstructure.* This disadvantage. The first modification made by the eleventh-century builders was to divide the vault into square bays by transverse arches. Barrel vaults times. This was the introduction of diagonal ribs at the lines c of intersection. of the vault. the Tower of London. as in the crypt of Rochester Cathedral. At the same time. But this argument is only valid if the nave is exceptionally short. First. like those of the Romans. clerestory windows at the sides as high as the apex The best early example is to be found in S. and that obtrusive side lighting was a nuisance.. it entails springing.

a ribbed vault. the wall ribs were omitted. as it had only its own weight to carry. because of the conservative instincts of the monastic Orders which were especially powerful there. and in Burgundy. The principle of a combination of thrusts concentrated at given points was now complete. Early Ribbed Vaults. was quite independent of the walls. There can be no doubt that the rib considerably simplified the building of vaults of wide span. and (2) the infilling. particularly by reducing the 1 In many early vaults in England and France.139 became from a groined or interand each bay was now composed of (i) a constructional framework of transverse arches. since the great thickness of the side walls rendered them unnecessary. they were often omitted in later work. in effect. The latter. or web. (Left) Intersecting vault. quarter of the twelfth century are without themL. . longitudinal or wall arches. (Right) Intersecting vault with transverse and wall ribs. and the stage was set for the later developments of Gothic architecture. which rested on the frame. Diagonal ribs first appeared in churches towards the end of the eleventh century. 1 and diagonal ribs . could be merely a few inches thick and. as distinguished secting vault. but they did not become Most Romanesque vaults of the first general for some fifty years .

and the date of these is said to be 1120. vaults its width is 44 feet and also one of the most effective. Awbrogio. such as those of the Basilica of Constantine3 etc. as permanent centres to carry is more than possible that by the eleventh century the old methods but even admitting this. entirely forgotten. one of the widest of Romanesque .' If this approximate date is correct. Milan (PL 10) The claim of priority for Italy rests with S. the wide nave of which has ribbed vaults. The was that the Romanesque builders did not hide or disguise the reinforcement of the groin. they lost their independent functions and became of the vault. The structural value of the ribs has aesthetic eye rests been so often emphasised that their merit is sometimes forgotten. ribbed vaults appeared simulof the taneously in different parts of the country at the beginning and Poitiers in the south.140 Early Christian. was built in the second half of the eleventh century. the weight of the vault was concentrated over the piers in much the same way as in Romanesque construction^ . Which country deserves the credit for being the visible ribs first to use below the groins cannot be decided with certainty. the Romanhad been used later. Ambrogio. The nave. esque builders cannot be credited with an entirely new invention. strictly speaking.. at Bordeaux and in the valleys perle (Britanny) in the north. but these did not project below the surface of the vault and. In the district around Beauvais and Soissons many churches of about this date have aisles vaulted with diagonal ribs. at Quimtwelfth century. the form of which is to a great extent lost through poor lighting. around Beauvais the Seine. All countries were engaged in trying to find a satisfactory solution to the same difficulty. It is on the ribs that the and not on the infilling. In France. At Morienval (Oise). Milan. 1 It merely. the Romans used them the infilling. but exposed the ribs as real novelty essential elements of the structure with aesthetic significance. But did Did these builders. The east end of this church is ninth century. originate diagonal ribs? form? In Roman they not merely reintroduce them in a modified amount of timber centering intersecting vaults there were diagonal ribs of brickwork. etc. a narrow of ambulatory round the eastern apse is covered by ribbed vaults. Byzantine and Romanesque required. Marne. according c to Cattaneo. Neverthesimply reinforcement at the weakest point for much the same reason as they were less. was 1 In Roman intersecting vaults. S. and the Romanesque builders deserve great praise for realising its possibilities. Oise. being covered with concrete.

Ambrogio. Cattaneo's own statement. scale than those in S. was the nave built forty or fifty years before the tower the date of which is known to be 1129 or at about the same time? This kind of vault was not so difficult to build as were many later ones in England and France. only a few feet above the crown of the arches of the main arcades. It to believe this.' This sentence mentions two dates when building operations were in progress. on a smaller arch*. perhaps the whole of it was. the angle shafts which carry the diagonal ribs are so important that they must be part and parcel of the They would never have been made so large if original design. are not conclusive evidence that the vaults over had diagonal ribs. no angle shaft . although its span is considerable. Ambrogio. On the other hand. if it Diagrams illustrating (left) springing of groined vault with (right) the same a but with introduction of angle shaft. and in 1196 they tinues repaired the damage done to the edifice by the fall of an arch in the principal nave. they had been intended merely to carry groin lines. and the real question is. although it may be true. There are angle shafts to the vault under the gallery of the north transept. and there are only three vaulted bays to the nave of S. therefore. Angle shafts. it springs low down. because. But *the fall of an Is difficult : were a transverse arch. therefore. Winchester. fairly assume that diagonal ribs were intended from the first. but no . Angle Shafts and Ribbed Vaulting. The building of the nave may have preceded that of the campanile by only a few years.Romanesque built 141 twenty years or more before the similar vaults of France. shows that part of the nave vault must have been rebuilt after 1196. means the collapse of two bays . Cattaneo conc ln 1129 the second belfry was erected. One may. which would give c. 1120 for the nave vault.

the rib may have strengthened to some extent deduce that while the weakest line of the vault. Durham Cathedral. For England. and the infilling is no so one must inevitably lighter than in an ordinary groined vault. because the groin lines of the vault otherwise had to start from the inner angle of the pier carrying the transverse arch. as in Durham or else semi-circular. be strong. the earliest in this country. or infilling. Byzantine and Romanesque introduced before diagonal ribs diagonal ribs... 2 1 N. For it was the introduction of the rib that led to the solution of the problem of covering large spans with the way more than did any other feature. The Romanesque making the ribs elliptical or segmental.. Angle shafts were were thought of. and sprang from the same level. subsequent developments Early Difficulties. which did not provide a satisfactory springing. it is a dome. But when diagonal ribs are added. in his Gothic Architecture. which were completed by 1096. the architects forward for over a hundred years. the of Gothic architecture. Corroyer. While diagonal ribs were a great advance. the arches of which the groins are semi-elliptical and therefore weak in form. since the groin lines appear unconstructional and are simply the meeting lines of barrel vaults at right angles. square vault without ribs. In a they introduced a difficulty which had not existed before. when the other arches of the vaults were semi-circular also.. the stones being laid in rings> and the ribs acting merely as stiffeners. Avit Senieur. Pevsner. the small vaults over the aisles of These were cerribbed vaults.142 Early Christian. aesthetic reasons. therefore. Now the most curious feature Durham taMy of the Durham vaults is that the ribs do not appear to have been built independently of the web. in southern France. but Cathedral. The latter form was strong. 2 The domical form was avoided in some cases by the stilting of the transverse and longitudinal of the infilling builders tried Outline of European Architecture^ 1948. the result was practically a dome and should have been built as such. a strong claim can be made In for priority. the whole structure is changed. for the ribs have to carry the weight and must. An M. This weakness does not matter in Roman vaults. stone and that encouraged. the choir are Cathedral. but even that cannot be entirely substantiated. says that in the Church of S. it was introduced primarily for "It represents the ultimate fulfilment of that tendency towards articulation which had driven Romanesque 1 Naturally.. are semi-circular. .' of priority regarding diagonal ribs has aroused considerquestion able controversy.

(right) domical vault having all ribs semi-circular. These difficulties were never properly solved It was not until the pointed arch was in Romanesque times.143 arches. This generally involved excessive stilting of the arch between the nave and the aisle. early vaults were over aisles. adopted in vaulting that longitudinal. Georges^ BoscherviUe^ Normandy (c. to some extent. . The problem was complicated further in the case of vaulting over the curving ambulatory^ (Left) Vault with elliptical diagonal ribs and with semi-circular transverse and wall ribs . It will be appreciated that the early vaults could be most nearly successful only when applied over square bays. cook* the quently curves without producing weak or ugly lines. where only the two transverse arches CQuld be of similar span. Exact setting out Most of these vaults was rendered side vaults difficult by the fact that although were approximately square^ few were exactly so many and some were unmistakably oblong. transverse and diagonal arches could be built3 all rising to the same height no matter how wide or varied the spans might be. so that their crowns should be at the level as the of the diagonal ribs. their spans were consec small and the builders could. Over the nave of Vezelay Abbey Church and the choir of S. Romanesque Vaulting of Oblong Spaces.

. with the result that the wall ribs have to be stilted considerably. As a corrective to this excessive extent. This is not altogether satisfactory. the oblong form was avoided. why should not all vaults. in order to reach the same height as the apex of the diagonal ribs. since the weight of the vault bears too ribs. Before the pointed arch became general. if a bay of the be square the (Left) Square vault with semi-circular diagonal ribs and with stilted transverse and wall ribs.. Am- Milan and in many early French and German churches by one bay of the nave vault being made to correspond to two bays of the aisle on either side. be square? is in the majority of churches the nave about double the width of aisle each aisle and. consequently^ of the span of its diagonal ribs. the French designed what is known as the sexpartite (or six-part) . consequently.144 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque 1120} there are oblong bays. slightly stilted transverse ribs and greatly stilted wall ribs. vaulted with semi-circular transverse arches. all bays being thus approximately square. as in S. corresponding bay of the nave must be oblong. objection to this plan is the immensity of each bay of the central vault and. But the brogio. except in the The answer is that special problem of the ambulatory. It much on the transverse arches and too little on the wall may be asked. Sexpartite Vaults. (right) Oblong vault with semi-circular diagonal ribs. and the transverse arches slightly.

was built under the web.145 All early ribbed vaults are quadripartite (or vault. in the Church of La Trinite. It was a great favourite in France for thirty or forty years* but it was abandoned early in the thirteenth century. Aesthetically it is unsatisfactory. in the early essays. and the small intermediate side arches have to be stilted considerably.. each bay is divided into four compartments by the diagonal ribs. Nearly all these sexpartite vaults are much scooped. Caen. four-part). The In England there are few examples of choir of Canterbury Cathedral (the . i.e. Examples are in the nave of the Abbaye-aux-Dames. supporting the web. This arch. a vault divided into six compartments. since it results in twisted arched forms in the web where it joins the wall face. The result was the true sexpartite vault. both in Normandy. Angers. which was formed independently of it. which cuts the diagonal ribs at their intersection and thus supports them.* and the church of Berniferes-sur-Mer. (right) True sexpartite vault. the sexpartite form. with slightly stilted wall ribs. In the sexpartite vault an intermediate transverse arch is introduced. the intermediate arches are stilted as much as 8 feet. that is to say. The next step was to let these intermediate arches take their share in (Left) Quasi-sexpartite vault3 having intermediate diaphragm arch..

not over naves. the columns along the nave are which is logical but in some of the later alternately large and small examples (Notre-Dame. The choir built later. and it is only ends that precautions have to be taken to resist the At the west end of thrust. Probably the most curious solution to the problem of covering oblong bays. It is a little strange that the method of vaulting in the nave of It proS. The same method and these over aisles. vides most effective indirect lighting. are vaulted In this manner. at to of transverse semi-circular arches carrying barrel vaults which run transversely from north to south. a tall At the tower whose of the last weight is more than sufficient to counteract the thrust barrel vault. at the this Diagram illustrating method of vault- ing over oblong bays. vault forms an abutment to its neighbours. The structural advantages of this Each system are many. while providing good side lighting and avoiding the stilting of transverse or longitudinal found in the Church of S. At Noyon. interrupted by the lower transwas adopted in only a few later . is The barrel vaults hardly show. In England we have a similar example 1 In early sexpartite-vaulted churches. however. since Tournus. columns alternate with larger piers. It was applied examples. Philibert j Tournus (PL 21). the nave arches. 1 S. This has transverse arches which support barrel vaults running transversely from north to is south at a higher level. Philibert. church there was no the narthex was two storeys in height difficulty. and the south transept of Lincoln Cathedral. over the galleries of Notre-Dame in Paris. of which was finished about 1019. because one's view verse arches. for the high clerestory windows are almost invisible from the nave. a Burgundian).146 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque work of William of Sens.) the columns are of the same size. but these were swept away during alterations which were made some fifty years after the church was first built. by means and there was a thick wall receive the vault.. the east end was about a century therefore the original method of resistance crossing there is now a dome. Laon Cathedral 3 etc. as adopted at S. Tournus. Philibert. over which is is and uncertain. Philibert was not more generally followed elsewhere.

triforium. Yorkshire (c. but this mode of vaulting appears to have been not un- common in Persia. in others. where the aisles are is omitted.147 over the aisles of Fountains Abbey. the clerestories are omitted. their haunches remain S. . however. the majority of cathedrals and large continental churches have more or less lofty Left half shows section through Romanesque cathedral having triforium gallery. ever. where a simple barrel vault was adopted. which is ascribed by M. 1 The Sections of Churches. right half shows section through Romanesque cathedral having triforium passageway and lean-to roof over aisle. as in the South of France. Generally. howinto arcade. high. the the vaults are now destroyed. 1150). Dieulafoy to the sixth century. barrel vaults are carried on very wide transverse arches in the same manner. the triforium the nave from the aisles. as in many German examples. naves with lower side aisles. form of vault adopted largely While some churches. Philibert is the earliest example in original design is clear. the arcades divide 1 In the Tag Eivan. dictated the sectional outline. The nave wall is customarily divided In some churches. are aisleless and others have nave and aisles of equal height. and clerestory. Europe.

the clerestory windows light the nave and rise above the aisle roof. In the monastic churches they were probably provided for the laity. moreover. are not quite dear. with rare exceptions.148 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque triforitim and the masks the lean-to roofs which cover the vaults over the aisles. S. but in Rome only two basilicas. In northern countries there do not appear to have been craftsmen capable of carrying out similar methods of decoration. The triforium gallery. through its arched roof. Hence arose the custom of treating this space in masonic fashion. Apollinare Nuovo (see p. for centuries they were omitted entirely in Italy. had command of the building operations. more commonly. Lorenzo and S. which otherwise would be cut off entirely from the church. provide the necessary abutment to a vaulted nave. In the Early Christian basilicas. just sufficient in width to allow of free circulation all round the church. but the separation of the sexes was not insisted upon so strongly in the West. . and for some large churches having them and others of equal importance being without them. Their reintroduction in the West dates from the outburst of church building which began soon after A. and in cathedral churches they were possibly required to accommodate the crowds which. are galleried. with paintings or. but masons were plentiful and. 1000. arcading comes in front on the face of the nave wall. In both. are crowded now on Easter Day during High Mass. 1 In the two 1 The galleries of Notre-Dame. the area of wall between the arcade and the clerestory is. or to the underside of the wall plate when the church has a timber roof. as in S. since the monks at first monopolised the whole of the area below. and not with applied decoration. and often quite as lofty. reaching nearly to the apex of the vault. The majority of Romanesque churches in England and France have galleries as wide as the aisles below. Paris. All large Byzantine churches had galleries. and in the latter case there are a few openings behind to provide access to the lean-to roof. which could. In most Romanesque churches the triforium or middle storey consists either of a spacious gallery or of a mere passageway in the thickness of the wall. with marble panelling. 30). The reasons for these galleries. and forms a broad band which is generally decorated with mosaics. unpierced and unarcaded. overflowed from the nave. is one of the features of Romanesque design which distinguishes it from Early Christian architecture.D. Agnese. In Byzantine churches the galleries were for women. on days of high festival.

Romanesque Architecture largest 149 one. had died out and was not re-introduced until the fourteenth century. marble as an applied veneer. Stone was the favourite material of the Romanesque Materials. left The The effect produced. throughout. flourished during the Roman occupation.. S. because of the In England the art of brick-making. Albans Cathedral are built chiefly of old Roman bricks taken from the neighbouring ruins of Verulamium. in certain parts of England. although marble. the churches In the at Old and New Shoreham being excellent examples. whereas in the other case the background is dark. Romanesque churches at Caen. is the most remarkable. since she had 1 Amongst other Romanesque churches with spacious galleries are Ambrogioj Milan. but some were constructed in marble In southern France there are many fine churches built entirely of brick. In Gloucester Cathedral there are galleries over the aisles of the but in the nave merely a low passageway with insignificant 1 The Germans seem to have had a rooted arcading in front. 2 Churches with walls built and faced with flint are most common in Sussex. In Italy walls were often faced with flint. This is a rib-vaulted church. because the vault allowed little room for them. Rheims. Pavia. Each country possesses its own characteristics in triforium design. and these are barrelIn all such cases the upper windows were omitted. has them. and in both their early and late objection work the spaces between the windows and the arcades are often absolutely plain. eleventh century the craft of the mason was more advanced in some countries than in others. were all used for walls. Peterborough. to triforiums in any form. There are some churches abroad which have spacious triforium galleries but no clerestories. PAbbaye-aux-Dames. vaulted. PAbbaye-aux- Hommes. builders. Italy naturally came first.. Holland and Belgium. has none. Altfans. Ambrogio. and in each these change considerably from century to century. Remi. notably in Auvergne. 2 The tower and other eleventh-century parts of S. and brick was the material generally employed in northern Germany. . is different. In northern Italy there are several. brick and. choir. of which S. design of the arcading at triforium level is not necessarily affected whether there is a spacious gallery or merely a passageway. the other. but most of the examples are to be found in southern France. S. S. however. and the cathedrals of Ely3 S. Milan. because galleries always have windows in their outside walls and are consequently light. which had scarcity of stone. etc. Michele.

how the rib was introduced to satisfy an We need rather than a structural necessity. They are often absolutely is worked on each plain. well able to withstand the load and thrust of vaults. were consequently excessively thick. Buttresses. and stop flush with the face of the latter. and when it does the final result is patchy restoration or damp walls. the few mouldings that remain have much more refinement than any work immediately following can show. aisle vaults at have already seen. built in 1056. often from the stonework that was never intended to show and it is now coursed difficult to find an English church stuccoed as it was when it was While the contrast between a stuccoed wall and its first built. Deerhurst. The Norman churches were built with walls of considerable thickness. and jambs and arches of doors Many ashlar. century in England were built and windows being of buttresses. there is an objection to the outer skin although a preservative at first. un : curiously enough. The were plastered and generally painted. the core alone being was rough and the mortar joints wide until the beginning of the twelfth century. The same may be said of the buttress. in the construction of the Durham. but the workmanship side and out. although in some of the work there is finished execution and delicacy of detail pre-Noman quest. bay.150 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque behind her a long tradition of masonry construction. without a break. which was not equalled for In little after fifty years the Norman Con- Odda's Chapel. in buildings in which ashlar facing throughout was not possible. This disadvantage led to the gradual disuse of random rubble. near S. only the quoins. although sometimes an attached shaft aesthetic .. Mary's. which The walls inner faces : required outside cementing. England was perhaps the country most behindhand. is defined by buttresses which are little more than wide but of very little depth. of rubble in faced with ashlar both inregular courses. therefore. Most cathedrals were of nibble. outer and have swept away the plaster from the outside and Restorers inside as well. of the stone walls of the second half of the eleventh of rabble entirely. uncommonly a rule from a plinth to a projecting parapet. in Gloucestershire. leaving rough. and it must have been Each felt that some similar articulation was desirable outside. it soon decays. Internally the bays were marked by the piers from which the transverse arches sprang. and the substitution. stone dressings is very effective. They rise as pilasters.

more than a thousand years before the Christian era . on top of which the outer covering of slates or tiles could be laid direct without the intervening timber roof which was customary farther north. The function of the buttress Is to counteract the thrusts of arches . Deep internal buttresses provided greater wall area for this kind of treatment and. vault. that it should be remembered that the pointed form was known and used by the Egyptians. It is true that many of the eleventh-century churches had with semi-circular arch sections. whether it is placed inside or outside the building far as is Immaterial. In southern France the feeling was the same. and by the Copts of Egypt and their conquerors. some centuries before the pointed arch appeared in the West. Assyrians. but It was not universal. pre-Hellenic Greeks and Etruscans. It was first employed in Romanesque architecture in the barrel-vaulted buildings of the South of France. There Is 151 no parapet the buttress finishes on top with a marked difference between this method and that adopted In Italy and southern France. In Italy the builders were content. Until the middle of the twelfth century the semi-circular form of arch Romanesque buttress. certainly before the end of the eleventh century and possibly earlier still. at the same time. Pointed Arch. the side lights were almost entirely concealed from view In the nave a desirable feature in a country of ex- ceptionally bright sunlight. stained glass was not used. the Saracens. a plain slope or set-off. or to follow the Roman precedent and strengthen the Inside of the wall. So much has been written about the semi-circular arch as the distinctive mark of Romanesque architecture and the pointed arch as the exclusive property of Gothic. to dispense with the buttress altogether. but the builders soon perceived the advantages of the pointed form. In southern France. was usual. and wall painting was the principal means of decora- tion.A Where there Is angle. There they adopted the old Roman tradition of the solid its extrados made up to form two sloping sides. so mere stability is concerned. Not only is it stronger and easier . where there were no vaults.

the approxi- Section through Church of S. In England it was not used before 1140. Nazaire. In the expedient. Malmesbury and Buildwas abbey churches. In northern France it first appears between 1 100 and 1120. little Loggia del BigaUo. The nave of S. showing pointed barrelvaulted nave and semi-circular barrelvaulted aisles. Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque but it exercises less thrust and the mass of solid material above the apex is considerably reduced. but it was common use there before the Normans appeared in 1060. 1 in Germany it was late. as early as the first half of the eleventh century. 1 It is certainly in . Nazaire. and in many contemporary Italian buildings. The pointed arch certainly a rarity. and its widespread adoption is rightly associated with Gothic rather than Romanesque architecture. Florence in (c. merely for a hint conveyed by an accident in decoration. is l Romanesque work impossible to say how early it appeared in Sicily. obtained the suggestion of the form from these arcades. In the still . the fact remains that the builders would be unlikely to abandon the semi-circular form. Else- where in western Europe the date of the introduction After Fergitsson.152 to build. its introduction was early owing to Saracenic influence. Carcassonne (c. 1360). all arches are semi-circular. The outer aisles (hatched) were added in the I4th century. Carcassonne. otherwise they would not have adopted it so universally in their churches in the island. provides an excellent example of the early use of this pointed form. so speak. Even if the pointed arch had not been used long before this interlacing arcading was introduced. for the conservative Teuton clung to his fine roundarched Romanesque until the end of the twelfth century. mate date of Fountains. greater part of Italy the pointed arch did not appear until later in fact it never entirely superseded the classic form. which had behind it centuries of tradition. It occurs 'accidentally'. in arcading of interlacing semi-circular arches. The pointed form was above all a logical structural In Sicily. which has a pointed barrel vault over the nave and semi-circular vaults over the aisles. and in portions of southern Italy. but it is a fallacy to suppose that the builders to Scale 50 ft. of the pointed arch varies considerably. 1096). to I in.

It carried the core of the wall . having voussoirs extending the full depth of wall. precedents. or in what is commonly called different 'orders*. except in very large churches. in one piece of stone. and formed the central part of the It was not the full width of the wall above . The * springer'. the and in most cases these extended the full depth of the wall. The method of construction adopted by Romanesque builders differed in many respects from Roman In Roman stone arches. big voussoirs were the rule. Romanesque builder preferred smaller stones. In this system of subordination. One advantage of this method of building was that it diminished the amount of centering required. not more than soffit. since the wall above was either merely faced with ashlar. until the last.153 Construction of Arches. on an average. but it was soon discarded in favour of a series of voussoirs. on different planes. and. or else was rubble throughout. (Left) Romanesque method of arch construction in two 'orders' with label and with rubble infilling. which reached from side to side and from front to back. as a rule. the bottom ring of voussoirs. in addition. the intervening space being filled with rubble. This answered fairly well at first. rings or orders were placed at a distance equal to the total thickness of the wall. or orders. or else relieved by sunk moulded panels. or bottom stone of the arch. The The soffit was flush. (right) Roman method of arch construction. often with two or more orders worked . These partially rested on it and partially projected on either side. which did not. half its width. and outer. the outer rings. was built first. was. or inner order. the core being of rubble. bond more than a few inches into the wall. since when the first order had set it acted as a centre and support for the rings above it.

154 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque on it. In Italy and southern France. Milan. are about double the height of those at Hereford.. for some centuries they conmake their arches with flush soffits. They had no fixed proportions. Verona. called for radical changes in the plans of pier or column supports. such as were usually followed in classical work. where principles of subordination were not followed. This stone afforded a solid bed from which the smaller stones of the different rings could spring. and the Romanesque doorway of Malmes- bury Abbey Church has as many as nine. Even when they used two orders. many columns retained. The method of arch construction by means of the subordination of orders. at S. of one order only. to a considerable extent. Am- Columns and Piers. ribbed vaulting. . and yet the diameters are practically the same. for instance. . apparent strength and real weakness. hence their excessive girth. in consequence. however. The builders in Italy and the South of France were slow to realise the advantages of tinued to subordination and. and not only tapered but had an entasis In England and Normandy. 1 1 Further. In most English cathedrals the arches of the arcades are built in three or four rings. the upper one projecting merely a few inches in front. Zeno. the lower one was by far the more important. the columns were only faced with ashlar. their cores being of rubble . or. these circular columns provided a most un- The columns in Tewkesbury Abbey Church and Gloucester Cathedral. in technical language. and at the same time slightly diminished the span and consequently the thrust of the arch. as brogio. classical proportions. large stone was possible here because there was no A difficulty in hoisting it into position and setting it. together with the introduction of (Left) (right) Shows difficulty of relating arch ribs to circular column below. and S. Shows solution achieved by means of clustered piers.

in the skth-century churches in Syria. or pilaster. These early piers were all rectangular and tin- Cosmedin. . when the church was not 2 The cruciform vaulted. The first alteration in their form was made in the ninth or tenth century. and in association with columns in S. at Roueiha (see p. but the angles are rebated to agree with the orders of the arch above. partly because the supply of antique marble columns. or clustered. T-shaped piers were used in Syria. became T-shaped. had begun to fail. in the sixth century. By this method a shaft was attached to the aisle side of the pier to support the side vaulting. 40)5 for much the same reason as for their adoption in later 1 Romanesque 2 churches. to a point below the tie beam of the roof. was carried up the wall to the under side of the vaulting ribs. left to right plain. which for centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire plentiful. Rome. was added to the back of each pier. the piers of the north side of the nave are amongst the plainest of piers which are not simply rectangular. 1 The next step was to make jecting The pier it thus cruciform in Development of the pier: reading from cruciform and clustered piers. no novelty in the eleventh century. Albans Cathedral. They have no attached shafts. pier the ultimate solution. and partly because a could be built with unskilled labour at much less cost simple pier than a column. Clemente and S. so that arches thrown across the nave as well as the aisles could have something substantial to spring from. or. T-shaped. had been so moulded. still. a corresponding pilaster pro- from the wall on the other side of the aisle. In S. when aisles were divided longitudinally into bays by transverse arches. while another. Maria in In other Italian churches they had been employed throughout. a cruciform pier better and a subordinated. A rectangular pier was better.Architecture satisfactory seating for the various arches 155 ribs and which they to support. of course. They had been used long before. To carry these arches a *nib'. plan. Piers were. on the nave side.

shafts which corresponded with the orders of arches and with the vaulting ribs of the nave and aisle. or clustered. fully developed. or T-shaped. planned that each order of an arch and each diagonal rib had its corresponding member in the pier below. and to reconcile all It was so parts. Ambrogio. clustered piers are rare. Caen. In effect. the subordinated. The clustered pier found its way into England from Normandy. in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes. Elsewhere on the Continent there are many examples of it in eleventh-century work. It is not claimed that the English were the pioneers in the pier development described above. a feature which. so that they appeared as a group of columns with each column In the group supporting its own order or rib. the large piers are clustered. where it occurred. or cruciform. cruciform. which could not easily be accommodated in the angle between the adjoining 'nibs'. it was the result of adding to the pier. in the fine Romanesque work in piers are extremely simple. pier was devised. Mayence (Mainz) the columns are plain rectangles. This is the clustered pier. or Speier). To get over the difficulty. In the nave of S. begun in 1066. and while columns are general. or column. the churches Speyer (Spires.156 pier Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque was satisfactory until the introduction of the diagonal rib. Worms. was to contribute greatly towards the development of the fully articulated Gothic style. Even in the large Rhenish Germany. Milan. together with many others. the small. On the other hand. . an earlier example than any we can boast.

music and painting in Romanesque times were to be found only in the churches and cathedrals. though introduced at first to satisfy an aesthetic desire to articulate the structure. There was much more colour. The windows. the sculptured figures were richly coloured. with their mellow interiors and weathered walls. have already noticed how the rib and the buttress. however decorative in themselves. its use was not purely decorative but. can give little idea of the bright and sharp qualities of their original state. the small though they were. they were visual aids towards the understanding of the Christian faith. Methods of Decoration. Almost story all the arrangements of the church were adapted to provide instruction . learned the history of the world and of heaven and hell. in an important sense. permitted mouldings of the arches were picked out in paint and often with gilding . were primarily devices to facilitate construction. instructive in illustrating the of the Bible. but they were also very different in appearance. in an illiterate age. were closely related to the whole conIn the same way. light to illuminate the bright decoration. Decoration can be introduced into a 157 . Even when decoration was applied. the form of carving of a was dictated by the problem of relating the column to the rectangular mass which it supported. We column capital like the mosaics of the Byzantines. a continuation of the previous one . more often it is a means of emphasising the underlying THIS method of construction. The same applies to figure sculpture. as for example in wall painting. for the outstanding feature of much Romanesque architecture is the integration of the detail and decoration within the structure. The church was the medium through which the people. Ornament is seldom merely applied decoration . structional system. The orders of the arches. Today the cathedrals. The interiors of these sacred buildings not only had greater significance for the people of the time than they have for us today.CHAPTER XI ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE Detail and Decoration chapter Is. Sculpture.

Germigny-les-Pres (Loiret). The have been rebuilt in the fourteenth century. did not occur. (2) by the employment of arcading. but this last is 2 presumed to only exception farther west of S. Examples of this work are found in Italy down to the twelfth century. At S. is the remnant of mosaic in the apse . Mosaic. as had the domed surfaces of the Byzantine churches. Miniato. and (3) by the enrichment of the structure by means of mouldings. By the end of the Romanesque period. with their fine expanse of wall over. The art was almost moribund in the West by the time the ribbed vault was in general use. was followed in the two main centres of Tuscany Pisa and Florence. One reason why it was abandoned is that Romanesque architecture did not lend itself as well to this kind of applied decoration as did the Byzantine or Early Christian churches. is limited in Romanesque or in the East glass mosaic. APPLICATION OF COLOUR Marble Veneers. carving. The compartments of the vault might have provided good surfaces for mosaic treatment. The triumphal arches in the last. sixth century. and the open triforium galleries at the sides occupied the space over the arcades formerly available for mosaic decoration. the casing of white marble is enriched by dark. 2 is a disputed point.158 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque : church in three ways (i) by the application to the wall surfaces of colour by means of marble veneers. but almost exclusively in those areas which came under Byzantine influence in Venice and in Sicily. for Whether it it originated there seems likely that the art of which reached perfection in Constantinople in the was almost entirely the product of Greek craftsmanship. Mosaic work. The old Roman system of covering walls with a thin veneer of marble. 1 The same type of decoration is employed on the west front. different materials used structurally. Florence. which was practised so successfully by the Byzantines. and applied decoration was limited to paint. but this possibility never seems to have occurred to the Romanesque builders. etc. mosaic or paint. the walls above the arcades are divided into various patterns by a 1 simple arrangement of strips of dark marble on a light ground. which have already been mentioned. In Pisa. architecture to Italy. mosaic art had died in the West. where there is no triforium. like marble panelling. narrow bands along the triforium and by simple geometric patterns of marble tesserae set in the blind arcades outside.

