Apeirostikìc Logismìc I

€rìqeire™ ƒhmei¸sei™

„m m— w—jhm—tik¸n €—nepist mio ejhn¸n ej n—   PHHW

Perieqìmena
I „o sÔnolo twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n
IFI IFP pusikoÐ —rijmoÐ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFI—þ erq  tou el—qÐstou k—i —rq  th™ ep—gwg ™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFI˜þ hi—iretìtht— F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ‚htoÐ —rijmoÐ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFP—þ ƒ¸m—t— F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFP˜þ hi—tet—gmèn— s¸m—t— F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFPgþ ‚htoÐ —rijmoÐ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F €r—gm—tikoÐ —rijmoÐ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFQ—þ r —rq  th™ plhrìtht—™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFQ˜þ —r—kthrismì™ tou supremum F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ƒunèpeie™ tou —xi¸m—to™ th™ plhrìtht—™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFR—þ 9…p—rxh n ost ™ rÐz—™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFR˜þ erqim dei— idiìtht— F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFRgþ 9…p—rxh —ker—Ðou mèrou™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFRdþ €uknìtht— twn rht¸n k—i twn —rr twn stou™ pr—gm—tikoԙ —rijmoԙ yrismoÐ k—i sum˜olismì™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFS—þ epìluth tim  F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IFS˜þ „o epektet—mèno sÔnolo twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n F F F F F F F F F IFSgþ hi—st m—t— F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F enisìthte™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F B€—rˆrthm—X „omè™ Dedekind F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F esk sei™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ekoloujÐe™ pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n F F F F F ƒÔgklish —kolouji¸n F F F F F F F F F F F PFP—þ yrismì™ tou orÐou F F F F F F F F F PFP˜þ ekoloujÐe™ pou teÐnoun sto ˆpeiro PFPgþ r ˆrnhsh tou orismoÔ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F I I R T T U V IH IH IR IR IR IV IW PH PI PI PP PQ PR PS PV

I

IFQ IFR

IFS

IFT IFU IFV PFI PFP

P ekoloujÐe™ pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n

QS

QS QT QT RH RH

iv · Perieqìmena PFQ PFR PFS 9elge˜r— twn orÐwn F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F f—sikˆ ìri— k—i ˜—sikˆ krit ri— sÔgklish™ F F F F PFR—þ f—sikˆ ìri— F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PFR˜þ urit rio th™ rÐz—™ k—i krit rio tou lìgou ƒÔgklish monìtonwn —kolouji¸n F F F F F F F F F PFS—þ ƒÔgklish monìtonwn —kolouji¸n F F F F F PFS˜þ y —rijmì™ e F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F PFSgþ erq  twn ki˜wtismènwn di—sthmˆtwn F F F PFSdþ en—dromikè™ —koloujÐe™ F F F F F F F F F F esk sei™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ƒun—rt sei™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F €—r—deÐgm—t— pr—gm—tik¸n sun—rt sewn QFP—þ ekoloujÐe™ F F F F F F F F F F F F QFP˜þ €oluwnumikè™ sun—rt sei™ F F F F QFPgþ ‚htè™ sun—rt sei™ F F F F F F F F QFPdþ elge˜rikè™ sun—rt sei™ F F F F F „rigwnometrikè™ sun—rt sei™ F F F F F F ikjetik  sunˆrthsh F F F F F F F F F F F esk sei™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F RI RS RS RT RV RV SH SI SQ SR PFT QFI QFP Q ƒun—rt sei™ TI QFQ QFR QFS RFI TI TR TR TS TS TS TS TU TW R ƒunèqei— k—i ìri— sun—rt sewn RFP RFQ RFR RFS RFT yrismì™ th™ sunèqei—™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F UQ RFI—þ r ˆrnhsh tou orismoÔ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F UR RFI˜þ erq  th™ met—forˆ™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F US RFIgþ ƒunèqei— k—i prˆxei™ met—xÔ sun—rt sewn F F F F F F F F F F F F F F UT RFIdþ ƒunèqei— twn trigwnometrik¸n sun—rt sewn k—i th™ ekjetik ™ sunˆrthshE ™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F UU RFIeþ ƒunèqei— k—i topik  sumperiforˆ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F UW f—sikˆ jewr m—t— gi— suneqeЙ sun—rt sei™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F VH RFP—þ „o je¸rhm— elˆqisth™ k—i mègisth™ tim ™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F VI RFP˜þ „o je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F VP RFPgþ €—r—deÐgm—t— F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F VT RFPdþ if—rmogè™ twn ˜—sik¸n jewrhmˆtwn F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F VT ƒhmeЗ suss¸reush™ k—i memonwmèn— shmeЗ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F VV yrismì™ tou orÐou F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F VW RFR—þ erq  th™ met—forˆ™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F WP RFR˜þ hÔo ˜—sikˆ p—r—deÐgm—t— F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F WQ ƒqèsh orÐou k—i sunèqei—™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F WR ƒunèqei— —ntÐstrofh™ sunˆrthsh™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F WT RFT—þ vog—rijmik  sunˆrthsh F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F WW UQ .

Perieqìmena · v RFU SFI SFP esk sei™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IHH F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F S €—rˆgwgo™ yrismì™ th™ p—r—g¸gou F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F u—nìne™ p—r—g¸gish™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F SFP—þ u—nìn—™ th™ —lusÐd—™ F F F F F F F F F F F F SFP˜þ €—rˆgwgo™ —ntÐstrofh™ sunˆrthsh™F F F F F SFPgþ €—rˆgwgoi —n¸terh™ tˆxh™ F F F F F F F F F SFQ €—rˆgwgo™ ekjetik ™ k—i log—rijmik ™ sunˆrthsh™ SFR entÐstrofe™ trigwnometrikè™ sun—rt sei™ F F F F F SFS urÐsim— shmeЗ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F SFT te¸rhm— wèsh™ „im ™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F SFU eprosdiìriste™ morfè™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F SFV sdiìtht— Darboux gi— thn p—rˆgwgo F F F F F F F F SFW qewmetrik  shm—sЗ th™ deÔterh™ p—r—g¸gou F F F SFW—þ uurtè™ k—i koÐle™ sun—rt sei™ F F F F F F F SFW˜þ esÔmptwte™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F SFIH esk sei™ F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F IHU IHU IHW IIH III IIQ IIQ IIS IIU IPH IPR IPT IPU IPV IQI IQP .

.

Kefˆlaio 1 To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n IFI pusikoÐ —rijmoÐ r —usthr  jemelÐwsh tou sunìlou N = {1. 3. . . .} twn fusik¸n —rijm¸n gÐnet—i mèsw twn —xiwmˆtwn tou PeanoF 9iqont—™ dedomèno to ND mporoÔme n— d¸soume —usthr  k—t—skeu  tou sunìlou Z twn —ker—Ðwn —rijm¸n k—i tou sunìlou Q twn rht¸n —rijm¸nF tewroÔme ìti o —n—gn¸sth™ eÐn—i exoikeiwmèno™ me ti™ prˆxei™ k—i th diˆt—xh st— sÔnoE l— twn fusik¸nD twn —ker—Ðwn k—i twn rht¸n —rijm¸nF ƒe —ut  th sÔntomh p—rˆgr—fo suzhtˆme kˆpoie™ ˜—sikè™ —rqè™ gi— tou™ fusikoԙ —rijmoԙF IFI—þ erq  tou el—qÐstou k—i —rq  th™ ep—gwg ™ erq  tou el—qÐstouF uˆje mh kenì sÔnolo S fusik¸n —rijm¸n èqei elˆqisto stoiqeÐoF hhl—d D upˆrqei a ∈ S me thn idiìtht—X a ≤ b gi— kˆje b ∈ S F r —rq  tou el—qÐstou èqei w™ sunèpei— thn ex ™ prìt—shX te¸rhm— IFIFIF hen mporoÔme n— epilèxoume ˆpeirou™ to pl jo™ fusikoԙ —rijmoԙ oi opoÐoi n— fjÐnoun gnhsÐw™F epìdeixhF e™ upojèsoume ìti upˆrqei mi— tètoi— epilog  fusik¸n —rijm¸nX n1 > n2 > · · · > nk > nk+1 > · · · . 2. epì thn —rq  tou el—qÐstouD to sÔnolo S = {nk : k ∈ N} èqei elˆqisto stoiqeÐoX —utì j— eÐn—i th™ morf ™ nm gi— kˆpoion m ∈ NF 9ymw™D nm+1 < nm k—i nm+1 ∈ S D to opoÐo eÐn—i ˆtopoF 2 .

. u—t—l x—me se ˆtopoD ˆr— to T eÐn—i to kenì sÔnoloF ƒunep¸™D S = NF 2 €—r—t rhshF r —rq  tou el—qÐstou k—i to te¸rhm— IFIFP eÐn—i logikˆ isodÔn—me™ proE tˆsei™F €rosp—j ste n— —podeÐxete thn isodun—mЗ tou™F r —rq  th™ peper—smènh™ ep—gwg ™ m—™ epitrèpei n— —podeiknÔoume ìti kˆpoi— prìt—sh P (n) pou —forˆ tou™ fusikoԙ —rijmoԙ isqÔei gi— kˆje n ∈ NF erkeÐ n— elègxoume ìti h P (1) isqÔei @—ut  eÐn—i h ˜ˆsh th™ ep—gwg ™A k—i n— —podeÐxoume th sunep—gwg  P (k) ⇒ P (k +1) @—utì eÐn—i to ep—gwgikì ˜ m—AF €—r—deÐgm—t— protˆsewn pou —podeiknÔont—i me th {mèjodo th™ m—jhm—tik ™ ep—gwg ™} j— sun—ntˆme se ìlh th diˆrkei— tou m—j m—to™F te¸rhm— IFIFQ @mèjodo™ th™ ep—gwg ™AF 9istw Π(n) mi— @m—jhm—tik A prìt—sh pou ex—rtˆt—i —pì ton fusikì nF en h Π(1) —lhjeÔei k—i gi— kˆje k ∈ N èqoume Π(k) —lhj ™ =⇒ Π(k + 1) —lhj ™ . .2 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n wi— deÔterh sunèpei— th™ —rq ™ tou el—qÐstou eÐn—i h —rq  th™ ep—gwg ™X te¸rhm— IFIFP @—rq  th™ ep—gwg ™AF 9istw S èn— sÔnolo fusik¸n —rijm¸n me ti™ ex ™ idiìthte™X @iA y 1 —n kei sto S F @iiA en k ∈ S tìte k + 1 ∈ S F „ìteD to S t—utÐzet—i me to sÔnolo ìlwn twn fusik¸n —rijm¸nX S = NF epìdeixhF tètoume T = N \ S @to sumpl rwm— tou S A k—i upojètoume ìti to T eÐn—i mh kenìF epì thn —rq  tou el—qÐstouD to T èqei elˆqisto stoiqeÐo to opoÐo sum˜olÐzoume me aF efoÔ 1 ∈ S D —n—gk—stikˆ èqoume a > 1 opìte a − 1 ∈ NF efoÔ o a  t—n to elˆqisto stoiqeÐo tou T D èqoume a − 1 ∈ S F epì thn upìjesh (ii)D a = (a − 1) + 1 ∈ S. .}F 2 . m + 1. tìte h Π(n) —lhjeÔei gi— kˆje fusikì nF epìdeixhF „o sÔnolo S = {n ∈ N : Π(n) —lhj ™} ik—nopoieÐ ti™ upojèsei™ tou tewE r m—to™ IFIFPF 9er—D S = NF eutì shm—Ðnei ìti h Π(n) —lhjeÔei gi— kˆje fusikì nF 2 exÐzei n— —n—fèroume dÔo p—r—ll—gè™ tou tewr m—to™ IFIFPF r —pìdeix  tou™ —f neE t—i s—n ˆskhsh gi— ton —n—gn¸sth @mimhjeÐte thn prohgoÔmenh —pìdeixh   qrhsimopoi ste thn —rq  tou el—qÐstouAF te¸rhm— IFIFRF 9istw m ∈ N k—i èstw S èn— sÔnolo fusik¸n —rijm¸n me ti™ ex ™ idiìthte™X @—A m ∈ S k—i @˜A —n gi— k—poion k ≥ m isqÔei k ∈ S D tìte k + 1 ∈ S F „ìteD S ⊇ {n ∈ N : n ≥ m} = {m.