159 Paint. It was in these places that the brightest and gayest colours would builder. although in parts of the facings country where red stone and yellow exist side by side. The most important use of colour in decoration was to emphasise the structure . the arch mouldings. which were used to form enriched in four ways string courses and : 1 The paintings on the western sides of the piers of S. or brick and stone. stone different colours were seldom used. 2 similar treatment occurs in Chichester Cathedral in the tympanums over the openings of the triforium gallery. ENRICHMENT OF THE STRUCTURE The structure of Romanesque building was (i) by mouldings. the Romanesque designer was far pictures. also. the ribs of the vault and the column capitals were often painted. simply producing patterns on the wall.. Many inferior to his colleague in the Eastern Empire. above and below was coloured a plain tint. brick was abandoned. and marbles of different colours were used alternately. Elsewhere marbles might be used purely decoratively. brick and marble. red and white volcanic stones were used to produce a diaper motif. so giving added emphasis to the structure. were interchanged with the happiest results. EMPLOYMENT OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS In north Italy. Farther south. especially in the district of Auvergne. such pictures came only at intervals. materials of In England. first Painting in tempera or in fresco was practised from the are few. Albans Cathedral are fair examples of later Romanesque work (see PL 17). often in the same quarry. In France. some of which are filled with A lozenge-shaped stones in different colours. . one might be used for arches and piers and the other for walls. 2 In Germany and northern France. centuries of Christianity. scanty remains. were generally of one colour. many covered by later paintings or by So far as can be judged from somewhat plaster or whitewash. workman was a be used. but the surviving 1 have been destroyed. and double lines of red or yellow formed frames to the As a mural painter. Sometimes shafts of columns in lighter marble were built against a darker background. or in bands. The Romanesque and more concerned with construction than with painted decoration. The walling in between.

and especially in the tympanums over important doorways. which is found in column capitals. Inside. There is. but this. they were also when the walling was of rubble. and (4) by figure and foliage sculpture. worked on the faces and soffits of squared stones. In Romanesque arches the mouldings were recessed. In Italy and southern France they were the rule during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. but examples occur on the north side of the nave of S. therefore. As a general rule.. Mouldings. Mouldings on the structural parts of buildings are a useful index to the changes in architecture. except in the smallest examples. . The scale and contours of mouldings underwent considerable change as the style progressed from Romanesque to Gothic. produces a remarkably fine effect. the mouldings during the Romanesque period were simpler and fewer than in England. and through them the date of any work can often be determined when other evidence is conflicting and unreliable. in niches. The most characteristic feature of early Romanesque mouldings was the called the bowtell * ' * sometimes torus'. (3) by means of wall arcading and fenestration . or hollow. which was often incorporated within the system of mouldings . when the arch was semi-circular. to throw the rain to the sides Labels were introduced above arches and prevent it from running down and injuring the mouldings. It is true being that over the arch there was often a projecting hood moulding or 'label .. mouldings were segments of circles. but the label over was moulded although the voussoirs were plain. (2) by carved ornamentation. Albans Cathedral. In France. as can be seen at Durham.. since they formed a break between the plaster and the stones of the useful arch.160 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque column bases and to define arch forms . an excellent reason for labels on the outside of the building. or three-quarter round which was often used in combination with the In many English Romanesque cathedrals. was never worked on the voussoirs of the arch itself but on separate stones in 5 long lengths above them. the Unmoulded arches are rare in England in churches built after Norman Conquest. Thus. Mouldings in Roman arches were worked on the voussoirs and invariably projected in front of the wall to form an archivolt. the deep hollows and bold 'cavetto'. the lowest order in the nave arcades often consists of a single semi-circular moulding. plastered over. which. mouldings followed in section the shape of the arch.

and in fact would largely destroy colour scheme. voussoirs of the mouldings are unnecessary. Marble possesses. a decorative and in arches built of alternate quality rarely found in stone. but there. string courses horizontal emphasis to i Romanesque design. (right) Typical northern French arch of two orders with three-quarter-round or 'bowtelT mouldings. In this they were only following the Even traditions which had existed in the country for centuries. stead. having half-round inner order. In and parapets give a all but the smallest In one example. these were generally slight. little is and late examples. Plinths. they preferred to rely on the flat coloured decoration obtained by different marbles. workmen did not develop the mason's craft to the The Italian same extent as did the builders in England and France. through its figuring. however. the found. generally fewer.Architecture 1 161 rounds being found only in Normandy^ where Caen stone provided an ideal medium. too. but to the materials used and to combinations of materials. Horizontal Lines. which are more in keeping struction of their buildings. and there characteristic (Left) Typical English arch of two orders with label.. arch mouldings are rarely Germans seem to have relied upon simplicity and with the solid and bold constrength. as are many in northern Italy. due not only to traditions of craftsmanship. marble and brick. less attention was paid to mouldings. when mouldings were used. InGermany. near in Caen. the mouldings were In Italy. When they wanted relief from simplicity. the ruined churcji of the Abbaye d' Ardennes. which has already been described. Even there. II II . however. The same reasons cannot be said to apply in difference discernible between early is The absence of mouldings. the details are practically identical with contemporary examples England.

been divided into two by a central mullion. and tracery has been inserted in their heads. intersecting arches were common (PL 18). which in nearly all cases projected in front of the wall below. Windows in Byzantine and Early Christian churches were. 2 In the large churches of England and northern France. both inside and out. where more In many English light was required. when These slabs obstructed a they were abandoned. one 1 The mouldings of strings are much the same as the labels over openings. which provided a start.1 62 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque buildings. as a rule. like the string courses below. on more often than heads. Another projecting course would be placed along the springing line of the window arch. they were larger than in the south. numerous and large . with pierced slabs was discontinued. Throughout the eleventh and twelfth centuries. they were few in number and 2 The change occurred in Italy in the ninth generally small. . at a subsequent period. as at Peterborough Cathedral. this would coincide with the abacus of a capital and 1 The most marked provide a seating for the arch label moulding. The parapet itself was and shafts being moulded and carved in the same way. and the reasons for its projection were to provide more space behind for the gutter and flashings and also to protect. the arches corbels which. such windows have. a device which was common in Early Christian work and did not disappear until the large Gothic traceried windows swallowed up the wall space and left no surface to decorate. cathedrals. especially in the earlier examples. when the prevalent Eastern custom of filling windows century. not. The wall surfaces. Wall Arcading. light . Windows. arcading followed the same evolution as the structural parts of buildings. but in southern Italy and in Sicily they were pointed. visible footing from which the main wall would dows on the outside and often on the Projecting string courses were placed immediately below wininside as well. some kind of plinth was introduced. Normally they stopped against the buttresses or the internal piers. considerable amount of.. In general design and in detail. the main surface of the wall. were often decorated by arcading. and was carried were carved as grotesque quite plain. horizontal emphasis was given by means of the parapet. and consisted in Romanesque times of little more than a fillet and a chamfer. but in Romanesque churches. In the north these were always semi-circular. This generally consisted of one or more chamfered or moulded projections a few feet from the ground.

In 675^ Benedict Biscop. There was no longer any need for a great deal of light.Architecture reason for large windows disappeared. and in 758 Cuthbert. there is at present no evidence of glass having been made in England between the Roman period and the thirteenth century. Except for these references. 1 The restored windows of S. but it was expensive and therefore rare . since the old method of decorating walls with mosaics had fallen into general disuse and fresco painting had hardly taken its place . Romanesque two-light window. be- cause early glass was likewise fitted into removable wooden frames. Many of the Romanesque windows must have been fi In the wealthier establishments glass may have been substituted. was obliged to obtain glassworkers from France. such decoration as there was seems to have been based on scroll and leaf patterns. Paris^ have remnants of glass belonging to the year 1108. (Left) Outside elevation. Abbot of Jarrow. as the builders required far stronger abutments for their vaults than had been necessary in the days of timber roofs. and further. wind-eyes \ and protection from the prevailing wind was achieved by the insertion of timber frames sheeted with linen or vellum. and did not include figure or pictorial compositions of any kind. Abbot of Wearmouth. . Few remains of Romanesque glass exist 1 . fewer and smaller windows were more practical. appealed to the Bishop of Mayence to send him artisans to manufacture 'windows and vessels of glass because the English were ignorant and helpless '. it has nearly all been lost. Denis. (right) Inside elevation.

two or more were often grouped together. it was the of the bays of the arcading for general practice to pierce some and this continued to be the custom so long as the walls light. in Kent. Patrixbourne. and in the east ends of churches especially. In walls arcaded on the outside. and Dunham Magna and S. Documentary evidence Carolingian that they existed in the transepts of the Church of S. Bibury and Barton-on-Humber.. owing to form one window. and generally consisted of simple round openings with characteristic surrounding mouldings. Division France. 57). the - Romanesque wheel window. they united were sometimes plain. whereas from the inside. Germany and southern The shafts were often placed in the centre of the wall. but more often they were enriched by shafts from which sprang arches concentric with the window head. (Somme). the lights were divided from one another by either walling or shafts. Benet. or merely chamfered. Cambridge. In the former case they appeared from the outside as though they were a hood moulding and not separate windows. examples were not as a rule large. The outer jambs of the jambs. connected only by to the wide splaying always by that . but at Peterborough Cathedral. in church belfries. Bosham. but in domestic work. in which case their capitals had considerable projection in front and at the back but very little at the sides. but after that date (in northern France as well as in England) shafts were nearer the outside face of the wall. the central position for the shaft was generally adopted. remained arcaded. like many Byzantine examples of earlier and contemporary date (see p. In English work before 1066. so as to leave more room for splayed jambs on the inside. Kent i towers of At Avebury. Barfreston and Patrixbourne. Byzantine and Romanesque their width Romanesque windows were seldom more than twice in height and were generally placed singly . Riquier which was begun in 780. In England they are to be seen in several 1 The early pre-Conquest churches. Circular tures windows are common shows fea- of Romanesque architecture. When in groups. by shafts was usual in Italy. 3 in the .164 Early Christian. and later they occurred in churches throughout western Europe.

In England. like mural painting. In Romanesque architecture. the artist.165 openings were considerable and were divided by A similar treatment is found at S. Zeno radiated from the centre. often with beasts. birds or human figures disposed within. ^ architecture. 1 The arch mouldings in Italy and Germany have very little of this purely geometrical decoration. in Italy. They were cut in the stones after the Columns were built. Btauvais. courses. i MAIL HEAD . simple and easy of execuThe chevron. ornament is not something which is added or applied to a structure. both of 'the twelfth * century. spiral or zig-zag. tion is The Romanesque This ornamenta- designers. the work of the craftsman than of the which betray Byzantine inspiration and. Verona. enriched the mouldings on arches. and were the forerunners of the large 'rose' windows which form such an effective feature of later Gothic architecture. or zigtion. Capitals. It is a kind of ornament which gives an almost barbaric richness to particular parts of the building. zag. and S. and the flutes or grooves are filled with an inlay of glass mosaic. of most of the it is Characteristic ^ . . or else form lozenges. Greek craftsmanship. In its place there are rich interlacing foliage patterns. In Italy and Sicily the small shafts which surround the cloister garths are similarly ornamented. the billet and the nail-head are the most com- mon types. but is rather the modification or enrichment of structural forms. Where piers are plain is be dispensed with. Carved Ornament. Maggiore. since the pier 1 and rectangular. capitals may generally the same width as the round the A cloister at similar treatment was applied to the grooved shafts Chester Cathedral. enrichments. but more ^ Romanesque arch mould- . These are known as wheel* windows. All these patterns occur in Durham Cathedral and in Waltham Abbey Church. . Etienne. especially in England and France. columns which support the nave arcade are often richly ornamented by flutings which are vertical. on ribs and on string largely geometrical. stract severity r . in contrast to the ab~ .*!.

1 66 Early Christian. and in early basilicas. then some form of spreading capital necessary. England and Germany it is generally somewhat clumsy in form the term often applied to it being the 'cushion' capital but in Italy and southern France the surface is often enriched with great It delicacy and profusion of ornament. In many of the Byzantine churches of the sixth century. Byzantine and Romanesque arch and wall above . (right) Scalloped capital. however. and to early churches in Italy in which Byzantine workmen were employed. producing a scalloped effect. In Normandy. The convex capital is found in all countries. If a concave form were rather more stone would have to be cut required. it is discarded entirely. away in the lower so that it should sit satisfactorily part. or alternatively to carve the blank faces into two or three cushions. was a common practice to paint the surfaces of the that were capitals plain. is all In many early churches. This was _ Types of Romanesque capitals. In the Romanesque capital. (Left) Cushion capital. achieved hv taking. but each has several varieties. a moulding is usually set at the springing line.. in which antique columns and capitals were largely re-used. The dosseret is confined almost entirely to Byzantine churches. When. and this is partly ornamental and partly a seating for the timber centering of the arches. the portion below the abacus is generally convex. the arch starting directly from the top of the capital. or shaped block between the arch and the capital proper (see p. The result was a capital of convex outline. In more northern some of the Romanesque work. Most of the capitals with a concave curve below the abacus are .a ^miarp 11 D Y taKmS a s quare block of stone or marble and ff ^ rounding off the lower parts on the column below. a simple abacus that parts pier and arch. the result resembling the classical Corinthian capital. the difficulty of starting an arch from the top * of a column led to the introduction of a dosseret*. It will be seen that the problem to be solved was one of uniting the square seating of the arch with the circular plan of the column. or in which local masons copied eastern methods. a round column has to support a wall at the springing of an arch which is wider in all is directions than the column. 56).

The treatment of these sculptured pictures. and the fcfoe Saviour in judgment between. The Anglian tradition is typified by its representations of the Crucifixion. This was probably due to the iconoclastic controversy in the East. Sculpture. the Romanesque locality. . even as late as the thirteenth blance. and the German. Throughout the Romanesque period and the Gothic period which followed. and the shape and mouldings of the abacus from those in Roman examples. or Ottoman. but the of the sculpture varied in different areas. The real home of Romanesque sculpture was. Byzantine art dominated the whole western world at this time. Germany. by the strong Byzantine element. in costumes which the people saw every day in the streets . where native had to rely on Byzantine miniatures and ivories sculptors probably for inspiration. the Scandinavian by its low reliefs and its curious intertwining foliage. which forbade figure sculpture and threatened the livelihood of Byzantine artists so that they had to seek refuge in the West. Scandinavian and German influences predominate. W. but other leaves than the acanthus are carved. in which Anglian. 1 Romanesque Architecture in Western Europe^ Oxford3 1936. England and France. the capitals are modified Corinthian. A. the devils below. much of the work was pure Byzantine and executed by these refugees. in Burgundy and in Provence. sculpture was limited to conventional symbols and to figure representation which was strictly confined to the are very different service of the church. the principal schools are in the district around Toulouse. century. whereas farther north the differences in form are so great that it is sometimes difficult to trace any resemIn work in central France. was on the whole strong and vivid. Qapham l quality recognises three main types in England. the angels above. though often crude. in a relief carving in the local Tadcaster stone. In France. provided the characteristic theme of tympanums over the main doorways to the churches. The wicked were shown descending to hell. however. of which the Romsey rood is the finest. Byzantine influence was ever present. In Italy. the measure of on the strength of classical traditions in the Thus in Italy and southern France. Of these by far the Madonna. It provided the people with pictorial representations that were easy to understand. capitals are distinguished from the antique only by a certain coarsecorrectness depending ness of workmanship .Architec lure more or less Imitations 167 of Roman Corinthian. the righteous carried up to heaven. which is seen at its best in the York beyond the Alps.

It is quite. carved ivories. and the example at Chartres has never been surpassed. in other Romanesque work the heads are unnaturally large. but also imported works of art silk hangings. The drapery in both cases is highly formalised and bears a close resemblance to that of the archaic Greek sculpture of the seventh and sixth Viollet-le-Duc's theory. TOWERS in this chapter rather than under the heading of structure.1 68 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque most fascinating is the Burgundian school. because Romanesque towers were largely developed to satisfy aesthetic needs. while behind each rises a short portion of a cylindrical shaft which is crowned by a capital. 1130). and not only sent missions to Antioch and other parts of Syria. 93-96). is that the special of this school of sculpture are taken from Byzantine Greek paintings. It is true that they had a Towers have been included . paintings. the figures flanking the west doorways of the former and the south porch of the latter are almost identical in treatment with those of Vermenton Church. The remarkable development of a pseudo-Byzantine architecture in the district around Perigueux has already been mentioned (pp. etc. of which magnificent examples exist in the representations of the Last Judgment over the west doorway of Autun Cathedral and of the Pentecost over the west doorway of the nave of Vezelay Abbey Church. in Burgundy. which the work undoubtedly resembles. certainly had close relations with the East. with their haloed heads projecting forward. Burgundy (c. monks persuaded workmen to return This Burgundian school spread as far as Chartres and Le Mans . and one of their chief peculiarities is the smallness of the heads of the figures . The figures possible that the missionary with them. themselves stand under canopies and on high bases. Both belong to the first half of the twelfth century. however. it is not impossible that craftsmen from the East were employed in France. On the other hand. The Abbots of Cluny. and it is doubtful whether such a happy sculptors combination of sculpture and architecture has at any time been equalled. The employment of figures as an integral part of architecture in this way must have involved the closest co-operation between and masons. This was the customary design towards the end of the Romanesque period. To what extent Byzantine Greeks penetrated into France in Romanesque times is a point that has never been decided.C. characteristics centuries B.

Towers could be arranged in pairs at the west end. All these arrangements are to be found in surviving examples. this cannot justify the multiplication of towers which is so common in the cathedrals of France. that the Ravenna examples belong to the tenth and that the three examples in Verona are all of the eleventh century. or single towers could be planned in combination with pairs to form a pyramidal composition. Rome. or at the east end .Architecture 169 to carry bells . This does not mean that towers did not exist before the ninth century . with transepts as high as the nave and choir. at the ends of the transepts. A needed elsewhere. shows two churches near which are round towers. There was therefore a sound aesthetic reason for In England and Normandy they were the rule in and in the larger monastic churches. Germany and function : England. indeed. as did the designers in northern Italy. A single tower could be placed over the crossing. as a single tower would be sufficient for the purpose. on the other hand.. Ravenna and Milan were as old as the sixth century. but we now know that none is older than the ninth. at the west end. a mosaic of the fifth century Church of S. is that between the ninth and the eleventh century most of the surin the viving Romanesque towers were built. preferring octagonal cupolas cathedrals over the crossings. or at the eastern ends of the aisles . though those in Normandy were less dominating than in England. however.. or it could be detached entirely from the church to which it belonged. Until recently it was thought that the campanili in Verona. seldom built them. central towers. and that towers became indispensable units in the composition of Romanesque cathedrals throughout western Europe. possible objection to a central tower is that it requires. and in Italy the bell towers. A central tower over the crossing in a cruciform church gave the roofs of the nave. even when there is no central tower the piers at the crossing still piers considerably larger than are . There were many alternative positions for towers. providing opportunities for the greatest skill in detail design and in proportioning. In a cruciform church. The Germans. but. Maria Maggiore. central with the nave. choir and transepts something to stop against. or campanili. What is now certain.. In a church without transepts it allowed the roofs over the western and eastern ends to be at different levels without an ugly break. to support it. however. Single Towers. were com- monly quite detached and so had no direct influence upon the general development of the structure of the churches.

some central towers had been built over crossings in England. Byzantine and Romanesque piers. into a tower terminating in a spire. and after it very few large churches were designed without them. it remained the custom long after the mediaeval period had passed. exceedingly massive and bold.. Byzantine churches had no towers at all. this was at least as convenient as any other and had aesthetic advantages as well. the finest are those of S. They were generally later in date than the main buildings. where low towers over crossings were the rule. was therefore only natural that the stronghold should be attached to it i and although there was no particular reason for choosing a western position. Sernkt. In order to resist the thrusts Before the Conquest. built with Roman bricks from the ruins of Veradamium . and in all parts of the country. at the west end. and Norwich Cathedral. near Milan. A single tower at the west end is an old tradition in England. more slender and crowned by a later spire. of all dates tired of them.. but there are thousands of parish churches. so that they appear. Albans Cathedral. have to be stronger than other of the arches of the arcades.. but many churches had an octagonal lantern at that point. a tower was not only a belfry but also a place of refuge for both people and priests. with this feature. In Normandy. Toulouse. many-staged A same date (i2th-i3th century) . Augustine's mission to England. A central tower over the crossing is almost unknown. The Italian basilican church had a narthex. it was exceptional to build them at the west end except in pairs. they never Ely is the only cathedral with one tower at the west end. which is all the more interesting since single western towers are rare in early work abroad. 1 is 1 similar termination of about the to be seen at S. and fear of earthquakes may account to some extent for their isolation. The number of Anglo-Saxon examples still remaining is proof that before the Conquest this position was general. as it were. as afterthoughts. In the centuries immediately following S. In fact. Tewkesbury Abbey. In Italy single towers were invariably placed to one side of the church and were often quite detached. in the eleventh century. lofty.. In most church occupied the most central or the highest point. Whatever was the reason villages the and it the English so early adopted single western towers. never a tower.I jo Early Christian. Among Romanesque examples. a feature which was ultimately developed at the Cistercian Abbey of Chiaravalle.

The ScaU 50 ft. strongholds. and culminated in the unique leaning tower of Pisa. It is true that in some districts of England. The building was begun in 1174. tapering upwards and culminating in a steep. and the openings in the upper storeys were all small and crude in detail. storehouses or marks of dignity. in central Scotland. James Fergusson. Tower of Pisa. conical stone roof. generally accepted theory regarding its non-verticality is that this was the result of bad foundations. Whatever may have been their origin. where flint was the building material and masons would wish to avoid the all After problem of quoins. In nine cases out often these towers were planned. and were constructed of carefully dressed stone. This form appears to have been adopted first in Ravenna in the tenth century. to i Sec- the perpendicular. m. and two fine examples still exist at Abemethy and Brechin. Italian towers is the leaning tower of Leaning tlon Pisa. but these were strictly confined to Sussex and some of the eastern counties. and shortly afterwards (although the date is uncertain) in Ireland and Scotland. The most extraordinary of De Fumy. which suggests that they were primarily towers of refuge . there can be no doubt that they were in some way associated with the church. The adoption of a circular form was especially strange in areas of good building stone. or nearly so . like those at Ravenna. The towers varied in height from 60 to 130 feet. . as bell towers. which inclines 13 feet out of . round towers were built in later Romanesque times . The doorways were invariably more than 7 feet above the ground. writing in 1867. quite apart from the church with which they were associated. mentioned that 118 round A round detached tower architectural features of towers were still to be found in Ireland. of which 20 were perfect.Architecture 171 is among the most curious of all the Romanesque times.

and above this rise six tiers of arcaded galleries. Only slight additions were made to try to obtain a horizontal bed for the stone courses. Except for small slits which light the staircases. At the angles. is towers are without pilasters. they are without openings. 1 the finest surviving Since the collapse in 1902 of the great example is at Torcello The Lombardic towers differ chiefly from the Venetian in that each storey has windows. is designed to harmonise closely with the earlier cathedral. surmounted by a belfry of smaller diameter. though late in date.172 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque and when it was only 35 feet above the ground the extent of settlement was noticed. Each possesses distinctive Towers of the Venetian type are frankly belfries. but these do not appear to have been very successful. horizontal divisions at all. and take the place of the Lombardic string courses. and the number of storeys 1 The This campanile was built in 888. There is generally a blind storey at the base equal to the height of the church. It is not the inclination of the tower that renders it unique. and nearly all were erected between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. at Venice. . The whole. for there are many leaning when towers in arcade. Its ground storey has a blind of the cathedral. The windows increase in size from narrow slits immediately above the ground to very wide openings at the belfry level. There may be Italy.. are slight pilasters which start from the base and run up the face without a break to support arches immediately under the bell loft. (2) said to be three distinct schools excluding the round towers of Pisa and Ravenna of tower design in (i) Vene: Lombardic. but solidity of appearance given by the windows being kept well in the centre of each face. and is marked by a horizontal string course carried on small round arches. campanile (PL ii). work was abandoned until 1350. tian. There are some thirty-six surviving campanili in Rome and its immediate neighbourhood. There are no characteristics. like that but its design. which are carried all round. which stop against wide stiles or pilasters at the angles and divide the wall into panels. since after the completion of the third gallery above the ground storey. Roman storeys are marked by cornices. apse. and rebuilt in 1908. and in between. with open loggias at the top which form the bell chambers. and especially with the treatment of the Italy. and (3) Roman. the three remaining storeys were added and the upper belfry stage set back in the inner wall.

like those of S. with round arches and dividing shafts placed centrally In the wall. The foundations were often negligible. however. almost Venetian in character. At Yatton Keynell. Provence. by their sheer bulk and height that they impress most. it Is seen at its best when treated as a The type of tower r lantern over the crossing and crowned by a steep pyramidal or conical stone roof. as at Winchester. first followed in other countries was the but more pronounced buttressing soon led to Its modiLombardic > fication. Campanile towers. both in Italy. tangible proof of the astonishing aspirations of the designers. there is a graceful tower with sloping sides. in which the walling rests directly on the ground. are closely related to the fabric of the church and have wide buttresses or piers of slight projection at the angles. pure and simple. and show considerable variety in arcading and enrichment. Romanesque The termination of a tower with a spire is a feature peculiar to western Christianity. They represent considerable structural achievements. Albans. had to be drastically strengthened and underpinned and in some cases comNevertheless. those that have survived provide pletely rebuilt. Caen. is straightforward. however. as at the Abbaye-aux-Hommes. It is. Most western Romanesque towers. towers are now without spires. and the cathedral of Uzes has a remarkable circular bell tow er with traces of Lombardic ornament. The building of western towers. with the result that some towers collapsed soon after they were built.A rchitccture 1 73 over varies in number up to seven. Wiltshire. near Beziers. is astounding. but it seems probable that timber . and that many. but the raising of a tower two or three hundred feet above the ground upon four legs thirty or forty feet apart. In France. at the crossing of a cathedral. Hereford and Rochester. It is true that the piers are exceptionally large. and one which was developed with the Many of the existing Romanesque greatest skill in Gothic times. are rare outside At VIenne and at Puissalicon. This feature was adopted in the transeptal towers of the Abbey church at Cluny . the characteristic form of Romanesque tower Is that in which the lower part is square and the upper part round or octagonal. each side being lit by openings of two or more lights. the detached and storeyed type of Lombardic tower Is found. but then the walls which they carry are exceptionally thick. Many towers of Romanesque times still survive in England and Normandy.

These were mostly square in plan. Abbodonio. Como. in contrast with the French examples. Only one of the towers would carry the bells. which would be Gothic. Byzantine and Romanesque structures of some sort were intended in most cases. and the combination of this with a pair of towers at the west end was one of England's most important contributions. but it often happened that their erection was postponed while work proceeded farther east.174 Early Christian. from the apex of which rise the ridges of a pyramidal A roof (PL 13). and there they are turrets rather than towers. and probably built. by providing a terminal load to withstand its lateral Towers rise over the transepts in a few examples in southern France. like those at Toumai Cathedral. they mask the aisles at the sides . Lieges and Cologne. two towers were designed. Sussex* which alone of Saxon churches has retained the original termination of its tower. towers in this position esque work. Caen. A similar treatment is to be found in the Rhineland churches of Laach. The smaller height of the cathedrals of England rendered the building of a central tower easier. except in Germany. at the eastern ends of the side aisles. They frame the principal doorway and the central part of the front and. Pairs of Towers. to conceal the aisles seems to have been one of the chief aims of the Romanesque builders in northern France and in England. At S. either the towers were built in the style of the moment. Towers over the transepts are far from common. and in England. these western towers were planned. . with most striking effect. The central tower invariably dominates the composition. or they were abandoned altogether. the two towers rise above the aisle roofs at the junction of the nave and choir. Roman- Pairs of towers at the east end are even rarer. and Morienval in France. Exeter Cathedral alone has the only remaining portions of central tower. like that at the Abbaye-aux-Hommes. In most Romanesque churches in Normandy and England. in addition. and at Tournai towers crowned by steeply pitched roofs are situated on 1 either side of the apsidal end. 3 * ing termination is to be found in the helm-roof at Sompting. This consists of a steeply pitched gable on each face. or octa- most interestgonal. where so 1 At Hereford. in Italy. although they have certain structural advantages when used in conjunction with a tiirust. The most effective and suitable position for a pair of towers is at the west end. so that when at length the task was resumed.

often a . the central towers standing on Romanesque piers. Many other English cathedrals have this characteristic composition. but these were built. or rebuilt. but it was in England. as can be seen at Durham and Tewkesbury.1 75 mere lantern is all that shows above the roof. in Gothic times and therefore do not come within the scope of this volume. The character of the western towers had been first determined in Normandy. that the great dominating central tower was developed with the most superb results. as at Canterbury and York .

of state fighting against state. by means of which support could be provided for arches spanning the nave. the Papal State held firmly to its classical traditions and contributed remarkably little to Romanesque development. Milan. in Tuscany. Eustorgio. was adopted in the Church 176 . probably towards the end of that century. the influence of Saracen. or from anybody else who happened to be in possession. The new style involved a complete break from the Early Christian basilica by the substitution of piers for the column arcade and the general use of the stone vault instead of the timber ceiling. and Sicily. In the north. Then. and in the neighbouring towns. a distinctly different architecture evolved. with centres at Pisa and Florence.CHAPTER XII ROMANESQUE IN ITALY from the ninth was naturally reflected in the arts JL of the country. although what building Farther south. Around Rome. that Italian Romanesque architecture was first fully developed. there developed the Lombard style. of the efforts of the Eastern Emperors to retain their footing in Italy. on the other hand. in Apulia there was had its own local character. The first step. A hundred miles south. The history of the period is a continuous account of internal troubles and external wars . involving a T-shaped pier which would carry vaults over the aisles. Out of this confusion there developed an architecture that was not national but regional. of conflicts between Pope and Emperor. and of the determination of the Saracens and the Normans to wrest the land from them. Byzantine and Norman resulted in a hybrid architecture in which different methods of construction and decoration mingled together in a most unusual ^ ' '"1HB chaotic state of affairs throughout Italy I to the twelfth centuries way. LOMBARDY Milan was the centre of architectural advance in northern Italy. the cruciform pier. appears to have been taken in the tenth-century Church of S. with Milan as its centre. and it was there.

The porches are vaulted. Milan. Verona. Vlcenza. The most revolutionary step* however. covered by low-pitched Similar features are to be found in Germany. at S.in Italy 177 of SS. but in addition a projecting porch supported on detached columns. The west facade was invariably treated as a flat. was possibly taken in the little church of Sannazzaro. this did not. being carried on detached columns placed well away from the wall. the first completely vaulted church in Lombardy was built at Mazzone. and may therefore have been completed before the middle of the eleventh century. admitted a flood of light near the east end of the church. therefore. in which the diagonal rib and the clustered pier were combined. which is presumed to have been founded in 1040. and possess as a rule two peculiarities one is that the vault. The cupolas thus developed were. though it is unknown 1 Lombard Architecture) London. always line up with the roofs behind. Italy the series of recessed orders typical of so much Romanesque work. The plain fa9ade was relieved by doorways which were often elaborate. c. Zeno. with few exceptions. In most cases they were surrounded by windows which. Sometimes it is two storeys high. generally crouching lions. 1917. but is more often of one storey only. Where this device originated is not known . and must have come from the East. and the second is that the columns rest : on the backs of animals. Felice and Fortunate. This feature is common in many churches in Italy and is not limited to Lombardy. a main arcade with either a clerestory or a triforium. having not only roofs. according to 1 Kingsley Porter. but before long. vaults were introduced over the aisles. for example. as in S. This structural revolution was accomAs a general rale. : octagonal dome. not far from Milan. the transition from the square to the octagon being achieved by squinch arches at the angles. as in the cathedrals of Verona and Piacenza. 1030. which extended across the whole building and concealed the division of nave and aisles . it can be seen in Carolingian manuscripts. southern and southern France. could not possibly stand if it were not for iron ties which prevent it from spreading. as. II 12 . the churches panied by many other innovations were of only two storeys that is. low-pitched gable end. Transepts were developed in many examples. It Is likely that in the first instance these arches were simply diaphragm arches. and it became usual to cover the crossing with an . Ambrogio.

S. 1910. Cattaneo. Germany copied the feature from Italy.178 Early Christian . On the south transept there are two more examples. which was negligible when compared with by the semi-dome on the wall below. Ambrogio and S. carved elephants project boldly to carry shafts which support a rich archivolt. Byzantine and Romanesque in Byzantine work. for instance. which he dates at 1080. Milan. and in the south of France the design is frequently met with. The same treatment is generally found in the central cupolas which. 3 G. The date of the building of S. and in other churches at Bari. According to Cattaneo. etc. T. Windows in southern Italy are sometimes treated in a similar way. At S. Rivoira 3 places the main building at not before the end of the tenth century. further instances are to be found. are not so striking as our English central towers.. 1936. Kingsley Porter and Cattaneo atthe last half of the eleventh that exerted 1 2 Romanesque Architecture in Western Europe. Michele the openings around the apse are grouped in pairs. According to Claphain. Rivoka3 Lombardic Architecture. as in the apses of S. Architecture in Italy from the Vlth to the Xlth Centuries. The external treatment of the apsidal ends provides an especially interesting example of rational construction . In Tuscany it was elaborated and duplicated to such an extent that the arcaded gallery front is one of the most distinctive characteristics of this region. Oxford. Trani. Michele. Ambrogio has probably been the subject of more controversy than that of any other building in the country. where they often group with other towers and turrets. It was therefore possible strength to treat it as an open arcaded gallery. At the sill level of the east window of Bari Cathedral. being relatively low in profile. Pavia. ^6. . as at S. 1 the earliest example appears at the Cathedral of Aceranza. and soon the motif was used on the west front as well. 2 the east end dates from the time of Archbishop Angilbertus (824859)3 but Clapham claims that it belongs to the tenth century. The openings were simple at first. they can be very effective. Ambrogio. In some other examples they form a continuous gallery. but in Germany. in southern Italy. Milan (PL 10). the openings being separated from one another by marble shafts. R. so that no great was required in the upper part. for the wall above the of the semi-dome had only to withstand the thrust of the springing covering limber roof. Vicenzo-in-Prato. where it ascends and descends under the eaves of the gable.

y4/fer S. while Clapfaam maintains that *the only direct evidence its date points to the first third of the twelfth century. The nave bays in consequence the chief reason for the differences in proportion and basilica and the Romanappearance between the Early Christian church.' ! it is Whether or not the others. In S. Ambrogio.in of century. supported.. massive supports which could mainesque and thrust of the vaults were essential. all that had to be carried was 'the dead load of clerestory wall and timber roof. the bays of the aisles. one bay of the nave corresponding to two &^^ . all approximately square. way those which distinguish Lombardic : in place The plan is basMcan.. 100 ft. to i t. there are three great piers i Op. an arrangement which made it possible to have vaults over both nave and aisles. a p. but with this difference that of the continuous colonnade we now have a plan of few and large piers with smaller supports between. In no other way could the wide vault of nave and the narrower vault over the aisles have been satisfactorily are few and wide. AmbrogiOa Milan. In the latter. nevertheless remarkable in that structure can claim to be the prototype of it combines in a features magnificent architecture. Dartem. 35- . Y. In the tain the Here is weight former.

comparison be made with later Romanesque and Gothic churches. Transverse diaphragm arches. One of these arches still remains towards the west end. Zeno. The piers and transverse arches are of stone. Ambrogio differs from other contemporary churches in Lombardy in having no transepts and in the possession of a cloistered atrium at the western end. built in the half of the twelfth century. although the source The flood of light on the altar and its is not always evident. 39). This is ample. starting from capitals halfway up the walls. apparently. one side of which forms a narthex flanked by towers. the effect produced by an apparent absence of windows is surprisingly good. To this later period belongs the present timber ceiling of the nave. Ambrogio and other churches in Lom- bardy. were evidently thrown across the nave from each of the big piers. Zeno has a clerestory but no triforium. the crown of the supporting arches being 10 feet less because the vaults are domical. invisible from the nave.i8o Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque some 40 feet apart on either side of the nave. The few aisle windows are generally concealed by the piers. are almost exactly those of the Basilica of Constantine. of course. has almost all the characteristics of : a vaulted church sturdy clustered piers alternating with lighter columns and. the others were removed when the church was heightened and the choir remodelled early in the fourteenth century. if S. more strongly-marked buttresses than are customary in Italy. The west front is distinguished by its large wheel window. from which the The height longitudinal. . Verona. transverse and diagonal ribs spring. which was 83 feet wide and 120 feet high. spanned by a low-pitched gable in a similar manner to that adopted in some Syrian churches (see p. from the floor to the crown of the diagonal ribs is just over 60 feet. but the proportions. The Church of S. due to subsequent alterations. The west windows are large. it was never vaulted. and yet. This is no great height considering the width. but they are shadowed by the gallery outside. baldachino is obtained from a high ring of windows in the octagonal cupola above. the diagonal and longitudinal arches of brick with pieces of stone set These may be part of the original design or may be irregularly. first S. Zeno. in which respect it differs from S. Altogether. S. The charm of the church lies in a large measure in its lighting. and the windows at the back of the triforium. on the outside. which assist in lighting the vaults. are. Verona. curiously enough. Over the narthex is a gallery with three large openings in front. however.

The crossing is not square and the dome above is consequently an irregular octagon with no two sides equal. Pisa. was a great sea power by the beginits ning of the tenth century. Micheky Pavia. centred in the city states of Pisa and Florence. Michele. All that the church lacks are window tracery and the pointed arch. TUSCANY The Tuscany and that of and may be attributed partly to the Lombardy greater wealth and commercial importance of Tuscan cities and contrast between the architecture of is considerable. the dimension along the axis of the church being considerably greater than the width. The typically Lombardic western front consists of a wide. with the result that the breadth of the nave varies over 3 feet from one end to the other. but irregular oblongs. Nor are the bays of the nave. and deep buttresses which are incorporated within the church in the French manner. relieved only by the stepped arcade under the eaves and the deeply recessed porches. clustered piers. which had encouraged great ingenuity in construction. the existing oblong compartments are much later. consecrated in 1118. strictly speaking. it has ribbed vaults.in Italy Its its 181 pilaster strip decoratlon 5 its magnificent projecting porch and tall. being constructed of semi-circular ribs over an oblong plan. detached campanile. enriched with alternate courses of brick and marble and culminating in an open-arcaded bell and a steeply-pitched roof (PL n). Pavia. but in Tuscany the various marbles provided opportunities for more skilful craftsmanship. flat gable. 5. The lines of the nave are not at right angles to the western faade. is chamber in many ways the most was built at either Lombard churches. and the eastern bay immediately preceding the apse is of domical form. square. in Lombardy building material was brick. It the end of the eleventh or the beginning of the twelfth century and possesses nearly all the features which we associate with Gothic architecture. Its plan is cruciform . richly carved with scroll and interlacing patterns. nor even parallel with each other. then a port. interesting of all the S. When it was first built it had two nearly square quadripartite ribbed vaults over the nave . . the main partly to the presence of local marbles . There are two important schools in Tuscany. and cathedral. The plan is astonishingly irregular. There is a raised choir over a vaulted crypt.

The school of Florence. The churches of Lucca and Arezzo.1 82 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque After Dartein. presents us with a fully-developed style without any precedents. to I in. and those in the dependency of Sardinia. S. Scale soft. on . followed the lead of Pisa. Michele> Pavia.

One of the most delightful architectural compositions In Pisa. seems to have adhered more closely to classical and Early Christian forms. wide gallery round the church. Miniato Monte. but the rest of the church is covered by timber roofs. This allowed the use of columns rather than piers along the nave arcade. but that the architect wished to adhere to the basilican plan of continuous arcades .* 1 The result is excellent . Salonika (p. which was begun in 1063 and consecrated in ii 18. belong to the Romanesque period. both with double aisles. from the nave. because there was less weight to be carried. in which the transepts are divorced at S. which are carried across doorways and have above them open galleries set In tiers. leaning tower. Demetrius. in contrast to the single ascending and (4) The use of a timber roof descending gallery of the Lombards over the nave In preference to a ribbed vault. It consists of a nave and choir. and in the Badia at Fiesole. by having a high central gable to terminate the nave and lean-to gables at the ends of the aisles.Romanesque in Italy 183 al the other hand. the arches springing from pilasters of slight projection. which Is exemplified in the Church of S. one above the other. and Campo Santo at Pisa. The transepts are cut off from the crossing by the continuation of the arcades of the nave and the triforium galleries. which forms a high. the world is that formed by the cathedral. to a mixture of brick . 34). forms to the section of the building. TMs is sometimes used In bands of light and dark a method first adopted at Pisa alternating and afterwards carried to extremes In the mediaeval cathedrals of Siena and Orvieto or else in the facing of the carcase with thin veneers of different coloured marbles to form simple geometrical (2) The treatment of the western front so that It conpatterns. a cloistered rectangular court which was begun about the end of the thirteenth century. . The most important building in the group is the cathedral. baptistery. Pisan architecture differs from that of Lombardy In the following ways (i) The adoption of marble casing throughout In preference : and marble. (3) The widespread use of The whole of the ground storey is generally arcaded. Over the aisles there is a triforium (an unusual feature in Tuscany). there is no feeling A was followed similar plan. arcading. projecting transepts each with single aisles and an apse at the end. and wide. The plan indicates that not only were tranat Pisa when the church was septs an innovation little understood built. The aisles throughout are vaulted. All but the last. Instead of a single fagade gable.

so regularly that it is difficult to believe that these curves are unintentional. Along the flanks. the lines of the string courses are not straight. . and only incidental In its purity of line. something almost classical that is not evident in other works of the time. but rise and fall. of proportions. appear at first sight to be all the same but in fact vary considerably (PL 9). to i in. but there is little that is Byzantine about the plan. which are ranged one above the other to form a proto-fa9ade. The arcades. Pisa Cathedral. Living Architecture 1 . and in few churches in Europe are there such fine perspective effects as can be obtained here. there is. 'I call that There is sensation in every inch of it. The horizontal lines of the arcading on the western front curve downwards towards either end just enough to ensure that when viewed from the centre they appear perfectly horizontal. its subtlety features suggest eastern influence. l According to Vasari > the architect was Boschetto. a Greek.' said Ruskin. correction and to provide subtie variety to the facade. *Now.184 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque of weakness. Scale loo/t. As in Greek temples. however. many devices have been introduced to ensure the desired optical After De Fleury. looking along the transepts across the church. and an Lives of the most famous Architects^ Painters and Sculptors. such as Is often apparent in mediaeval churches when the arches of the crossing are far higher than those at either side .

Pisa Cathedral. Florence . west front Plate g S. Miniato.

Milan. Ambrogio. Milan. exterior Plate 10 S.S. interior . Ambrogio.

John and Paul. porch . SS. Rome Zeno Maggiore. Torcello Plate Leaning Tower. Campanile. Verona. Pisa u S.Campanile.

view from south Worms Plate 12 Cathedral. interior .Worms Cathedral. nave Monreale Cathedral. apsidal end Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedral.

in Italy


accommodation to every architectural necessity with a determined variation in arrangement which is exactly like the related proportions and provisions in the structure of organic form/ !
of the exterior design are at the Because the transepts, with their single aisles., are narrower than the nave* the roofs come at a lower level and cut Nor is into, and abut awkwardly against., the central octagon.
least satisfactory features



the oval-shaped dome a beautiful object. The best part is cerIts lines, tainly the west end, which Ms considerable dignity. moreover., are truthful, inasmuch as they agree with the section of
the church behind, an accordance which

unusual, in


western facades.

The baptistery, which is situated some 200 feet from the west end and on the main axis of the cathedral, is a very strange creation, built on a circular plan and covered by a steep cone which penetrates a surrounding hemispherical dome. Externally It is decorated with the same arcading as that of the cathedral, but was later furnished with Gothic pinnacles and enriched with sculptures by
Niccolo Pisano.


campanile, or leaning tower, is placed to one side of the end of the cathedral and has already been described

According to Lethaby, <it may be said to have been 2 Altodesigned by rolling up the west front of the cathedral.' gether, these three Romanesque buildings the cathedral, the
(pp. 171-2).

baptistery and the leaning tower architectural group.

constitute a

most remarkable


seem to have been quickly captivated by the new was repeated in other churches of Pisa, at Lucca, at At S. Michele, Lucca, the western gable Pistoja and at Arezzo. was carried up more than 30 feet above the roof proper, simply to provide more arcades. The whole of the ground storey of these Tuscan churches is generally arcaded, the arches springing from pilasters of slight projection, or from shafts of marble touching the The arcading is carried across doorways, but emphasis is walls. generally given to these by raising the arches above them. This was the rule in the churches of Pistoja and it was also adopted in the west front of Troja Cathedral in Apulia, in the south of Italy. The open galleries above at Lucca, as at Pisa, are not limited to the west front but are continuous along the sides and round the apse,



The Seven Lamps of Architecture. Mediaeval Art.



Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque
fine effects

of light and shade. At Pisa the clerestory windows are placed in alternate bays of external arcading, but this


arcade bears no relation to the internal divisions. The same may be said of the aisle windows, which occur sometimes behind



sometimes between them.




for later

architects to discover* with doubtful results, that everything in a

church must be arranged symmetrically.


Florentine architecture of the



different in



Romanesque from that of the churches

S. Miniate^ Florence.

Scale Soft, to I


mentioned above,

chiefly because



closer adherence to

Early Christian forms. There are only three monuments of the period the Chuifch of S. Miniato, built on a hill above the town,
the Baptistery in the

and the Badia

at Fiesole.

Of these the

1013), in which three influences Early Christian, Byzantine and, to a lessor extent, Romanesque

most important is




in Italy


In many respects it Is an ordinary basilican church) except crypt is larger, and its chancel raised higher, than in Early Christian examples. There are no transepts whatsoever. Old

columns and capitals some of the latter much too small for the columns below are extensively used ; over the nave and aisles axe open timber roofs ; and in its general plan, construction, and proportions, there is little to distinguish it from the earlier churches in Rome. It was never intended to be vaulted, indeed, it could not be, and every part of the design proclaims that fact ; but (and herein lies the main difference between this church and Early Christian basilicas) transverse diaphragm arches span both nave and aisles and divide the church longitudinally into three large bays. The nave and aisle ceilings are, in consequence, not continuous. To
carry these transverse arches, piers are introduced at every third bay. These piers are not rectangular, like those in S. Clemente, Rome (p. 17), but are quatrefoil in plan. One quarter of each on

the nave side is carried up above the crown of the nave arcade, forming a half-round pilaster to support the main transverse arches, while from the opposite side smaller arches span the aisles, starting from the same springing line as do the arches of the

Byzantine influence is shown in the decoration of the interior with simple patterns of brick and coloured marble. The outside is of brick and is extremely simple, with the exception of the western facade, which is cased in black and white marble panelling

with somewhat unfortunate effect. The same style of decoration is to be found in the west front of the Badia at Fiesole (c. 1090) and
in the Baptistery at Florence.

The Baptistery is a simple octagon, 90 feet across, and how much of the Romanesque structure remains is exceedingly doubtful. 1 According to Cummings, it was built originally as a church, peras early as the sixth or seventh century ; but the construction haps in Florence of a domed building of so great a span is unlikely at that time. The details throughout are classical, and the detached
columns which decorate the
interior walls are probably antique.

Because of the strong
classical traditions, there is little



architecture to

be found in Rome.

Only one church,

History of Architecture in Italy 3 London, 1908.

1 88

Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque

dedicated to SS. John and Paul, Is Important. The portico, the tower (PL n), the pavement and the apse certainly belong to the twelfth century, the last being enlivened by a typical Lombardic arcaded gallery. Nevertheless, it was during the Romanesque period that many of the Early Christian churches were restored;, and many of the brick campanili, which have already been described (p. 172)3 built. This, too, was the time when the famous school of marble workers, the Cosmati, practised their art. To the Cosmati we owe much of the furnishing of Roman churches. Nearly all of the
great marble candlesticks, the pulpits, the baldachinos, the bishops' thrones and the choir screens were their work. Their art spread
to southern Italy

and northern Europe. In Westminster Abbey, the Shrine of Edward the Confessor, carried out about 1268, was a product of this school. Its finest works are to be found in the

of the basilicas of S. John Lateran and


Paul Outside the


They are very fanciful in design, and the unconstructional character of the shafts, most of which are either twisted or deeply
pardonable because the weight to be carried

fluted, is



The shafts are arranged in pairs, and those that are twisted or fluted
are enriched with marble and glass mosaics.

Mosaics are also

inserted in the frieze, the bright colours being framed by the white marble of which the whole of the cloisters, except the plinth, are



limited to

architecture in the southern half of Italy



the province of Apulia, with its centre at and the Norman kingdom of Sicily, with its centre at Palermo. Bari, Some of the buildings of the period, especially those with domes


a centralised plan, were derived from Byzantine sources and have already been discussed (pp. 90-92). Others are similar in construction or in plan to Norman or Lombardic buildings and, although built by Arab workmen and incorporating many features of Byzantine decoration, properly belong to this chapter. Generally, the churches in Apulia have suffered considerably



neglect, ill-judged restoration, and additions and alterations in the Rococo style of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Nevertheless, they deserve more attention from the student than they generally receive. Their fittings, often the work of the Cosmati, compare in beauty and interest with those of Rome and Florence; the pulpits in the cathedrals of Sessa and Ravello, with

their inlays

in Italy


of glass mosaic, are especially notable. No part of bronze doors. This branch of industry, which was doubtless introduced here by the Byzantines., seems to have
Italy is so rich in

been practised by the



to a considerable extent.


doors are in the cathedrals of Troja, Trani and Ravello. Those in the last two were the work of Barisanus of Trani and were
executed about 1180.


are of solid cast bronze,, after the old

Roman-Byzantine method, and are very different from those at S. Zeno, Verona, in which bronze plates, and moulded and pierced bronze rails and stiles, are nailed to wood. Stone carving is generally far superior to that in other parts of Italy, possibly owing to the district's having been for so many years under Byzantine rule. In most cases it is extremely delicate and refined. In the few examples where it is quite the reverse, the design is much the same, but the workmanship is clumsy and is
probably the product of Norman workmen who copied the finer Byzantine influence is also conspicuous in the substitution of flush bands of glass mosaic for moulded dripstones over the windows. Over each semi-circular-headed window

work of the Greeks.

of the crypt in the east end of S. Nicolo, Bari, instead of the usual projecting hood mouldings there is a concentric band of glass

mosaic, flush with the stonework. The jewel-like effect is very and all the more pleasing since it comes as a surprise. The pierced marble window slabs of Bari Cathedral are among the


of their type, and there are


others in

most of the

churches of Bari and Trani, those of S. Gregorio, alongside S. Nicolo, being especially numerous and beautiful. The prototype of the Apulian Romanesque is S. Nicola, Bari.

(begun 1087). It is a large, aisled church with a transept, or bema, which, like that of Trani Cathedral, is continuous from north to south, being cut off from the nave by an arcade. The nave is divided into arcade, triforium and
S. Nicolo, Bari

Church of

clerestory, in proportions similar to those in Jumieges, in


mandy (begun


The roof is

of timber.

A peculiarity is the

coupling of the columns of the three western bays ; the inner columns carry transverse diaphragm arches which reach only as

high as the string course below the triforium and support nothing whatsoever. These inner columns, though old, are manifestly additions, but it is difficult to say why they or the arches were

In Trani Cathedral, the columns are also coupled, but there are no transverse arches.

Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque


S. Nicolo, Bari.

Scale soft, to

i in.

and the best external feature is Here the arches do not spring from pilaster strips or from slender shafts, as in Tuscany, but from wide buttresses projecting about 8 feet. 1 In Trani and Bari cathedrals

The west end

severely plain,

the arcading of the aisle walls.

1 The aisle walls have been brought forward to the face of the buttresses to provide side chapels inside, but these are evidently additions, and no attempt has been made to bond the new work with the old.

in Trani Cathedral the gallery has been entirely swept away. There are similar similar arcading. . Saracenic and Romanesque detail. and which has already been described (pp. This accounts. though the projection is The boldness of these buttresses curious. the Normans came. but none in other parts of Italy. Before the Norman conquest of Sicily. Nicolo the gallery still exists 3 though the openings are Sicily. to a considerable extent. these project only a few inches and the space between them is never arched. the orders of the arches of correspondingly slight projection. but of less projection. but these are found side by side with Romanesque groined vaults (Cefalu) and with honeycombed and painted ceilings which only Saracenic workmen could have made. with the result that the finest architecture of the Romanesque period is that which is domed in eastern It fashion. Tournus. and zigzags. Norman influence in architectural matters was not particularly strong. is in the larger cathedrals of Cefalu. 90-92). and round the upper part of the chancel of S. along the aisle walls of the Cathedral of Issoire. Burgundy. All the arches of the Sicilian churches are pointed and a feature which was undoubtedly used in Sicily long before stilted. because although conchurches of Normandy and England have buttresses of temporary considerable width. The mouldings are very shallow. Palermo and Monreale that Romanesque features are most pronounced. there was evidently originally an open gallery.Romanesque there Is in Italy 191 is a few feet less. The crestings and battlements which crown some of the buildings outside (especially at Palermo) may with equal certainty be ascribed to the Saracens . Philibert. arcades. Above the outside arcading at Bari They cannot be due and Tram Pisan work. The jambs of doorways and windows are often a curious mixture of Byzantine. but much of the detail introduced into them Is SaraThe mosaics that are used to decorate the upper surfaces cenic. But even in these examples there is much that is foreign to western eyes j the high marble dadoes that line the walls recall Byzantine methods of decoration. lozenges and other enrichments generally associated with Norman work are frequently carved side by side with more classical detail. more than half the country was Moslem and the rest was largely Greek. now walled up. of the walls are unmistakably Byzantine. they present forms unknown in Romanesque and Byzantine churches. to Norman influence. for the distinctive peculiarities of Sicilian churches. as in In S. Auvergne.

as in the more than window-jambs and arches. like all the arches in the church. Another motif which is particularly popular for external decoration is the interlacing arcade which. Counterchanging is freely employed in the decoration. but whenever conventional patterns are used. Its magnificent perspective is largely due to the way in which the eye is carried upwards. on outside walls. is a kind of inlay in which stone is cut away and a black composition inserted. The arch at the east end of the nave which. by the way. simple abaci. mark the different springing lines. near Palermo. are pointed. and so are the long walls above the arcade. The choir vault and semi-dome over the apse. Scale 100 ft.000 square feet of illustrated matter. covered with mosaics. but the arch and vault east of the crossing. the . which fills the semi-dome of Monreale Cathedral. The figures are always either white or many-coloured on a background of gold. towards the east end. The cathedral at Monreale. to I in. all composed of units seldom half-an-inch square. results in an effect which closely resembles thirteenth-century geometric window tracery in England.192 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque A favourite method of decoration. are much higher. and the semi-dome beyond. using the pointed arch.has by far the most striking interior of any Sicilian church. This composition sometimes forms the background in a pattern and sometimes the pattern itself. Monreak Cathedral (PL 12). to the grandly-designed mosaic head-and-shoulders of Christ. the apse. The sheer quantity of colour is overwhelming. is not stilted springs from about the level of the crown of the arches of the nave arcade. All these curved surfaces are covered with mosaic. There are some 70.

round the aisle walls has its rails and cresting in coloured glass mosaic. Such an arrangement seems extraordinary and illogical. each alternate pair being inlaid with coloured mosaic. the other the shafts and capitals. the cloisters. the earliest of the three. and Cefalu (begun in 1131). which is unlike any in Italy and whose proportions are almost identical with those of contemporary cathedrals in Normandy. which A that consequently overhang in a most unfortunate way. The arches are moulded in true Norman fashion. The panelled marble dado. single oblong abacus covers each pair of exceptionally well-carved capitals. and on the south. retains a most elaborate cornice composed of bands of mosaic crowned by a single undulating battlement. especially is no evidence to suggest that the columns and the arches were not built at the same time. the whole composition of the nave being surmounted by a richly-painted timber roof. and a mosaic figure of Christ even finer than higher that at Monreale. at the east end the apses. which was ruthlessly restored in the eighteenth century and whose appearance was largely transformed by the superimposition of a Renaissance dome. sandwiched between the two western towers which stand almost clear of the church . in an almost unique position .. 1113 . This suggests two sets of workmen were employed . but this cannot destroy the effect of the extraordinarily lofty pointed arch and vaulted choir. both having similar plans Palermo.Romanesque patterns are in gold in Italy 193 and the ground is in colour. Other Examples. decorated with intersecting arches (all of which are pointed)^ the upper piers being carried on detached marble shafts . with a somewhat rough semi-circular member as an inner order. The greater portion of the interior has been modernised. At the west is a porch. one set designed the arches. Romanesque it is feeling is stronger than at Palermo or Monreale. and no one made any attempt to bring the work of the two into relation with each other. where as there . 23 feet high. Below these are extremely delicate shafts set in pairs. The outside of the church is very striking on all sides. The cloisters provide an interesting instance of the conflict between Norman and Saracenic ideas. on the north a loggia. has an eastern end much although than the nave. but is not nearly wide enough to support the inner orders of the arches above. but are stilted and pointed. Two other cathedrals must be mentioned..

was a laudable ambition. therefore. is almost blank as far as existing buildings are concerned . limited to the eleventh century and the early part of the THE twelfth. There is little. however. they had sunk too deeply into the rut of tradition to be able to extricate themselves unaided. built at the beginning of the thirteenth century. other equally fine churches in the country. At that time and in that place the Germans held their own with other nations in the importance. It is a remarkably fine building. in the middle of the following century. but. considering the hundred years or more which separate it from selves loose handicapped by their own creations. which animated the French and English builders in the twelfth century. 133) until the beginning of the eleventh century. they had undoubtedly done a great deal to foster. That they made little advance afterwards was because they were They could not shake themfrom the shackles of the style which. that is characteristically their own in their thirteenth194 and fourteenth- . if they had not originated. it is evidence of the stagnation which unfortunately had set in. and there found models which they imitated with more or less success. When. for nearly all the important buildings are to be found in a relatively small part of Germany in that area of the lower Rhine which runs north-west from Worms to Cologne. The extent to which the workmen had lost the faculty of original design and the spirit of independence so essential for artistic advance. An undue craving for novelty and change is no doubt a curse. They therefore turned to France. and after the middle of the twelfth century there is no major contribution made by Germany towards the development of Romanesque or mediaeval architecture. from the time of the great achievement of Charlemagne at Aix-la-Chapelle in the eighth century (p.CHAPTER XIII ROMANESQUE IN GERMANY story of German architecture. To this historical limitation must also be added a geo- graphical boundary. is shown in the church at Andernach. but the desire to improve on what had been done before. beauty and originality of their buildings. The period of our study is. the Germans awoke to the necessity for change.

Gall. but what little largely their own. Double apses were by no means unend. owed much to Italy. 2 A more significant clue is altars at where there are both provided in the manuscript plan of S. one apse being at the east the other at the west. but the ancient cities of Hildesheim and Treves suffered greatly. in the main. The fame of German church architecture rests mainly on the early efforts of the eleventh century and on the few 1 buildings of the twelfth. 2 The generally accepted reason two apses in Germany is that the eastern apse was for the abbot. Laach and Worms were. known in earlier churches elsewhere. Mayence. used was good. but had a distinct character less refined. east and west ends (see p. One of the most characteristic traits in German is the double apsidal ending. no doubt. 119). In some churches. The forms of their capitals and designs of they their carvings were based on Byzantine work. but more in keeping with the solid quality of their buildings. and that the western one was for the bishop and the people. and in some cases they may churches have been due to the change in orientation (see pp. which would necessitate the building of a new apse for the altar at the east end. fortunately undamaged. Not only were such cities as Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne intensively bombed before the allied armies reached Germany. fails to explain those churches which were Some Early built with an apse of the same date at each end.Romanesque in Germany 195 century work. Double Apses. At the beginning the Germans. the arrangement. and allow the retention of the original chancel apse at the west. Each is presumed to have had its own the correct one. interthan that general elsewhere. and monks. This. at least. but the fighting during the crossing of the Rhine was most violent. it is true. Christian churches in the East were constructed in the first instance with double apses. . like all other nations. however. The cathedrals at Speyer. or prior. was the one which suffered the most severely during the 1939-45 War. there is no western apse Speyer (Speier) Cathedral is the largest exception to the general rule choir. which placed the people's altar at the east end of the nave and accorded it no specially treated surroundings. If this reason is is nally. where most of the examples were built. but their dependence on that country was linked with a boldness and strength. a sense of fine scale and simplicity in design. 19-21). They used ornament sparingly. but the plan of these was probably due to special ritual requirements which can hardly have existed in Germany many for the centuries later. far finer 1 It is unfortunate that the area of the lower Rhine. than the work farther south.

if they project at all. required by the monks. are not uncommon under the eastern choirs. a feeling of dissatisfaction arising out of the duality is side slight projection. are transepts. west as well as east. 1 One misses the marked differences in The western altar is the one now used for service. so that of no one church can it be said that east and west ends are identical. Considerable ingenuity is displayed in varying the designs. There is never more than one apse at the west end. notwithstanding the striking effects which are frequently produced. its size and beauty are also proof of the determination of the laity in the thirteenth century that their altar and their representative should have noble surroundings. It was built c. as at Mayence Cathedral. These are usually of There is more compactness about the plans of German churches as a whole than is generally found elsewhere. although not infrequently there are three side by side at the east end. Each end has an apse. which rises above the roof.196 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque but in most examples the apse at the west end is equal in size and importance to that at the east. that is. and further accommodation could be obtained in the crypts which. to I in. not altogether unnatural. At Mayence (Mainz) Cathedral the western arm is far larger than the eastern. as at Laach 1 Abbey Church. Scale looft. a hundred years later than the rest of the church. Transepts. its pair of transepts (as a rule) and its cupola. Laach. The main result outside is that there is little to show which is the west end and which the east. . S Maria. and although this may account partly for its extent. These provided space for the additional altars """ l*'/^. while the unbroken line of the roof over the nave forms a connection. although by no means universal."""'fr /ur*"/^"""^ After Lundberg. And yet. is generally covered by an octagonal tower or cupola. carried on squinch arches. The crossing in front of each central apse. 1200. on either of it. in many churches.

but the central western doorway is rare. In others they flank the apses. as at Speyer Cathedral. There are exceptions. They appear on either side of the entrance to the octagon of Aix-la-Chapelle. so that they should assist.Romanesque in Germany 197 treatment between the west and east fronts that are so characteristic of many of the churches of other countries. and not at the west end. and of placing them features. S. One result of the double apse plan is that. The Germans understood thoroughly the art of grouping these to the best advantage. In other countries circular towers are Germany they were common in all the early centuries of church building. to i in. Michael^ Hildesheim. the larger There are generally two turrets at each end. By its omission the Germans lost an opportunity for architectural display. where there is no western apse. Worms (PL 12) and Bonn. In some After Lun&erg. as at Mayence Cathedral and the Church of S. Mayence and Laach) there are doorways at the west end opening into the aisles . Michael^ Hildesheim. It often finds no place even when there is no western apse. Gall two such towers are indicated at the west end (p. cases they stand out in bold projection from the transepts. in . and in the parchment plan of S.. The most effective feature of the German fine church externally is generally the skyline. and not conflict with. as in Zurich Cathedral. Towers and Turrets. the entrances to the church are at the sides. as in the cathedrals at Speyer. 119). of course. Scale 100 ft. Lateral Entrances. not only in Germany. as a rule. but also in churches in Switzerland built under German influence. and in some cases also (Treves.. A central rare . This is due to the balance which the large cupolas give to the main central roof and to the subordinate towers or turrets which are appendages to nearly all the large churches.

but is Lombardy than is Tournus and Burgundy belonged to the German On a more primitive scale. Internal Treatment. All were used in moderation. and the string courses are of another character. The External Treatment. Sometimes they ran along the sides. this respect there a greater resemblance to the architecture of found in Romanesque architecture elsewhere. and a single gallery arcade links die towers to the apse. etc. the Germans would have transferred their energies to the lateral entrances. In France and in England after the middle of the is in Burgundy. side. however. one above the other. From Lombardy the Germans borrowed the arcaded galleries. therefore. The galleries were formed in the thickness of the western walls. as at Speyer. shows well the typical features of the style. with its octagonal tower behind the circular turrets.* but with a few exceptions these. the and arcading which form so distinctive a feature of pilaster strips Anglo-Saxon architecture in England obviously stem from the same source. Philibert. Empire in the eleventh century. below the line of the gable and above the windows (PL 12). . Speyer. Each tower is panelled with pilaster strips and arcaded string courses. The east end of Worms Cathedral. the walls were treated with great severity. were small and unimportant. and generally continued under the eaves of the eastern end and around the cupolas. Thin pilaster strips and arched corbelled string courses were used round the smaller towers and In turrets. with two apses and only one transept. The eastern apse was finished square on the out- and is masked to some extent by the turrets on either side. In many large churches of the twelfth . as at Treves. one another about the middle of the church. but otherwise there was little attempt at decoration. and at the same time provides the most It might have been thought that dignified entrance to a church. face . more structural and less merely decorative. so far as can be judged from the original examples which remain. entrances transepts are too near the ends to accommodate the main doorways. It is true that in S. Except for these galleries. It is an immense church. where there are two. there is much in the design that is similar to the cathedrals of Mayence. the galleries under the eaves and the pilasters and arcaded string courses. Tournus. pilaster strips and arched string courses. the pilasters are of quite different proportions.198 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque west doorway affords some excuse for the exercise of the designer's and the sculptor's skill. eleventh century. in most examples.