. FraleighX jèloume n— deÐxoume ìti kˆje fusikì™ —rijmì™ èqei kˆpoi— endi—fèrous— idiìtht— @h opoЗ ton xeqwrÐzei —pì ìlou™ tou™ upìloipou™AF tètoume Π(n) thn prìt—sh {o n èqei kˆpoi— endi—fèrous— idiìtht—} k—i qrhsimopoioÔme th mèjodo th™ ep—gwg ™X r Π(1) —lhjeÔei diìti o 1 eÐn—i o mon—dikì™ fusikì™ —rijmì™ pou isoÔt—i me to tetrˆgE wnì tou @—ut  h idiìtht— eÐn—i endi—fèrous—D —foÔ xeqwrÐzei ton 1 —pì ìlou™ tou™ ˆllou™ fusikoԙ —rijmoԙAF …pojètoume ìti oi Π(1). Π(k) —lhjeÔoun =⇒ Π(k + 1) —lhjeÔeiD tìte h Π(n) —lhjeÔei gi— kˆje fusikì nF r ènnoi— th™ {m—jhm—tik ™ prìt—sh™} eÐn—i ˜e˜—Ðw™ —mfilegìmenhF qi— p—rˆdeigm—D sqoliˆste to ex ™ p—rˆdeigm— —pì to ˜i˜lÐo {iis—gwg  sthn 9elge˜r—} tou J. . . . .1. . . . . 3. . . . k ∈ S tìte k + 1 ∈ S F „ìteD S = NF ssodÔn—m—D èqoume t— ex ™X 2 te¸rhm— IFIFTF 9istw Π(n) mi— prìt—sh pou ex—rtˆt—i —pì ton fusikì nF en h Π(m) —lhjeÔei gi— kˆpoion m ∈ N k—i —n gi— kˆje k ≥ m isqÔei h sunep—gwg  Π(k) —lhjeÔei =⇒ Π(k + 1) —lhjeÔeiD tìte h Π(n) —lhjeÔei gi— kˆje fusikì n ≥ mF te¸rhm— IFIFUF 9istw Π(n) mi— prìt—sh pou ex—rtˆt—i —pì to fusikì nF en h Π(1) —lhjeÔei k—i —n gi— kˆje k ∈ N isqÔei h sunep—gwg  oi Π(1). 1 + 3m + 3m2 < m2 + 3m2 + 3m2 = 7m2 < m · m2 = m3 . Π(k) —lhjeÔounF en h Π(k + 1) den  t—n —lhj ™D tìte o k + 1 j—  t—n o mikrìtero™ fusikì™ —rijmì™ pou den èqei k—mЗ endi—fèrous— idiìtht—D kˆti pou eÐn—i —pì mìno tou polÔ endi—fèronF 9er—D h Π(k + 1) —lhjeÔeiF ƒÔmfwn— me to te¸rhm— IFIFUD h Π(n) —lhjeÔei gi— kˆje n ∈ NF ParadeÐgmataF @—A ixetˆste gi— poiè™ timè™ tou fusikoÔ —rijmoÔ n isqÔei h —nisìtht— 2n > n3 F ƒqìlioF en kˆnete —rketè™ dokimè™ j— peisteÐte ìti h 2n > n3 isqÔei gi— n = 1D den isqÔei gi— n = 2. . . B. . . 9 k—i @mˆllonA isqÔei gi— kˆje n ≥ 10F heÐxte me ep—gwg  @qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ to te¸rhm— IFIFTA ìti h 2n > n3 isqÔei gi— kˆje n ≥ 10X gi— to ep—gwgikì ˜ m— upojètoume ìti h 2m > m3 isqÔei gi— kˆpoion m ≥ 10F „ìteD 2m+1 > 2m3 > (m + 1)3 —n isqÔei h —nisìtht— 9ymw™D —foÔ m ≥ 10D èqoume 1 + 3m + 3m2 < m3 . .1 FusikoÐ arijmoÐ · 3 te¸rhm— IFIFSF 9istw S èn— sÔnolo fusik¸n —rijm¸n me ti™ ex ™ idiìthte™X 1 ∈ S k—i —n 1.

xk . 6 1 + 3 + · · · + (2n − 1) = n2 . . . xk }. . hhl—d D h Π(k + 1) —lhjeÔeiF ƒunep¸™D h Π(n) —lhjeÔei gi— kˆje n ∈ NF 2 IFI˜þ hi—iretìtht— 9istw a. 1 + 2 + ··· + n = ƒqìlioF r —pìdeixh @me th mèjodo th™ ep—gwg ™A den p—rousiˆzei k—mЗ duskolЗ —pì th stigm  pou m—™ dÐnet—i h —pˆnthsh @to dexiì mèlo™AF €rosp—j ste n— ˜reÐte mi— {mèjodo} me thn opoЗ n— grˆfete se {kleist  morf } ìl— t— —jroÐsm—t— th™ morf ™ S(n. „o T èqei k stoiqeЗD opìte èqei 2k uposÔnol—F „¸r—D kˆje uposÔnolo tou S j— perièqei   den j— perièqei to xk+1 F „— uposÔnol— tou S pou den perièqoun to xk+1 eÐn—i —kri˜¸™ t— uposÔnol— tou T D dhl—d  to pl jo™ tou™ eÐn—i 2k F epì thn ˆllh pleurˆD kˆje uposÔnolo tou S pou perièqei to xk+1 prokÔptei —pì kˆpoio uposÔnolo tou T me thn prosj kh tou xk+1 @—ntÐstrof—D kˆje uposÔnolo tou T prokÔptei —pì kˆpoio uposÔnolo tou S pou perièqei to xk+1 me thn —f—Ðresh tou xk+1 AF hhl—d D to pl jo™ twn uposunìlwn tou S pou perièqoun to xk+1 eÐn—i 2k @ìs— eÐn—i t— uposÔnol— tou T AF 9ipet—i ìti to sunolikì pl jo™ twn uposunìlwn tou S eÐn—i 2k + 2k = 2 · 2k = 2k+1 . k) = 1k + 2k + · · · + nk .4 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n @˜A x— deiqjoÔn me ep—gwg  oi t—utìthte™ n(n + 1) . . . @gA heÐxte ìti kˆje sÔnolo S me n stoiqeЗ èqei —kri˜¸™ 2n uposÔnol—F epìdeixhF tèloume n— deÐxoume me ep—gwg  thn prìt—sh Π(n)X en to S èqei n stoiqeЗ tìte to S èqei —kri˜¸™ 2n uposÔnol—F en n = 1 tìte to S eÐn—i monosÔnolo k—i èqei —kri˜¸™ dÔo uposÔnol—D to ∅ k—i to S F ƒunep¸™D h Π(1) —lhjeÔeiF …pojètoume ìti h Π(k) —lhjeÔeiF 9istw S = {x1 . b ∈ ZF vème ìti o a di—ireÐ ton b k—i grˆfoume a | bD —n upˆrqei x ∈ Z ¸ste b = axF ƒe —ut  thn perÐptwsh j— lème ìti o a eÐn—i di—irèth™ tou b   ìti o b eÐn—i poll—plˆsio tou aF . . . 2 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 12 + 22 + · · · + n2 = . . xk+1 } èn— sÔnolo me (k + 1) stoiqeЗF tewroÔme to sÔnolo T = S \ {xk+1 } = {x1 .

ìpou 0 ≤ r1 . r ∈ Z pou ik—nopoioÔn to zhtoÔmenoF tewroÔme to sÔnolo S = {b − as : s ∈ Z} ∩ Z+ twn mh —rnhtik¸n —ker—Ðwn th™ morf ™ b − asF hen eÐn—i dÔskolo n— doÔme ìti to S eÐn—i mh kenìX —n b ≥ 0D tìte b − a · 0 ∈ S F en b < 0D tìte b − ab = (1 − a)b ∈ Z+ F epì thn —rq  tou el—qÐstou to S èqei elˆqisto stoiqeÐoD to opoÐo sum˜olÐzoume me rF epì ton orismì tou S èqoume r ≥ 0 k—i upˆrqei q ∈ Z ¸ste b − aq = rF wènei n— deÐxoume ìti r < aF e™ upojèsoume ìti r ≥ aF „ìteD b − a(q + 1) = b − aq − a = r − a ≥ 0. r ∈ Z ¸ste b = aq + r k—i 0 ≤ r < a. dhl—d D b − a(q + 1) ∈ S F 9ymw™ b − a(q + 1) = r − a < rD to opoÐo eÐn—i ˆtopo —foÔ o r  t—n to elˆqisto stoiqeÐo tou S F epodeiknÔoume t¸r— th mon—dikìtht— twn q k—i rF e™ upojèsoume ìti b = aq1 + r1 = aq2 + r2 . r2 < aF wrЙ periorismì th™ genikìtht—™ upojètoume ìti r1 ≥ r2 @opìte q1 ≤ q2 AF „ìteD r1 − r2 = a(q2 − q1 ).1 FusikoÐ arijmoÐ · 5 te¸rhm— IFIFV @t—utìtht— th™ di—Ðresh™AF …pojètoume ìti a ∈ N k—i b ∈ ZF „ìteD upˆrqoun mon—dikoÐ q.1. . {qewmetrik  —pìdeixh}X 9in—™ —plì™ gewmetrikì™ trìpo™ gi— n— skeftìm—ste thn t—utìthE t— th™ di—Ðresh™ eÐn—i o ex ™X f—nt—zìm—ste mi— eujeЗ pˆnw sthn opoЗ èqoume shmei¸sei me koukÐde™ tou™ —ker—Ðou™F ƒhmei¸noume me pio skoÔre™ koukÐde™ t— poll—plˆsi— tou aF hi—doqikè™ skoÔre™ koukÐde™ èqoun —pìst—sh —kri˜¸™ Ðsh me aF „ìteD èn— —pì t— dÔo sum˜—ÐneiX @iA y —kèr—io™ b pèftei pˆnw se kˆpoi— —pì —utè™ ti™ skoÔre™ koukÐde™D opìte o b eÐn—i poll—plˆsio tou a k—i r = 0F @iiA y —kèr—io™ b ˜rÐsket—i —nˆmes— se dÔo di—doqikè™ skoÔre™ koukÐde™D dhl—d  —nˆmes— se dÔo di—doqikˆ poll—plˆsi— tou aD k—i h —pìst—sh r —nˆmes— ston b k—i to meg—lÔtero poll—plˆsio tou a pou eÐn—i mikrìtero —pì ton b eÐn—i èn—™ jetikì™ —kèr—io™ pou den xepernˆei ton a − 1F r —usthr  —pìdeixh pou j— d¸soume p—r—kˆtw ˜—sÐzet—i se —ut  thn idè—X jewroÔme to sÔnolo S twn {—postˆsewn} b − as tou b —pì ti™ skoÔre™ koukÐde™ pou ˜rÐskont—i —risterˆ touF ix—sf—lÐzoume ìti eÐn—i mh kenìD ˆr— èqei elˆqisto stoiqeÐo b − aq F r koukÐd— aq eÐn—i —ut  pou ˜rÐsket—i —mèsw™ prin —pì ton bD k—i h —pìst—sh r = b − aq prèpei n— eÐn—i mikrìterh —pì aF epìdeixh tou tewr m—to™ IFIFVF epodeiknÔoume pr¸t— thn Ôp—rxh —rijm¸n q.