Maria and the Holy Apostles. In Worms Cathedral may have been intended from the first. since the piers are large and there are projections. those of Mayence Cathedral. a further reason for doubting that the vault is the original one. It is not known when vaulting was first employed over naves. The nave vaults of Mayence and Worms are now ribbed. 108 feet high and that of Mayence Cathedral is only 20 feet less. triforiums churches. however. which date from the middle of the twelfth century. are distinctly is very simple. the nave of galleries. These. only transverse arches. where the vaulting is almost certainly later. but in two churches in Cologne. but none of the bays in either nave or aisles exactly square . whatever may have been the case elsewhere. These dimensions far exceed many conexamples in France. have no ribs. Rhenish Romanesque Mayence and Worms. It has been suggested that the desire not to increase the height may have had something to Nevertheless. but if so the probability is that the vaults did not involve diagonal ribs. In nearly all German is two bays of the oblong. there was no use for them in Germany. The churches. coupled with the absence of projections on the nave side In from which seems proof that the nave vault of this church either diagonal or wall ribs could conveniently spring. . Access to the roof space over the aisle was The internal treatment generally usually effected from the turret staircases. late as well as early. one bay of the nave equals aisle. of Mayence have no ribs. Caen. This was achieved by continuing the inner members . where the vaults. may have been originally three largest of the designed for vaulting. are not conclusive proof of such intention. The nave of the Abbaye-auxtemporary do with the omission of is Speyer Cathedral Hommes. is a later addition. for there are similar piers at Speyer. the ribs being moulded and the transverse arches plain.Romanesque in Germany 199 century. all three churches the vaults are very domical. the sexpartite plan is adopted. S. Worms and Mayence. is almost as wide as that of Speyer and yet is only 70 feet high. The ribs transverse arches are slightly pointed. although it has a tall and spacious triforium. Most of the vaults are quadripartite. Speyer. In the treatment of the nave arcades of Speyer. the naves being covered by timber roofs. in fact. The This aisle vaults fact. only the aisles are vaulted. There are no indeed the absence of inside galleries suggests that. there was evidently a strong wish to obtain a feeling of verticality.

the mother of ConstanIt was originally a square enclosing a cross (as in Byzantine Treves Cathedral.2OO Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque of the piers the full height of the wall up to the springing of the In all these churches the piers are alternately large and vaulting. G. shown in black. The original structure was not pulled down.27. Original cross-in-square plan Scale 100 ft. for the windows had already been filled with coloured glass. but today they are singularly bleak. and compare for that time. small. . *The colour by reflection in mural painting is killed by the overpowering brilliancy of colour transmitted through stained glass. and the capitals of four pilasters which may have belonged to the great piers that 1 According to Jackson^ the walls of the churches of Cologne were painted early in this century. 1 Treves. and in the walls of the existing church are brick voussoirs of the old arches. with disastrous results. Cushion capitals are The is quite remarkable. the arms of which were probably the same height as the vault over the centre. The adoption of the cross-in-square plan resulted in the unequal spacing of bays. older building attributed to Helena.* T. Jackson 3 Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture 3 Vol. When. about the middle of the eleventh century. so that there might once have been plenty of colour. churches). The effect of the interiors is stark and severe almost beyond the general rule.lI 3 p. to i in. the nave was continued westwards. Treves Cathedral is noted for being a remodelling of a much tine. the rhythm of large and small bays was maintained. the latter being perfectly plain. It is possible that they were painted originally. the absence of ornament of any sort the nave arcade emphasise blank walls between the clerestory and the bare effect.

Exactly when they were built is uncertain. All have suffered from war damage. and because of the collapse of the central cupola the general devastation was very great. There are a number of churches Germany with apsidal endings to transepts as well as to choirs. S. Maria in Capitolio3 Cologne. but the great tower over the crossing has fallen and with it most of the vaulting of the nave. the interior is most unusual. whether viewed from the east or the west end. because it had aisles round . while the diagonal ribs are by comparison exceedingly thin. The west tower of the Apostles* Church received a direct hit which cracked the whole structure and resulted in the collapse of all the nave vaulting. the Apostles' Church. S. Martin and S. S. Maria was the most interesting. S.Romanesque in Germany 201 marked the central square. The large bays are about 53 feet square and are covered with vaults larger than are to be found in any Romanesque church in Germany. The vaulting is slightly domical and the transverse arches dividing the bays are pointed and of considerable width. At Cologne there are three Maria in Capitolio. in Maria in Capitolio^ Cologne. although both the western and eastern arms have been lengthened. Scale looft. the other side vaults being lower. Martin still possesses apsidal ends. thus retains its cross-in-square form. Maria the roof remains on only part of the apses. but it was probably not before the end of the twelfth century or the beginning of the thirteenth. S. to I in. Altogether. In S. The oblong vaults of the transepts on the north and south sides of the original central square are the same height The church as those of the nave.


and Romanesque Early Christian^ Byzantine

similar arrangement Is found In some Byzantine S. Lorenzo, Milan churches, and especially In the Church of S. Maria had to some it is possibly derived. which (p. 66), from extent lost its original character, since the nave vaulting and


decoration were additions, but the eastern portion was much the same as it was when built some time in the eleventh century. It
c. 700), the foundations occupied the site of an older church (built of which may have influenced its plan. The transept arms were covered by barrel vaults, the apses by semi-domes and the crossing

carried on true pendentives. Tapering columns cushion capitals surrounded the apses and separated them with from the ambulatory aisles. The whole of the eastern part was

by a low dome

raised slightly above the nave,

and under the chancel, approached

by steps down which has also suffered from war damage.

from the two transepts, was a well-lighted crypt

in which the tri-apsidal Perhaps the finest cathedral in Belgium. The original chancel plan was adopted is at Tournai, the long choir belongs to a later date apse has been destroyed, and than the rest of the church, but the apsidal transepts remain

At the crossing is a large square tower with practically unaltered. a steep slated roof, and smaller towers flank the two surviving
apsidal ends.


it in the category tri-apsidal plan places


Rhenish churches, but the nave (dedicated in 1066), with its large, carved capitals, is more open-arched triforium and its grotesque, the Romanesque architecture of northern France. in harmony with

summary of German Romanesque be made of one other church, the architecture, mention must Cathedral of Lund, which, though in Sweden, comes rightly within
Before leaving this
this chapter.

who had been
a nave and
choir, a large

It was consecrated in 1145 by Archbishop Eskill, educated at Hildesheim. The building consists of

aisleless transepts, an apsidal indeed, all that one might expect to It is the oldest and find in a church of the region of the Rhine. most important cathedral in Sweden, and its arcaded gallery

western towers,

and lofty crypt

round the apse seems to be earlier than any in Germany. The architect was Donatus, who is presumed to have been an Italian,

and so

it is

the richlypossible that this feature, together with

carved north porch which has columns carrying beasts,
inspired from




history of architecture in England is still only imperfectly known. For a long time there was some doubt whether true Saxon architecture existed, most of the remains being ascribed to Norman times. The comprehensive researches of


have, however, conclusively settled the question From the number of buildings which have now been ascribed to the period (seventh to mid-eleventh centuries), and from the carved stone crosses and tombstones, the illuminated manuscripts, the jewellery and metalwork of all sorts, there is much
in the affirmative.
to indicate a high level of artistic ability. To what degree all this was the product of local genius, or the result of foreign importaIn every case, the larger tions, is still to some extent debatable.


W. Clapham


monastic churches and cathedrals to which documentary evidence have been replaced by later buildings. Of what remains there is a close resemblance to contemporary or earlier work

abroad. All early churches in this country, whether built by the followers of S. Augustine, by the Saxons before the Danes arrived, by the Danes after their conversion, or by Edward the Confessor immediately before the Norman Conquest, are either offshoots of Roman tradition, or belong to the great school of Romanesque building which prevailed throughout Europe during the early centuries of the Middle Ages. That they possess some characteristics not generally found elsewhere does not make them any the less

Romanesque. Other countries have other characteristic traits of own. Whether the features of the style came direct from Italy, or by a circuitous route from the East via Scandinavia, or by The last filtering through Germany and Burgundy, is immaterial. two countries were certainly nearer to England, but the germ first appeared in Italy, and maturity had not been reached anywhere, except in the Byzantine Empire, when the English churches were


connection between

Rome and this

country was

fairly close

English Romanesque Architecture Before the Conquest> Oxford., 1930. 203


Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque

in the days of Alfred the Great.,




made pilgrimage


Rome and must

under Canute. Both have returned with

Foreign craftsmen were imported to assist in the building of some churches. Who these workmen were is somewhat uncertain; for the

term 'Franks', which was applied to them., might
or simply foreigners.

mean Germans, Burgundians,

The literary

records of the introduction of foreign artists are very varied-, but they do show how close the contact was between England and the

turies a large possible that

In Italy

we know that in the eighth and ninth cennumber of carvers were Byzantine Greeks, and it is some of these men found their way to this country.
surprisingly small in those days, despite the

The world was

of travel. A design itself is no proof of the nationality of the craftsman, because many designs which in their origin were
characteristically Byzantine

the interlacing vine scroll, for inItalian,

had been adopted by men, and had become almost


German and French workThe skill shown in the

execution of a design is a surer guide, and the roughness of some English work suggests a local carver. On the other hand, the Madonna at York, carved in a local stone, has an assurance and quality which, at that time (tenth century), could only have been

produced by an eastern
Stone Crosses.





stone crosses which are to be found in

parts of England are among the earliest monuments of Anglo-Saxon times Many were erected to mark religious meetingIn the Life of St. Willibald, a Saxon who left England in places. c lt being the 720, there is a reference to one of these crosses custom of the Saxon people to erect a cross for the daily service of prayer on the estates of noble and good men where there was no church.' 1 The two finest crosses are at Ruthwell and Bewcastle, on the present borders of Scotland and England, and there has been considerable controversy over their date, but it seems most likely that they belong to the second half of the seventh century. It is certainly surprising that there should appear so suddenly such remarkable stone monuments, in form unlike anything elsewhere and executed with a skill far greater than any contemporary work in western Europe. It is the skill rather than the subject matter that is significant. The sculptured figures which appear on the two sides of the Ruthwell and Bewcastle crosses are all highly



1 Quoted from Dorothy Whitelock, The Beginnings of English London^ 1952.




Anglo-Saxon England


formalised and draped with classical simplicity. The remaining sides are enriched with motifs that were conventional throughout

Christendom, the most important being the vine scroll intertwining

That these patterns came from Armenia via as Strzygowski 1 suggests, seems unlikely. Almost Scandinavia, identical patterns were common in Byzantine work of the sixth



century, as

numerous carvings in Constantinople and Ravenna

testify, but none has yet been proved to have existed in Armenia so It is more probable that the motifs were copied from early. Byzantine ivories, which might easily have been brought into this


Timber Churches.



possible that

many of

the earliest

churches in England built by the Saxons were of timber construcThe Saxons, noted as shipbuilders, would have been skilled tion.
carpenters, and because of the plentiful supply of timber the builders simply cut down the number of logs required and fitted

them together

in the easiest way possible. Only one church remains in England to give an idea of what these timber churches were like. This is at Greenstead, in Essex. The outside walls are low and built of halved trunks of oak placed vertically, side by side, the rounded halves outside and the junctions covered inside with fillets of wood. The church has been much restored and altered, so that it is difficult to be certain how much of the original timbers remain, though the method of construction adopted may be taken as a fair example of Saxon workmanship. The technique is called "stave-work , and in no other country is there preserved an example of such wood construction of so early a date. Early Stone Churches. Owing more to the ravages of Sweyn and his predecessors than to time, one cannot expect to find many entire churches in this country earlier than the beginning of the eleventh century. The crypts of Hexham and Ripon are un9

doubtedly older, and probably date from 671-678. The greater part of Escomb Church, Durham, is also apparently about contemporary with these. Portions of S. Martin, Canterbury, may well be older still, but the church has been much altered. The diffiis complicated by the fact that windows and doorways have sometimes been re-used in later walls, and that in some walls which are evidently early, all the openings are later Roman bricks in bands, and herringbone coursing, insertions. whether in brick or stone, prove nothing, since both were used

culty in determining dates


Origins of Christian Church Art, 1923.

after the

Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque

Conquest quite as much as before. There was more church building in the seventh and eighth centuries than in either of the two following^ and an attempt is made by archeologists to differentiate between eighth- and tenth-century detail. Their arguments are not always entirely convincing and are too fine to be discussed here. Generally speaking, there appear to have been two distinct schools of architecture in the second half of the seventh century, one in Kent, introduced by Augustine, and the other in Northumbria, largely due to the missionary activities of Benedict Biscop. Such remains as have survived of the Kentish group show Roman influence, and its characteristic features are an apse, semi-circular within and polygonal outside, and a chapel Qiporticus on either side of the nave. The Northumbrian group, of which the churches at Escomb and Monkwearmouth are the most important, have high and long naves, roughly coursed masonry and
chancels of smaller proportions with square east ends. The square termination is one of the most interesting features of

English church architecture, particularly since other countries seem to have preferred an apsidal ending. This preference did not


extend to England, except in the Kentish group of churches, which built under Roman influence, and in those churches built

during the century following the Norman Conquest. The plan adopted in Northumbria, and later in the Midlands, consists of two rooms, the larger for the congregation and the smaller for the altar and priest. Both are rectangular, and there is no need to speculate whether the Celts or the Saxons thought out this plan for themselves ; it required no great effort of the imagination. The
only point of importance to us is that the customary ending at the east in an English church is square rather than apsidal. Less than half the pre-Norman churches have an apsidal ending, and those

were probably introduced by S, Augustine. 1 His church at Canterbury, on the site of the present cathedral, is stated to have had two apses, one at the east end, the other at the west. It was only natural that he and his followers should advocate the plan customary in Rome, and the remains of the seven surviving churches cited by Clapham all had the apsidal ending. After the
death of this missionary group, however, the people returned to the
traditional British form. 2



The earlier Roman church at Silchester had an apsidal ending (p.


century, at

and outside.

two notable exceptions of the tenth or early eleventh Wing and Deerhiirst, where the apses were polygonal inside

Romanesque in Anglo-Sawn England
Later Stone Churches.


From the ninth century until the NorConquest, the architecture of England may be regarded as an offshoot of the Carolingian tree, although the greater Saxon churches of that time were much smaller than their Continental


Unfortunately, these greater churches have perished almost entirely, or have been superadded by Norman work, so that our studies are restricted to a few small and remote village churches

which would have been regarded as second-rate even in Saxon The most important features were the towers, which normally were very high and narrow in proportion; they were devoid of any buttresses, though they sometimes had a slight barter or taper, and were relieved by strip decoration. At Durham and Ramsey there were two towers set axially, at the west end and over

the crossing, in the Carolingian tradition, but the surviving contemporary churches have only a single western tower, a nave and a
chancel. The churches of Worth and Dover have also transepts, which are narrower than the nave, and there are one or two

examples with
ingly lofty

aisles .

One peculiarity is that the naves are exceed-

and narrow. In Deerhurst the nave is 38 feet long and 21 feet wide and 38 feet high to the wall plate, the chancel being of the same width and height with a length of only 20 feet. Vaulting Structurally the towers are the most significant features is limited to crypts, and on the outside the structural decoration is

reminiscent of timber technique, depending for its effect upon narrow string courses, pilaster strip decoration and a curious

method of bonding known as long and short work'. The pilaster and string course method of ornamentation probably belongs to the tenth century, and the richest example is to be found in the tower of Earls Barton (PL 13). Here the pilasters are of slight projection and placed at intervals of about 4 feet. This treatment has, of course, nothing whatsoever to do with joinery construction; it is masonry construction, and is especially valuable where, as in the majority of English examples, it frames in and provides a bond at regular intervals to walls of rough rubble. In its simplest form the strips and string courses form a network of panelling on the face of the wall, but this is often elaborated by arcading. At Earls Barton and Barton-on-Huinber there are two ranges, one roundheaded and the other triangular. Much has been said and written about the so-called 'long and short work found in so many Anglo-Saxon churches. Blocks of


stone are set


vertically like posts, alternating

with slabs built


Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque

horizontally. This technique, whether at angles or on the face of a wal! 3 has been regarded as precious, and peculiar to this country,

but in point of fact, in many countries and in most periods, from Italy in the days of the Roman Empire onwards, people formed their quoins in this way whenever the stone of the district was such that it broke up naturally into small stones, with occasional bigger stones which could be used as stifFeners without much squaring or In Sussex and in other parts, such rubble and stones chiselling.

come out of small quarries to this
long and short bonding


All over Normandy similar

found in garden walls and walls of out-

buildings wherever, in fact, the work is rough. As a rule the horizontal stones go through the thickness of the wall, the uprights
It is ordinary, commonsense rough building, and is where workmen are unskilled, or when the work is not of general sufficient importance to justify the expense of labour on stone. Surrounding the precincts of the abbeys of Jumieges and S. Georges, Boscherville, at Caen and in the country around, at Chartres and elsewhere, are many such walls. The objection to this method of building is that the long upright stones are not on thek natural bed, but this does not seem to have had a bad effect on Anglo-Saxon work. For the student, long and short bonding has one virtue it differentiates Saxon work from Norman work in 1 England, and is therefore some guide to the date of a building. The simple explanation is that the Normans were better masons, and had learned at Caen to quarry bigger stones and to cut and

only halfway.


2 square them.

double-splay window is one of the commonest features of Saxon architecture. In a few instances, traces have been found of the pierced wooden boards with which openings were filled (for Saxon windows were probably not glazed). Alterstone slabs were built into the openings, such as natively, pierced have already been described in the chapters on Byzantine work and the Romanesque churches of south Italy (pp. 58 and 189). At Barnack Church, Northants, there are two especially good examples, the pattern being of the interlacing character which was



far as I

know, there


no example of long and short work executed

in England after the


Saxon masonry is sometimes excellent, as at S. Laurence, Bradfordon-Avon, and Odda's Chapel, Deerhurst3 but the latter was built,
as the dedication stone shows,

Edward, King of the English', Normans was very close.


in the fourteenth year of the reign of in 1056, when intercourse with the

Earls Barton, Northants; tower
Plate 13

Sompting, Sussex


Mary, Deerhurst, Glos;


Madonna, York Minster



Plate 14




Loup, Normandy

Thaon, Normandy




Anglo-Saxon England


such a favourite with Byzantine craftsmen. The openings themselves ..were sometimes circular-headed, sometimes triangularheaded. When two or more lights were side by side, they were divided from one another by shafts in the centre of the wall, having capitals of the corbel type, with only slight projection at the sides, and a considerable projection front and back to carry the wall. The form of shaft most common in England is the baluster type, which is quite distinctive in character. It is turned on a lathe and has grooves and bands cut into the surface, with a considerable bulge too coarse to be called an entasis. Bradford-on-Avon. The most complete early church in England is S. Laurence, Bradford-on-Avon. Its date is uncertain though a study of the twin angds above the
chancel arch,, which are obviously contemporary with the church^ led Professor Baldwin Brown to place the building in the first half of the tenth century. In plan it consists of a nave and chancel, with a large porch on the north side,

and there are indications that a similar porch on the south. The opening between nave and chancel is only 3 feet 6 inches
also existed

After Clapham.


Laurence, Bradford-on-

Avon. Outside the treatment is more architecScale 50 ft. to tural than that of any other example, and the I in. walls are faced with ashlar throughout. The upper part is arcaded, the arches being carried on short pilaster The arches and strips, many of which are roughly fluted. pilasters are not built independently of the walling but are bonded

and project about 2 inches. This arcading is the most remarkable feature of the church. It is unlike

which existed anything abroad at that time, and was never repeated after the

Norman Conquest.
After Clapham,


Mary, Deerhurst.

The shaded
I in.

Deerhurst (PL 13).



an example of an Anglo-Saxon church, of the same period but with the foundations of an apse which was polygonal externally and internally, and with a tower at the
Scale 50 ft. to

tions represent later additions.

Church of S Mary,

hurst, provides



Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque

western end which is severely simple and without horizontal This must once have been still higher than it is now, divisions. for the original bell chamber has disappeared. Although much of the church has been added to and altered., it is still a remarkably interesting building, with its whitewashed walls and small, triangular-headed openings between the tower and the nave ; with its font., which has a curious spiral ornamentation, and the remains of the two transeptal chapels which gave the building a cruci-



Although there are very few relatively complete Anglo-Saxon churches, there are still a great many towers, to which are now attached Norman or Gothic edifices. Most are severely plain, but some are richly ornamented with long, thin pilasters and rough cornices or string courses and arcading, as at Earls Barton, Barnack and Barton-on-Humber. These are not likely to be earlier than the tenth century, and are more likely to belong to the first half of the eleventh. Their axial position at the west end is English, but their design has much in common with that of Germany and Lombardy, though the detail is much less The tower at Earls Barton is by far the most decorative, refined. even if that decoration is of a rather childish character. Except
for the embattled parapet,
it is still



original condition.

The tower of Sompting Church is the only survival which retains
the form of its original capping (PI. 13). This consists of a steep gable on each face, from the apex of which rise the ridges of a pyramidal roof. It is indeed a simplified version of a type of tower termination which was common in Germany.

labour to heap up Stones. by the eleventh century. Albans. other than the occasional use of the diaphragm arch. and 211 . lamented as * follows We poor wretches destroy the Works of our Forefathers to get Praise for ourselves we. Winchester. It was the product of a race of men who had. which was built with the aid of continental craftsmen in the which we now call Norrnan. not. Most of the Saxon churches must still have been in a reasonable state of repair. however. style in its own right. not only established themselves in France but had made themselves masters of Sicily and Apulia and become. So England was brought once more into the European framework. and in England in 1050 with the foundation by Edward the Confessor of Westminster Abbey. the sole surviving Saxon bishop. and the wholesale rebuilding that took place can only have been dictated by the ambition of the Norman prelates to impress the people of the conquered territories with the vaster and finer monuments of the new architecture.. . neglecting the Care of only Souls. Lincoln. It was reported that Bishop Wulstan of Worcester. for it was from the Norman that the Gothic ultimately developed. such rebuilding. . but there is little about the style. The style had begun in Normandy with the building of the Abbey of Bernay (1017-50). and much of her native architecture was destroyed and reThere was little excuse for built on a more magnificent scale. without protest. S. the architecture of Normandy and England proceeded on almost lines. a major European power.CHAPTER XV ROMANESQUE IN NORMANDY AND ENGLAND FOR identical style nearly a hundred years after the Battle of Hastings. with the conquest of England. This style was the most advanced and progressive of all the branches of Romanesque architecture. Gloucester and Norwich. No doubt the inspiration came originally from Italy. that can be Norman architecture was a directly attributed to that country.' Within half a century the Normans had begun and nearly completed the great churches at : : .

which lies on the road between Caen and Rouen. and over the crossing a tower. S. Bernay Abbey. There were transepts.. for England under Norman dominion led all Europe in the size and magnificence of her architecture. and La Trinite. After Bernay. The shaded portions are no longer standing. Both were built at Caen in . Etienne. and five of these are still intact. Next come the two finest churches in Normandy. subdivided into arcade. It was to be followed in all essentials during a century of phenomenal building activity in Normandy and England.212 Early Christian. NORMANDY The earliest existing church of architectural significance in Normandy is the Abbey of Bernay. The cruelty of the Conquest was perhaps mitigated by such symbols of the culture of the conquerors. to I m. or 1'Abbaye-aux-Hommes. Byzantine and Romanesque others far larger than any the Saxons had built. groined vaults. the next important church (1050). and larger many indeed than most of the abbey churches of Normandy. The choir and side aisles terminated in apses and had After Clapham. then. Normandy. or TAbbaye-aux-Dames. in is at the ruined Abbey of Jumieges which piers and columns alternated and two magnificent western towers terminated the aisles. triforium and clerestory. is the prototype of the Norman Romanesque. Here. Originally it had a high nave of seven bays. Scale soft.

but it has been a good deal altered. without papal dispensation. Bouet's Further. but although the city suffered almost a month of uninterrupted bombardment. contention. able.Romanesque the years in Normandy and England the 213 immediately before Conquest. but almost as high. the first Abbot of the Abbaye-aux-Hommes. taking two bays each. . This is one of the largest churches in France. Vol. Southwell and and different Winchester. and the presence of shafts on the nave side running up the full height of the arcade and triforium. was rebuilt in the thirteenth century. with its ambulatory and radiating chapels. Norwich. In 1944. stone. Peterborough. the building of Canterbury Cathedral upon a plan of similar proportions. began. but what is more important is 1 that the twelfth-century vaulting which now Bulletin Monumentale. beginning to vault over the nave with quadripartite vaults. UAbbaye-aux-Hommes (PL 15). PAbbaye-aux- Hommes by William the Conqueror. vaulted in the There has been much argument whether or not the nave was first instance. M. twelfth century. after the Conquest. XXIX. for the triforium arch is not only as wide as that below it. as were those of all the great churches in England. his kinswoman Matilda. these two churches have survived almost undamaged. but the spires which terminate them were added in the thirteenth century. The proportions of these are remark- from any other work we have studied . but this view does not account for the intermediate There may have been a desire to cover the nave with shafts. following the landing of the 6 June. suggests that the nave was indeed vaulted. Whether or not PAbbaye-aux-Hommes in the eleventh century had a stone vault may be very interesting academically. and FAbbaye-aux-Dames by his wife. western towers are original. The choir. This is characteristic of much Norman work and occurs again in England at Ely. They Pope stand at either end of the ridge upon which the city had grown. So we are left with little more than the nave arcades and triforium The The existing sexpartite vaulting belongs to the of the original building. all together with the ribbed half-barrel vaults over the triforium. Caen was the principal objective of the Anglo-American armies. Bouet 1 maintained that it was intended from the . of which belong to the original work. the nave was covered with a timber roof. we know that when Lanfranc. but the evidence is not strong enough to support M. as an expiatory gesture to the for his sin in marrying.

a step After Pugin. even if it . Two bays of the nave formed one compartment^ approximately square. in a sense. It was.. and an intermediate rib spanned the nave and lent support to the junction of the diagonal ribs. Here for the first we can see true sexpartite vaultings still Romanesque in detail its and in use of round-arched forms. L'Abbaye-aux-HommeSj Caen.214 time Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque covers the nave was of an entirely novel form. ahead of the ribbed quadripartite vaults which covered the aisles.. It was a solution..

This was simply a quadripartite vault with the intermediate diaphragm arches supporting the apex of the web and the junction of the diagonal ribs. even although mechanically it seemed reasonable. In 1859 this plaster construction was replaced by a vault of hollow bricks with light stone ribs. and instead. The Church of FAbbaye-aux-Dames has been so thoroughly restored to its early state that it now presents a very fair appearance of a twdfth-century church. The plan is of the type called parallel-apsed. and supported by additional apses off the transepts . for it was not until the pointed arch was introduced into the vault that both the aesthetic and mechanical problems were overcome. was introducedj painted to represent stone. Caen.. also terminating in apses. that they were placed too low to be effective. L'Abbaye-aux-Dames. It seems. and in its place there is a passageway behind a continuous arcade underneath the clerestory windows. It . to I in. The great triforium gallery has been omitted. Scale 100 /r. Aesthetically It never produced an entirely satisfactory effect. and it seemed to be die only solution as long as the builders were limited to round arches.Romanesque in Normandy and England 215 was not a very good one. however. L'Abbaye-aux-Dames is altogether a richer design than rAbbaye-aux-Hommes. but it was not until the middle of the twelfth century that efforts were made to vault the nave and. flying buttresses were thrown across the aisles. in order to resist the thrust of the vaults. In 1692 a plaster vault After Pugin. L\Abbayeaux~Dames. Thus far only did the Roman- esque builders go. This consists of an apsidal choir with side aisles.. It was dedicated some four months before the Battle of Hastings for nuns of the Benedictine Order. a series of diaphragm arches was built to span the nave and carry a timber roof. All face east. The aisles are higher and the piers lighter and the arches more ornate.

Durham. of the same type as its predecessor at Bernay. Albans. S. L'Abbaye-aux-Dames. Byzantine and Romanesque *. but characteristic . is The is alternative eastern termination a later was the ambulatory..2i6 Early Christian.. Hereford and many other places. After Pugin... and as its successors in England at Canterbury. Caen.. which form and not common in Normandy..

seems to have been attempted before 1070. and in a fully-developed chevet with seven radiating chapels in the FAbbaye-aux-Hommes. The original structure was of the seventh century. Georges. and at S. and the priests had to accustom themselves to new surroundings. and a few. At Ouistreham. The followgives the names of most of the cathedrals and larger . Boscherville quadriThe most interesting features of the many partite ribbed vaults. as is evident from its curious trefoil eastern end. which occur either at the crossing or. The number is astounding. In ambulatory type was followed at Gloucester England and Norwich and in the twelfth-century extension of Cantertiiirteenth-century alterations at the bury. small churches are the towers. Until the outburst of building in File de France a hundred years later. two sexpartite vaults. The earliest of these is the in the Monastery of S. ENGLAND Interesting though the above churches are. The Conqueror and his nobles were otherwise engaged. are vaulted. Georges. with arched openings often of several orders. But once building so many important Little operations ing list had begun. there are like those of the Abbaye-aux-Dames. no country at any period could boast churches in course of erection at one time. near Caudebec. Sernin of Toulouse. the vaults are quasi-sexpartite vaults. like Bernieres. They are in several stages. At the end of the tenth century it was rebuilt by the Normans. choose their sites and make the necessary preliminary arrangements. Wandrille. It occurred in the Abbey at the form of a simple vaulted promenade around the apse. without doubt on the Carolingian foundations. Nearly all the churches in Normandy have apsidal endings. At Bernieres. minute oratory which was built to house relics of S. more commonly. there was little further delay. there are in Normandy many smaller churches of great variety and charm.Romanesque in Normandy and England farther south 217 Jumieges in and east. Ouistreham and S. they were surpassed in almost every respect by the cathedrals and great monastic establishments built in England in the years after the Conquest. richly decorated and culminating in pyramidal stone stepped roofs. In addition to the great abbeys mentioned above. Parish Churches (PL 14). on the south side of the nave. Boscherville.

1093. Late Nave. nave. almost Byzantine in character. buttresses. with ambulatory. 1142. 1390. diaper work. and least spoilt by restoration of all Romanesque catheaisles. and capped by stone sloping 16). (pp. western towers and considerable portion of cloistral buildings. radiating chapels and additional transepts. It was parallel* apsed and built of squared stones from Caen*. remains of this building. Benedictine. 1174-84. transepts and provide an . windows. Cylindrical columns nearly six feet in diameter with unusual leaf ornament to CHESTER. Burnt down and reCHICHESTER. 230-3. Secular Canons. etc. CHRISTCHURCH PRIORY. Benedictine. etc. capitals. BRISTOL. the north wall of nave aisle and lower part of north-west tower. 1092.) First Romanesque building by Lanfranc. eastern end replaced by a larger choir. richly-carved capitals. and north transept a richly-ornamented turret staircase. (p.> Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque with the dates when building began and the principal Romanesque features that have survived. is among the finest in Europe. roof. later Augustinian. Augustinian. 1186. although restored. transepts. with its storeys like a Roman campanile. of choir. which only two survive complete with aisles. Benedictine. CANTERBURY. and the eastern transepts.. which are arcaded in rebuilt.es. Of the Roman- esque church there survive only the north transept. portions of southwest tower and north transept. 122. Nave originally of eight bays. fine Norman 1070. treated externally with intersecting arches. two fine sculptured panels in south aisle Secular Canons. choir (except apsidal aisles end). is almost entirely Norman work. this largely rebuilt and extended by curious apsidal termination called Becket's Crown *. Retains Norman nave of eight bays. Rebuilt 1211. western and central towers ' Remains of the strictly Norman period include crypt which. DURHAM (PL least altered drals. replaced Saxon cathedral. Benedictine. Ruins. Anselm's Chapel. CARLISLE. 1081. has much fine Norman decoration and elaborate arcading. Nave. was only slightly modified after second fire. with attached towers. which building begun 1114. 1096-1 107.218 cfaurch. Completed 1095. of 1 123 . wall paintings in S. 1088. South transept still retains apsidal chapel.) The finest. Benedictine. Retains Norman nave. Augustinian. Nothing significant gate-tower. ELY. Arcade of seven bays with clustered columns carrying triforium gallery with much ornate carving. BURY ST. eleventh century. EDMUNDS. Of Norman work there remain only the north and south walls of the transepts and the large rectangular rib-vaulted Chapter House which. 118 feet long.

Secular Canons. Norman work chiefly limited Fine nave of eight bays. Aisles had remarkable transverse manner of Touraus (p. Of Norman church practically the whole structure remains. the nave aisles and transepts of the church. with their square corner turrets and eastern chapels . Circa 1130. which has suffered from someto interior. 1117. Well- preserved Chapter House and crypt. s. like. Augustinian. PAUL'S).Romanesque excellent in Normandy and England 219 Norman work with well-proportioned arcade and triforium gallery. Base of western tower and massive octagonal turrets at example of south-west corner remain.) Although a rain. Externally there remain the transepts. 4 restored. Almost entirely rebuilt 1185Of the Norman church there remain central portion of western 1200. GLOUCESTER (PL 17). 1072. HEREFORD. with low arcade and spacious triforium gallery. though Door 5 on south wall leading to nave aisle. Square-ended chapels on east wall of transepts. 18). 1072. Retains remarkable transeptal towers which are unique in England. front and lower storeys of the two western towers. but much has been faced with later mediaeval work. original lower stages of north-west tower. the nave. lost its original character by facing of Perpendicular tracery. modified in upper stages . parts of the Abbot's lodging. what poor restoration to triforium and clerestory by Wyatt. Benedictine. Peterborough. Prior's EXETER. Choir of three bays having Norman arcade and triforium. both richly ornamented in storeys with blind arcades and circular openings. Little remains . but smaller than. most of . LICHFIELD. Secular Canons. LEOMINSTER. internally. even severe. with its groined vaults and two remaining radiating chapels. in character. Benedictine. but Norman work still evident in the vaulted ambulatory around the choir. with its massive cylindrical columns and minute the triforium passageway. Of late Norman period FOUNTAINS (PL there remain the dorter. The nave has cylindrical piers with attached shafts survive (see barrel vaults in the on the aisle side. All the work is plain. 1088. Secular Canons. LINCOLN. 1079. Excavations indicated that in plan it was Norman nave and north aisle. 1135. Aisles have groined vaults carried on transverse ribs. though similar towers may have South tower Norman throughout. LONDON (OLD stone. has vaulting. 130. north existed at Old Sarum. Built in Caen Retained until Fire of London its Norman nave. (p. North aisle still preserves original Norman Choir. Ambulatory plan. of which portions PL 18). Secular Canons. east wall of north transept with fine arcaded decoration. preserves almost intact the plan of a typical Cistercian monastery. Cistercian. 1087. Beautiful. 146). Nothing remains above ground of the Norman cathedral.

Arcade of square piers with angles splayed 5 feet from the ground. Benedictine. Scanty remains . above. sixteenth-century timber roof over nave and pendant vault (1480) over choir. aisles Apsidal choir is have early ribbed vaults. ruins of cloistral buildings.) Magnificent. an elaborately-decorated triforium which opens onto aisles . largely unaltered except by modern restoration. and in place of triforium there was a range of windows below the clerestory. (p. s. but with later vault (1446-72) added to take the place of the original wooden roof. ROCHESTER. Benedictine (nuns). Remarkable chiefly in that nave of original building was without aisles. 1077. The and the nave and choir are roofed with limber. NORWICH (PL 18). except for central window in gable. OXFORD (CHRIST CHURCH (PL 17)).220 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque structure being later. some interlacing like tracery. and subsidiary arches. Of this period there survive west front. spring at lower level to form arcade. Originally plastered and whitewashed outside. (p. 1132. Apsidal choir and ambulatory two of the original radiating chapels. consisting of round-headed open arches. Form of original east end uncertain. and large part of nave. later and without tympanum or infilling. Unusual arrangement of arcade and triforium in which main arches are carried over triforium gallery. Triforium arcade of great variety of treatment. except for west end and last three bays of nave. 1180. Built by Paul of Caen almost entirely of Roman bricks.) Retains almost unspoiled square east end. Retains original late Romanesque nave and choir. 1118. 228. and portion of apsidal end to chapel on south side of choir. 1096. Secular Canons. No remains. Parallel-apsed plan with very long -nave of rectangular piers. nave and part of transepts. clerestory with round-headed windows. the abbey is an excellent example of Norman work. Benedictine. mains. 1077. Benedictine. outer walls of nave aisles and north tower. ROMSEY (PL 17). Ruins. RIEVAULX. but Clapham considered ambulatory type most likely. Nave and transepts original. Parallel-apsed type. six bays of nave with clustered columns. possibly the finest in the country. ALBANS (PL 17). Preserves almost completely the whole of the Norman nave. of the plainest and most severe pattern. Benedictine. Considerable . plastered and painted inside. Cistercian. choir and retains transepts. PETERBOROUGH. RIPON. 1120. transepts with apsidal chapels. of which considerable portion survives. Rebuilt 1 1 15. 123. bracketed from columns. from which spring pointed all arches. Only scanty re- Late Romanesque transepts. Augustinian. richly-ornamented tower with later crocketed spire. 1 154. Externally.

characteristic decoration : scalloped capitals. 1061 and 1136. central and western towers. Benedictine. Considerable remains in nave. aisles with ribbed vaults. Originally squareended choir with side apses to aisles. Of Norman period there remain south porch. 65 feet high and 34 feet wide. Secular Canons. beyond crossing has plastered quadripartite vault. . north porch* rebuilt. John the Divine (now used as vestry) . Albans Cathedral. SOUTHWARK. chevron. Early twelfth century. Augustinian. Apsidal vaulted chapel to south transept. lower stages of central tower. 1180. transepts and choir. SOUTHWELL (PL 15). unusual circular windows to clerestory. very much restored. Resembles Gloucester in many respects. lost. Scanty remains. barrel-vaulted north porch. with recessed arch of seven orders. Benedictine. 1106. etc. externally. of massive cylindrical piers over 30 feet high and 6 feet 3 inches in diameter. 1 8). with red painted lines to simulate diagonal ribs and stone jointing. SHERBORNE. and much . TEWKESBURY (PI. Retains Norman nave with timber roof. S.Romanesque traces of frescoes in Normandy and England 221 South aisle piers. 1108. prior's entrance to cloisters. remain on western face of nave After Clapham. of Romanesque are . Nave arcade. Magnificent central tower and west front. Entirely rebuilt after the only large church in England in which all traces Possibly Secular Canons. Norman building largely converted into Perpendicular. WELLS. supports minute triforium and clerestory. portions of chapel of S. billet. Scale IOO/L to I in. 1087. Magnificent brick tower. the latter partly obscured by later vaulting.

with elaborately-carved column shafts and capitals. the lower Ruins. three bays of 1128. Secular Canons. An interesting feature is somewhat unusual three-light triforium openings in the two western bays of the nave. built when the Orkneys were part of the dominion of Norway. YORK. unusual cruciform plan with nave equal in length to transepts. Ruins . arches being supported KELSO. 1137. 1080. The most complete example of Romanesque architecture in Scotland. which are decorated with characteristic zig-zag ornament and circular paterae. and without aisles. 1055. SCOTLAND AND WALES While Scotland and Wales were outside Norman suzerainty during the years of Romanesque building activity. Of Norman work only significant survival is vaulted undercroft. Fine western doorway. which have groined vaulted aisles on east and west sides. WORCESTER. JEDBURGH. Fine doorway to north transept. Byzantine and Romanesque WESTMINSTER. but nothing structural now Below is crypt. 1084.. 1124. visible above ground. Benedictine. Benedictine. Simple triforium gallery and clerestory.222 Early Christian. which was built 1154-81. choir built by Thomas of Bayeux. 1 147. Benedictine. Augustinian. Secular Canons. retains north and south transepts and two bays of choir with side aisles . Retains original transepts. the Church was not restricted by national frontiers. transepts and perhaps Considerable doubt about size and character of this church. Retains nave arcade of eight cylindrical piers under a spacious triforium. DUNFERMLINE. from corbels. Nave with cylindrical piers. aisles with ribbed vaulting. KIRKWALL. WINCHESTER. crypt and central tower. 1079. and architecturally the work in Britain as a whole during the eleventh and beginning of the twelfth For that reason a centuries can properly be called Norman. . Norman crypt and scanty remains in nave and transepts. Benedictine. Built at instigation of Edward the Confessor and completed after the Conquest. Nave. spiral and other ornamentation reminiscent of Durham. Benedictine. summary is appended here of the important Romanesque remains outside England but within the British Isles. having zig-zag. and a connecting gallery across the ends . choir built in style reminiscent of Romsey and Oxford. Behind altar. in which massive cylindrical columns are carried up to the height of the triforium arch. the remains of exquisitelycarved Madonna and Child (see PL 13).

s. for which he was responsible. Secular Canons. They were extremely rigid in their outlook* and they began to build in England only towards the end of the Romanesque period. that they were often absentees from their churches for long periods. In such cases the bishop was little more than a nominal head. there was perhaps greater variety in the planning of the Augustin- ian churches. but their state of life remained strictly clerical and they did not undertake manual labour as prescribed by Benedict. Although the oldest epis- copal See in Britain. Augustinian.. LLANDAFF. half warriors'. So many bishops in early days were half priests. Original cathedral probably aisleless. or livings. north and south Two sides. or in public duties for the good of the country.. in Normandy and England is 223 and transepts. viz. and built their abbeys in remote districts Secular Canons differed from the Augustinian Canons and the monks in that they did not live in community. although . with piers alternately cylindrical and octagonal with attached shafts. It will be seen that the earliest church building was largely in the hands of the Benedictine Order. the use of different coloured stones. and that the Order of Canons little Regular of S Augustine played only a subsidiary role. The Cistercians endeavoured to follow more strictly the letter of Benedict's rule. Triforium and clerestory curiously amalgamated under two arches to each bay of the arcade. A curious feature 1121.Romanesque choir. little remains of the Norman period. and his periods of residence .. engaged in political intrigue. Archway and presbytery with uncommon paterae and other enrichments only found in one other place in Britain. Late Romanesque nave well preserved. all administrative power being in the hands of a Prior and * Chapter. Norman doorways on Mahnesbury Abbey. England and Germany seem to have been the only two countries in which a bishop's chair was placed in a Benedictine monastic church. The Cistercian Order only came into existence in 10983 largely because of the dissatisfaction of certain Benedictine monks with the manner and life of their fellows. DAVID. but that each had one or more 'prebends'. They avoided towns. richly-decorated late PEMBROKE. 1180. The Augustine canons resembled the Benedictine monks in so far as they lived in community and took religious vows . There was to distinguish between the architecture of the two. It seems to have made no difference whatsoever to the plan whether a church was monastic or was a . were decided by the Chapter as a whole.

has lost the central chapel of its chevet. Norwich. from Romanesque up to the Reformation. S. Normans may have been rough and Nearly all the larger English churches have been altered through the centuries. and beyond to Scotland and Wales. but it had found favour only in London and one or two other centres. so that there are very few in which the whole development of English mediaeval architecture. judged by modern standards. the wooden ceilings were Structural defects sometimes entailed replaced by stone vaults. Thomas a Becket was educated there later. Peterborough retains the apse to its choir. cannot be traced. though of course they have been renewed. Ely an abbey church that was also a cathedral. Albans. notwithstanding that the arcades. Ely and many others. The Saxons. rude. Even a cathedral this is no real distinction. It introduced throughout the country served by Benedictine monks The Norman Conquest religious ideals. a new new intellectual standard. however. The strict monasticism of the Benedictine Order had. both The priests and people. transepts to make way duction of vaulting. In no cathedral in England times does the Norman east end remain exactly as it was when built. has a nave. have been less altered than the choirs. and yet the only difference that can be noted is that the last two have slightly shorter naves than the others. even Norwich. wooden ceilings remain. otherwise complete in plan. triforiums. The Durham apse had The naves and The later introchanged the appearance of many and clerestorys In the naves of Ely and remain much as they were originally. Peterborough and in the transepts of Winchester. Tewkesbury. The necessity for a longer choir led to the destruction of the apses of Canterbury. whole rebuilding.. for the nave of Rochester is even shorter. been introduced into England a few years before.224 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque cathedral ruled by secular canons or lay monks. while Chichester and Hereford had no monasteries attached to them. . it is true. then the chief centre of intellectual activity in western Europe . Peterborough was only an abbey church. as at Ely Cathedral. were far less advanced than the French. etc. Elsewhere. but eastwards there is an addition of later date. but they were polished compared with the greater number of English thanes and nobles. for the Chapel of the Nine Altars. did something more than substitute one race of rulers for another. at Gloucester. Many of the Norman nobles had spent some time in the University of Paris. where the central tower fell. Now it was carried all over the country.

At Exeter much the same thing had been done some fifty years before. so that only the transepts remained in the old style. 225 down with it the neighbouring bays. which now has twelve bays. and from the nave the church would appear quite new. From the aisles and triforiums alone were the solid piers and sturdy arches visible.Romanesque bringing in Normandy and England Fire. few exceptions. In Chichester Cathedral. Buildings seem never to have been restored to their original state. Naves. Hereford and Romanesque churches . One of the most marked peculiarities of English On the Continent. so that all they could see from their stalls was modern. the such havoc three-quarter attached shafts in the angles of the. Albans. Throughout the Middle Ages there was. at Gloucester. which were recased. although why it should have been. faced the whole with delicate pierced stone panelling. and mouldings were worked on the wall faces of the arches to tone down their severity. the arches of the main arcade raised and altered in shape. and at S.-s0 frequent and so disastrous in stone-vaulted churches is difficult to understand. with is the long nave. The nave of Norwich has fourteen bays and is 260 feet long. At Winchester. but in a most drastic fashion. and on the north side. unable to bear the cost of pulling down and rebuilding their choir. determined attacks were made on the old work. and the desire to have churches up to date.' 1115 . lighter ones being substituted. detached shafts. leaving only the cores. little reverence for past endeavours. on two separate occasions with an interval between them of nearly a hundred years. also did as much damage in England as in France. The triforium was swept away. Winchester. finding this method too slow or too expensive. apparently. there are no churches which can compare in very length of nave with English examples. he had the facing stones of the piers removed. led to the entire remodelling of much of the work. originally had the same number as Norwich and is even longer. piers were replaced by more slender. The disgust which the heavy proportions of Romanesque evidently aroused in the later builders. all which played through the Middle Ages. they were rebuilt. after the fire in 1186. and over the whole of the central area an elaborate ribbed vault built. At Gloucester the monks. Bishop William of Wykeham ordered the Romanesque piers on the south side of the nave to be carved into forms that pleased him better. new windows inserted in the clerestory. and always in the most up-to-date and contemporary mode. the cushion capitals disappeared. In the West of England.

Peterborough and Durham. The naves of Tewkesbury. where the rapid fell of the ground at the west side rendered further extension impossible. are found at Ely and Winchester. at Oxford. at perhaps with the nave. the skne number as Gloucester.226 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque Tewkesbury. Cylindrical piers may be used either alone or alternating with clustered piers. Sernin. the elaborate capitals very and the arches unusually rich. which had naves 280 and 275 feet long. is another. Romsey and Jedburgh the arcade and triforium are combined under one arch. Nave arcades of clustered piers. the triforium is united with the These variations show that there was no absolute rule clerestory. where the re-use of Roman bricks may have dictated its form. the nave is 200 feet long. Pembroke. Hereford the columns are certainly too low. and at S. like those at TAbbaye-aux-Dames. the division of the nave wall into arcade. English Romanesque architecture can be seen to perfection. at Durham they alternate in the same way as at Jumieges Abbey in Normandy. Gloucester and Norwich are spoiled to some extent by later vaults . S. the naves are shorter. The square type is best seen at S. Exceptions are the great basilican churches in Rome. S. Toulouse. Of the two principal churches at Caen. the columns are too high and the capitals and arches exceedingly plain. In the cathedrals of Norwich and Winchester (as originally built) all these divisions were approximately equal. but there is considerable variation in the height and proportion allotted to each. but at Durham the vaults are almost contemporary At Tewkesbury and Gloucester. each nave being about 140 feet long. while the nave of TAbbaye-aux-Dames is more like that of Gloucester. FAbbaye-aux-Hommes resembles Peterborough in its pro- portions. at Caen. Albans. Paul's. In the naves of Ely. Peter's and S. cylindrical and clustered. even at Durham. but even so are greater than those of most churches on the Continent. David's. At Gloucester. triforium and clerestory is the rule. In all large churches built by the Normans. Southwell and : Tewkesbury they occur alone. whether in England or Normandy. of relative proportions and arrangement for the internal divisions of Romanesque churches. though the height of its triforium is even less than . with twelve bays and a length of 210 feet. 1'Abbaye-auxHommes has eight bays. At Durham and Tewkesbury the arcade is by far the highest of the three. The piers of the main arcades in Romanesque churches are of three types square.

the arms north. as at Jumieges. design of the clerestory is nearly always the same: on the inside face is a lofty arched opening (central with the window on the outside face). and where a small shaft with . as happens at Gloucester. A similar feature occurs at rAbbaye-aux-Hommes. John's Chapel in the Tower of London a complete barrel vault (PL 24). which is flanked by two smaller openings. east and south of lie crossing being. lie transepts in jection which later most of them having the considerable probecame so marked a feature of English work. The transepts of Ely and Winchester cathedrals have aisles on both west and east sides. triangles and other patterns roughly chiselled or axed on their faces. Boscherville. as a rule. of the same length. is At Winchester. and at S. behind these shafts there is The commonly a narrow it unusual in that passage. Georges.a capital and base is inserted under the crown of the main arch. of all. Ely3 Peterborough and Chichester. where there are twin sub-arches which are free. but instead one or two apsidal chapels opening directly out of the east wall of the transept. each divided from the middle one by a shaft. Sometimes there are more openings underneath the main arches. A later development occurs at Romsey Abbey. Bartholomew. Generally the triforium storey extends over the aisle below and is covered by a sloping timber roof. At Durham there are aisles on the eastern side but none on the west. as at Norwich. as at Christchurch and Rochester.Romanesque in Normandy and England 227 that of the English cathedral. The clerestory at Southwell is has a round window to each bay and a barrel- vaulted passage between it and the arched openings into the nave. Malmesbury and S. Durham has the finest proportions lowest storey considerably exceeds in height the two upper storeys together and yet does not overwhelm them entirely. and at Winchester the aisle passage is returned as an open gallery at the ends. Transepts. there a pair of openings under a single arch with a solid tympanum above. In Normandy. design of the triformm is as varied as its height and proporIn Norwich and FAbbaye-aux-Hommes each bay consists of a single arched opening about the same width as the opening The below. S. but at Gloucester there is a half-barrel vault. The tympanums often have chevrons. . All English Romanesque cathedrals are cruciform in plan. Smithfield. Albans and PAbbaye-aux-Dames. however. The customary plan. Its tion. as at S. they are equally strongly marked. Caen. is to have no aisles to the transepts.

Scale loo ft. Sernin. originally.228 Choirs. This was the plan that was adopted at Canterbury (originally). notwithstanding the great length of nave of the latter. and it was followed in England at Worcester. To begin with there were two followed the plan of Bernay Abbey and of FAbbaye-aux-Dames by having an apse at the end of the choir and smaller apses at the ends of the aisles. but longer in England than in contemporary churches abroad. which has no precedent in France and may therefore be considered as an English characteristic. Toulouse. L'Abbaye-auxHommes had only two bays to the east. from which chapels might radiate. Boscherville and S. The first form of an ambulatory. Georges. Gloucester and GMchester had only three bays. Tewkesbury. Norwich Cathedral. The second carried the aisles round the choir apse alternatives. in the This plan occurs r^^^^^^^^:J^^ * fe^^ G~fii fifr 'jjt'jTit /v V irVifck^ i After Clapham. Norwich and Durham had four bays between the crossing and the apse. Gloucester. S. but their naves were shorter. AJbans and Ely. Albans. England with great conThis consisted of a . at Jumieges. The termination of the eastern end provided opportunities for considerable variety of treatment. especially since it was the form to be followed in sistency throughout the mediaeval period. Ely and Durham. Peterborough. and so. and that is the number at S. Norwich and Chichester. so marked in later English examples. apart from the apse. There is apparently no significance in the geographical distribution of these two types. Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque The eastern arms are short in comparison with the western. Towards the middle of the twelfth century a third type was adopted. had S. is evident. From the first the tendency to lengthen this part of the church. to I in.

so there would have been room for an with a window and door of later date. The arch is now filled but it is by no means that originally the archway was but the entrance to a improbable recessed porch. added towards the end of the twelfth century. with the consequent stilting of arches . gives perhaps better than any other example a fair picture of what a Romanesque western front was like. to a late Perpendicular chapel or retro- The apsidal termination introduced problems which were never properly solved in Romanesque times. Durham Cathedral retains its two towers. vaults that were not approximately square. Almost inevitably it resulted in narrower bays. but the Galilee Porch. this plan involved the carrying of the aisle along the the square-ended choir.. with the exception of the eastern chapel. in an architecturally satisfying way. has been spoiled by the introduction of a large central window of the fifteenth century. and the in England. Southwell. 1 The window is dated 1686. portal remains of a seventh.. The west fronts of Romanesque cathedrals in England have suffered as severely as their eastern arms. 1 outer porch. except that its detail is curious. which had a parallel-apsed plan> still has its apsidal termination to the choir. almost the whole structure survives. has obliterated the original entrance. and where there was an ambulatory. Tewkesbury Abbey has the finest Romanesque On each side are six attached shafts. as can still be seen at Romsey on Nearly all the eastern ends of our Romanesque cathedrals have been replaced by later additions. Peterborough. which rises higher even than the transverse arches inside at the crossing. External Treatment. Norwich is perhaps the best preserved example of the ambulatory plan.123). They are carried up to support a semicircular arch of as many orders. the bays on plan were of such an irregular shape that they could not be vaulted satisfactorily as long as the round arch was the basis of the construction. The responds inside at the end of the nave arcades are unusually deep. however. A variation back of (P. with its two towers. Even this. . and was adopted at Southwell. For it was only the advent of the pointed rib that made it possible to cover. but. and possibly at Hereford. it is a very fair copy of fifteenth-century work.Romanesque in Normandy and England 229 square eastern end to the choir. but the side apses to the aisles have been removed to provide access choir. for. where there were apses to the aisles.

of little structural significance but great aesthetic importance. The central towers. . A great many of the Norman towers collapsed soon after they were built Winchester in 1107. transepts and choir. are far greater in size than their Continental counterparts. provide minor points of interest. There is litde enrichment to the main walls of the greater churches 3 which are invariably extremely simple. was far superior to that of any other cathedral. and it remains to this day the greatest of all Romanesque buildings.230 Early Christian. W. The site. a precipitous rock almost encircled by water. Worcester in 1175. Durham Cathedral was the supreme achievement of the Norman builders in England. the epitome of Norman endeavour. The towers are the greatest extravagance of the Norman builders. low and almost monotonous composition of the nave. with flat pilasters marking the divisions of the bays and roundheaded windows in between. The central towers of Norwich and Tewkesbury and the western towers of Southwell and Durham are all of the twelfth century. Because of the lateness of the undertaking. and provide a fitting climax to the long. in that harrying of the North' which was described by Trevelyan as *a vengeance Turkish in its atrocity'. but there is little sculpture or refinement. Byzantine and Romanesque It is in the design of towers that the greatest variety in exterior design is to be seen. indeed. and are generally richly decorated with interlacing arcades and other superficial ornamentation. It is. It far surpassed anything that had been built in Normandy. especially. the cathedral and the castle alongside it were being built as a symbol of the might of Norman civilisation. their apparent massive solidity. because the story of Norman building solidity* makes a sad tale of structural disasters. is used advisedly. Albans was the only important eleventh-century tower to have survived. the most brilliant testimony which has survived of Norman power and culture in these islands. The county of Durham was among the last areas of England to * fall before the conqueror. A. and building was begun only after the structural possibilities of the Romanesque style were realised. The Romanesque cathedrals of England were impressive largely by The term 'apparent their size. Within one generation of the event. Clapham considered that the central tower of S. Lincoln in 1240 and Ely in 1322. Durham Cathedral. with their moulded orders and chevron ornament. The doorways and porches. Durham differs from other cathedrals in that its nave was vaulted at approximately the same date as was the rest of the church.

Ltd. Dmrham Cathedral. Portrait of Durham Cathedral. Sub-dorter. Frater over. M. Cloister Garth. Galilee Chapel. E. Scale loo ft. Dorter over. (1110-38). Garden and Bowling Alley. to I in. CooJfe. B. Lavatorium. Cellarer. Phoenix House. CeUars. O. H. Prison.Romanesque in Normandy and England 231 Modified from G. . (1093-1109). Kitdien. Revestry. G. KEY A. L. Ct Nine Altars Transept (1242-80). Fw Locutorium. Treasury. J. N. P. H. Q. Prior's Lodging. Chapter House. Nave Chok K. D. R.

The only unusual feature of the plan of Durham is the Galilee Chapel. The alternation of large and small supports is no positive proof that vaulting was to be carried throughout. the cathedral is Norman throughout. Verona. Durham consists of a nave of eight bays. and the parallel-apsed east end which was removed in the thirteenth century to make way for the Chapel of the Nine* Altars. Ambrogio. . but because it incorporated in one building all those structural elements which ultimately were to revolutionise the whole history of building in western Europe.232 Early Christian. there are shafts which start from the triforium level and run up to the apex of the present vault. By the end of the eleventh century the Eastern arm had been finished. In the transepts. which was added to the western front towards the end of the twelfth century. and work had begun to the west. and the transverse arches which crossed the nave were pointed^ A most curious feature of the Durham nave vault is the awkward way in which the diagonal ribs start from vaults to the naves. were so unsafe that they had to be rebuilt in the thirteenth century. In S. Apart from the central tower. These vaults. structural knowledge was advanced for an attempt to be made to vault the choir sufficiently itself. In the nave and choir. Byzantine and Romanesque Building began in 1093 under the direction of Bishop William of S. Work was continued by his successor. and in many early churches in Germany. was finished. All the vaults were ribbed. The choir and the aisles terminated in apses. not because of its size (for it was much shorter than Winchester or Peterborough). Ralph Flambard (1096-1 128)5 and by 1 140 the whole cathedral. By 1104. there is similar alternation. although it is doubtful if it was intended to cover any of the rest in the same way.. Zeno. great clustered piers alternate with cylindrical columns manner of Jumieges and S.unfortunately. Architecturally to anything that had been done in the West before. and by 1135 ^h-e nave and aisles. adjoining Normandy. nor its plan (which conformed to the usual Benedictine arrangement). By the transepts were successfully covered. except for the upper it was superior parts of the towers. Milan. Carileph. however. That the aides were already vaulted with rib vaults seems certain. Calais in the old province of Maine. mo . nor its detail (which had all the traditional barbaric enrichment). a choir of four bays> and transepts (each having an eastern aisle) of three bays. suggesting that there was no intention of vaulting this part at all. but no suggestion of any in the . who had been at one time a monk of the Benedictine abbey of S.

west front Abbaye-aux-Hommes. Caen west front Plate 15 .Southwell Cathedral.

nave Durham Cathedral. choir aisle vault .Durham Cathedral.

S. Alban's Cathedral;

Plate /;

Romsey Abbey; nave

Gloucester Cathedral; nave

Christ Church, Oxford;

north transept

Tewkesbury Abbey; west


Norwich Cathedral; apsidal end
Plate 18

Castle Acre Priory

Fountains Abbey; south


corbel heads,


Normandy and England


and not from the side vaulting shafts as might have been expected. If the transverse ribs were built before the vaults, this might provide the reason. Another peculiarity is that the clerestory windows are not central with the vault compartments, a
fact which gives some colour to the theory that it was originally intended to cover the nave with sexpartite vaults, as at FAbbayeaux-Hommes, for if the diagonals had started from above the side

shafts of the



and had been bisected by an intermediate

transverse arch above each column, the windows would have centred exactly. Against this, it may be pointed out that each bay

of vaulting between the great piers (especially the second and third bays west of the crossing) is far longer than its width, and the span

of the diagonal ribs would consequently have been excessive. The truly significant fact, however, is that by 1135 (five years before the laying of the foundation of the choir of the Abbey of S. Denis,

Norman masons had built a ribbed vault over the wide span of the nave, using a pointed arch, and at the same time restraining the thrust of the vaults by quadrant arches which span
Paris) the

the triforium chamber and constitute, in effect, flying buttresses. Durham is notable not only for its cathedral but also for the

conventual buildings associated with

Norman work



only a replica, and the

it. Here much of the The Chapter House, it is true, is Norman cloisters have been replaced by



work; but


around are the various buildings, the

cellarer's quarters,

dorter or dormitory, the frater or refectory, the cellarium or and beyond, the monks* garden and bowling

green, the infirmary and the prior's lodging. Most of these buildings are Norman and, with the cathedral, remain today a remarkable



Parish Churches.

Norman endeavour. The list given of the

greater churches



the building achievements of the Norman conTo it must be added the thousands of parish churches querors. that were built either on new sites or in place of those which were deemed unworthy. Of all countries, England is the most remark-

mean record of

able for the number
said that the

and variety of its parish churches.
at the


has been

time of the compilation of the DomesBook practically equalled that at the close of the eighteenth day 1 The great number of country examples we possess is century. due to some extent to our insular position, and to the kind of feudalism and the system of agriculture that developed, based



The Parish Churches of England, Cox

& Ford,



Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque

upon the village.
and each had

The whole of England was dotted with villages own church. In France, Germany and other countries, villages were few and far apart. The majority of people were forced., for safety, to live in large communities. The farmers and agricultural labourers who lived outside had, in many cases, to trudge far to church, as they do in many parts of France to

the present day, where a church serves a large outlying district. These widely dispersed churches were consequently larger; in England the parish church served a limited area and was as a
it is not possible to do the principal types and refer to a few. No classify two churches are alike, and nearly all have been mqdified and

rule small.


the wealth of material

more than

by subsequent additions, but there are still hundreds in which the main fabric is the work of the eleventh and twelfth

There would appear
(a) Aisleless.

to have

been four main types



structural division, or

may consist of a single cell without any may be divided into inter-communicating

compartments (nave, choir and presbytery), and have a western tower in addition. It is by far the commonest type. The eastern ending may be apsidal, as at Kilpeck, Herts., Great
Maplestead, Essex, and Moccas, Herefordshire, or it may be square, as at Iffiey, Oxon., and Stewkley, Bucks. This has a central tower to mark the division (b) Cruciform.


of nave, choir and transepts, and may or may not have aisles. finest example of the aisleless type is to be seen at Old Shoreham, Sussex, where evidence remains of apsidal chapels

projecting east of the transepts . At Melbourne, Derby, there is a good example of the cruciform church with aisles. It is un-

usually large and has, in addition to the central tower, two western towers.
rather than villages.

This type is generally confined to smaller towns It was in many cases a development of the aisleless plan, the aisles being added at a later date. At Little Munden, Herts., only one aisle, on the north side, has been added. However, the number of Norman arcades still remaining is evidence that many churches were planned with aisles
(c) Aisled.

from the beginning.



Shoreham, Sussex, there was an

excellent example of a late Norman aisled church, but in this case only the chancel end survives, where the aisles are continued


either side to

form a square

east end.

(d) Circular.


Normandy and England


Only three Romanesque examples survive S. Mary Magdalene in Ludlow Castle, and S. Sepulchre, Northampton. 1 There is no doubt that this plan was inspired by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and similar examples exist in other parts of Europe
Sepulchre 3 Cambridge, S.
(see pp. 132-4).

As a

rule they are arcaded, the outer ring

Plans of typical
(top_ left)

Norman parish churches.

Unaisled; Moccas,


S. Sepul-



left) Cruciform; Old Shoreham, Sussex.

Derby. (bottom right) Circular ; chre, Cambridge.

Scale 50 ft. to i

being vaulted, and have a triforium, clerestory and a projecting It chancel. Ludlow is an exception, since there is no arcade.

was begun in 1095 and has been very much altered. The chancel extended east and was closed by a semi-octagonal apse.
detail the smaller churches

do not


and monasteries.

The walls

are extraordinarily thick,

from the cathedrals seldom less

1 Two other round churches should be mentioned the Temple Church, London, bombed in the last war and since restored ; and the Church of the Hospitallers, Little Maplestead, Essex, which was the only circular

church built in

later times (fourteenth century).

than three

Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque
feet, relieved externally



pilaster-like buttresses

which are

largely decorative, for stone vaulting is exceptional and confined, as a rule, to the chancel. An important exception is S. John's Chapel in the Tower of London,, where the nave has a

barrel vault


finishes at the apse

with a semi-dome and


supported by groined vaults over the aisles and the barrel- vaulted triforiTim. Internally, in aisled churches, there is normally a
clerestory with a narrow mural passage, but no triforium. Towers and porches provided the principal opportunities for elaboration and decoration. The towers are enriched with many interfacings and arcadings, and porches, which are normally located on the

south wall, are often richly carved with all the characteristic ornamentation of the period. Strangely enough, it is often in the smaller and more insignificant churches that the profusion of carving in porches is most striking. In the little church at Barfreston, Kent, for example, there

a splendid

doorway which may

have been carved by workmen from Canterbury, and which consists of an elaborate tympanum surrounded by scroll-work
incorporating angels, kings, queens and other figures. Churches were being built in the eleventh and twelfth centuries all over the country. The architecture was incomparably superior

Anglo-Saxon endeavours, even although the sheer bulk of masonry employed often indicated an uncertain knowledge of constructional principles. There was much that seems cumbersome and crude when compared with the fine logic of subsequent Gothic formalism. The sculpture was often primitive in the extreme, and had little of the delicate humanism that followed when civilisation advanced. Nevertheless, there was about Norto the


architecture something magnificent in a
its finest

monumental way

which, in

examples, has never been surpassed.

at Cluny and Citeaux. and without distinguishing too minutely. In the north we have the schools of Normandy and Anjou.around Perigueux. 94-8). which have been considered under Byzantine work (pp. with its Aquitairie. the north-east was essentially Germanic. 237 . was not a united country. The result was that there were wide variations in architectural expressiori in different areas. the latter. we have already discussed in the last chapter. Nor was the population but a number of semi-independent states homogeneous . and in the south. Clermont-Ferrand l The Cathedral of Le Puy is an exception. Auvergne and Provence. the school of Aquitaine. and features which we associate with a particular district often appear most disconcertingly in other districts which have apparently no connection whatsoever. 1 the same architect and built by one set of workmen. with and Aries. but then it is southernmost of all and seems to have been built under other influences. Further. four broad types may be determined. with its centre at Caen. centres centring . penetrated far into In the east there is the Burgundian school. The churches in the old Province of Auvergne All might well have been -bear a remarkable family likeness. the north-west was peopled from Norman stock. the former. In spit of these difficulties. their centres at Clermont-Ferrand SOUTHERN FRANCE Auvergne (PL 19). in the west.CHAPTER XVI ROMANESQUE IN FRANCE IHE study of the Romanesque architecture of France presents problems of classification which never occurred when we JL considered Britain. designed by The most important are Notre-Dame-du-Port. during the Romanesque period. This is largely due to the fact that France. with its churches of eastern plan and domical construction. with its centres bordering the Loire. the individual schools were not strictly confined by state boundaries. the twin schools of ^ i I . and the south Latin.