1}F vème ìti o b eÐn—i ˆrtio™ —n r = 0F en r = 1D tìte lème ìti o b eÐn—i perittì™F €—r—thr ste ìti opoi—d pote dÔn—mh perittoÔ —ker—Ðou eÐn—i perittì™ —kèr—io™F IFP IFP—þ ‚htoÐ —rijmoÐ ƒ¸m—t— tewroÔme èn— mh kenì sÔnolo Σ efodi—smèno me dÔo prˆxei™ + @thn prìsjeshA k—i · @ton poll—pl—si—smìA oi opoÐe™ ik—nopoioÔn t— ex ™X @—A exi¸m—t— th™ prìsjesh™F qi— kˆje zeugˆri x. y.6 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n en q1 < q2 D tìte a(q2 − q1 ) ≥ a en¸ r1 − r2 < aF 9iqoume —ntÐf—shD ˆr— q1 = q2 k—i r 1 = r2 F 2 ƒhmeÐwshF epì to te¸rhm— IFIFVD kˆje —kèr—io™ b grˆfet—i monos m—nt— sth morf  b = 2q + r gi— kˆpoion q ∈ Z k—i kˆpoion r ∈ {0. y. • qi— kˆje x ∈ Σ upˆrqei èn— stoiqeÐo tou Σ pou sum˜olÐzet—i me −xD ¸ste x + (−x) = (−x) + x = 0. y) sto x + y lèget—i prìsjesh k—i èqei ti™ —kìlouje™ idiìthte™X • €roset—iristikìtht—X gi— kˆje x. y ∈ Σ upˆrqei —kri˜¸™ èn— stoiqeÐo tou Σ pou sum˜olÐzet—i me x · y @gi— —plìtht—D xy A k—i lèget—i ginìmeno twn x. vème ìti to Σ me thn prˆxh th™ prìsjesh™ eÐn—i —ntimet—jetik  omˆd—F heÐxte ìti to 0 k—i to −x @dojènto™ tou xA orÐzont—i monos m—nt—F y −x eÐn—i o —ntÐjeto™ tou xF r —f—Ðresh sto Σ orÐzet—i —pì thn x − y = x + (−y) (x. @˜A exi¸m—t— tou poll—pl—si—smoÔF qi— kˆje zeugˆri x. y F r prˆxh pou stèlnei to zeugˆri (x. y. y stoiqeÐwn tou Σ upˆrqei —kri˜¸™ èn— stoiqeÐo tou Σ pou sum˜olÐzet—i me x+y k—i lèget—i ˆjroism— twn x. y F r prˆxh pou stèlnei to zeugˆri (x. ∈ Σ). z ∈ Σ isqÔei (x + y) + z = x + (y + z)F • entimet—jetikìtht—X gi— kˆje x. y ∈ Σ isqÔei xy = yxF . z ∈ Σ isqÔei (xy)z = x(yz)F • entimet—jetikìtht—X gi— kˆje x. y) sto xy lèget—i poll—pl—si—smì™ k—i èqei ti™ —kìlouje™ idiìthte™X • €roset—iristikìtht—X gi— kˆje x. y ∈ Σ isqÔei x + y = y + xF • …pˆrqei èn— stoiqeÐo tou Σ pou sum˜olÐzet—i me 0D ¸steD gi— kˆje x ∈ ΣD x + 0 = 0 + x = x.

• en x. +. 1 · 1 = 1. +. y. 1} k—i orÐzoume prìsjesh k—i poll—pl—si—smì sto Σ jètont—™ 0 + 0 = 0. x = 0.1. −x ∈ Θ. y = 0). 1 + 0 = 1. z ∈ ΣD èqoume x(y + z) = xy + xz. y ∈ Σ. 1+1=0 0 · 0 = 0. ·) sto opoÐo —utˆ n— eÐn—i t— mìn— stoiqeЗ tou ΣX jètoume Σ = {0. ·) eÐn—i s¸m—D tìte to sÔnolo Σ èqei toulˆqiston dÔo stoiqeЗX to {oudètero stoiqeÐo} 0 th™ prìsjesh™ k—i to {oudètero stoiqeÐo} 1 tou poll—pl—si—smoÔF wporoÔme mˆlist— n— d¸soume p—rˆdeigm— s¸m—to™ (Σ. yrismì™ IFPFIF wi— triˆd— (Σ. +. k—i 0 + 1 = 1. 1 · 0 = 0. ·) lèget—i di—tet—gmèno —n upˆrqei èn— uposÔnolo Θ tou ΣD pou lèget—i to sÔnolo twn jetik¸n stoiqeÐwn tou ΣD ¸steX • qi— kˆje x ∈ Σ isqÔei —kri˜¸™ èn— —pì t— —kìlouj—X x ∈ Θ. 1} ik—nopoieÐ t— —xi¸m—t— @—A @gA tou s¸m—to™F IFP˜þ hi—tet—gmèn— s¸m—t— 9in— s¸m— (Σ. 0 · 1 = 0. • qi— kˆje x ∈ Σ me x = 0 upˆrqei èn— stoiqeÐo tou Σ pou sum˜olÐzet—i me x−1 D ¸ste xx−1 = x−1 x = 1. ·) pou ik—nopoieÐ t— p—r—pˆnw lèget—i s¸m—F €—r—t rhsh IFPFPF €—r—thr ste ìti —n mi— triˆd— (Σ. @gA r epimeristik  idiìtht— sundèei ton poll—pl—si—smì me thn prìsjeshX gi— kˆje x. +. ilègxte ìti me —utè™ ti™ prˆxei™ to {0. y ∈ Θ tìte x + y ∈ Θ k—i xy ∈ Θ. heÐxte ìti to 1 k—i to x−1 @dojènto™ tou x = 0A orÐzont—i monos m—nt—F y x−1 eÐn—i o —ntÐstrofo™ tou x = 0F r di—Ðresh sto Σ orÐzet—i —pì thn x = xy −1 y (x. .2 RhtoÐ arijmoÐ · 7 • …pˆrqei èn— stoiqeÐo tou ΣD di—foretikì —pì to 0D pou sum˜olÐzet—i me 1D ¸steD gi— kˆje x ∈ ΣD x1 = 1x = x.

n „o sÔnolo Q twn rht¸n —rijm¸n eÐn—i to Q= tumhjeÐte ìti m m = —n k—i mìno —n mn = nm . IFPgþ ‚htoÐ —rijmoÐ m : m ∈ Z. n n1 nn1 m m1 < n n1 —n k—i mìno —n m1 n − mn1 ∈ N. <) eÐn—i tupikì p—rˆdeigm— di—tet—gmènou s¸m—to™F „— sÔnol— N k—i Z twn fusik¸n k—i twn —ker—Ðwn @me ti™ gnwstè™ prˆxei™A den ik—nopoioÔn ìl— t— —xi¸m—t— tou s¸m—to™ @exhg ste gi—tÐAF mon—dikì™ fusikì™ pou di—ireÐ tìso ton m ìso k—i ton n eÐn—i o 1F v mm— IFPFQF uˆje rhtì™ —rijmì™ q grˆfet—i se {—nˆgwgh morf } q = m nD ìpou o . x > y.8 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n „o sÔnolo Θ orÐzei mi— diˆt—xh sto s¸m— Σ w™ ex ™X lème ìti x < y @isodÔn—m—D y > xA —n k—i mìno —n y − x ∈ ΘF qrˆfont—™ x ≤ y @isodÔn—m—D y ≥ xA ennooÔmeX eÐte x < y   x = y F epì ton orismìD x ∈ Θ —n k—i mìno —n x > 0. r tetrˆd— (Q. +. n n k—i ìti oi prˆxei™ + k—i · orÐzont—i w™ ex ™X m m1 mn1 + m1 n + = . ·. y ∈ Σ isqÔei —kri˜¸™ èn— —pì t— —kìlouj—X x < y. epì ti™ idiìthte™ tou Θ èpont—i oi ex ™ idiìthte™ th™ diˆt—xh™ <X • qi— kˆje x. n ∈ N . • en x < y k—i y < z D tìte x < z F • en x < y tìte gi— kˆje z isqÔei x + z < y + z F • en x < y k—i z > 0D tìte xz < yz F • 1 > 0F r —pìdeixh —ut¸n twn isqurism¸n —f net—i s—n 9eskhsh gi— ton —n—gn¸sthF x = y. n n1 nn1 „èlo™D m m1 mm1 · = .

n D xekin¸nt—™ —pì to 0F tewroÔme thn eujeЗ pou en¸nei to n me to 1 th™ pr¸th™ eujeЗ™ k—i fèrnoume p—rˆllhlh pro™ —ut n —pì to shmeÐo 1 F eut  tèmnei to eujÔgr—mmo 1 tm m— 01 th™ pr¸th™ eujeЗ™ sto shmeÐo n @k—nìn—™ twn —n—logi¸n gi— ìmoi— trÐgwn—AF iÐd—me loipìn ìti kˆje rhtì™ —rijmì™ —ntistoiqeÐ se kˆpoio shmeÐo th™ eujeЗ™F „o di—tet—gmèno s¸m— Q j—  t—n èn— ep—rkè™ sÔsthm— —rijm¸n —nD —ntÐstrof—D kˆje shmeÐo th™ eujeЗ™ —ntistoiqoÔse se kˆpoion rhtì —rijmìF eutì ìmw™ den isqÔeiF epì to €uE j—gìreio te¸rhm—D h upoteÐnous— enì™ orjogwnÐou trig¸nou me kˆjete™ pleurè™ m kou™ 1 èqei m ko™ x pou ik—nopoieÐ thn en—p—rˆst—sh twn rht¸n —rijm¸n sthn eujeЗF r idè— ìti oi —rijmoÐ mporoÔn n— x2 = 12 + 12 = 2. . . en kˆje m ko™ mporoÔse n— metrhjeÐ me rhtì —rijmìD tìte to m ko™ x j— èprepe n— —ntistoiqeÐ se kˆpoion rhtì q F te¸rhm— IFPFRF hen upˆrqei q ∈ Q ¸ste q 2 = 2F epìdeixhF …pojètoume ìti upˆrqei q ∈ Q ¸ste q 2 = 2F entik—jist¸nt—™D —n qrei—steÐD ton q me ton −q D mporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti q > 0F „ìteD o q grˆfet—i sth morf  .2 RhtoÐ arijmoÐ · 9 epìdeixhF tewroÔme to sÔnolo E(q) = n ∈ N : upˆrqei m ∈ Z ¸ste q = m . n0 dn1 n1 2 dhl—d  n1 ∈ E(q)F eutì eÐn—i ˆtopoD diìti n1 < n0 F jewrhjoÔn s—n {—postˆsei™} odhgeÐ se mi— fusiologik  —ntistoÐqish tou™ me t— shmeЗ mi—™ eujeЗ™F tewroÔme tuqoÔs— eujeЗ k—i epilègoume —uj—Ðret— èn— shmeÐo th™D to opoÐo onomˆzoume 0D k—i èn— deÔtero shmeÐo dexiˆ tou 0D to opoÐo onomˆzoume 1F „o shmeÐo 0 p—Ðzei to rìlo th™ —rq ™ th™ {mètrhsh™ —postˆsewn} en¸ h —pìst—sh tou shmeÐou 1 —pì to shmeÐo 0 prosdiorÐzei th {monˆd— mètrhsh™ —postˆsewn}F yi —kèr—ioi —rijmoÐ mporoÔn t¸r— n— topojethjoÔn pˆnw sthn eujeЗ k—tˆ prof—n  trìpoF wporoÔme epÐsh™ n— topojet soume sthn eujeЗ ìlou™ tou™ rhtoԙ —rijmoԙF e™ jewE r soumeD qwrЙ periorismì th™ genikìtht—™D èn—n jetikì rhtì —rijmì q F eutì™ grˆfet—i 1 sth morf  q = m D ìpou m. . .1. n „o E(q) eÐn—i mh kenì uposÔnolo tou N @gi—tÐ q ∈ QAD ˆr— èqei elˆqisto stoiqeÐoD —™ to 0 poÔme n0 F epì ton orismì tou E(q) upˆrqei m0 ∈ Z ¸ste q = m0 F n e™ upojèsoume ìti upˆrqei fusikì™ d > 1 ¸ste d | m0 k—i d | n0 F „ìteD upˆrqoun m1 ∈ Z k—i n1 ∈ N ¸ste m0 = dm1 k—i n0 = dn1 > n1 F „ìteD q= dm1 m1 m0 = = . n ∈ NF en topojet soume ton n sthn eujeЗ tìte mporoÔme n n— kˆnoume to Ðdio k—i gi— ton q F eutì gÐnet—i w™ ex ™X jewroÔme deÔterh eujeЗ pou pernˆei —pì to 0 k—i pˆnw th™ p—Ðrnoume n Ðs— di—doqikˆ eujÔgr—mm— tm m—t— me ˆkr— 1 .