Nazaire there are three apses. built in the first half of the twelfth century. the cathedrals of Issoke and Brioude. apsidal chapels The chevets sides of the transepts. Sernin. S. In plan they B Notre-Dame-du-Port. Clermont-Ferrand. near are barrel. Scale 50 ft. Many of their characteristics they share with churches of similar construction outside the province. and the abbey church of Conques . which. are remarkably well arranged. as a rule. Nazaire. Toulouse. Etienne. at Clermont- Ferrand four. though small.. such as S. at Brioude and Issoire five. 1 In the Church of Polignac. Nevers. to i in. the aisles as well as the nave . and the aisles by groined vaults 1 Over the aisles are spacious supported by transverse arches. projecting from the eastern have eastern chevets and. The naves are covered by semi-circular barrel vaults. and S.238 (1080)5 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque which is probably the earliest. are all aisled.vaulted* Le Puy. and their eifect outside is in all cases most striking. At S. is one of the most perfect.

The lean-to roofs. the diaper inlay of lava and red or white volcanic stone 2 in the gables and round the upper part of the apses are all reminiscent of work in southern This is emphasised by Italy and suggest some eastern influence. together with the cupolas and chevet. which prevents it from cutting unpleasantly into the ambulatory roof. The crossing itself is generally covered by an octagonal cupola. covered by quadrant vaults which take the thrusts of the There are no clerestory windows. the elaborate ridges. Milan. 2 The richest diaper work in Auvergne is in the Cathedral of Le Puy 1 In the Church of S. give an unequalled effect of breadth to the eastern fa?ade. generally inside. 1 but the lit churches are adequately by large windows in the aisles and by The crossings light which filters through the triforium openings. The roof over each eastern apse at Issoire and Brioude stops against a small gable.Romanesque galleries in France 239 central vaults. elaborately pierced and vaults. is to the province. although it (the centre of a volcanic church. district). churches. At the apex of each gable is carved a Greek cross. Ambrogio. Etienne. One hesitates to ascribe this to Saracenic Nevers. but by the following method. which is peculiar to Auvergne. in line with the aisles. there are clerestory windows which come down unpleasantly upon the arches of the triforium openings. 189-191). These crosses. the delicately-carved capitals of many shafts round the apses and above all. carved. only the north and south walls of the cupola. One curious trait found in many of the Trefoil Arches. Two of the arches at the crossing terminate the eastern and western barrel The other two arches complete the crossings but carry vaults. and many are two or three feet in height. horseshoed at the springing. Between the transepts and the cupola. The effect produced inside by it is still this arrangement is very striking. and outside more remarkable. the similarity between the arched recesses along the aisle walls of Issoire Cathedral and those at Bari and Trani (pp. are quadrant vaults which are raised high enough to allow for borrowed lights. bedded on the sloping top of the The ridges are also of stone. is the trefoil or cinquefoil arch. are as well lighted as that of S. which belongs architecturally some distance north of it. in big slabs. especially in the cloisters attached to the . and would have been better omitted.rise well above the other roofs of the church. and the quadrant arches between the crossing and the transepts by lean-to roofs which butt against it and. External Treatment. The covering in Auvergne churches is generally stone.

Isidore. They differ mainly from those in Auvergne in not having the crossing arrangement described above. it filtered through from southern Italy. The Romanesque architecture of Provence has S. have single aisles on both sides. No churches of any size were built in Spain until Toledo was recaptured from the Moors in 1085. which is covered by an octagonal lantern with a window on each of church. while on the south side the arrange- ment Other churches of similar plan and construction outside Auvergne are S. unless. which necessitated the strengthening of the piers below it. Byzantine and Romanesque influence. where they are semi-circular. continued later than in Auvergne. and the Spaniards. the abbey church at exactly reversed. although not so large. Leon. 1090). is Conques. The crossing was probably originally covered by a low octagonal lantern. 2 The abbey church at Cluny was larger. Sernin is the largest of the barrelAlthough the nave is narrow. tower or cupola. Toulouse (c. being less than 30 feet wide. but this is only achieved by narrowing the openings of the crossing inside. except at the crossing. It is barrel-vaulted throughout. Barrel-vaulted Churches. as at Conques. and at the ends as well. like the arched recesses. The similarity between the Spanish examples and those on the other side of the Pyrenees is easily accounted for. 1 In Issoire Cathedral all the openings in the triforium on the north side have trefoil heads. the total internal width of the western arm The is not far short of 100 feet. Sernin y Toulouse. vaulted churches in France. Sernin. but it is difficult to account for the feature in any other way. Its its sides. 2 1 Street. throwing a flood of light into the chevet has a fine appearance outside. because it has double aisles. The church at Conques is in some respects finer than S. The effect outside is striking. Santiago de Compostela. . Leon. Isidore. which must have been suggested by some Moorish example.240 Early Christian. transepts as at Winchester. having no school of building of their own. except in one bay. but is now practically destroyed. in his Gothic Architecture in Spain. but the Saracenic occupation of Spain. of course. and S. its Spanish sister. but at a later period the present telescopic steeple was added. naturally sought architects and workmen from southern France. and in the greater importance of their transepts. Spain. Provence (PL 20). S. Sernin. shows a sketch of an extensively foliated arch inside S. but it lacks the decorative features which give such distinction to the chevets of Issoire and Brioude.

manship which II is typical of so much Proven?al architecture. Aries. Trophime there are small clerestory windows under the nave vault. S. instead. 152). Saumur. and always incorporating in the capitals sculpture of exceptional elegance. Nazaire. there is a refinement of detail which is undoubtedly due to the inspiration are smaller in of classical remains in the district. but in these examples the aisles have quadrant vaults. and clerestories are exceptional. Gilles. which might appear to belong to the second century AJD. The fluted pilaster so prevalent Provence is an example of a Roman feature translated into Romanesque work. differing but slightly from those executed by Roman workmen in the later days of the Empire. p.. guilloches and fret patterns). the abbey church of Montmajour. mouldings of a delicacy unknown in contemporary work in northern France. The Montmajour church is 43 feet across. which in the latter church add over 20 feet to the width. forming a superb frontal decoration which contrasts magnificently with the severe west wall above. This also accounts for many Corinthian capitals. as a rule. have no aisles. which has three porches side by side. and in S. The same refinement is noticeable in the porches. amongst others. are similar. and Notre-Dame de Nantilly. Carcassonne (c. Trophime. The cathedrals of Avignon and Orange. There is none of the rugged quality of northern Romanesque. and workmanship is of exceptional delicacy. and S. Nearly all the churches were monastic.Romanesque in France 241 but the churches many features in common with that of Auvergne. and had cloisters attached to them with. acanthus leaves. Orange 45 feet. In direct contrast with the delicate craftsFortified Churches. others merely deep pointed. in both cases exclusive of the side recesses. small and slender columns. and carvings on the mouldings (egg-and-dart. sometimes single. England or Germany . with its aisles covered by semi-circular barrel vaults. All the churches have barrel vaults. is among the earliest of the aisled type (see section. and these are generally Some have lofty supporting aisles. They have no triforiums. but the side recesses are covered by semi-circular barrel vaults. sometimes coupled. which are rich and exuberant and without the geometric formality of ornamentation which is usual The supreme example is in the church at S. recesses separated from one another by internal buttresses. . 1096). Every capital was different and treated with superb lightness and freedom. in the north. connected by a colonnade and a sculptured frieze. there 16 . The abbey church of Fontfroide.

at the bidding of S. From Sens in the north to Autun and Tournus in the south. buttressed wails. which was consecrated in 1 104. and the roofs were sufficiently low-pitched to provide a platform which would accommodate the defenders and machines of war. One of the most impressive is the cathedral of Agde. from here. especially in the direction of church building. but nave vaults were a rarity and oblong vaults very uncommon indeed. it did not become an integral part of France until some centuries later. hilly district in the centre which includes Vezelay. crenellations sustain a siege. were the monks. early twelfth-century Semur and Avalon. which has intersecting vaults. Belonging to the German Empire of the eleventh century. tudes. There are no diagonal ribs to either nave or were common enough at that time. which lies some two-and-a-half miles from the Mediterranean coast and which dates from the twelfth century. Of the exceptions the principal is the fine abbey church of Vezelay. announced the Second Crusade. Richard Coeur de Lion and Philip Augustus of France started for the Holy Land. The abbots of Cluny. The majority of these are barrel-vaulted. The nave. Vaulted . however. At Vezelay. in 1190. are many churches of great interest and considerable variety. 21). It is a plain and forbidding crenellated structure with what appears to be a donjon tower rising above the west end. has ten oblong bays . The real rulers of the Duchy. and here the all are stilted. and through the Saulieu. in 1146. The narthex of three bays was built in 1128-32. Their energies were unbounded. Bernard. together with its extent. and looking more garnished with machicolations and Their walls were thick enough to like fortresses than churches. the French king. Citeaux and Vezelay kept almost royal state. account for the variety of design in its churches. To them is mainly due the superiority of Burgundian churches at the end of the eleventh century and the beginning of the twelfth. The transverse arches and wall ribs are semi-circular aisles and aisles. and for many years the Dukes of Burgundy were the equals of kings.242 are a Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque number of fortified churches with massive. Vezelay. EASTERN FRANCE Burgundy Burgundy was a large province-. and its vicissi(PI. but to their conservatism must also be attributed the failure to take advantage of the developments which took place elsewhere.

but the regulations regarding admission in the West were different. and although the central bays are over 17 feet square. In the East. which are very noble. the open narthex was more commonly found in cathedral churches. as at Tournus. into which people had the prescriptive 1 Viollet-le-Duc says that these ribs are additions. forming ante-churches. . Burgundian churches differ Europe in the importance of the narthex. be admitted into the church proper. The institution of infant baptism had destroyed the probationer class. Of (c. Scale 5 /L to I in ' exactly double the width of each side bay and the porch is two bays deep. is one instance out of many. as at Autun. The church at Pontaubert. Paray-leBeaune. but their absence from much later vaults in the Duchy is proof of the conservative spirit that reigned there. and in Early Christian churches in Italy. Narthex. that of is by far the The central bay in front Autun Cathedral: Narthex. by the Templars towards the end of the twelfth century. The reason for the narthex in Burgundian churches festival. it is stated. on days of high . and the rules preventing maleAnother factors from entering were not so strict as in earlier days It may be that there was a reason. exclusively to a monastic Order. is 1160) the former. but no diagonal ribs. could be marshalled. perhaps because the monks guarded zealously the right of entry into their churches . except in the The absence of diagonal ribs is one of the peculieastern bay. there are no diagonal ribs. near Vezelay.Romanesque in France 243 vaults have pointed arches. tympanum over the central doorway. by ecclesiastical law. need for some spot under shelter where pilgrims. The striking effect produced is due to the general proportions and dimensions. the narthex In the cases of churches belonging was generally en- closed. 1 Their omission at arities of Burgundian intersecting vaults. Semur and Notre-Dame de Dijon and enMonial. and to the beauty of the sculpture in the is not clear. Vezelay and Cluny. open. the narthex was for those who could not. since the church is early in date. . Vezelay is natural. therefore. from all others in western There are two types : closed. must be sought. built. Autun finest. It is vaulted throughout.

and it was used by the Cistercians in England over the aisles of Fountains Abbey (PL 18). Much the same arrangement exists in a church at Carcassonne. and the projecting segments provide a seating on the one side for transverse arches across the aisles. the use of large stones and of keystones for the arches.vaulted churches in Burgundy. Philibert. which was begun in 1089. All the principal arches and the barrel vault of the nave are pointed. and the narthex some fifty years later. the nave being Its finished about 1130. and are mostly one hundred years or more later in date. there are fine. Their diameter is greater than the thick- Barrel-vaulted Churches. is a copy of Cluny visualise the design of the parent church. Byzantine and Romanesque right of entry. cylindrical columns built with many stones to each course. no more were built after the thirteenth century. from the capitals of which spring the main arches across the nave. the carving and the design of the capitals. The vault is divided into bays by a transverse The fluted piers (or rather. fifty feet was 580 feet. The other barrel-vaulted churches in the Duchy are totally different in design. as was general in all it on a smaller and from one may southern examples arch over each pier. 1 the delicate contours of many of the mouldings. Toumus. double transepts and an eastern chevet. In the nave. total length. and the arches are stilted. The cathedral at Autun. . There are two very fine Roman gateways at Autun. all proclaim the strong influence exercised 1 by the Roman remains in the town. The open porches of later French and English cathedrals are very different from the narthex of either Vezelay or Autun. consecrated in 1132. earliest 1019 and the ness of the walls which they support. Whatever the reason. This technique was adopted in other Burgundian churches. but was confined exclusively to aisles. Philibert. which is about longer than Winchester Cathedral. is that the transverse arches support barrel vaults which run transversely from north to south. lofty. scale. The chief peculiarity of S. completed of the barrel. 146). . has already been referred to (p. 2 and contrast 2 Keystones are found in pointed as well as semi-circular arches. The peculiarities of its plan were double aisles. S. including the narthex. The first to be built was the great church at Cluny (the third on the site). however. piers with fluted pilasters on their faces).244 Early Christian. The greater part of this church has disappeared. instead of the rectangular piers or stumpy columns of most contemporary churches. and on the other for small attached shafts.

Milan. S. which are additions. The only variation of any importance from three-quarter columns that the arches of the arcade spring instead of from fluted pilasters. They belong in plan and general proportions to some of the aisleless domed churches of Aquitaine (pp. Beaune has the same detached shafts immediately under the vault. S. Cathedral has transepts. nearly the same arrangement of triforium and clerestory. Saumur. 1150). Farther south still. they have been counted as inferior by the student of architecture. Radegonde. since it is essentially a blind storey. Poitiers than their naves and date from the eleventh century. Nor are the examples of its work well known. and Notre-Dame-du-Port. but to the south the school of Anjou is inextricably mixed with that of Aquitaine. Saumur. The nave of Angers Cathedral may be regarded as typical of the work of the school of Anjou. The main differences between the churches of Burgundy and those of the south of France are that the former have clerestory windows and the latter none. and that in Burgundy the triforium is unimportant and the openings in it small. NORTHERN FRANCE Anjou. but only high aisles covered with barrel vaults supporting the nave. Pierre. Le Mans (all c. while the Angers chancels. Angers Cathedral. S. except that they have France. Ambrogio. whereas in Auvergne it is of considerable importance. (c. Radegonde and S. of La Trinite. Durham. 94-98). In plan it is almost identical with Angouleme. and because the earlier churches in the neighbourhood of the Loire have not such height and daring construction. as a rule there was neither triforium nor clerestory. Pierre . Angers. are de S. because of the fame of the neighbouring great Gothic cathedrals of northern Everything has been judged by Arniens. The most interesting ribbed intersecting vaults instead of domes are the cathedral and the Church of La Trinite. 1170). and similar fluted pilasters is and vaulting shafts.Romanesque in France 245 curiously with the pointed arches and vault. and All these have aisleless naves. The cathedrals of Paray-le-Monial and Beaune are very like Autun. It is true that they cannot compare aesthetically with S. la Couture. the great difference being the earlier . Clermont-Ferrand. Pierre. The architectural province of Anjou is difficult to define. On the north the boundary with Normandy is clear. in Provence. Chartres and Beauvais .

partly carried by them and partly corbelled out. to I in. rather clumsily built and some 10 feet narrower than those in the cathedral. they detract from. like most early French vaults. and die transverse arches. and the supports could be any size the architect chose to make them. These are arranged in a rather curious manner in order to give a greater appearance of length to the interior. which produce a much better effect than the smaller arcading in the later transepts and choir. rather than add to. in the middle of the twelfth century was a wonderful achievement. but of course abutment was easy. At the entrance the building is 80 feet high. It is a pity that the transepts were ever added . the span being over 50 feet and the height from floor to apex about 80 feet. Each of the bays is nearly square. vaults. Nevertheless. . Angers. Scale loo/r. Over the arches. is a gallery. and the vaults are sexpartite.246 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque introdnction of intersecting ribbed vaulting in place of domes. La Trinite. diagonal ribs and wall ribs are strong and bold. in fact the whole of the continuous wall could be utilised. And yet the vaults are very domical. There were no aisles over which the thrusts had to be transmitted. Along the side walls are big pointed arches. one to each bay. which runs round the church below the pairs of semi-circular-headed clerestory windows.. which were carried on thin piers and restrained by flying it buttresses. the effect inside. La Trinite differs from the cathedral in two important respects: a chancel arcade has been introduced to provide a clear definition between the nave and chancel . The difficulties to be surmounted were therefore far less than in later Angers Cathedral. These are no mean dimensions.

made any improvement when. and the English vaults in which they appear are some fifty years later in the district. Many a vault of the thirteenth and monotonous. above. between the vault and the dome. tural necessity The transverse arches are still bold. Pierre. They preferred that nothing should weaken the effect which the trans- The thin diagonal rib. This a trick of false perspective. Ours> Loches. because ridge ribs were seldom employed in other parts of France (and never in early work). when the vaulting in their pride of craftsmanship. The presence of this feature is all the more curious. but the diagonal Strong transverse arches are a struc- ribs are extremely slender. of the same section and size as the diagonals. in date. when building intersecting vaults. Vaulting. from the outside. Radegonde. with the adoption of a flat ridge line. found in S. 1 is S. The church which marks the conflict between the schools of Anjou and Aquitaine. to the south of Tours. This is especially noticeable in barrel vaults.Romanesque but in France 247 it gradually descends to only 65 feet at the eastern end. Poitiers. owing to the absence of strongly-marked divisions. and possibly it was this knowledge that led the Burgundian architects. but there is a marked difference in detail. Ours. for it is the repetition or fourteenth century looks flat of transverse arches that so often makes the vaults impressive. Germany. It is extremely doubtful if the later mediaeval builders. The range of semi-circular recesses in the lower is part of the wall of the nave is very satisfactory . Saumur and S. they were able to reduce the transverse ribs to the size of other ribs. This is most noticeable in the thrusts of the the vaulting. consisting merely of a single three-quarter-round member. Another local peculiarity is the ridge rib. and the Angers churches. The effect of length induced by a rhythm of cross arches is lost. 1 There is no great disparity in size between S. . 2 Similar ridge ribs occur in the Cathedral of Treves. is not confined to these two churches but occurs in nearly all the contemporary domical intersecting-vaulted churches verse arches produced. is domical. 2 S. these appear as strongly-projecting buttresses which take main arches and ribs. and they possess also the great advantage of emphasising the rhythm of bays of the church. Pierre. Loches. to dispense with diagonal ribs altogether. and is only effective when viewed from the entrance. This church it La Trinite has been so extensively 'restored* that is virtually ruined inside. Radegonde and S.

allowing of no roof between.. each of which The skyline is remarkable. . the combination of also has a spire. of which those at Angers are typical. Each square of the nave is covered by a stone pyramidal spire which is octagonal inside and out. and is visible from the inside as a dark.248 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque from the outside appears as nothing but four steeples in a row. the corbelling for each octagon is treated decoratively . The nave of two square bays is similar in plan to those of the domed churches farther south. and the ribbedvaulted 5 aisleless churches to the north. It seems probable that when the church was first planned^ either vaults or domes were intended. such as Cahors Cathedral. being unique. There is no inner ceiling nor shell . the pair of spires is sandwiched between two towers. four abutting spires. but neither form was built. pyramidal recess Outside.

N otre-Dame-du-Por t Clermont-Ferrand. vault at crossing Issoire Cathedral apsidal end .

west front Plate 20 S. Gilles.S. Trophime. Provence. Aries. cloister .

Tournus. interior Plate 21 .S. Philibert. interior Autun Cathedral.

Santiago Cathedral. interior Salamanca Cathedral. cimborio Plate 22 .

CHAPTER XVII ROMANESQUE IN SPAIN architecture developed only in the northern provinces of Spain. which lies along the northern early Visigothic kingdom seaboard of Spain. During the ninth and tenth centuries these kingdoms evolved an architecture which was in some respects in advance of other work in the West. The second was the Crusade against the Moslem conquerors. The result was that the later Romanesque art of Spain was predominantly French in character and quite distinct from the earlier work. The churches. Even by the middle of the twelfth century. therefore. Even locally the distinctive way of building was supplanted in the eleventh century by the imported Romanesque technique from France. There were two important reasons for the French migrations into Spain. James the Apostle at Santiago de Compostela. which was largely directed by French forces. in fact. which encouraged a steady stream of pilgrims to his shrine. Asturias. to the old kingdoms of geographically. Our study. and to Catalonia on the Mediterranean coast. From what has survived. which was cut off from the rest by the KMANESQUE Moorish kingdom of Zaragoza. EARLY ROMANESQUE of the ninth and tenth centuries in the of Asturias. Leon and Navarre in the north and west. are often 249 . only one-third of the peninsula was in Christian hands. is very limited It is restricted. is remarkable because it appears to have developed without stimulus from other countries and to have exerted little influence beyond its immediate locality. though small. for to the south the Moslems were not expelled until the mediaeval period had passed. The architecture been surprisingly complex. The first was the discovery of the tomb of S. the Asturian style would seem to have Asturias. but by the middle of the eleventh century the introduction of French culture resulted in a revolution in style almost as complete as had occurred when the Normans overwhelmed AngloSaxon England.

of twisted ropes and carry ornate carved carved in the form capitals. Maria de Naranco.D. 712 A. Byzantine and Romanesque cruciform and accompanied by a number of chapels disposed nave. Clapham. and indeed of the Asturian style are all in The principal examples builders.250 Early Christian. adjoining France and the Pyrenees on the north and the Mediterranean on the east. first glance it seems like a Roman amphi-prostyle temple. Catalonia forms the north-eastern corner of the Iberian peninsula. the ribs. but after the middle of the tenth century an astonishing number of churches were built which show nearly every stage in . Scale 50 ft. 848. The semi-circular apse symmetrically on either side of the is unknown. At that time vaulted buildings were a rarity in western that they might Europe. near Oviedo. and date from the middle of the ninth the vicinity century. which we associate with the East. W. to I in. Maria de Naranco. At S. The earliest churches belong to the same Asturias. The exterior is plain.D. according to A. This last feature. Among the more interesting of those buildings that have survived is the Church of S. Oviedo. a characteristic of antedates its use by Islamic Visigothic architecture. like medals on a ribbon. and for this reason it has been suggested of Syrian builders. building has a most unusual plan. For instance. relieved only by but- tresses. of Oviedo. sometimes with ribs and often supported by buttresses of considerable projection. There is much elaborate carved decoration and a frequent use of the horseshoe arch. These medallions seem to be reproductions of Visigothic gold ornaments and have crude human figures and Below. Moors in A. instead of coming down on to the attached columns of the nave.. It was conquered by the Catalonia. Maria de Naranco^ Oviedo. was. but the inside has much unusual decoration. Subsequently and freed by the troops of Charlemagne in it was ruled by French counts. with a portico added on the north side. which is said This to have been built in A.D. who soon tradition as those of made themselves independent of France. stop short and terminate in carved medallions. but no convincing evidence to be the work reinforce such a claim has as yet been produced. and barrel vaults are almost universal. 788. the columns are beasts carved within a foliage border. S.

The present structure has therefore little that can with any certainty be ascribed to the Romanesque original. with the three Magi in supplication. although in its sculptured decoration it is distinctly inferior . It was built between 1020 and 1032. Much has been lost. style is identical in of fresco decoration Catalonia surpasses the works of Italy. . some 200 feet long. or ambulatory with radiating chapels. and which in its fresh state must have appeared almost as rich as the mosaic decoration of the Byzantine Empire. are the Apostles all and the Prophets. The interiors of the Catalan churches appear to have been constructed according to a scheme which called for stucco and poly- chromatic rendering. and a is in Spanish Romanesque Architecture* account of Catalan architecture is given by W. restored 1824-30. of square piers which carry a barrel vault. or beina. some fifty miles north of Barcelona. and ruthlessly restored again 1886-93. there is a complete range of examples showing from the timber roof to the fully-vaulted and all this occurs within a country about the same size as building . sacked and burned in the first Carlist War in 1835. symbols . But then.. at Ripoll. a great double-aisled basilica with a T~transept. The work many respects with the contemporary in the region around Milan. there are domed churches and. carrying their appropriate are painted in the brightest of colours. below. is perhaps the most remarkable of the Catalan churches. i in Spain 251 Romanesque style. structural progress Wales.vaulted basilicas. Whitehill 3 Oxford. in variety of plan. Their variety is remarkThere are barrel. M. All that is missing is the chevet. and only in the apses are the decorations unspoiled by later restorers. there are cross-plan churches and trefoil-plan churches . with transepts and without transepts. 1941. other than its plan. and from what has survived it would seem that this small kingdom was superior in that art to any country in the Romanesque world. the stimulus did not come from France. In the centre of the semi-dome there is usually an enthroned Virgin and Child. Examples. on the cylindrical apsidal wall. but the plan is the surprising feature. The church at Ripoll. even if in plan it reflects the double-aisled basilicas of Early Christian Rome. which is so characteristic a feature of the French Romanesque.Romanesque the evolution of the able. Here great 1 Romanesque The most folly-documented a nave arcade. there are aisleless plans and circular plans . in the manner of the great Constantinian churches of Rome. however. They have a rigid formalism almost Byzantine in character.

mostly of the Order of Cluny. Were appointed to fill the principal Sees. the highest level in Catalan architecture was reached with the building of S. Maria. every feature with which we associate is a dome set on squinches stairs lead to the chancel the fully-developed vault. to i barrel-vaulted nave with transverse ribs and groined vaults to the aisles. Scale zoo/r. and there are buttresses to withstand the thrust of the vaulting. and at the crossing there the earliest in Spain. the arcade is built in two orders. which may have been intended to support some form of groined vaulting over the aisles. in. in fact. but modified by the introduction of piers in place of columns and a stone-vaulted ceiling instead of a timber roof. Vincent de Cardona. It is. except the ribbed cross LATER ROMANESQUE From the middle of the eleventh century French influence predominated. Although contemporary with the church at Ripoll. an Early Christian plan in all its divisions. At this point and down to a crypt. Ripoll. French monks. Structurally. The piers are up clustered. and so was the crusading army.252 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque second outer arcade of alternating piers and columns. both in plan and in structure. Romanesque style. It consists of a After WhitehilL S. indeed. The Court was Gallicised. it is fully-developed Romanesque. Frenchmen followed the pilgrim- . The transepts are barrel-vaulted. at this early date (1020-40). There is here.

therefore. The principal difference between the Romanesque architecture of Spain and France and that of England is that the nave is roofed with a stone barrel vault with transverse ribs. Inside. Isidore. churches. Isidore.Romanesque in Spain 253 age road to the tomb of S. Nazaire. like the Renaissance domes. Norwich and Peterborough have clerestories and timber ceilings over the nave. a peculiar feature is the carrying of ribs up the sides of the drum and at across the dome itself. so that it should appear satisfactory from the inside as well as from the outside. Leon. and above this an outer shell. but throughout Aragon.. or lantern. Santiago and Salamanca. This involved two domes an inner dome set on a drum. Semin. which is identical in plan.vaulted naves with The most remarkable evidence of similarity. whereas Ely. and there is no clerestory . The cimborio is a domical structure designed. ornamented externally with curious crocketed ridges. of the same diameter but of a steeper pitch. however. Carcassonne. Navarre and Castille there are innumerable minor churches which follow the same tradition. ment all found Salamanca (PL is to be Tonx. octagonal lanterns. and French offerings financed the major building operations. has the atmosphere of a crypt. a burial place for kings. which adjoins the slightly The Panteon from the beginning was later church of S.. James at Santiago. It is unusually heavy in design and. Something similar in outside appearance is to be found in Auvergne. and is From the outside it appears like a great stone much richer in effect than the simple. S. though these have not yet been fully recorded. as at Santiago and Toulouse. Zamora. The earliest examples of the fully-developed are to be seen in the vicinity of Leon. be found in the Cathedral of Santiago. Here was Romanesque built in 1063 the Panteon de los Reyes. proportions and general design to the Church of S. Further. quadrant barrel vaults over the aisles. low. which are usual in Lombardy. and many Provencal is Most of the churches have either side of the Pyrenees is not. The . mitre. in place of the English and Norman central tower there is ' in Spain the cimborio '. The most important monuments of the style are to be found at Leon. to Toulouse. with insignificant pyramidal tiled roofs. That there should be an identity of style on surprising. though above ground. Plasencia and This arrangethe finest of 22). barrel. and terminate in three apses in the manner of S. but it was in Spain that it was developed into a feature of outstanding importance.

this was probably an afterthought. was totally destroyed by the Moors who. and cusped arches lead to lower barrel-vaulted The nave of six bays has a clerestory immediately transepts. 1 It was here that the relics of the Apostle James were discovered in In 997 this 835. To these men is ascribed the general design of the church. respected chapel the sacred relics. or Robert. for it was not until 1188 that work was completed at the west end. apsidal and is surrounded by an ambulatory with radiating chapels that is to say. but was certainly completed cross with aisles. ing. and a small chapel was erected to enshrine them. which was at that time a feature unknown in Spain. Building operations seem to have been very slow. that of a Latin plan by 1149. the nave barrel vault continues without a break to the east end. with aisles to the transepts and apsidal chapels projecting on their eastern walls. and probable that Robert was a Frenchman. It was the end of a great pilgrimage road. After the reconquest by Bermudo III. The erection of the present cathedral was begun in 1078 by command of Bishop Diego Pelaez and under the charge of Bernard the Elder and Rotbertus. and there is no doubt that its inspiration was French and not Spanish. above the arcade. for during recent restorations traces of old vaulting capitals were discovered at a lower level. It is possible that Bernard was a Spaniard. and a headquarters for the Crusade against Islam. with richly-decorated capitals supporting groined vaults covered with exquisite twelfthcentury paintings. which is roofed with a quadrant barrel vault. Byzantine and Romanesque columns are low and squat monoliths. however. is no dome or cimborio over the crossbut there is The Instead. the roads were improved and pilgrims flocked to the shrine. the church is Romanesque throughout. . and not until 1211 that the cathedral was consecrated. Santiago became the focus of all the art and chivalry of western Christendom. The nave is barrel-vaulted. original Santiago (PL 22). The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela marks the culmination of eleventh-century architecture in Spain. The plan is cruciform. The church is east of the Panteon and to one side of the it main axis. and The Sanctuary is though without a clerestory there is a spacious. a chevet.254 Early Christian. well-lit triforium 1 The most magnificent record of this cathedral is provided in The Early History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela y by Professor Conantj 1926. The date of its foundation is doubtful. Apart from the choir which has replaced the central apse.

which is dated 1188 and is the work of Master Mateo. 1 the high-water mark The Cathedral of Santiago provided the prototype for other cathedrals in the district. however. Alongside are the Evangelists and twenty-four Elders of the Apocalypse. This is the Portico de la Gloria. * :? *- ^ : : I I : : . to I in. " 4c*f*4 i :' .* _*.. Scale 100 ft. and faint traces still remain. more than fifteen feet high. which exhibits some of the finest Romanesque sculpture in Spain. draped with almost classical refinement. At Lugo and Tiiy there are the same banded barrel-vaulted naves.* ****** . it consists of three doorways whose ordered sides are lined with columns resting on the backs of Over the central doorway is a great figure of prostrate monsters. Behind this western portal* architect.. these sculptures represent of Romanesque endeavour. Toro and 1 There is a cast of these in the South Kensington Museum. Farther south.I*. there still remains part of the original front.* + * " 4: *~ f[ After Conant. They are highly formal figures with elongated limbs. . groined-vaulted aisles and quadrantvaulted triforiums. King and Judge. Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. . at Salamanca. Originally they were coloured. In fact. Altogether.*"* + **.. and the western a tremendous tour de force of the Spanish Baroque Ferdinando Casas y Novoa. Christ. .*. The dome facade is over the crossing High Renaissance.Romanesque in Spain 255 Very little of the original cathedral can is be seen from the outside.

and French. Thereafter. the architecture of Spain was Gothic. the French Gothic style had totally supplanted the Romanesque. At Toledo in 1227.256 distinctive Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque Zamora. seven years after the foundation of Amiens and Salisbury. the tri-apsidal plan prevailed. teenth century French importations overwhelmed such features as mark might be considered original and national... . and the cimborio was the But by the beginning of the thirfor a time.

which provides the source from which the bulk of the present chapter is drawn. but it should be borne in mind that because warfare is an international activity. and little more than that. Many were simple wooden There is. but is limited to France and is The A more concerned with later mediaeval developments. only one field shelters. and in England two or three must assume that the homes remnants of stone-built houses. by M. Rome. trans. Town halls. The same applies to Charlemagne's palace at Aix-la-ChapeHe. Paris and London. There is. of the vast majority of people in the West were crudely-built affairs involving little of the skill and ingenuity which was so evident in church architecture. and there can be no doubt that the most important architectural achievements in Europe over the period from A JX 300 to 1200 were concerned with the Christian Church. with a few notable exceptions such as Constantinople. This in the architecture related to the art of war in the building of 1 protective walls. In France there are a few bridges. manor houses and the like all belong to a later period. features which occurred in one country were more or less duplicated elsewhere. : principal conditions in the design of fortifications are to provide protection against the missiles of the enemy and to create obstacles to prevent an enemy from reaching the defences. The earliest fortifications consisted of a wall. that this chapter appears rather parochial. guild halls. of activity outside the Church in which architectural designers We is seem to have found opportunities to exercise their virtuosity. very little remains. It may be. in fact. Macdermott 3 i86o a provides a useful introduction. Viollet-le-Duc's Essay on the Military Architecture of the Middle Ages. castles and fortified dwellings. as a result. Of the general run of domestic building of the period. however ^ a large amount of material available on English fortified buildings from the earliest times. there were very few towns of any size.CHAPTER XVIII SECULAR ARCHITECTURE far in this volume we have been concerned exclusively with So religious buildings . or a rampart of earth 1 general history of the art of fortification in Europe from Roman to Romanesque times has yet to be written. Of the great palace at Constantinople only written records remain to furnish evidence of its character. Indeed. 2 S7 Iliy .

were built in the sixth century and not breached by an enemy when Mohammed II.258 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque topped by a wooden palisade. This landward side was the most obvious for attack. First there was a moat.000 Turks . The walls were enough to provide a platform for the defenders. A how these conditions were description of the walls of satisfied in the The city of Constantinople lies on a promontory roughly triangular in plan3 two sides being bounded by water and THE COUNTRY JH Section through land walls of Constantinople. with an army of 160. Scale 100 ft. reinforced with 35-foot towers which projected to provide cross fire should an enemy reach the base. and here the main defences were constructed. It was also a necessity that the besieged should be able to protect their defensive screen in the event of the enemy's overcoming the ditch. the third. and strengthened by 6o-foot towers. The sight of these defences was enough to deter the Goths and the Huns. 40 feet high. while at the same time providing safe viewpoints. All these conditions must be borne in mind when considering any system of fortification constructed before the invention of gunpowder. the base. being the land connection with Europe. a wall 25 feet high. Constantinople indicates grandest manner. Sixty feet inside this was a second line. This was the first line of defence. The outer face was carried up a few feet above the platform and crenellated thick to give protection against arrows and other projectiles. Fifty feet farther in was a second and greater wall. and an advantage if the besieged could conduct their defence from a higher level than that of the enemy. with a moat or ditch in front to keep the enemy at a distance. which could be filled when required. a buttressed walled channel 30 feet deep and 61 feet across. Byzantine Fortifications (PL 23). They until 1453. to i in.

attacked the city walls with the aid of huge stone cannon balls. near Dieppe (1040) and the White Tower of London. As in so many things. which was begun in 1078. The Castle. became a wide hazard which kept the enemy at such a distance that it was nearly : impossible to reach the wall with a battering-ram. are prototypes . many of the characteristic features of Byzantine fortifica- tion were quickly adopted by the Crusaders in the citadels they built in the Holy Land and in the castles they built at home. A castle may be defined as a self-contained fortress intended for the purpose of residence and defence and. commanding a river crossing or guarding a pass or valley. Although the First Crusade (1095) coincided with the beginning of the great period of castle building in western Europe. when Edward the Confessor invited certain Norman knights to defend Herefordshire against the Welsh.000. normally. so it would seem that the West was not initially influenced by Byzantine models. description of such a castle A . the Eastern Empire had kept alive the art of fortification long enough for the rest of the world to learn afresh what had been lost during the Dark Ages. These would provide accommodation and were often rectangular in plan and reinforced by square towers which projected boldly at the corners and on either side of the entrance. Nevertheless. and most of the principal works were undertaken by Justinian in the sixth century. appears in England shortly before the Norman Conquest.Secular Architecture 259 against a garrison of only 8. for the Chateau d'Arques. isolated citadels for a garrison. The word * castle' (casteT) as the stronghold of a feudal lord. and (3) the development of machicolations which would allow for the dropping of missiles upon the heads of the enemy at the base of the wall. The sight of these citadels or castles may have inspired some of the returning Crusaders to follow the lead of Byzantium and establish in the West similar structures for themselves.. (2) the introduction of towers at intervals along the curtain wall to allow for cross fire. These features were all developed in the West in the twelfth century. : were built. The most important of these features were (i) the development of the moat which. we cannot assume that the idea of castles came from the East. In the countryside another method of defence was adopted at strategic points. instead of being a narrow ditch. The defensive wall was the normal method of fortification for the great cities of the Byzantine Empire.

being much given to feuds and bloodshed fortify themselves. Castles of this type were quite England in the eleventh century.Morthen.le . and only six or seven were masonry structures. T. wherefor the warlike and courageous. At first these castles were of the simplest sort. were simply earthen mounds with timber palisades and a wooden citadel at the top. mound existed. a mound as high as they are able and dig round it as They heap round the summit of the mound they broad a ditch as they can construct a palisade of timber to act as a wall . palisade they erect a house. and partly because the newly-erected mound could scarcely be expected to withstand the load of a stone structure.' 1 This moated mound is called the motte. and it is unlikely that stone was used for either the dwelling or the surrounding This was partly because of the time necessary to fortification. . stone might be used. and in addition there was usually a base court. to I in.' In the arts of war. . which looks down on the whole neighbourhood. though withstand their enemies. 'There was practically no forYorks.en . 1884. or rather a citadel. inside the . Up to 1 100. That the subjection of England by William the Conqueror was partly due to this innovation is evident from the reAfter Clark.260 is Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque given in Ada Sanctorum : 'The rich and noble of that region . attached to the motte and also moated and palisaded to provide the first line of defence. or bailey. but this w$s Ninety per cent of the original castles in England exceptional. proved too feeble to English. marks of Orderic Vitalis. who said Laughton . London. . Clark. . as in the arts of Scale 200 ft. Of Where a natural 1 Quoted by G. . tresses such as the French call in : new castella in the land. . religion. to accommodate the garrison. This was of kidney shape. at least eighty-five castles had been constructed. Motte and bailey fortifications. . build in stone. Mediaeval Military Architecture. the advent of William the Conqueror was to revolutionise the English scene. but they had already existed in France as early as the ninth.

typical. Examples of this type are at Berkeley. Once the pacification of England had been accomplished. Folkestone. according to Violletle-Duc. The perishable nature of timber and its liability to destruction by fire made it suitable only as a temporary fortification.Secular Architecture these the most important surviving are the Colchester. In Essex the River Colne was protected at Colchester and Hedingham. were the first people in western Europe to build castles as part of a general scheme of defence. and the former castle is one of the largest and the latter one of the most beautifully preserved of all the Norman keeps. there are Norman keeps of the first rank. Tomes. Richmond. on the other hand. The outer line of defence was the River Wye from Chepstow to . Along the south-east coast of England castles were placed at all convenient landing places at Hastings. plateau. practical needs made it essential to construct strong-points so quickly after the Invasion that William had to permit his followers to erect castles which became hereditary. The Normans. The midland counties. the countryside was thickly studded with castles. inside there was room for small subsidiary buildings. Saltwood. Pevensey. producing what is known This consisted of a ring of masonry round the as a 'shell' keep. The Bedfordshire has not a single example. Geographical Distribution. Hedingham and Rochester are This provided a much more compact form of stronghold. As soon as possible it would be replaced by stone. Bamborough and Norham. The alternative was a high. and 261 Tower of London. and at Newcastleupon-Tyne. This system was introduced into England by the Conqueror. etc. being a safe distance from the seaboard. the Welsh border became the most important area of military activity. Romgreat highway which leads from Dover through and Rochester to London was defended by Norman Canterbury keeps at each of these centres. and although theoretically the building of castles was a prerogative of the Crown. in On the Scottish borders. Dover. had relatively few castles. They were sited alongside nearly all the larger communities to overawe the populace simultaneously to threaten and protect. sey. Carlisle. Appleby and Brough. of which the Tower of London. a concession which his successors had occasion to regret. rectangular tower of masonry. The early castles should not be regarded as isolated fortresses but as units sited according to a carefully thought-out plan. Launceston and Usk. Yorks (PL 23). Northumberland and Cumberland.

would be unsuitable The more precipitous the sides for a town but ideal for a castle. Norwich and Newcastle were exceptions. A steep hill. The defences of a town. the sites could be chosen purely for their natural strength.. Many of the sites were of necessity low-lying or on flat ground. of Bristol. This was not necessarily a disadvantage. on the other hand. 1 1 Even with the invention of gunpowder at the close of the Middle Ages. as at Richmond. which vehicles of any kind would find difficult. . since an extensive plain reduced the danger of surprise attack and made possible the provision of wet moats and elaborate water defences which made mining operations by the enemy impracticable. Yorks. Barnard Castle. the castle would be castle should dominate the town. and if necessary the height was increased by artificial earthworks to ensure that the As a rule. of a hill. such was the case at Bristol and Shrewsbury. and Shrewsbury. With the development of fortification is there was a progressive improvement in the art of siegecraft. the castle would be built at the isthmus so that it protected the town from hostile approach by land. Worcester. When a site was fixed because of the existence of a town. and north to Ludlow on the Teme. located upon the line of enceinte and not within the town itself. and numerous smaller castles stood along the riverside between Shotwich and Shockleach. The inner line of defence was formed by the Severn and the Dee on or near the Severn were the castles . Hereford and Chepstow. Bridgnorth was the great Palatine castle of Chester. The invention of the atom bomb appears to have reversed the position. which was seldom along strategic lines. Berkeley. Technique of War. and throughout the mediaeval period defensive methods seem to have been in advance of those of There were three dangers which the feudal lord had to attack. had to follow the natural growth of the settlement. but in these cases the town walls were built later. the more perfect the defences of the castle. Some understanding of methods of warfare necessary if we are to appreciate the significance of the castle as a piece of functional design. If the river made a bend so that it almost encircled the town. the castle was generally placed at the highest or most exposed position. tions Castles offered one distinctive advantage over other fortifica: because they were built primarily as strongholds. When the town stood on a river the castle would be placed on the bank.262 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque Monmouth and Hereford. this situation did not alter for a long time. The one was a consequence of the other. on the Dee Gloucester.

Yorkshire |S2S lIQ^S^i >^' - ^^ r .The walls of Constantinople Richmond Castle.

banqueting hall . Essex. Tower of London Castle Hedingham.S.John's Chapel.

there only remained the blockade. The shell keep on its lofty mound was almost equally impregnable. which would be adopted if the site conditions allowed. This method was adopted at Rochester in 1215. Against the third. This theoretically should have been to the advantage of the attackers . Another method of attack. Alternatively.Secular ArcMtecture fear in 263 These were surprise attack. with the result that the ground was soon fouled and men swept off by sickness. Mining . two the massive stone keep. they had their own well and therefore a water supply. No practically. first Ms Against the could pick off the defenders as they appeared behind the battlements. with its almost solid basement storey and its well-guarded entrance some 15 or 20 feet above ground level. army could or disease. a degree of security was afforded by the complex arrangement of passages and stairways within the castle itself. All the advantages seemed to rest with the defenders. and finally setting these beams alight so that when they burned the wall would collapse. under the Feudal System. Castles were provisioned for at least six months . however. which could throw stone projectiles with considerable force against the walls. was mining. blockade did not often succeed. This meant tunnelling underground to the foundations of the wall. Failing direct assault. when one angle of the keep was completely destroyed. All these methods were used. To counter the advantage of the elevated position of the defenders. as high or higher than the defences. To capture a castle. these were mounted on wheels and could be run up against the castle walls. large timber towers were constructed.. an enemy had to be equipped not only with bowmen who castle. was well protected. fire and treachery. . the ram was a most important and useful weapon. It was almost impossible. This was a huge beam which was suspended by chains from a long. but seldom successfully. A siege kept an army stationary. but also with heavy pieces of equipment such as the mangonel and trebuchet. stay long without heavy losses by famine or desertion Nor was it easy over a long period to prevent the beleaguered garrison from making contact with friends outside. roofed-in timber structure. and which could be swung backwards and forwards by a team of men to batter a selected point of the wall until a breach was made. to keep an army in the field for as long as six months Only mercenaries could be expected to stay at their posts for so long. removing the masonry above after supporting it by timber shores. if the walls could be reached.

bretasches or hourdes were constructed. pestilence . These were projecting galleries of timber which were built on the top of the wall and supported by wooden struts. the parapet wall projecting a couple of feet and being supported on corbels with openings between. To prevent an enemy from reaching and scaling a wall. if the site permitted. so that any passive. Against the ram. which provided a welldesigned and secure dwelling-place for the feudal baron. and sometimes they were placed at a strategic point on the curtain wall. which made the western armies aware of the more scientific forms of fortification in the Byzantine world. and the advantage of an elevated situation. and unsavoury. as at Kenilworth and Corfe. and attempts. The most compact form Castles with Rectangular Keeps (PL 23) of stronghold was the rectangular keep. this had the effect of forcing capitulation. at the end of the twelfth century. it would seem from the absence of remains. In France these bretasches were common. machicolations which were much the same but constructed entirely of stone. Sometimes they stood free. . but the stone walls and the keep itself were fairly At one siege barrels of sewage were thrown to breed safe. As a rule such keeps were built on the firm ground of a bailey rather than on an artificial motte.264 Early Christian. were made with hooks to catch the beam itself. In Romanesque times this may not have mattered much. effective sortie was difficult. In England some forty-seven Norman rectangular keeps remain. The means of defence were many. First in importance were the strength of masonry. but. methods were occasionally adopted. as at London and Canterbury. but other. bags of sand or wool were lowered to act as buffers. From them there developed. often successful. which we have already described. Byzantine and Romanesque was possibly the most effective form of attack. The weakness of the Norman castle was that it was purely It could contain only a small garrison. They were . Barrels of burning pitch thrown into the bailey could wreak havoc on the timber shelters which provided accommodation for men and livestock. power of the weapons This revision was largely the result of the Crusades. and the rectangular keep did not provide for strong protective flanking fire. From holes in the floor missiles could be dropped and boiling liquids poured on anyone foolhardy enough to attempt to scale the wall.. but in the thirteenth century the whole system had to be revised because of the increased efficiency of methods of attack and the greater that were used. less so in England.

. by a diaphragm arch. The earliest rectangular stone fortress * in England was the White Tower of London. which often was accessible at each floor so that water could be drawn up easily to different levels. in the White Tower. sleeping-chambers or oratories. triforium gallery. 1 At London. John is a fullyambufledged church. smaller rooms which served as garderobes. ' Tower of London (PL 24). above this. instead there is a detached ward. construction ofwhich began at the command of William the Conqueror in 1078 . the first floor to the The entrance was modation was available for private apartments at first floor level and usually protected by a fore-building. complete with vaulted aisles. there was always a well within the keep. unglazed and fitted with wooden shutters. it was in 1087. accom- ground floor to stores. the administrative headquarters and the bedroom of the retainers. and as a protection the walls were carried high above to form a screen. the hall was generally the largest room.and dining-room. as at Hedingham. When. thereby halving the span of the limber floor above. time the principal living. where larger windows could be provided with some security. . and many the thickness of the walls were winding staircases. starting at ground level with 20 feet or more and diminishing a little by internal offsets to give a bearing for the timber floors. or bailey. The roof was a very vulnerable object of attack from burning missiles. The walls were enormously thick. It was so large that it was sometimes divided. or at least an oratory. always Upstairs. he first established a camp at that point which is now the site of the Tower and constructed there a ditch and a palisade. the Chapel of S. probably almost completed at the time of his death crossed the Thames. Lastly.. and generally a good deal higher than their width. with deep window It was at one and the same recesses and one or more fireplaces. Ludlow is an exception in having no latory and a barrel-vaulted nave.Secular Architecture 265 always nearly square in plan. No original roof remains. Windows were mere slits. the Conqueror proceeded to occupy having the city. and ornamentation was limited to the pilaster buttresses and the treatment of doors and windows. circular chapel in the chapel within the keep . Externally they were usually very simple. The general planning arrangement was to devote the guardrooms. There was generally on this floor a small chapel. and the second floor to the hall and public apartments . In it one can 1 Within usually find the characteristic decoration of the period. and this was the most enriched part of the building.

half-round apse. . and the Chapel of S. if necessary. the with- drawing room or solar. and a third chamber with an apsidal end which is the crypt of the chapel. complete Norman chapel in Britain and. The walls rise 90 feet from the ground floor to the crest of the battlements and diminish from 15 feet to 12 feet in thickness. 92 feet by 37 feet. They are built of nibble. of eleventh-century archiIt is the most T Tower Aft&r aark ' f London: A of T second-floor plan. It is 55 feet long and 31 feet wide. 68 feet by 30 feet. to i in. John. 42 feet in diameter. it aisles the triforium is also barrel-vaulted. John is one of the least altered examples tecture in this country. Over the Scale 100 ft. as probably did the great hall. floor contains the great hall. with ashlar dressings at the corners and in the construction of the pilasters. its walls i t j were probably painted or hung with .266 Early Christian^ Byzantine and Romanesque site The had been carefully chosen on the eastern boundary of the city wall. The chapel rises from this level the full height of the keep. the eastern windows were filled with stained glass and the chapel with various ornaments. leads to the ground n floor and the upper floors. with a comer and a bold. rectangular. three which are all similarly divided into The second main compartments . protected by a fore-building. They were Castles with Shell Keeps. which are the sole ornamentation. tapestry. a smaller hall. The staircase on the north-eastern corner. The aisles have groined vaults and the nave a barrel vault. projecting on the east wall. terminating in a semi-dome. 107 feet round stair-turret at the north-east by 118 feet. As the name implies. where a castle could not only protect and overawe but. with a nave 14 feet 6 inches wide and aisles which are continued round the apse to form an ambulatory. although architecturally plain. effectively cut off trade between the city and the Continent. keeps of this type were mere rings of stonework open on the inside. and access to a large hall. The Chapel of S. The keep is ings called the the only part of that composite collection of buildTower of London which can be attributed to the It is eleventh century. i i and in the thirteenth century. was recorded. The entrance was probably on the from there one had first floor. feet in diameter.

and these are all in a most country. this is because they were less solid than the rectangular keeps. beyond. as at Arundel. The entrance was by a wooden bridge over the point. and because other means of defence were in Romanesque times. Clark 1 enumerates some 119 in this but only 40 actually remain. imperfect condition . circle of timber sheds against the ring wall and. and then by steps up the mound to a simple door At York there was in the wall. then Scale 200 ft. There was originally a second ditch around the base of the motte. the stone provided a useful quarry.and on the edge of the platform. but this was unusual. often 12 feet thick. at some a well. but this has been i Mediaeval Military Architecture. 1884.. ditch at the foot. the wall of the bailey. were by far the most usual form of fortification in western Europe built G. they were generally circular or oval in form . The shell keep was never intended for residence. .. T. the mound lying within the town. in effect.. stone replacements of the timber palisades on top of the mottes. an imposing gatehouse incorporated in the shell. for the construction of which. Like the palisades. but only as a At most there citadel or refuge after the capture of the bailey. After Toy. pro- tected by a wide moat.Secular Architecture 267 invariably connected with earlier earthworks and were. Totnes. 20 to 40 feet high and from 30 to 100 feet in diameter. would have to breach the town wall. The walls of the connect bailey with the town walL An attacking force Shell Keep. devised in the later mediaeval period. to the north-west of the town. Lincoln and Totnes would be a . and the bailey. The is is ar- rangement at Totnes in Devon The site typical. to I in. before making a final assault on the citadel. Totnes. These rings of masonry.

268 filled in. These walled enclosures were for long the only defensive works of these cities. In France Autun. too. Leicester and Gloucester. Nor in western Europe were there any great defences in depth and magnitude comparable with the land walls of Constantinople. Early Christian. Oxford and Stafford. up to 6 feet thick. There is nothing in England to compare with Carcassonne. At most there would be a ditch and a wall 20 or 30 feet high. At the time when the barbarians invaded Gaul and Britain. To the north and within its own mural enclosure is the citadel. at the same time. The English city is essentially an organic structure which. Auxerre. strengthened by small rectangular towers and interrupted at two or three points by imposing gatehouses. Beyond this is a great shell keep. many of the towns preserved their Roman fortifications. It is true that in England these walls did not compare in size or dignity with similar fortifications in France or Italy. The building of a wall around was a much earlier method of defence than the castle. and many towns like Exeter. for obvious reasons. In- deed. Byzantine and Romanesque On top of the motte is the shell keep. However. which already had at least a ditch and a limber palisade to protect them. and a much more popular one. These protected the communities not only from outside invasion but also from the often hated 'protector' in The wall around the town was a constant reminder of his castle. Two stairways are built in the thickness of the wall and a small doorway leads by an a settlement to give access to the parapet walk. which was built in the eleventh or twelfth century. there are only five cities in England which retain really . by nearly a mile in circumference. protected at frequent intervals towers having embrasures at different levels. in nearly every case. which commanded the banks of the River Aude and provided. Walled Towns. They consist of a double line of ramparts. a final refuge and a point from which sorties could be made by the garrison upon the besiegers. the majority of towns received their mural defences only after the Normans came. Poitiers and Bordeaux retained their Roman defences. having an internal diameter of 70 feet and consisting of a wall about 7 feet'thick and 15 feet high. which retained their Roman walls. at the time of the Conquest there were still towns like Chester. the rights of the burgesses and their community of interests. Hereford. has grown through the centuries far beyond the restrictive Romanesque girdle. But of these Norman walls little survives. internal passage to a latrine. In England. Cahors. The most impressive aie at Carcassonne.

or . Their circuit is a little over two-and-a-half .Secular Architecture 269 After Violkt-le-DtK. York has been particularly fortunate in preserving its four principal gatehouses. Chichester. Roman predecessors but are mediaeval. The building of walls like those at York and Southampton * must have been considerable undertakings. K. Carcassonne. Southampton and Chepstow. At Southampton the remains are chiefly Norman. They were seldom less than 6 feet thick and always incorporated a rampart walk. Shell Keep. Market. These are York. Chester. occupying both sides of the River Ouse and enclosing an On the area which was only exceeded by mediaeval London. Chepstow is entirely fourteenth century. which are all of Norman foundation though encased and remodelled by later mediaeval work. and at Chester and Chichester the walls follow the line of their extensive mural defences. KEY C. The defences of York are the noblest and most perfect of their kind in England. and on the south connected with the defences of the shell keep on the banks of the Ouse. M. miles. north side the wall followed the line of the Roman city and init corporated the Roman multangular tower'. Castle.

There are so few remains of Norman houses that it is difficult to form an accurate picture of the domestic building of The castle and the church would seem to be the the Act granting special privileges to those who built in stone. In the Lmcs. was probably used for storage. one at Lincoln and the other at Bury St. At intervals towers projected to of the curtain wall. entered from the street. without architectural distinction. tortuous nature of these was an unusual and valuable early lanes . J . Scale soft.. the houses of the prosperous Jews in the twelfth century. it would seem to have had little result. there is twelfth-century stone house which marks the first stage in the . Outside were the open fields. to allow for easy communication along and the country was sharply The distinction between the town the wall. an upper . for in an age when glass such twists ensured useful windbreaks j at the same commodity. one. No doubt the result was picturesque in the extreme. poorer have been little more than timber and clay ppppq^i. and although in 1189 the first Mayor of London introduced the first Building period. limits of architectural endeavour in the more labyrinthine the street pattern. inside. above. by West. none remains. Edmunds. at Boothby Pagnall. roofed with thatch and providing in one room accommodation for the household and domestic animals. Byzantine and Romanesque allure^ protected A provide for flanking fire and the protection free of the wall on the passageway. 66 feet by 35 feetj with a ribbed-vaulted ground floor or undercroft. Nowhere is there comfort equal to that of any indication of a standard of domestic Roman Britain. It is rectangular. Tr H-I "1 i in. Both have two rooms .i^iniiiiiimpj 1 I shelters. time. Of They can citizens. and another. but there was good reason for the twisting. evolution of the English manor house. There are only two stone-built houses which can give us any idea of what a Norman town house may have been like. the pomoerium y was always kept its length. and inside the defined churches. We must assume that the vast majority of people lived in wooden-built homes which have not survived. Houses. The shape of the congestion of small dwellings and the streets were dictated by the lie of the town and the direction of land. the it by a parapet. nrsi-noor pian. to country.270 Early Christian. was the living Both these houses belonged to quarters and had a fireplace. the more confusing would be to an enemy who had breached the walls. r .

the only dignified apartment. wooden or skin shutters. but would be provided with floor. for defensive The hall was reasons. From such a simple arrangement of rooms the greater mediaeval manor house plan developed. and at the far end there was a second chamber the solar. or private retiring room.Secular Architecture floor reached 271 by outside stone lit space. There was no Internal communication between the undercroft and the hall on the first The windows were not glazed. the openings were mere slits In the wall. a large dormitory steps. and over this. within the roof at the gable ends. It had a fireplace on one side connecting with a large chimney.. and on the ground floor. The entrance was probably screened by partitions. .

272 DALTON. J. An Outline of European Architecture. PEVSNER. KOLDEWEY AND PucKSTElN. 1901. Christian Art and Archeology. 4 vols. A History of Architecture of All Countries. 1904. A. The Byzantine Achievement. by R. 2 vols 1913. Mediaeval Art. UArt de Bdtir chez les Byzantins. LOWRIE. A Short Critical History of Architecture. JACKSON. DAVIES. GENERAL . 8th edition. 1896. 1948. Manuel d*Art Byzantin. W. 1911. 1933. Die Griechischen Tempel in Unteritalien und Sicilien. SIR BANISTER. The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt. Byzantine Architecture and Decoration. CATTANEO. Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture. EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE (Chapters I-III) BUTLER. FLETCHER. R. JVi. 1865-77. 2 vols. FERGUSSON. 1925-6. Roma Sotterranea. DIEHL. 2 vols. 1929. edited J. VIIe The Origin and Development of Early Christian Archi1952. 1884. 1893. Spiers. R. R. . STATHAM. DE Rossi. W. Phene 1927. A. G. T. Architecture in Italy from the Vlth to the Xlth Centuries. LETHABY. 1864-77. J. East Christian Art. Syrie Centrale: Architecture Civile et Religieuse du Ier au Siecle. DE VoGlM. . R. 1925. 1928. BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE (Chapters IV-VII) BUXTON. W.REFERENCES The following list of books indicates the principal works referred to and the sources of many of the illustrations. CLAPHAM. H. . CHOISY. Ecclesiastical Architecture in Russia. D. 3 HUBSCH. 1929-30. NIKOLAUS. Romanesque Architecture in Western Europe. A. 3rd edition. tecture. 2 vols. 1 883 Byzantine Art and Archeology. Monuments de I Architecture Chretienne depuis Constantin jwqu'a Charlemagne. A. J. C. 1866. H. BYRON. A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. G. HAMILTON. 1936. HEATHCOTE. O.

Bis XII. Braunholtz. PORTER. 1854. A. 1894. 1912. Architecture Religieuse Russe du XIe Siecle au LOUKOMSKI. E. 3 vols. W. Monuments de Pise au Moyen Age. ROHAULT. M. DE FLEURY. D. NORMANDY AND ENGLAND (Chapter XV) CLAPHAM. Altchristliche Baudenkmdle von Constantinopel worn V. Luke of Stiris in Phocis. Rush2 vols. G. Lombardic Architecture. Brick and Marble Architecture in North Italy. and BARNSLEY.References 273 W. T. Architecture East and West. Russian Art. 1917. PUGIN. Arkitekturens Formsprdk. Romanesque Architecture in England after the Con- 1934. 1929. forth. by G. STREET. S. Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland. C. 1925. Trans. R. MACGIBBON. C. Aihos and its Monasteries. T. Ricci. F. and Ross. Byzantine Churches in Constantinople. Byzantine Art. A. T. SPIERS^ R. RIVOIRA. G. Neuss. H. and PULLAN. Lombard Architecture. GERMANY (Chapter XIII) LUNDBERG. Kunst der Alien Christen. R. VAN. XVII* Siede. H. KINGSLEY. 1828. 2 vols. A History of Architecture in Italy. A. 1874. Origin of Christian Church Art. 1910. III8 . ]. The Monastery of S. T. K. J. 1 90 1 . M. 1896-7. 195 1 . 1864. 1924. English Romanesque Architecture before the Conquest. Byzantine Architecture. U SALZENBERG. Jahrhundert. and SWAINSON. W. LETHABY. STRZYGOWSKI. Constantinople. 1866. of Sancta Sophia. W. McN. A. by O. C. E. STEWART^ CECIL. A. G. 1930. W. W. Architectural Antiquities of Normandy. 1905. The Church HASLUCK. RICE. P. Byzantine Legacy* 1947. R. W. Romanesque Architecture in Italy. 1949. 1901. quest. ANGLO-SAXON ENGLAND (Chapter XIV) CLAPHAM. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE ITALY (Chapter XII) CUMMINGS. RICE. MiLLiNGEN 5 A. Trans. 1926. TEXIER. SCHULTZ. 1935. 1923. TALBOT. PHN. Dalton and H.

a History of Fortifications. C. LLOYD. 1918. W. MARKHAM. H. 1926. Mediaeval Military Architecture. TOY. N. K. iL Romanesque France. DE LASTEYRIE. G. QUENNELL. R. 1884. Spanish Romanesque Architecture. L*Architecture Religieuse en France a Fepoque Romane. 1930. J. C. A History of Everyday 1939. M. and M. V. 1926. CLARK. . OMAN. T. Castles.274 References FRANCE (Chapter XVI) BAUM. Romanesque Architecture in France* 1928. I. SPAIN (Chapter XVII) The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of J. 1941. WHITEHILL. 1929. 1929. SECULAR ARCHITECTURE (Chapter XVIII) CONANT. Vol. Castles. A History of the English House. Santiago de Compostela. B. S. 2nd ed. Things in England.

). raised pulpit commonly found in Early ChrisAmbo. Apse. Basilica. Annulet. See Vaulting. Architrave. Bema. Atrium. Ashlar. Baptistery.. Arcade. A canopy carried on four columns. building containing a baptismal font. A series of arches carried on columns or piers. generally placed over the principal tomb in a church. the exposed face of which is of squared and Abacus. The Sanctuary. Baldachino. or area generally raised above the level of the nave. separated from the church. work. Stone walling. The parts on either side of the nave of a church or basilica whose interior is divided by columns or piers. generally square or rectangular in plan and in Romanesque work often moulded. Ambulatory. religious establishment governed by an abbot. or Ambon. The forecourt of a church. from which the Epistles and Gospels were read. Battlements. Aisles. in Early Christian architecture. an aisled church with a long nave terminating in an apse. The aisle which surrounds the apse of a church at the eastern end. The moulded face of an arch. A A A A finished construction. In Early Christian architecture. tian churches. generally lower and narrower than the nave. ring around the shaft of a column. having a series of embrasures. parapet.ARCHITECTURAL GLOSSARY Note This glossary is limited to words and terms used in this volume : only. Bailey. also called Crenellations. Barrel Vault. either attached to or independent of a wall.) A A 275 .*>. The lowest division of the entablature (#. In Byzantine churches it is entirely screened from sight by the iconostasis (#. Batter. The slightly inclined face of a wall. especially in Early Christian The fortified open courtyard of a feudal castle. ArcMvolt. The top member of the capital of a column. spanning horizontally between columns. which is reserved for the clergy in Early Christian and Byzantine churches. Abbey. semi-circular or multangular termination of the chancel.