n ∈ N k—i o mon—dikì™ fusikì™ —rijmì™ pou eÐn—i koinì™ di—irèth™ twn m k—i n eÐn—i o 1F epì thn q 2 = 2 sumper—Ðnoume ìti m2 = 2n2 D ˆr— o m eÐn—i ˆrtio™ @to tetrˆgwno perittoÔ eÐn—i perittì™AF eutì shm—Ðnei ìti m = 2k gi— kˆpoion k ∈ NF „ìte n2 = 2k 2 D ˆr— o n eÐn—i ki —utì™ ˆrtio™F eutì eÐn—i ˆtopoX o 2 eÐn—i koinì™ di—irèth™ twn m k—i nF 2 …pˆrqoun loipìn {m kh} pou den metrioÔnt—i me rhtoԙ —rijmoԙF en jèloume èn— sÔsthm— —rijm¸n to opoÐo n— ep—rkeÐ gi— th mètrhsh opoi—sd pote —pìst—sh™ pˆnw sthn eujeЗD tìte prèpei n— {epekteÐnoume} to sÔnolo twn rht¸n —rijm¸nF IFQ IFQ—þ €r—gm—tikoÐ —rijmoÐ r —rq  th™ plhrìtht—™ epì th stigm  pou se èn— di—tet—gmèno s¸m— Σ èqoume orismènh th diˆt—xh <D mporoÔme n— milˆme gi— uposÔnol— tou Σ pou eÐn—i ˆnw   kˆtw fr—gmèn—F yrismì™ IFQFIF 9istw Σ èn— di—tet—gmèno s¸m—F 9in— mh kenì uposÔnolo A tou Σ lèget—i • ˆnw fr—gmènoD —n upˆrqei α ∈ Σ me thn idiìtht—X x ≤ α gi— kˆje x ∈ AF • kˆtw fr—gmènoD —n upˆrqei α ∈ Σ me thn idiìtht—X x ≥ α gi— kˆje x ∈ AF • fr—gmènoD —n eÐn—i ˆnw k—i kˆtw fr—gmènoF uˆje α ∈ Σ pou ik—nopoieÐ ton p—r—pˆnw orismì lèget—i ˆnw frˆgm— @—ntÐstoiq—D kˆtw frˆgm—A tou AF €—r—t rhsh IFQFPF 9istw ∅ = A ⊆ Σ k—i èstw α èn— ˆnw frˆgm— tou AD dhl—d  x ≤ α gi— kˆje x ∈ AF uˆje stoiqeÐo α1 tou Σ pou eÐn—i meg—lÔtero   Ðso tou α eÐn—i epÐsh™ ˆnw frˆgm— tou AX —n x ∈ A tìte x ≤ α ≤ α1 F „eleÐw™ —nˆlog—D —n ∅ = A ⊆ Σ k—i —n α eÐn—i èn— kˆtw frˆgm— tou AD tìte kˆje stoiqeÐo α1 tou Σ pou eÐn—i mikrìtero   Ðso tou α eÐn—i epÐsh™ kˆtw frˆgm— tou AF yrismì™ IFQFQF @—A 9istw A èn— mh kenì ˆnw fr—gmèno uposÔnolo tou di—tet—gmènou s¸m—to™ ΣF vème ìti to α ∈ Σ eÐn—i elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm— tou A —n • to α eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou A k—i • —n α1 eÐn—i ˆllo ˆnw frˆgm— tou A tìte α ≤ α1 F @˜A 9istw A èn— mh kenì kˆtw fr—gmèno uposÔnolo tou di—tet—gmènou s¸m—to™ ΣF vème ìti to α ∈ Σ eÐn—i mègisto kˆtw frˆgm— tou A —n • to α eÐn—i kˆtw frˆgm— tou A k—i .10 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n q = m/nD ìpou m.

1. y eÐn—i jetikoÐ rhtoÐ tìte x < y —n k—i mìno —n x2 < y 2 èqoume thn ex ™X €—r—t rhshX —n gi— kˆpoion jetikì rhtì y isqÔei y 2 > 2 tìte o y eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AF 9ipet—i ìti to A eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènoX gi— p—rˆdeigm—D o 2 eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou A —foÔ 2 > 0 k—i 22 = 4 > 2F …pojètoume ìti to A èqei elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm—D èstw a ∈ QD k—i j— k—t—l xoume se ˆtopoF efoÔ den upˆrqei rhtì™ pou to tetrˆgwno tou n— isoÔt—i me 2D —n—gk—stikˆ j— isqÔei mЗ —pì ti™ a2 > 2   a2 < 2 X (i) …pojètoume ìti a2 > 2F t— ˜roÔme 0 < ε < a ¸ste (a − ε)2 > 2F „ìte j— èqoume a − ε < a k—i —pì thn €—r—t rhshD o a − ε j— eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AD ˆtopoF ipilog  tou εX htˆme 0 < ε < a k—i (a − ε)2 = a2 − 2aε + ε2 > 2. €—r—throÔme pr¸t— ìti to A eÐn—i mh kenìX èqoume 1 ∈ A @diìti 1 > 0 k—i 12 = 1 < 2AF rhsimopoi¸nt—™ to gegonì™ ìti —n x. <)D me ti™ sun jei™ prˆxei™ k—i th sun jh diˆt—xhD den ik—nopoieÐ thn —rq  th™ plhrìtht—™F €rìt—sh IFQFTF „o Q den eÐn—i pl rw™ di—tet—gmèno s¸m—X upˆrqei mh kenì ˆnw fr—gE mèno uposÔnolo A tou Q to opoÐo den èqei elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm—F epìdeixhF tewroÔme to sÔnolo A = {x ∈ Q : x > 0 k—i x2 < 2}. .3 PragmatikoÐ arijmoÐ · 11 • —n α1 eÐn—i ˆllo kˆtw frˆgm— tou A tìte α ≥ α1 F €—r—t rhsh IFQFRF „o elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm— tou A @—n upˆrqeiA eÐn—i mon—dikìF epì ton orismì eÐn—i f—nerì ìti —n α. α1 eÐn—i dÔo elˆqist— ˆnw frˆgm—t— tou A tìte α ≤ α1 k—i α1 ≤ αD dhl—d  α = α1 F ymoÐw™D to mègisto kˆtw frˆgm— tou A @—n upˆrqeiA eÐn—i mon—dikìF ƒthn perÐptwsh pou upˆrqounD j— sum˜olÐzoume to elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm— tou A me sup A @to supremum tou AA k—i to mègisto kˆtw frˆgm— tou A me inf A @to infimum tou AAF „— inf AD sup A mporeÐ n— —n koun   n— mhn —n koun sto sÔnolo AF yrismì™ IFQFSF vème ìti èn— di—tet—gmèno s¸m— Σ ik—nopoieÐ thn —rq  th™ plhrìtht—™ —n uˆje mh kenì k—i ˆnw fr—gmèno uposÔnolo A tou Σ èqei elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm— α ∈ ΣF 9in— di—tet—gmèno s¸m— Σ pou ik—nopoieÐ thn —rq  th™ plhrìtht—™ lèget—i pl rw™ diE —tet—gmèno s¸m—F r epìmenh €rìt—sh deÐqnei ìti to (Q. ·. +.

<)F . ε< 2a + 1 €—r—thr ste ìti o 2−a2 2a+1 eÐn—i jetikì™ rhtì™ —rijmì™F en loipìn epilèxoume ε= 1 2 − a2 min 1.12 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n efoÔ ε2 > 0D —rkeÐ n— ex—sf—lÐsoume thn a2 − 2aε > 2D h opoЗ eÐn—i isodÔn—mh me thn ε< €—r—thr ste ìti o a2 −2 2a a2 − 2 . +. t— epilèxoume ε ≤ 1 opìte j— isqÔei a2 + 2aε + ε2 ≤ a2 + 2aε + ε = a2 + ε(2a + 1). diìti ε2 ≤ εF erkeÐ loipìn n— ex—sf—lÐsoume thn a2 + ε(2a + 1) < 2D h opoЗ eÐn—i isodÔn—mh me thn 2 − a2 . ·. 2 2a . tìte èqoume ˜reÐ rhtì ε > 0 pou ik—nopoieÐ thn (a + ε)2 < 2F …pojètont—™ ìti to A èqei elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm— ton a ∈ Q —pokleÐs—me ti™ a2 < 2D a2 = 2 k—i a2 > 2F 9er—D to A den èqei elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm— @sto QAF 2 €—r—thr ste ìti to {elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm—} tou sunìlou A sthn —pìdeixh th™ €rìE t—sh™ IFQFT eÐn—i —kri˜¸™ to shmeÐo th™ eujeЗ™ to opoÐo j— —ntistoiqoÔse sto m ko™ th™ upoteÐnous—™ tou orjogwnÐou trig¸nou me kˆjete™ pleurè™ Ðse™ me 1 @to opoÐo {leÐpei} —pì to QAF 9ylh h douleiˆ pou j— kˆnoume se —utì to mˆjhm— ˜—sÐzet—i sto ex ™ je¸rhm— epèkE t—sh™ @gi— perissìtere™ leptomèreie™ deÐte to €—rˆrthm— —utoÔ tou uef—l—ÐouAF te¸rhm— IFQFUF „o di—tet—gmèno s¸m— (Q. ·. tìte èqoume ˜reÐ rhtì ε pou ik—nopoieÐ ti™ 0 < ε < a k—i (a − ε)2 > 2F (ii) …pojètoume ìti a2 < 2F t— ˜roÔme rhtì ε > 0 ¸ste (a + ε)2 < 2F „ìte j— èqoume a + ε > a k—i a + ε ∈ AD ˆtopo —foÔ o a eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AF ipilog  tou εX htˆme ε > 0 k—i (a + ε)2 = a2 + 2aε + ε2 < 2. <) epekteÐnet—i se èn— pl rw™ di—teE t—gmèno s¸m— (R. 2a eÐn—i jetikì™ rhtì™ —rijmì™F en loipìn epilèxoume ε= 1 a2 − 2 min a. +. 2 2a + 1 .

3 PragmatikoÐ arijmoÐ · 13 heqìm—ste dhl—d  ìti upˆrqei èn— pl rw™ di—tet—gmèno s¸m— (R. <) to opoÐo perièqei tou™ rhtoԙ @tou™ —ker—Ðou™ k—i tou™ fusikoԙAF „o R eÐn—i to sÔnolo twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸nF yi prˆxei™ + k—i · sto R epekteÐnoun ti™ —ntÐstoiqe™ prˆxei™ sto QD ik—nopoioÔn t— —xi¸m—t— th™ prìsjesh™D t— —xi¸m—t— tou poll—pl—si—smoÔ k—i thn epimeristik  idiìtht—F r diˆt—xh < sto R epekteÐnei thn diˆt—xh sto Q k—i ik—nopoieÐ t— —xi¸m—t— th™ diˆt—xh™F ipiplèonD sto R isqÔei h —rq  th™ plhrìtht—™F erq  th™ plhrìtht—™ gi— tou™ pr—gm—tikoԙ —rijmoԙF uˆje mh kenìD ˆnw fr—gE mèno uposÔnolo A tou R èqei elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm— α ∈ RF wporeÐ k—neЙ n— deÐxei ìti upˆrqei {mìno èn—} pl rw™ di—tet—gmèno s¸m— @h epèkE t—sh mporeÐ n— gÐnei me èn—n ousi—stikˆ trìpoAF hÔo pl rw™ di—tet—gmèn— s¸m—t— eÐn—i isìmorf— @˜lèpe M. ·. SpivakD uefˆl—io PWAF „¸r— mporoÔme n— deÐxoume ìti h exÐswsh x2 = 2 èqei lÔsh sto sÔnolo twn pr—gE m—tik¸n —rijm¸nF €rìt—sh IFQFVF …pˆrqei mon—dikì™ jetikì™ x ∈ R ¸ste x2 = 2F epìdeixhF tewroÔme to sÔnolo A = {x ∈ R : x > 0 k—i x2 < 2}. y eÐn—i jetikoÐ pr—gm—tikoÐ —rijmoÐ tìte x < y —n k—i mìno —n x2 < y 2 èqoume thn ex ™X €—r—t rhshX —n gi— kˆpoion jetikì pr—gm—tikì y isqÔei y 2 > 2 tìte o y eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AF 9ipet—i ìti to A eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènoX gi— p—rˆdeigm—D o 2 eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou A —foÔ 2 > 0 k—i 22 = 4 > 2F epì thn —rq  th™ plhrìtht—™D to A èqei elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm—D èstw a ∈ RF €roE f—n¸™D a > 0F t— deÐxoume ìti a2 = 2 —pokleÐont—™ ti™ a2 > 2 k—i a2 < 2 X (i) …pojètoume ìti a2 > 2F we to epiqeÐrhm— th™ —pìdeixh™ th™ €rìt—sh™ IFQFT ˜rÐskoume 0 < ε < a sto R ¸ste (a − ε)2 > 2F „ìteD a − ε < a k—i —pì thn €—r—t rhshD o a − ε eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AD ˆtopoF (ii) …pojètoume ìti a2 < 2F we to epiqeÐrhm— th™ —pìdeixh™ th™ €rìt—sh™ IFQFT ˜rÐskoume ε > 0 sto R ¸ste (a + ε)2 < 2F „ìteD a + ε > a k—i a + ε ∈ AD ˆtopo —foÔ o a eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AF en—gk—stikˆD a2 = 2F r mon—dikìtht— eÐn—i —pl X qrhsimopoi ste to gegonì™ ìti —n x. y eÐn—i jetikoÐ pr—gm—tikoÐ —rijmoÐ tìte x = y —n k—i mìno —n x2 = y 2 F 2 yrismì™ @ˆrrhtoi —rijmoÐAF r €rìt—sh IFQFV deÐqnei ìti upˆrqei x ∈ RD x > 0 ¸ste x2 = 2F epì to te¸rhm— IFPFRD o x den eÐn—i rhtì™ —rijmì™F ƒunep¸™D upˆrqoun pr—gE m—tikoÐ —rijmoÐ oi opoÐoi den eÐn—i rhtoÐF eutoÐ onomˆzont—i ˆrrhtoiF „o sÔnolo R \ Q eÐn—i to sÔnolo twn —rr twnF . +. €—r—throÔme pr¸t— ìti to A eÐn—i mh kenìX èqoume 1 ∈ A @diìti 1 > 0 k—i 12 = 1 < 2AF rhsimopoi¸nt—™ to gegonì™ ìti —n x.1.