Campanile. Cushion Capital. Clerestory. church. capital common in Romanesque work. Cosmati. See Vaulting. In Spanish Romanesque architecture.) block of stone.276 Billet* Architectural Glossary of the characteristic Norman ornamental motifs. distinguished chiefly by its capital. A Corinthian Order. Clustered Pier. which Corbel. ment of acanthus leaves. Curtain Wall. 188. The entablature Cathedral. or Boltel. the lower portion of which is rounded off to meet a circular shaft. Centering. timber which Chancel. The name of a family of marble workers in Rome during the I2th and 13th centuries. Diaphragm Arch. which accommodates clergy and choir. The eastern portion of a church which accommodates the singers. A moulding of concave quarter-round. Cavetto.. That portion of the nave of a church which rises above the aisle roof and is pierced by windows. (See p.}. the ambulatory and radiating chapels. the cupola or rises from the roof immediately above the crossing. Cupola. 155. A bell tower of Italian design. Chevet. One of the five Orders of classical architecture. usually at the eastern end. Capital. projecting from a wall and acting as a supporting bracket. See Battlements. The crowning member of an entablature (#. A pier composed of a number of shafts or angles.v. or Clearstory. (See p. Bowtell.). A small domed turret built over the roof.) aisle A arch normally spanning a nave or having a wall over it.) Crenellation. An and . lantern CImborio. In Norman architecture. Domical Vault. conof short cylinders or square sections at regular intervals. A church which A framework in accommodates the Bishop's Throne. having an approximately cubical form. a form of rounded sisting One moulding. or profile. generally separated from a top feature of a column between the shaft and the (q. usually a is Cathedra. The wall between towers or bastions in defensive works. (See p.#. used in arch and vault construction to provide support until the mortar is set. which is formed by an arrange- Cornice. The rounded eastern termination of a Romanesque church which includes the chancel. often elaborately carved. 166. That portion of a church. Choir.

which carries capital in order to Drum. the ribs. One of the five Orders of classical architecture. Keep. See Vaulting. Flying Buttress. resting upon a sculptured (See p. A deep block with sloping sides. Also used to refer to any long hori- zontal decorative part of a design at a high level. Dorter. distinguished chiefly by the spiral volutes in the capital. The dining-hall of a monastic establishment. Mural painting applied to plaster which is still wet. Entablature. The arris formed at the intersection of vaulting surfaces. The vertical wall. or Cross Vault. usually consisting of a quadrant arch springing from an independent pier to the wall of the nave of a church. the masonry of the vault between Infilling. The stone in a wall from which an arch springs. Herringbone Masonry. The spacing between columns. Jamb. a screen covered with paintdivides the Sanctuary from the main body of the church. The upright side of a door or window opening. . . ings which In Byzantine architecture. The outer line or enclosures of a fortress. to resist the thrust of the nave vault. Intercolumniation.Architectural Glossary 277 in a monastery. The outer curve or boundary of the face of an arch. or Refectory. The soffit or underside of an arch. Frieze. a dome. The horizontal division of an entablature (q&.) circular or polygonal in plan. In Romanesque work. Bricks or stones laid diagonally in courses to form a zig-zag pattern. Haunch. Fresco. Extrados. dome or vault between the crown or apex and the springing. Groin. Ionic Order. The very slight convex curvature added to the taper of the shaft of a column. Intersecting Vault. A structure of masonry. Dormitory. Entasis. usually a tower detached from but surrounded by other defences. or Dosseret.) between the architrave and the cornice. frieze and cornice.Sleeping accommodation support an arch above. 56. The strongest part of a Norman castle. Enceinte. Frater. comprising architrave. The upper horizontal parts of an Order of architecture. Intrados. Iconostasis. That portion of an arch. Impost Block.

Plinth.278 Architectural Glossary Label. Long and Short Work. The concave. Motte. A low triangular gable above an entablature at the ends of a roof. different thicknesses. steep mound of early Norman castles. religious order The group of buildings designed for the members of a monks or nuns. as distinct from a column. Moat. The projecting base of a building or pier. Paterae. See Vaulting. provided for penitents. together patterns. Quoins. 153. Niche. a projecting moulding over the head of an arched opening to throw off rain. A type of mosaic floor in which large slabs of marble are used together with smaller tesserae to form ornamental and capital. In Romanesque archieach ring of an arch which consists of several rings of tecture. Machicolations. signifies a column with base with the entablature. In Classical architecture. the laying of dressed stones alternately flat and upright at the corners of a wall. Order. A Pendentive. Phiale. a porch or vestibule at the entrance to a church. Pilaster. triangular. not necessarily filled with water. A Narthex. A semi-circular recess in a waU. "(Seep.) especially in classical temples. supported on corbels between which missiles could be dropped on an enemy. curved piece of masonry by means of which a circular dome can be carried over a square or octagonal space. A Quadripartite Vault. lobes. driven into the ground close together. 50. Any more or less isolated vertical mass of masonry. The . Pier. The holy well in front of a church in a Byzantine monastery. Monastery. shallow engaged pier with a flat face. In Early Christian and Byzantine architecture. and consisting of stakes Palisade. A range of columns surrounding the exterior of a building* (See p. which was dug around fortified works. Stonework forming a projecting parapet. Quatrefoil. Nave. Peristyle.) fence enclosing a fortified place. A geometrical pattern consisting of four attached circular corner stones of a building. In Saxon architecture. A ditch. The central and chief division of a church. Opus Alexandrinum. Small flat circular ornaments on a panel or frieze. especially in Early Christian churches. In Romanesque architecture. from which arches spring in an arcade. Pediment.

zontal surface used especially at the junction of the plinth and the wall over and on buttresses. Squinch. church. Any material like plaster used as a wall covering. 50. Soffit. Triumphal Arch.. the space between the arcade and the clerestory. A series of arches across the angles of a square to form an The term upon which a dome may be set. An arch spanning at right angles to the main walls of a church. The roughly triangular space between two adjoining arches. (See p. the great archway spanning the end of the nave in front of the Sanctuary. Transverse arch. Sexpartite Vault. room in or near a church. In Romanesque architecture. Masonry not laid in regular courses. A medium for mural decoration consisting of water-colour with some binding substance. milk. In Romanesque architecture. Tracery. lobes. 166. and composed of stones of varying sizes. connected with the atrium-. The See Vaulting. the slab or piece of which fills the space enclosed by an arch over the lintel walling of a doorway or window. In Early Christian architecture. vault or dome rises. Ornamental stonework in window openings. such as egg. In Romanesque work. Stilted. Tablinum. Trefoil.\ having the plain faces cut into a series of (See p. Rubble. a development of the cushion capital (q. Springing.v.Architectural Glossary 279 Rampart. A The place which accommodates the principal altar of a Scalloped Capital. Tympanum. Stones of irregular shapes and sizes. a room. .. Spandrel. which accommodated the family altar. Tempera. Sanctuary. The stone or earth wall surrounding a fortress. reserved for vestments and Sacristy. inferior to fresco. Stucco. or Offset.) Severy. the sloping horiSet-off.) applied when the springing of an arch is octagon raised higher than is normal. undersurface of an arch or lintel. gum. One bay or compartment of a vaulted structure. Random Rubble. convex lobes. Ribbed Vault. sacred vessels. A geometrical pattern consisting of three attached circular Triforium. In Romanesque architecture.. etc. generally applied to external work. The horizontal level from which an arch. In Roman houses. See Vaulting.

barrel vaults at right angles. the sculptured moulding short. (See p. 165.) Voussoir. 164.) rests Zig-Zag. Sexpartite Vault. In Romanesque architecture. The simplest type of vault. sharp turns. 143. arch. or Groined Vault. 145. (See p. also called Intersecting. A vault framed with ribs which carry (See p.) of . (See p.. Arched covering in stone or brick. concave. (See p. Cross. 144. A vault divided into four parts.. Generally used over square bays and formed by the intersection of two equal Domical Vault. a large circular window with radiating mullions in the pattern of a wheel. Barrel Vault. Architectural Glossary A vaulted roonx. also called Chevron. which In roof construction the continuous horizontal member on a wall and carries the ends of the rafters. infilling.) Quadripartite Vault. and covering a rectangular space. 139. usually of semi-circular section.) vault the apex or ridge of which A is not level but light panel (See p. Vaulting. A quadripartite vault which is further divided by means of a transverse rib 3 thereby resulting in a vault of six parts. generally in a monastery and often underground.) Ribbed Vault.280 Undercroft. In Romanesque architecture. One of the wedge-shaped stones used in the structure of an Wall Plate. Wheel Window.

63 S. 211. 73 3 77 Parthenon. 212. 7 in. 241 Arundel. 242 Avebury. 268 Abbaye-aux-Dames. 261. 79 Athens. 145. i64n. 242 Avalon. i64n Bologna. 210 Basse CEuvre. 1 1. 95. S. 207. 117. 97. 237. 149. 36. 244. 136 Brioude. 216. 227. 270 Bordeaux. 79 Small Cathedral. Aix-la-Chapelle. 42.INDEX OF BUILDINGS AND PLACES Illustrations in heavy type Cathedral. 143. 6. 262 Barton-on-Huirfber. 262 Bernay. Tomaso. 267 Asti. 226. 204 Trophime. 215-17. 121. Georges. 99. 96. 268 Boscherville. 242^ 243. Etienne. 127. I99> 212. near Daphni. 262 Brindisi. Caen. 194 Angers Cathedral. 239 281 . 78. 121. 156. Bergamo. 7in. Nicolo. i64n Omorphi Ecclesia. 118 Beaune. 165 Amiens. i6in Abernethy. 261 Barcelona. 164. Caen. 133 Bonn. 209 Brechin. Mount. 215. 120 Bewcastle. 37 Aceranza. 171 Abou Sargah. 127. Beauvais. 247 La Trinite. 103 Bradford-on-Avon. 132. 62. S. 243. 217 Bemeuil. 128 Athens. 185 Aries. 2o8n. S. 212. 7 in. 245. tower. 228 Nicodemus. 100 Lavra. 27. Sotiros. 228 15. 217. 214. 245 Auxerre. Bibury. Giovanni al Sepolcro. Abbaye-aux-Hommes. 13 S. 171 Brescia. 133. 190. 213. PL 21. 122. 245. 245 Beauvais. 197 Boothby Pagnall. 228 Bernieres-sur-Mer. 133> *94> Barnard Castle. 236 Bari. tower. 134 Athos. 102 Bridgnorth. 127 Agde. 15 PL 12. 101 Russico. 241 Abbaye Bamborough. 140. 80. I45> 246-7 Angouleme. 168. 245 S. 210 189-91. Autun. 173. 268 PL 233 d' Ardennes. 102 Iveron. 125 Alliante. 208. 81 Aosta. S. 246. 39. 136 Berkeley. Albi. 100-2 Chilandari 3 102 Dochiariou. near. 78 Bosham. 97. 238. 118 Cathedral. 115 Appleby. 228. 245 Ani. 174. 96 Beverley. 188. 239 Barnack. PL 8. 1453 149. Cairo. 213-15. 60. 178. 113 Barfreston. 261 Arezzo. PL 20. i64n Avignon. 226. 178 Adel. 117. 182. 140 Basse CEuvre. 256 Andernach. 227. S. 103 Bozra. 217. 227. 208.

201. 38 Dair-as-Suriane. 193 Cerisy-la-Fdret. Mount Athos. 17. 87. 207. 99. 217. 4. 231. 226. 262. 49. 219 Castelvetrano. 237. 213. 7in. 199. 220. 238. 227. PL 15. 134 S. 33. 136 Chartres. 259 Chepstow. 50. N-D-du-Port. 150. 47. 60. 222 Cathedral. 64. Abou Sargah. near Milan. Mary 235 S. PL 13. 165. 24on. 60. 216. I28n. 264 Castle. 7in. 208. 175. 85. 226. 149. 6. 258 Corfe. 121 Chaqua. Benet. 41 Charroux. Sergius Bacchus. 2 Capella Palatina. 202 Como. 215. 245 Cluny. 36. Irene.282 Bristol Index of Buildings and Places Chichester Cathedral. 261. 245 Chateau d'Arques. 212. 205 Cahors. 125. 229. 237. 209 Denderah. 72. 31. 73> 75> 84. 21315. 132 Buildwas. 127. 56. 37n. 264 ' Cathedral. loin PL 6. 98. 102 Chester Castle. 121. 66-72. 136. 224. 228 Clermont-Ferrand. 173. Theotokos Pammakaristos. 224. Vincent. 78 92 Castle Acre Priory. 218. 60. near Dieppe. 218 Fortifications. 76. 174. near Athens. 145. 76. 66. of the Mongols. 238. 225. 237 Abbaye-aux-Dames. 173. 156. 213. 268 Cathedral. 85 Walls. 1 60. 19.67 Sancta Sophia. Durham. Cambridge S. 261 Cathedral. 122. 174. Abbodonio. 261 PL Cologne. 241. 228. 262 Dover. 73. 59. 268. 127. Mary. 208 S. 191. Capella Greca. Dairbaramous. 127 Deerhurst Odda's Chapel. 269 Chiaravalle. 165. 43n. PI. PI. 125. 59. see Constantinople Christ Church. Sepulchre. 217. Saviour. 238. 70. 37 Daphni. 142. 243. 95. 94 S. 124. 228 S. 261 Buckfast Abbey. 227. i64n S. 228. 120. 90. 227. 227. 230-3. Rome. 122. I94> *95*> I99> 20On. 2o6n. 253 Cardona. 226 Christchurch Priory. 123. 215-17. PL u. Mount Athos. S. 48. 55. PL 23. PL 5. 68. see under place names Cefalu. 170 Chilandari. 226. Oxford. PL 18 Cathedrals. 61. 269 Bury St. 125 Dunfermline. 218 Jew's House. 222. 98. 75 S. 218. Trinita di Delia. 252 Carlisle 65. S. 269 Dareth. 36. 237 Caen. 244. Nazaire. 270 Byzantium. i. 91 Carcassonne. 96. 104 SS. 214. 150. 120. 76. 35 S. 212. 175. 149. 233 Conques. 152. Palermo. 218. 207 Drubech. 145. 248 Cairo. 222. 57. John Studeion. 54. 37 Holy Apostles. 262 Cathedral. 99. Castle. 240 Constantinople. 218 Brough. 105. 227 Citeaux. 36 Dijon. Edmunds Abbey. S. 127. 245 . 205 Saviour Pantepoptes. 63. 123. Martin. 174 Abbaye-aux-Hommes. 152 228 Fortifications. S. 218. 75. 106 Canterbury Castle. 6. 125. 269 S. 102 Dunham Magna. 243 Dochiariou. 7. 268. 244 Colchester. 168. I59n. 5. 164x1 PL 16. 77 Theodore.

7on Kilpeck. S. 205 Hastings. I09n. 40-1 Ezra.Index of Buildings and Places Earls Barton. 1 6. 32. Rome. 104 Holy Sepulchre. 173. 174 226. 85. PL 24. 49 Sancta Sophia. 16. 138. 101 Laughton-en4e~Morthen. 226 Jerusalem. 234 Greenstead. 264. 261 Fontevrault. 239. 197 Holy Apostles. 265n. in. 218. 262 Bartholomew. 270 Little Maplestead. 225. 219. 186. 227 Cathedral. 205. PL 24. Mary Magdalene. 67. Paul's (Renaissance). 158. 152. PL 19. 227. 222 Lucca. 136. 226* 227. 127 Lavra. 208. 127 PL 18. Salonika. Hereford Castle. 211. 262 Cathedral. 186. 235 Jumleges. 265 Loches. I58n Gloucester Castle. 230. PI. PL 6. Furness. 222 Kenilworth. 121. 135. 26sn S. Florence. 255 Lund. La Piccola Cuba. 261 Cathedral. 239n Lichfield. 268 267 Grado. Ely. 206 Exeter Cathedral. 268 Le Mans. 146. 39. 122. 219 Licinian Basilica. 38. S. 234 Kirkwall. 147. Holy Apostles. 63 Fiesole. Jerusalem. 228 Fortifications. 261 Leicester. 152 London S. S. 244 Laach. 31. 124. 174* *95n> 196. 235n Tower of. 219. 240 Iveron. 62. 49 Germigny-les-Pres. 264 Kiev. Constantinople. 221. 182. 234 235 Issoire. Smithfield. 227. 95. 94 59. 188. 240. 97 Fontfroide. 217.228. 219. Ours. 187 Cathedral. 158. Church Holy 253 Escomb. 262. 96. 125. 168. 265. 174^ 219. 43. Miniato. 152 S. 183. 225. 237n. 121. 234 Llandaff.224. 232 Kalat Seman. 13. 176 Kelso. 43. 222. Loggia del Bigallo. 130. 253-4 Le Puy. 42. 120. 10 Lieges. 241 Fountains Abbey. PL 17. 81 Baptistery. Palermo. 211. I2on. I49n. 259. in. 268 Simeon StyHtes. 260 Launceston. S. 187 Florence. 100 Lugo. 219 Le6n. 113 Great Maplestead. 230 Jew's House. Mount Athos. 247 Loggia del Bigallo. S. 43n. 187 Folkestone. Sepulchre. 229 Fortifications. Genoa. 223 Hedingham.226. i54n.227. 236. 197 Laon. 235n Little Munden. Badia. 245 Leominster. 185 Ludlow Castle. 217. 202 . John's Chapel. Isidoro. 266 Westminster Abbey. Lincoln Castle. 58 Granada. outside Burgos. 7on 219-20 Temple Church. 225 Fortifications. Hildesheim. 219. 261. 268 19511. 261. 224. 134. 63 S. Michael. Paul's (Romanesque). 224. PL 9> 125. I54n. 222-3 129. 207. 266 S. 92 Las Huelgas. 210 283 of the Jedburgh. 228. 149. 183. 135^ 235 Iffley. 97> I9*> 238. 115. 174. Mount Athos.

140. 127 continued Mausoleum of Galla Ravenna. Maria de Naranco. 245 Notre-Dame. Norwich Castle. 32. 129. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 61. 49 S. Mary of the Admiral (Martorana). 229. Athens. 82. 127. 82 Noyon. 127. 124. i46n Odda's Chapel. 193 Montier-en-Der. Rome. i63n. 135. 16. 104-6 Church of the Pantanassa. 115. Denis. 136 Parma. Etienne. 220. 140-1. S. PL 17. 124. 245 S. Basil. 96 Mtinster. Saviour.284 Index of Buildings and Places Norwich Placidia. 129 Novgorod. 105. 7on Paray-le-Monial. 120. 8. 89. John of the Hermits. 45. 177 Melbourne. 227 Maulbronn. 208 Old Shoreham. 191-3 La Piccola Cuba. 211. 9i Pantanassa. 41. 93 Ottmarsheim. 105. Nicholas. N-D-du-Port. 124. 12. 245 Parenzo. PL 18. 261 Notre-Dame. 91 Cathedral. 225. 41 S.D. 2345 235 Messina. 239. 43n. Croix. S. 16. Clermont-Ferrand. 104 Milan. near Palermo. 268 Padua. 251 Cathedral. de Nantilly. 154. 133 Ouistreham. 174 Moscow. PLy. 228. 150. 1963 Mazzone. 188 Capella Palatina. Saumur. 90 S. 103 S. 227. Stephen. 31. 226 Fortifications. 241 Orleansville. 138 Nocera. 4. 198. Paris. 92 S. Church of the. 181 182 262 Pembroke. 146. 35 Paris Monamvasia. PL 103 Orange. Lorenzo. 90. 44n Norham. 235 Olympia. 235 S. 104 Monkwearmouth. PL 19. Derby. I79> 232. I95n. 99. 92. Anthony. 238. S. 206 Monmouth. 178. Nereditsa. S. Sepulchre. 234. 253 N. 191. 117. 223. 106 Peribleptos. Malmesbury. 92. 83. 91. 169. 13 Patrixbourne. 49 S. 92 S. 226 . 220. Vicenzo in Prato. 199 156. 222. 176. 106 Pantheon. 243. 192. 250 Oxford Christ Church. 176 S. 8. 149. 121. 7in. Cataldo. 262 New Shoreham. 230. 234. Baths of Diana. Deerhurst. 226. Mistra. 152. near Athens. 178 69n Orvieto. 91 S. 224. 125 Nevers. PI. 241 Mayence (Mainz). 177. 105 Moccas. Satiro. 7 in. 62 Cathedral. 144. S. I48n 233 Northampton. 39. 123. n8n Montmajour. 202 S. 183 Mistra. 262 Monreale. Temple. 15. I48n Novara. 149n. 59. 136. 66. 84 Mouthiers. PI. Ambrogio. 223. Michele. 30n. 125. 156. 149. PI. Parthenon. PL 10. Eustorgio. 123. 217. 104 S. 170. 261. 178-80. 241 Morienval. S. 164 Pavia. 90 Palermo. 3on. 61 Mausoleum of Theodoric. 57n Omorphi Ecclesia. S. 197. 128 146. Baarlam. 238. 83 Sancta Sophia. 217 Oviedo. 235 Molfetta. Ravenna. 57n Meteora. 115. 29. 149 Nimes.

251. PL 10. 20. 228. 18. in.Index of Buildings and Places Peribleptos. 65. 30. 128 S. 226 S. 133 29. Costanza. Prassede. 117. PL 4. PL n. PL 7. 227 S. 61 Capella Greca. 228 S. 125. 17. Peter ad Vincula y 20 S. I59n. 220. Lorenzo. 61 Mausoleum of Theodoric. 224. Yorks. Pompeii. 59. 5. 176.23. 177 Pisa. 15. 19. 42. 19. Mark. 75. 140 Ravello. 69 Baths of Gallienus. 149. 169 35^253 155 Plasencia. Anthony. 174 Cathedral. 94. 2 S. 17. 17. 164. 183 Baptistery. 20. 45. 19. 204. 89. 7in S. 173. 123. 94. 2 S. 17. 41. 148 S. 17. 79 Piacenza. 10 Temple of Venus and Rome. 16. Remi. 188 S. 29. 20. 128 Qemente. Pudenziana. 189 Ravenna. 148 113. 172 in. 121. 42. 59. 25. 81. 17. Radegonde. near Be*ziers. 251 Baptistery of Constantine. 261. 20. S. 187 S. Apollinare in Classe. 7on. 16. 155. 220 Rochester Castle. Albans. 102 Ruthwell. 10 253 Pevensey. 176. Apollinare S. 9. 92. 149115 i62n. 44. 30. 133 Romsey Abbey Church. 32. Mount Athos. 12. 253 Poitiers. 6i s 62 S. 18.. 52. 125 Baths of Diocletian. S. 18. Front. Ambrogio. Luke of Stiris. Pis. S. 156. 220. 10. 90 . 221. 16. Paul Outside the Walls. 26. Agnese. 96 S.69. Padua. 2 PL 17. 4. 261 Rossano. 20. Rome. 144. 188 Temple near Porta Maggiore. Cathedral. Peter's (Renaissance). 44. 35. PL 9. 239. 24. 160. 15. I49n Richmond. Mistra. in. 39. S. 220. S. 69 Basilica of Constantine. Etieime. 17. 226. 148 S. 177. 232^ Catacombs. 33. 45. Agnese. 140. John and Paul. 158. 188. 135. 252 Ripon. 1 88. 185 268 Maria in Trastevere. 3. 224. Peter's (Early Christian). 59. John Lateran. 261 Phocis. 155n Russico. 18 PL Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. Castle. Callistus. SS. 173 22-4. 18 S. 7on S. 25-6. 140-1. 179. in Cosmedin. 154. 44. 232. 7in Quimperle. 237 S. Leaning tower. 2. Sotere. 263 Abbodonio. 187. 227. 186 Pistoja. 245 S. 19. 69. Stephano Rotondo. Como. 15. PL I. 204 S. 22. Rheims 56. 20 Maria Maggiore. 16. 78. 41. PL 17. 205 S. 225. PL n. S. 44. PL 4. S. Milan. 220 Ripoll. 28. 12. 261. 26. 93 Roueiha. 35. 203. n. Rome. I55n. 18. inn. 44. 227. 12. 19. 262 Rievaulx. 220. 69. 18. 43 PL 2. I09n. 17. I49n.226 S. Jean. 27. 173. 6. 229 PL 23. 247 Polignac. 105 285 Rome continued Perigueux. 245. 222. 22. Pantheon. 26 Tomb of S. 219. 28-9. Cathedral. 148 San Vitale. 171. 2 & 4. 26. 229. S. 22. 178-80. 19 S. 17. 35. 129. 15. 17. 2 Licinian Basilica. 44. 18. i. 127. 211. 170. Maria 19. 32. 183-5. i2n Puissalicon. 169. 5. . Sabina. 107. 95. 21. 224. 17. 11. 226. 171. 33. 18. 70. 9* Peterborough. 2263 227. 19. 23 8n 117. i29n Nuovo. 27. 181. 184.

202 Lorenzo. 202 London (Romanesque). 35. 15. S. 94. 186. 30. Paraskevi. 238. 191. Satiro. Venice. 69. Michael. 42. Le6n. London (Renaissance). 19. Pudenziana. Maria in Cosmedin. 19. S. Rome. 33. Rossano. S. 245. Qemente. 178. Salonika. 86. 7. 27. Beauvais. Peter's. 149n. Caliistus. 18. 26. PL S. Dmitri. 155 15. PL Giovanni al 20. S. 91 S. Lucca. 22. Pis. 189-91. S. 56. n. u. 90. Tomb 45> 69. 265n. 7on. 226 S. 119. 39. S. Deerhurst. 125. Irene. 138. 241. 107. 104 S. Ban. PL 24. 2 S. 83. 2. Riquier (Somme). Ravenna. 129. 182. 56 S. Phocis. Hildesheim. 155. 239 S. PL S. Rome. Palermo. 4. 169 . Constantinople. Moscow. 250 Maria in Capitolio. 266 John Studeion. 16. PI. 35 14 Lorenzo. 85-9. 148 Luke of Stiris. Tournus. Perigueux. 187 Carcassonne. 244 S. Rome. 4. Salonika. 79 Maria de Naranco. Nicholas. 6& in S. 243. 117. 121. Etienne. Milan. 115. PL 19. Constantinople. S. Rheims. 16. i63n. Paris. Georges. 78. 242. Etienne. Pavia. 70n John Lateran. 207. 17. Rome. 198. PL 9. 74. 143. Rome. 135 Martin. 42. 84 S. 245. Tours. 66. 217. Gall. 125. 146-7. 16. Rome. 75 I09n. 79 S. George. S. Benet. 59 S. Rome. 19 S. Martin. Rome.. Bartholomew. 19. Rome. 235 I95n. PL 2. Ludlow. 190. 90 S. 205 Martin de Londres. loin S. 52. 17. in. 12. Cologne. Loches. Meteora. Vladimir. Palermo. 34 S. S. 236. 34. loin 125. 142 S. 241 S. 117. PL 96 S. 2 S. 17. 19. 44. 241 Sepolcro. 18 Radegonde. Baarlam. 247 S. Paul's. Cambridge. Paul's. 45. Basil. 20 S. 44. 24. 20 Maria Maggiore. S. 199. 43. Saumur. ApoiHnare Maria in Trastevere. 48. John's Chapel. S. I. Elias. 188. Miniato. 29. 209 Mary of the Admiral (Martorana). 17. Etienne. PL 13. 59. Rome. 18. 28. 293 30. Poitiers. 197 S. 20. 20. 8. Nuovo. 121. Nazaire. 73. 183. 208. S. Michele. PL 21. Salonika. 94. 253-4 S. 53. 20. S. Fosca. S. Front. Nicolo. Constantinople. Peter's. Mary Palermo. 240. Rome (Renaissance). Cataldo.253 S. 41. John of the Hermits. Rome. Rome (Early Christian). . Oviedo. 91 of the Mongols. 17. 238. 185 S. 35> 125. 23. 16. S. Jean. 148 S. 20. ApoiHnare In Classe. 187 S. 188 S. Eustorgio. Mary Magdalene. Poitiers. 227. 18. 135. 27. Michele. 227 & Mark. 25. 2o6n. Ours. Normandy. Milan. 152. 118-20. 123 S. 78. Costanza. 176 197 PL ' S. 201. 239n S. 178. 188. Canterbury. 227. 164 S. S. Nicodemus. 7 in Loup. PL 3. Denis. Demetrius. 94. i64n S. Torcello. Sabina. Tower of London. Isidore. 18 S. S. Mark's. Croix. Montmajour. Athens. Perigueux. 32. Mary. S. Pierre. 95. 92 S. 92* 93 7. 90 . 90. Salonika. 117.286 Index of Buildings and Places S. 233 8 S. 60. 22. 91. 219-20 S. 95. 17. 165 S. Boscherville. Smithfield. 123. 59. Nevers. 41. Brindisi. 247 Remi. 30. Monamvasia. 17. S. 247 S. Ravenna. 35. Rome. 182 S. 136 Paul Outside the Walls. 128 S. 195n. I49n S. 140. 96 158. 226 S. Peter ad Vincula. Prassede. i?> 19. 17. Milan. 22-4. Florence. 181. 228 S. Rome. 25-6. 133 S. 20. 104 S. 115. S. Gilies. Philibert. of. Avit Senieur. Pis.

85 Sancta Sophia. *35 S. 261. 230 Spalato (Split). 229. 43n. S. 96 43 S. 261 Sancta Sophia. 73. 30. 36. 34 Temple Church. 18. 177 90 Toro. Kiev. 255 Toulouse. 221 Southwell. 48. 165. 59. Syracuse. Zeno. 228. Toulouse. Constantinople. 74 Sannazzaro. Tomaso. PL 5. PL 3. 96 Southampton. 34. 92 Sukavita. 253. PL 14. 15> 29. 76. 228. 240. 267. 241 S. 41 217 S. 247 S. 75. S. 64. 180-1. Sergius and Bacchus. 68. PL 22. Tafkha. 16. 47 67 Theodore. 106 S. 242 Sessa. 174. Milan. 82. 268 . Cardona. Simeon Stylites.D. lorn S. 37n. Fosca. 235 S. 136. PL n. 104 S. 154. 226. 6. PL 21. 56. Rome. Sompting. Sotere. Saviour. Toledo. Demetrius. Semur. 35. 43n. 1 88 Seville. Kalat Seman. 243 Sens. Constantinople. Sernin. Normandy. 140 Solignac. 129 PL 14 172 n. 45. 65. Sotiros. Rome. 39. Saturnin (Auvergne). 124. Normandy. 73. 177 SS. S. 123 S. 113 Northampton. La Cattolica. PL n. 256 Salonika. S. Sernin. 243. Verona. Pierre. 14 Wandrille. 2 S. 237. Sancta Sophia. 30. I95> *97> *9^ 199 Stafford. 66-72. Aries. PL 22. 5. 123. 242 S. Constantinople. 238. 49 241 Vicenzo in Prato.Index of Buildings and Places S. 156. PL 14. 232 Salamanca. 177. Salonika. Tournus. 30. Rome. 60. Ravenna. Cambridge. 81 Sancta Sophia. 15411. 31. 249 3 253. 59 S. 77 Holy Apostles. 57. 136. 76. PL 13. Stephano Rotondo. 254. 27. Vincent. John and Paul. 268 Stewkley. 146-7. 63 Campanile. near Athens. Nereditsa. S. 103 S. 39> 4o-i S. Elias. 70. 188 SS. 123 Totnes. Theotokos Pammakaristos. 238. PL Cathedral. 227. Paraskevi. 99. Sepulchre. Stephen. % Novgorod. Novgorod. 17030. Vicenza. 59. Martin. 56 S. Speyer (Speier). Verona. Constantinople. 221 Shrewsbury. near Milan. 253 S. Stephano. 230 Thaon. 65. 198. 226. 219. 287 PL 6. 63. 242. 244 Tours. 30. 129. 39 Tournai. 256 Torcello. 122 Sherborne. 177. 178 S. 134 S. 1363 Saumur N. 221. de NantiUy. Constantinople. Saviour Pantepoptes. 136 Trophime. 133 Saulieu. 61. 252 S. 234 Stilo. 73. 240. 124. 240. 82 Sancta Sophia. 56. 226. near Bergamo. 242. 6. 35. 74 Saltwood. S. 55. Meteora. London. PL 20. 2o6n Soissons. PL 18. 38. 253 Tourmenin. 43n. 255 San Vitale. 13. 262 Siena. 113. Saviour. I74s 2I Souiilac. 183 Silchester. 104 S. Philibert. 43. 30. 245. George. PL 6. 50. 224. S. 253. 76. 226. 170* I75> 221. 255 Salisbury. Constantinople. 269 Southwark. 77 Sepulchre. Felice and Fortunate. 235n Tewkesbury. 202 S. 191. Santiago de Corapostela. 31. 123. 228. 104 SS. 98. 42. I7on. 229.

154.288 Irani Index of Buildings and Places Vladimir. Wells. PL 13. Zeno. 185. 227. 92 Treves (Trier). 53> 5<5> 59= 74. Angers.48. 180-1. 86. 167. 190. 238 Church of the Immaculati. 269 Madonna. 226. 194. 240. 242-3 Vicenza. 6 7. 94. 189 Tuy. 141. 256 Zara. !O9n. Voronet.. 188. 158 Worcester Castle. 5. 262 Worms. Stephano. 122 S. Dmitri. 169 S. 253. 49. I45s 246-7 Troja. 197 . I95n> 197* I 9 8 3 2(X>5 Waltham Abbey. 115. 16 Zurich. 222. 143. 222. 191. 173 York Fortifications. La. 197. 97. 177. 244 Wing. 6. 222 Winchester. 232. 98. 41. 230. 126. 232 Ver-siir-Mer. 2o6n Usk. PL n. 211. 120. 172 S. 156. 211. SS. 95. 222 Minster. PL 14 Vezelay. I28n. 1233 124 Yatton Keynell. 173. 84. 168. 267. 85-9. 221 165 247n TrinitadiDelia^Castelvetrano^PLii. Vienne. 175. 173 Venice. 198. Mark's. 121. PL Worthj 207 Campanile. Pis. 1 1 1 & Cathedral. 178. 189. Felice and Fortunate. 121. 230 12. Normandy. 255 Westminster Abbey. 173 Vignory. 129. 92 Trinite. 224. 90. S. 228. 63. 225. 165. 261 Uzes. I95n. 49 PL 8 Cathedral. 120 Zamora. 199 Verona.




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