dhl—d  ε ≤ 0.14 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n IFQ˜þ —r—kthrismì™ tou supremum r epìmenh €rìt—sh dÐnei èn—n polÔ qr simo {ε q—r—kthrismì} tou supremum enì™ mh kenoÔ ˆnw fr—gmènou uposunìlou tou RF €rìt—sh IFQFWF 9istw A mh kenì ˆnw fr—gmèno uposÔnolo tou R k—i èstw α ∈ RF „ìteD α = sup A —n k—i mìno —n isqÔoun t— ex ™X @—A „o α eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AD @˜A qi— kˆje ε > 0 upˆrqei x ∈ A ¸ste x > α − εF epìdeixhF …pojètoume pr¸t— ìti α = sup AF epì ton orismì tou supremumD ik—nopoieÐt—i to @—AF qi— to @˜AD èstw ε > 0F en gi— kˆje x ∈ A Ðsque h x ≤ α − εD tìte to α − ε j—  t—n ˆnw frˆgm— tou AF epì ton orismì tou supremum j— èprepe n— èqoume α ≤ α − ε. k!(n − k)! k! . to opoÐo eÐn—i ˆtopoF 9er—D gi— to tuqìn ε > 0 upˆrqei x ∈ A @to x ex—rtˆt—i ˜è˜—i— —pì to εA pou ik—nopoieÐ thn x > α − εF entÐstrof—D èstw α ∈ R pou ik—nopoieÐ t— @—A k—i @˜AF iidikìter—D to A eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènoF e™ upojèsoume ìti to α den eÐn—i to supremum tou AF „ìteD upˆrqei β < α to opoÐo eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AF tètoume ε = α − β > 0F „ìteD x≤β =α−ε gi— kˆje x ∈ AF eutì èrqet—i se —ntÐf—sh me to @˜AF mègisto kˆtw frˆgm—F 2 9eskhsh IFQFIHF heÐxte ìti kˆje mh kenì kˆtw fr—gmèno uposÔnolo A tou R èqei IFR ƒunèpeie™ tou —xi¸m—to™ th™ plhrìtht—™ ƒe —ut  thn p—rˆgr—foD qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™D j— —podeÐxoume kˆpoie™ ˜—sikè™ idiìthte™ tou sunìlou twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸nF IFR—þ 9…p—rxh n ost ™ rÐz—™ „o diwnumikì —nˆptugm—F qi— kˆje n ∈ N orÐzoume n! = 1 · 2 · · · n @to ginìmeno ìlwn twn fusik¸n —pì 1 w™ nAF ƒumfwnoÔme ìti 0! = 1F €—r—thr ste ìti n! = (n − 1)!n gi— kˆje n ∈ NF en 0 ≤ k ≤ n orÐzoume n k = n(n − 1) · · · (n − k + 1) n! = .

1. k=0 €—r—thr ste ìti to ˆjroism— a0 + a1 + · · · + an mporeÐ isodÔn—m— n— gr—fteÐ w™ ex ™X n n n+1 ak = k=0 m=0 am = s=1 as−1 . k k−1 epìdeixhF we ˜ˆsh tou™ orismoԙ pou d¸s—meD mporoÔme n— grˆyoume n−1 n−1 + k k−1 = = = = = (n − 1)! (n − 1)! + k!(n − k − 1)! (k − 1)!(n − k)! (n − 1)!(n − k) (n − 1)!k + k!(n − k − 1)!(n − k) (k − 1)!k(n − k)! (n − 1)!(n − k) (n − 1)!k + k!(n − k)! k!(n − k)! (n − 1)![(n − k) + k] (n − 1)!n = k!(n − k)! k!(n − k)! n . . a1 . . . k 2 dhl—d  to zhtoÔmenoF ƒum˜olismì™F en a0 . k . an ∈ R orÐzoume n ak = a0 + a1 + · · · + an .F = n n =1 v mm— IFRFI @trÐgwno tou PascalAF en 1 ≤ k < n tìte n k = n−1 n−1 + . r pr¸th isìtht— isqÔei gi—tÐ —llˆx—me @—pl¸™A to {ìnom—} th™ met—˜lht ™ —pì k se mF r deÔterh gi—tÐ kˆn—me @—pl¸™A thn {—ll—g  met—˜lht ™} s = m + 1F €rìt—sh IFRFP @diwnumikì —nˆptugm—AF qi— kˆje a. b ∈ R \ {0} k—i gi— kˆje n ∈ N isqÔei n (a + b)n = k=0 n n−k k a b . . .4 Sunèpeies tou axi¸matos ths plhrìthtas · 15 €—r—thr ste ìti n 0 gi— kˆje n = 0. .1. 2. .

k €rˆgm—tiD n (a + b)n+1 = (a + b)(a + b)n = (a + b) k=0 n n n−k k a b k = a· k=0 n n n−k k a b +b· k n n k=0 n n−k k a b k = k=0 n n+1−k k n n−m m+1 a b + a b k m m=0 n = an+1 + k=1 n n n+1−k k n n−m m+1 a b + a b + bn+1 k m m=0 n n+1−k k a b + k n n + k k−1 = n k n n−1 = an+1 + k=1 n k=1 n an−(k−1) bk + bn+1 k−1 = an+1 + k=1 an+1−k bk + bn+1 .16 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n epìdeixhF we ep—gwg X gi— n = 1 h zhtoÔmenh isìtht— grˆfet—i a+b= h opoЗ isqÔeiX p—r—thr ste ìti …pojètoume ìti 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 a b + a b . k 2 eutì oloklhr¸nei to ep—gwgikì ˜ m— k—i thn —pìdeixhF …pˆrqei mon—dikì™ x > 0 sto R ¸ste xn = ρF te¸rhm— IFRFQ @Ôp—rxh n ost ™ rÐz—™AF 9istw ρ ∈ RD ρ > 0 k—i èstw n ∈ NF . 0 1 1 1 = = 1D a0 = b0 = 1D a1 = a k—i b1 = bF n (a + b)n = k=0 n n−k k a b k k—i deÐqnoume ìti n+1 (a + b)n+1 = k=0 n + 1 n+1−k k a b . epì to v mm— IFRFI èqoume n+1 k n + n k−1 D ˆr— n+1 (a + b)n+1 = an+1 + k=1 n + 1 n+1−k k a b + bn+1 = k k=0 n + 1 n+1−k k a b .

1} ¸ste (x − ε)n > ρ @ˆtopoD gi—tÐ tìte o x − ε j—  t—n ˆnw frˆgm— tou A mikrìtero —pì to sup AAF qi— kˆje 0 < ε ≤ 1 èqoume n (x − ε)n = xn + k=1 n n n−k x (−1)k εk = xn − ε k n n−k x . k n k=1 n n−k k−1 x ε k ≤ xn + ε k=1 t— èqoume loipìn (x + ε)n < ρ —n epilèxoume 0 < ε < n k=1 ρ−xn F (n)xn−k k ipilègoume ε= 1 min 1. „o A eÐn—i mh kenìX èqoume 1 ∈ AF €—r—throÔme ìti kˆje jetikì™ pr—gm—tikì™ —rijmì™ α me thn idiìtht— αn > ρ eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AX —n y ∈ A tìte y n < ρ < αn k—iD —foÔ y. k n n k=1 n n−k x (−1)k−1 εk−1 k ≥ xn − ε k=1 diìti n k=1 n n−k x (−1)k−1 εk−1 ≤ k k=1 n n−k k−1 x ε ≤ k n k=1 n n−k x . 2 n n k=1 k ρ − xn xn−k .4 Sunèpeies tou axi¸matos ths plhrìthtas · 17 ‘y x sum˜olÐzet—i me √ n ρ   ρ1/n F €rof—n¸™ m—™ endi—fèrei mìno h perÐptwsh n ≥ 2F“ epìdeixhF …pojètoume pr¸t— ìti ρ > 1F tewroÔme to sÔnolo A = {y ∈ R : y > 0 k—i y n < ρ}. n y ε eÐn—i jetikì™ pr—gm—tikì™ —rijmì™ @diìti ρ − xn > 0 k—i k=1 n xn−k > 0A k—i k (x + ε)n < ρF @˜A 9istw ìti xn > ρF t— ˜roÔme 0 < ε < min{x. α > 0D sumper—Ðnoume ìti y < αF 9in— tètoio ˆnw frˆgm— tou A eÐn—i o ρX —pì thn ρ > 1 èpet—i ìti ρn > ρF efoÔ to A eÐn—i mh kenì k—i ˆnw fr—gmènoD —pì to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™D upˆrqei o x = sup AF t— deÐxoume ìti xn = ρF @—A 9istw ìti xn < ρF t— ˜roÔme ε > 0 ¸ste (x + ε)n < ρD dhl—d  x + ε ∈ A @ˆtopoD gi—tÐ o x èqei upotejeÐ ˆnw frˆgm— tou AAF en upojèsoume —pì thn —rq  ìti 0 < ε ≤ 1D èqoume n (x + ε)n = xn + k=1 n n n−k k x ε = xn + ε k n n−k x .1. k .

xn 2 IFR˜þ erqim dei— idiìtht— €r¸to m—™ ˜ m— eÐn—i n— deÐxoume ìti to N den eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmèno uposÔnolo tou RX te¸rhm— IFRFRF „o sÔnolo N twn fusik¸n —rijm¸n den eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmèno uposÔnolo tou RF epìdeixhF we —p—gwg  se ˆtopoF …pojètoume ìti to sÔnolo N eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènoF epì to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™ to N èqei elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm—X èstw β = sup NF „ìte β − 1 < β D ˆr— o β − 1 den eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou NF wporoÔme loipìn n— ˜roÔme n ∈ N me n > β − 1F 9ipet—i ìti n + 1 > β D ˆtopo —foÔ n + 1 ∈ N k—i o β eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou NF 2 ssodÔn—moi trìpoi di—tÔpwsh™ th™ Ðdi—™ —rq ™ eÐn—i oi ex ™F te¸rhm— IFRFS @erqim dei— idiìtht— twn pr—gm—tik¸nAF 9istw ε k—i a dÔo pr—gE m—tikoÐ —rijmoÐ me ε > 0F …pˆrqei n ∈ N ¸ste nε > aF epìdeixhF epì to te¸rhm— IFRFR o a den eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou NF ƒunep¸™D upˆrqei ε n ∈ N ¸ste n > a F efoÔ ε > 0D èpet—i ìti nε > aF 2 ε te¸rhm— IFRFTF 9istw ε > 0F …pˆrqei n ∈ N ¸ste 0 < 1 n < εF epìdeixhF epì to te¸rhm— IFRFR o 1 den eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou NF ƒunep¸™D upˆrqei ε 1 2 n ∈ N ¸ste n > 1 F efoÔ ε > 0D èpet—i ìti n < εF ε . 2 n n k=1 k xn − ρ xn−k .18 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n t— èqoume loipìn (x − ε)n > ρ —n epilèxoume 0 < ε < xn −ρ F (n)xn−k k n k=1 ipilègoume ε= 1 min x. n n k=1 k y ε eÐn—i jetikì™ pr—gm—tikì™ —rijmì™ @diìti xn − ρ > 0 k—i ton jetikì pr—gm—tikì —rijmì x − ε isqÔei (x − ε)n > ρF xn−k > 0A k—i gi— epokleÐs—me ti™ xn < ρ k—i xn > ρF ƒunep¸™D xn = ρF r mon—dikìtht— eÐn—i —pl X p—r—thr ste ìti —n 0 < x1 < x2 tìte xn < xn gi— kˆje n ∈ NF 1 2 1 en 0 < ρ < 1 èqoume ρ > 1 k—iD —pì to prohgoÔmeno ˜ m—D upˆrqei mon—dikì™ x > 0 1 1 ¸ste xn = ρ F tewroÔme ton x F „ìteD 1 x „èlo™D —n ρ = 1 jewroÔme ton x = 1F n = 1 = ρ. 1.

„ìteD o a0 eÐn—i to elˆqisto stoiqeÐo tou AX prof—n¸™ a0 ∈ AD k—i gi— kˆje a ∈ A èqoume a0 − m ≤ a − m =⇒ a0 ≤ aF 2 we —nˆlogo trìpo mporeÐte n— deÐxete ìti kˆje mh kenì k—i ˆnw fr—gmèno sÔnolo —ker—Ðwn —rijm¸n èqei mègisto stoiqeÐoF hÐnoume mi— deÔterh —pìdeixh —utoÔ tou duðkoÔ isqurismoÔD qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ —peujeЗ™ —ut  to forˆ to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™F heÔterh —pìdeixhF 9istw A èn— mh kenì k—i ˆnw fr—gmèno uposÔnolo tou ZF epì to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™D upˆrqei to a = sup A ∈ RF t— deÐxoume ìti a ∈ AX —pì ton q—r—kthrismì tou supremumD upˆrqei x ∈ A ¸ste a − 1 < x ≤ aF en a ∈ AD tìte / x < aF eutì shm—Ðnei ìti o x den eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AD opìteD ef—rmìzont—™ pˆli ton q—r—kthrismì tou supremumD ˜rÐskoume y ∈ A ¸ste a − 1 < x < y < aF 9ipet—i ìti 0 < y − x < 1F eutì eÐn—i ˆtopo diìti oi x k—i y eÐn—i —kèr—ioiF 2 te¸rhm— IFRFV @Ôp—rxh —ker—Ðou mèrou™AF qi— kˆje x ∈ R upˆrqei mon—dikì™ —kèr—io™ m ∈ Z me thn idiìtht— m ≤ x < m + 1.4 Sunèpeies tou axi¸matos ths plhrìthtas · 19 IFRgþ 9…p—rxh —ker—Ðou mèrou™ heÐqnoume pr¸t— thn ex ™ epèkt—sh th™ —rq ™ tou el—qÐstou @p—r—thr ste ìti qrhsiE mopoioÔme thn erqim dei— idiìtht— twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸nAF €rìt—sh IFRFUF uˆje mh kenì uposÔnolo tou Z pou eÐn—i kˆtw fr—gmèno èqei elˆqisto stoiqeÐoF epìdeixhF 9istw A = ∅ kˆtw fr—gmèno uposÔnolo tou ZF …pˆrqei x ∈ R ¸ste x ≤ a gi— kˆje a ∈ AF epì thn erqim dei— idiìtht— twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rium¸nD upˆrqei n ∈ N me n > −xD dhl—d  −n < x ≤ a gi— kˆje a ∈ AF …pˆrqei dhl—d  m ∈ Z pou eÐn—i kˆtw frˆgm— tou A @pˆrte m = −nAD k—i mˆlist— {gn sio} me thn ènnoi— ìti m ∈ Z k—i m < a gi— kˆje a ∈ A.1. epìdeixhF „o sÔnolo A = {n ∈ Z : n > x} eÐn—i mh kenì @—pì thn erqim dei— idiìtht—A k—i kˆtw fr—gmèno —pì to xF epì thn €rìt—sh IFRFUD to A èqei elˆqisto stoiqeÐo X —™ to poÔme n0 F efoÔ n0 − 1 ∈ AD èqoume n0 − 1 ≤ xF tètoume m = n0 − 1F iÐd—me ìti / m ≤ xF ipÐsh™ n0 ∈ AD dhl—d  m + 1 > xF 9er—D m ≤ x < m + 1. qi— th mon—dikìtht— —™ upojèsoume ìti m ≤ x < m + 1 k—i m1 ≤ x < m1 + 1 . tewroÔme to sÔnolo B = {a − m : a ∈ A} ⊆ NF „o B èqei elˆqisto stoiqeÐoD to opoÐo onomˆzoume β F hhl—d D β = a0 − m gi— kˆpoio a0 ∈ A k—i β ≤ a − m gi— kˆje a ∈ A.

dhl—d  x< efoÔ o q = [nx]+1 n [nx] + 1 < y. √ 9ipet—i ìti o α := q + 2 eÐn—i ˆrrhto™ @exhg ste gi—tÐA k—i √ x < α = q + 2 < y. .7] = −3F IFRdþ €uknìtht— twn rht¸n k—i twn —rr twn stou™ pr—gm—tikoԙ —rijmoԙ r Ôp—rxh tou —ker—Ðou mèrou™ k—i h erqim dei— idiìtht— twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n m—™ ex—sf—lÐzoun thn puknìtht— tou Q sto RX —nˆmes— se opoiousd pote dÔo pr—gm—tikoԙ —rijmoԙ mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme èn—n rhtìF te¸rhm— IFRFIHF en x. n 2 eÐn—i rhtì™D èqoume to zhtoÔmenoF pr—gm—tikì™ —rijmì™ x > 0 me x2 = 2D k—i o x den eÐn—i rhtì™F uˆje pr—gm—tikì™ —rijmì™ pou den eÐn—i rhtì™ lèget—i ˆrrhto™F yrismì™ IFRFIIF ƒthn §IFQ eÐd—me ìti to Q eÐn—i gn sio uposÔnolo tou RX upˆrqei te¸rhm— IFRFIPF yi ˆrrhtoi eÐn—i puknoÐ sto RX —n x. y ∈ R k—i x < y D tìte upˆrqei rhtì™ q me thn idiìtht— x < q < y.7] = 2D [−2. epìdeixhF 9iqoume y − x > 0 k—i —pì thn erqim dei— idiìtht— upˆrqei fusikì™ n ∈ N ¸ste n(y − x) > 1D dhl—d  nx + 1 < ny. y ∈ R k—i x < y D tìte upˆrqei α ˆrrhto™ me x < α < y F √ √ epìdeixhF 9iqoume x < y D ˆr— x − 2 < y − 2F epì to te¸rhm— IFRFIHD upˆrqei rhtì™ q me √ √ x − 2 < q < y − 2. „ìteD nx < [nx] + 1 ≤ nx + 1 < ny.20 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n ìpou m. qi— p—rˆdeigm—D [2. m1 ∈ ZF 9iqoume m < m1 + 1 ˆr— m ≤ m1 D k—i m1 < m + 1 ˆr— m1 ≤ mF ƒunep¸™D m = m1 F 2 yrismì™ IFRFWF y —kèr—io™ m pou m—™ dÐnei to prohgoÔmeno je¸rhm— @k—i o opoÐo™ ex—rtˆt—i kˆje forˆ —pì ton xA lèget—i —kèr—io mèro™ tou xD k—i sum˜olÐzet—i me [x]F hhl—d D o [x] prosdiorÐzet—i —pì ti™ [x] ∈ Z k—i [x] ≤ x < [x] + 1.

opìte |a| − |b| ≤ |a − b|F we ton Ðdio trìpo ˜lèpoume ìti |b| = |(b − a) + a| ≤ |b − a| + |a| = |a − b| + |a|. h €rìt—sh IFSFP deÐqnei ìti | |a| − |b| | ≤ |a − b|F en sthn teleut—З —nisìtht— —ntik—t—st soume ton b me ton −bD ˜lèpoume ìti | |a| − |b| | ≤ |a + b|F 2 .5 OrismoÐ kai sumbolismìs · 21 IFS IFS—þ yrismoÐ k—i sum˜olismì™ epìluth tim    a  —n yrismì™ IFSFI @—pìluth tim AF qi— kˆje a ∈ R jètoume a ≥ 0. ipÐsh™D | |a| − |b| | ≤ |a − b| k—i | |a| − |b| | ≤ |a + b| . b ∈ RD |a + b| ≤ |a| + |b|. |a| = −a —n y |a| lèget—i —pìluth tim  tou aF tewr¸nt—™ ton a s—n shmeÐo th™ eujeЗ™D skeftìm—ste thn —pìluth tim  tou s—n thn {—pìst—sh} tou a —pì to 0F €—r—thr ste ìti | − a| = |a| k—i |a| ≥ 0 gi— kˆje a ∈ RF €rìt—sh IFSFPF qi— kˆje a ∈ R k—i ρ ≥ 0 isqÔei |a| ≤ ρ —n k—i mìno —n − ρ ≤ a ≤ ρ. ˆr— |b| − |a| ≤ |a − b|F efoÔ −|a − b| ≤ |a| − |b| ≤ |a − b|.1. 2 epìdeixhF hi—krÐnete peript¸sei™X a ≥ 0 k—i a < 0F €rìt—sh IFSFQ @trigwnik  —nisìtht—AF qi— kˆje a. a < 0. epìdeixhF epì thn €rìt—sh IFSFP èqoume −|a| ≤ a ≤ |a| k—i −|b| ≤ b ≤ |b|F ƒunep¸™D −(|a| + |b|) ≤ a + b ≤ |a| + |b|. rhsimopoi¸nt—™ pˆli thn €rìt—sh IFSFP sumper—Ðnoume ìti |a + b| ≤ |a| + |b|F qi— th deÔterh —nisìtht— grˆfoume |a| = |(a − b) + b| ≤ |a − b| + |b|.

−∞} eÐn—i to epektet—mèno sÔnolo twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸nF ipekteÐnoume th diˆt—xh k—i ti™ prˆxei™ sto R w™ ex ™X @—A yrÐzoume −∞ < a k—i a < +∞ gi— kˆje a ∈ RF @˜A qi— kˆje a ∈ R orÐzoume a + (+∞) a + (−∞) @gA en a > 0 orÐzoume = = (+∞) + a = a − (−∞) = +∞ (−∞) + a = a − (+∞) = −∞. . @stA hen orÐzont—i oi p—r—stˆsei™ (+∞) + (−∞). a · (+∞) a · (−∞) @eA ipÐsh™D orÐzoume = = (+∞) · a = −∞ (−∞) · a = +∞. (−∞) + (+∞). (−∞) · 0 k—i +∞ +∞ −∞ −∞ . (+∞) · 0. +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ „èlo™D —n èn— mh kenì sÔnolo A ⊆ R den eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmèno orÐzoume sup A = +∞D en¸ —n den eÐn—i kˆtw fr—gmèno orÐzoume inf A = −∞F .22 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n IFS˜þ „o epektet—mèno sÔnolo twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n ipekteÐnoume to sÔnolo R twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n me dÔo —kìm— stoiqeЗD to +∞ k—i to −∞F „o sÔnolo R = R ∪ {+∞. (+∞) + (+∞) = +∞ (+∞) · (+∞) = +∞ (−∞) + (−∞) = −∞ (−∞) · (−∞) = +∞ k—i (+∞) · (−∞) = (−∞) · (+∞) = −∞. a · (+∞) a · (−∞) @dA en a < 0 orÐzoume = (+∞) · a = +∞ = (−∞) · a = −∞. 0 · (+∞). . 0 · (−∞). .

b] = {(1 − t)a + tb : 0 ≤ t ≤ 1}. b) (a. +∞) (a. b−a b−a €—r—thr¸nt—™ ìti t := (x − a)/(b − a) ∈ [0. b] (a. b] grˆfet—i sth morf  x= b−x x−a a+ b. iidikìter—D gi— kˆje x ∈ [a. 1] isqÔei a ≤ (1 − t)a + tb = a + t(b − a) ≤ b. b] lègont—i kurtoÐ sundu—smoÐ twn a k—i bF „o mèso tou [a. b] (−∞. +∞) (−∞. „— uposÔnol— —utˆ tou sunìlou twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n lègont—i di—st m—t—F ƒto epìmeno v mm— perigrˆfoume t— shmeЗ tou kleistoÔ di—st m—to™ [a. b) [a. b] [a. b ∈ R me a < bF yrÐzoume [a.5 OrismoÐ kai sumbolismìs · 23 IFSgþ hi—st m—t— yrismì™ IFSFRF 9istw a. b) = = = = = = = = {x ∈ R : a ≤ x ≤ b} {x ∈ R : a < x < b} {x ∈ R : a ≤ x < b} {x ∈ R : a < x ≤ b} {x ∈ R : x ≥ a} {x ∈ R : x > a} {x ∈ R : x ≤ b} {x ∈ R : x < b}. b]F v mm— IFSFSF en a < b sto R tìte [a. b−a b−a epìdeixhF iÔkol— elègqoume ìtiD gi— kˆje t ∈ [0. 2 2 2 . b] eÐn—i to 1 1 a+b m = (1 − )a + b = . b] èqoume x= b−x x−a a+ b. b] ⊆ {(1 − t)a + tb : 0 ≤ t ≤ 1}F 2 „— shmeЗ (1 − t)a + tb tou [a. 1] k—i 1 − t = (b − x)/(b − a)D ˜lèpoume ìti [a.1. b]F entÐstrof—D kˆje x ∈ [a. dhl—d  {(1 − t)a + tb : 0 ≤ t ≤ 1} ⊆ [a.

m m mn ipÐsh™D h zhtoÔmenh —nisìtht— p—Ðrnei th morf  b1 + · · · + bn ≥ n. . an eÐn—i jetikoÐ pr—gm—tikoÐ —rijmoÐD tìte √ a1 + a2 + · · · + an ≥ n a1 a2 · · · an . . erkeÐ loipìn n— deÐxoume thn —kìloujh €rìt—shF . . . . k —foÔ ìloi oi prosjetèoi sto thn isqurìterh —nisìtht— xn−k eÐn—i jetikoÐF ymoÐw™D —n n ≥ 3 p—Ðrnoume n 2 n(n − 1) 2 x = 1 + nx + x . . 2 €—r—t rhshF en x > 0D mporoÔme n— deÐxoume thn —nisìtht— tou Bernoulli qrhsimopoi¸nE t—™ to diwnumikì —nˆptugm—X gi— kˆje n ≥ 2 èqoume n (1 + x)n = k=0 n n−k k 1 x = 1 + nx + k n n k=2 k n k=2 n n−k x > 1 + nx.24 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n IFT enisìthte™ ƒe —ut  thn p—rˆgr—fo deÐqnoume me ep—gwg  dÔo ˜—sikè™ —nisìthte™X thn —nisìtht— tou Bernoulli k—i thn —nisìtht— —rijmhtikoÔ gewmetrikoÔ mèsouF 9elle™ ˜—sikè™ —nisìthte™ emf—nÐzont—i sti™ esk sei™F €rìt—sh IFTFI @—nisìtht— tou BernoulliAF en x > −1 tìte (1 + x)n ≥ 1 + nx gi— kˆje n ∈ N. . . nF €—r—throÔme m ìti oi bk eÐn—i jetikoÐ pr—gm—tikoÐ —rijmoÐ me ginìmeno b1 · · · bn = a1 an a1 · · · an ··· = = 1. epìdeixhF qi— n = 1 h —nisìtht— isqÔei w™ isìtht—X 1 + x = 1 + xF heÐqnoume to ep—gwgikì ˜ m—X …pojètoume ìti (1 + x)n ≥ 1 + nxF efoÔ 1 + x > 0D èqoume (1 + x)(1 + x)n ≥ (1 + x)(1 + nx)F 9er—D (1 + x)n+1 ≥ (1 + x)(1 + nx) = 1 + (n + 1)x + nx2 ≥ 1 + (n + 1)x. 2 2 (1 + x)n > 1 + nx + €rìt—sh IFTFP @—nisìtht— —rijmhtikoÔ gewmetrikoÔ mèsouAF 9istw n ∈ NF en a1 . n √ epìdeixhF tètoume m = n a1 a2 · · · an k—i orÐzoume bk = ak D k = 1.

. · · · . wporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti b1 ≤ b2 ≤ · · · ≤ bm+1 F €—r—throÔme ìtiD —n b1 = b2 = · · · = bm+1 = 1 tìte h —nisìtht— isqÔei s—n isìtht—F en ìqiD —n—gk—stikˆ èqoume b1 < 1 < bm+1 @exhg ste gi—tÐAF tewroÔme thn mEˆd— jetik¸n —rijm¸n x1 = b1 bm+1 . . 9iqoume loipìn deÐxei to ep—gwgikì ˜ m—F 2 €—r—t rhshF en oi —rijmoÐ a1 . efoÔ x1 · · · xm = b1 · · · bm+1 = 1D —pì thn ep—gwgik  upìjesh p—Ðrnoume (b1 bm+1 ) + b2 + · · · + bm = x1 + · · · + xm ≥ m.7 *Parˆrthma: Tomès Dedekind · 25 €rìt—sh IFTFQF 9istw n ∈ NF en b1 . . · · · . . . xm me ginìmeno x1 · · · xm = 1 isqÔei h —nisìtht— x1 + · · · + xm ≥ m. . . . . an den eÐn—i ìloi ÐsoiD tìte h —pìdeixh pou prohg jhke deÐqnei ìti h —nisìtht— eÐn—i gn si— @exhg ste gi—tÐAF hhl—d X sthn —nisìtht— —rijmhtikoÔ gewmetrikoÔ mèsou isqÔei isìtht— —n k—i mìnon —n a1 = · · · = an F IFU B€—rˆrthm—X „omè™ Dedekind …pojètoume ed¸ ìti to sÔnolo Q twn rht¸n —rijm¸n èqei oristeÐD k—i jewroÔme ìle™ ti™ idiìthtè™ tou gnwstè™F t— perigrˆyoume thn k—t—skeu  tou R mèsw twn tom¸n DedekindF „— stoiqeЗ tou R j— eÐn—i kˆpoi— uposÔnol— tou QD oi legìmene™ tomè™F r idè— pÐsw —pì ton orismì tou™ eÐn—i ìti kˆje pr—gm—tikì™ —rijmì™ prosdiorÐzet—i —pì to sÔnolo twn rht¸n pou eÐn—i mikrìteroÐ touX —n x ∈ R k—i —n orÐsoume Ax = {q ∈ Q : q < x}D tìte x = sup Ax F .1. 9ymw™D —pì thn b1 < 1 < bm+1 èpet—i ìti (bm+1 − 1)(1 − b1 ) > 0 dhl—d  b1 + bm+1 > 1 + bm+1 b1 F 9er—D b1 + bm+1 + b2 + · · · + bm > 1 + b1 bm+1 + b2 + · · · + bm ≥ 1 + m. bn eÐn—i jetikoÐ pr—gm—tikoÐ —rijmoÐ me ginìmeno b1 · · · bn = 1D tìte b1 + · · · + bn ≥ nF epìdeixhF we ep—gwg  w™ pro™ to pl jo™ twn bk X —n n = 1 tìte èqoume èn—n mìno —rijmìD ton b1 = 1F ƒunep¸™D h —nisìtht— eÐn—i tetrimmènhX 1 ≥ 1F …pojètoume ìti gi— kˆje mEˆd— jetik¸n —rijm¸n x1 . xm = bm . . x2 = b2 . an eÐn—i ìloi Ðsoi tìte h —nisìtht— —rijmhtikoÔ  gewmetrikoÔ mèsou isqÔei w™ isìtht—F en oi —rijmoÐ a1 . · · · . bm+1 eÐn—i (m + 1) jetikoÐ pr—gm—tikoÐ —rijmoÐ me ginìmeno b1 · · · bm+1 = 1 tìte b1 + · · · + bm+1 ≥ m + 1. . . k—i deÐqnoume ìti —n b1 .

<) ik—nopoieÐ to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™F hhl—d D —n A eÐn—i mh kenì epìdeixhF yrÐzoume γ thn ènwsh ìlwn twn stoiqeÐwn tou AF hhl—d D uposÔnolo tou R k—i upˆrqei tom  β ∈ R ¸ste α ≤ β gi— kˆje α ∈ AD tìte to A èqei elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm—F γ = {q ∈ Q : ∃α ∈ A me q ∈ α}. r. β < αF 9eskhshF heÐxte ìti —n α. t— deÐxoume ìti γ = sup AF @—A „o γ eÐn—i tom X €r¸tonD γ = ∅X —foÔ A = ∅D upˆrqei α0 ∈ AF efoÔ α0 = ∅D upˆrqei q ∈ α0 F „ìteD q ∈ γ F €rèpei epÐsh™ n— deÐxoume ìti γ = QX …pˆrqei q ∈ Q me q ∈ β F en / α ∈ AD tìte α ≤ β D ˆr— q ∈ αF ipomènw™D q ∈ ∪{α : α ∈ A} dhl—d  q ∈ γ F 9er—D to γ / / / ik—nopoieÐ thn pr¸th sunj kh tou orismoÔ th™ tom ™F qi— th deÔterhD èstw p ∈ γ k—i q ∈ Q me q < pF …pˆrqei α ∈ A me p ∈ α k—i q < pD ˆr— q ∈ αF efoÔ α ⊆ γ D èpet—i ìti q ∈ γ F qi— thn trÐthD èstw p ∈ γ F …pˆrqei α ∈ A me p ∈ αF efoÔ to α eÐn—i tom D upˆrqei q ∈ α me p < q F „ìteD q ∈ γ k—i p < q F . β eÐn—i dÔo tomè™D tìte α < β ⇐⇒ to α eÐn—i gn sio uposÔnolo tou β. β. q. γ gi— tomè™ @=mellontikoԙ pr—gm—tikoԙ —rijmoԙA k—i t— l—tinikˆ p. β eÐn—i tomè™D tìte isqÔei —kri˜¸™ mЗ —pì ti™ α < β D α = β D f m— QX „o (R.26 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n yrismì™ IFUFIF 9in— uposÔnolo α tou Q lèget—i tom  —n ik—nopoieÐ t— ex ™X • α = ∅D α = QF • —n p ∈ αD q ∈ Q k—i q < pD tìte q ∈ αF • —n p ∈ αD upˆrqei q ∈ α ¸ste p < q F r trÐth idiìtht— m—™ lèei ìti mi— tom  α den èqei mègisto stoiqeÐoF r deÔterh èqei ti™ ex ™ ˆmese™ sunèpeie™ pou j— f—noÔn qr sime™X • —n p ∈ α k—i q ∈ αD tìte p < q F / • —n r ∈ α k—i r < sD tìte s ∈ αF / / ƒhmeÐwshF ƒe ìlh —ut  thn p—rˆgr—fo qrhsimopoioÔme t— ellhnikˆ grˆmm—t— α. s gi— rhtoԙ —rijmoԙF f m— IX yrÐzoume R = {α ⊆ Q : to α eÐn—i tom }F eutì j— eÐn—i telikˆ to sÔnolo twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸nF f m— PX €r¸t— orÐzoume th diˆt—xh sto RF en α.

β ∈ ΘX en α > 0∗ k—i β > 0∗ D jètoume αβ = {q ∈ Q : upˆrqoun r ∈ α. β. β ∈ RD tìte α + β = {p + q : p ∈ α. —n α. —n α > 0∗ . β. s ∈ β.1. 2 f m— RX yrÐzoume mi— prˆxh + @prìsjeshA sto R w™ ex ™X —n α. r > 1 me (qr)−1 ∈ α}. q ∈ β}. heÐxte ìti —n α ∈ RD tìte isqÔei —kri˜¸™ mЗ —pì ti™ α ∈ ΘD α = 0∗ D −α ∈ ΘF f m— TX yrÐzoume mi— prˆxh poll—pl—si—smoÔD pr¸t— gi— α. s > 0 me q ≤ rs}. / heÐxte ìti α−1 ∈ Θ k—i αα−1 = α−1 α = 1∗ F yloklhr¸noume ton orismì tou poll—pl—si—smoÔ jètont—™ αβ αβ αβ = (−α)(−β). —n α < 0∗ . γ ∈ ΘF @˜A yrÐzoume 1∗ = {q ∈ Q : q < 1}F „ìteD α1∗ = 1∗ α = α gi— kˆje α ∈ ΘF @gA en α ∈ ΘD o —ntÐstrofo™ α−1 tou α orÐzet—i —pì thnX α−1 = {q ∈ Q : q ≤ 0   q > 0 k—i upˆrqei r ∈ Q.7 *Parˆrthma: Tomès Dedekind · 27 @˜A „o γ eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AX en α ∈ AD tìte α ⊆ γ dhl—d  α ≤ γ F @gA „o γ eÐn—i to elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm— tou AX 9istw β1 ∈ R ˆnw frˆgm— tou AF „ìte β1 ≥ α gi— kˆje α ∈ AD dhl—d  β1 ⊇ α gi— kˆje α ∈ AD dhl—d  β1 ⊇ dhl—d  β1 ≥ γ F {α : α ∈ A} = γ. / heÐxte ìti −α ∈ R k—i α + (−α) = (−α) + α = 0∗ F 9ipet—i ìti h prˆxh + sto R ik—nopoieÐ t— —xi¸m—t— th™ prìsjesh™F 2 f m— SX „o sÔnolo Θ twn jetik¸n stoiqeÐwn tou R orÐzet—i t¸r— me fusiologikì trìpoX α ∈ Θ ⇐⇒ 0∗ < α. . β > 0∗ = −[α(−β)]. β < 0∗ = −[(−α)β]. γ ∈ RF @˜A yrÐzoume 0∗ = {q ∈ Q : q < 0} k—i deÐqnoume ìti to 0∗ ∈ R k—i eÐn—i to oudètero stoiqeÐo th™ prìsjesh™X α + 0∗ = 0∗ + α = α gi— kˆje α ∈ RF @gA en α ∈ RD to −α orÐzet—i w™ ex ™X −α = {q ∈ Q : upˆrqei r ∈ Q. @—A heÐqnoume ìti to α + β eÐn—i tom D k—i eÔkol— ep—lhjeÔoume ìti α + β = β + α k—i α + (β + γ) = (α + β) + γ gi— kˆje α. β < 0∗ . @—A heÐqnoume ìti to αβ eÐn—i tom  k—i αβ = βαD α(βγ) = (αβ)γ —n α. r > 0 me − q − r ∈ α}. r > 0.

ˆnw fragmèno uposÔnolo tou R . tìte upˆrqei me a−ε<x<a . q ∈ QD tìte p∗ q ∗ = (pq)∗ F @gA —n p. wporoÔme t¸r— n— doÔme ìti ik—nopoioÔnt—i ìl— t— —xi¸m—t— tou poll—pl—si—smoÔD k—E j¸™ k—i h epimeristik  idiìtht— tou poll—pl—si—smoÔ w™ pro™ thn prìsjeshF hen j— mpoÔme se perissìtere™ leptomèreie™ @—n jèlete sum˜ouleuteÐte ton M. Gia kˆje x∈A eÐnai èqoume x ≤ sup A tou . An kai ε>0 . SpivakD uefˆl—io PVAF {„o R me ˜ˆsh thn p—r—pˆnw k—t—skeu  eÐn—i èn— pl rw™ di—tet—gmèno s¸m—F} f m— UX en q ∈ Q orÐzoume q ∗ = {r ∈ Q : r < q}F uˆje q ∗ eÐn—i tom D dhl—d  q ∗ ∈ RF iÔkol— deÐqnoume ìtiX @—A —n p. y ∈ R me x<y upˆrqoun ˆpeiroi to pl joc r∈Q pou ikanopoioÔn thn x<r<y . 'Estw mìno an A sup A ≤ x mh kenì. q ∈ QD tìte p∗ < q ∗ —n k—i mìno —n p < q F ipomènw™D h —peikìnish I : Q → R me I(q) = q ∗ di—threÐ ti™ prˆxei™ th™ prìsjesh™ k—i tou poll—pl—si—smoÔD k—j¸™ k—i th diˆt—xhF wporoÔme loipìn n— ˜lèpoume to Q s—n èn— di—tet—gmèno upos¸m— tou R mèsw th™ t—Ôtish™ Q ←→ Q∗ @ìpou Q∗ = {q ∗ : q ∈ Q} ⊂ RAF IFV esk sei™ irwt sei™ k—t—nìhsh™ Exetˆste an oi parakˆtw protˆseic eÐnai alhjeÐc   yeudeÐc (aitiolog ste pl rwc thn apˆnths  sac). y ∈ A ¸ste x−y =1 . q ∈ QD tìte p∗ + q ∗ = (p + q)∗ F @˜A —n p. .28 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n k—i α0∗ = 0∗ α = 0∗ . IF PF QF RF SF TF UF VF 'Estw A mh kenì. . tìte upˆrqei x∈A x∈A me a−ε<x≤a . An a = sup A a = sup A A kai ε>0 . An to eÐnai mh kenì kai sup A − inf A = 1 tìte upˆrqoun x. Gia kˆje x. An A eÐnai èna mh kenì kai ˆnw fragmèno uposÔnolo tou Z tìte sup A ∈ A . ˆnw fragmèno uposÔnolo tou R . O x∈R R ˆnw frˆgma A an kai An to A eÐnai mh kenì kai ˆnw fragmèno uposÔnolo tou tìte sup A ∈ A .

a. (g) An |x − y| ≤ ε gia kˆje ε>0 . tìte kai . PF (a) An |a − b| < ε . BreÐte ìlouc touc |b − x| < ε .8 Ask seis · 29 esk sei™   ymˆd— e9 IF DeÐxte ìti ta parakˆtw isqÔoun sto R : (a) An x<y+ε x≤y+ε a<x<b gia kˆje ε>0 ε>0 . ( n iv n! > 2n ) isqÔoun oi parakˆtw anisìthtec: . DeÐxte ìti: (a) An −1 < a < 0 . 0<a<b . 1 + na VF 'Estw a∈R . n ∈ N . . (b) An kai m. tìte an > a gia kˆje fusikì arijmì n≥2 . (d) An kai a<y<b . (b) An 0 < a < 1/n 0≤a≤1 . deÐxte ìti nan−1 ≤ bn − an ≤ nbn−1 . DeÐxte ìti n−1 an − bn = (a − b) k=0 An ak bn−1−k . . 2 (g) 'Estw ìti a < b < a+ε . ( v 2n−1 ≤ n2 ) . tìte x=y . tìte 1 − na ≤ (1 − a)n ≤ 1 . DeÐxte ìti: (a) An a ≥ −1 . tìte (1 + a) ≥ 1 + na . ( iii 2n > n ) . Exetˆste gia poiec timèc tou fusikoÔ arijmoÔ .1. b ∈ R n∈N . ( i 2n > n3 'Estw ii 2n > n2 ) kai . DeÐxte ìti: (a) An a>1 a>1 . (b) An gia kˆje . tìte am < an an kai mìno an m>n . tìte upˆrqei x |a − x| < (b) IsqÔei to antÐstrofo? ε 2 kai |b − x| < ε . tìte (1 + a)n < 1/(1 − na) . UF 'Estw kai èstw n∈N . b−a TF 'Estw a∈R . tìte (1 + a)n ≤ 1 + na + n(n−1) 2 a 2 gia kˆje n∈N . tìte x≤y x≤y . (g) An 0<a<1 0<a<1 a∈R an < a gia kˆje fusikì arijmì n≥2 (d) An m. tìte a m <a n an kai mìno an m<n . n ∈ N n . tìte . tìte |x − y| < b − a ¸ste . (g) An . 2 x ∈ R pou ikanopoioÔn tic |a − x| < n∈N ε 2 kai QF RF SF ( ) Na deiqjeÐ me epagwg  ìti o arijmìc n5 − n eÐnai pollaplˆsio tou 5 gia kˆje .

to a0 ∈ A A me thn idiìthta: gia kˆje a ∈ A . bn n n 1/2 1/2 1/2 (ak + bk )2 k=1 ≤ k=1 a2 k + k=1 b2 k . . . . deÐxte ìti gia kˆje ε>0 upˆrqoun a∈A kai b∈B b−a<ε R me . BreÐte to supremum infimum tou sunìlou (a. . . k. B A dÔo kai fragmèna ¸ste uposÔnola tou R . tou R kai èstw an DeÐxte ìti tou a0 = sup A A .j=1 Qrhsimopoi¸ntac thn tautìthta tou Lagrange deÐxte thn anisìthta Cauchy-Schwarz . . . A a ≤ a0 supremum 'Estw . . . . IHF (a) DeÐxte anisìthta Cauchy-Schwarz n 2 : an a1 . tìte n 2 a2 k k=1 k=1 b2 k − k=1 ak bk = (ak bj − aj bk )2 . . b ∈ R {x ∈ Q : a < x < b} (a) 'Estw . xn > 0 . b) ∩ Q = Aitiolog ste pl rwc thn apˆnthsh sac. . èqei mègisto stoiqeÐo. . me a<b . tìte gia kˆje n∈N . IPF (Anisìthta arijmhtikoÔ-gewmetrikoÔ mèsou) An x1 . . . . . bn ∈ R 1 2 n . WF DeÐxte ìti gia kˆje isqÔoun oi anisìthtec 1+ 1 n thn n < 1 n+1 n+1 kai 1+ 1 n n+1 > 1+ 1 n+1 n+2 . xn > 0 n x1 x2 · · · xn ≤ Isìthta isqÔei an kai mìno an x1 + · · · + xn n . . an n b1 . Ti sumperaÐnete gia to A ? a. mh kenì uposÔnolo . . an ∈ R n kai b1 . tìte n x1 x2 · · · xn ≥ 1 x1 n + ··· + 1 xn . tìte . . bn eÐnai pragmatikoÐ arijmoÐ. . . eÐnai pragmatikoÐ arijmoÐ. . mh kenˆ Me ˆlla lìgia. . tìte n ak bk k=1 (b) DeÐxte thn anisìthta tou tìte ≤ k=1 : an a2 k k=1 kai b2 k . . . .30 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n (1 + a)n ≥ 1 + na + n∈N 1+ n(n−1) 2 a 2 (b) An a>0 . an n kai b1 . IQF IRF to DeÐxte ìti kˆje mh kenì kˆtw fragmèno uposÔnolo A tou R èqei mègisto kˆtw frˆgma. . tìte autì eÐnai ISF ITF IUF 'Estw A. x1 = x2 = · · · = xn EpÐshc. 'Estw mh kenì fragmèno uposÔnolo tou inf A = sup A kai to . . . . . . x2 . An sup A = inf B . Minkowski a1 . IIF (Tautìthta tou Lagrange n ) An a1 . . an x1 .

ta max min sup . .8 Ask seis · 31 (b) Gia kˆje x∈R orÐzoume Ax = {q ∈ Q : q < x} . 2 . . Exetˆste an to sup A kai A èqei mègisto   elˆqisto stoiqeÐo. 0 < x2 − 1 ≤ 2} C = {0. ˆnw fragmèna uposÔnola tou me thn ex c idiìthta: gia kˆje a∈A ¸ste a ≤ b. D = {x ∈ R : x < 0.1. . an upˆrqoun. DeÐxte ìti sup A ≤ sup B . B mh kenˆ uposÔnola isqÔei tou . PQF supremum infimum twn sunìlwn A= 1 + (−1)n + (−1)n+1 :n∈N n . DeÐxte ìti to A∪B eÐnai fragmèno kai sup(A ∪ B) = max{sup A. B b∈B mh kenˆ. inf B}. (g) 2 + (−1) n : n ∈ N} F = {x ∈ Q : . DeÐxte ìti an o fusikìc arijmìc tetrˆgwno kˆpoiou fusikoÔ arijmoÔ. . DeÐxte ìti inf B ≤ inf A ≤ sup A ≤ sup B. m ∈ N . PPF (a) (b) Na brejoÔn. MporoÔme na poÔme kˆti anˆlogo gia to inf(A ∪ B) = min{inf A. PUF 'Estw A. Upojètoume ìti: (a) gia kˆje a∈A kai gia kˆje b∈B isqÔei a≤b . 2n 3 PRF DeÐxte ìti to sÔnolo A= eÐnai fragmèno kai breÐte ta (−1)n m : m. B= 1 1 + m : n. 1 . . n = 1. ìti sup A ≤ inf B R an kai mìno an gia kˆje a∈A kai gia kˆje b∈B a≤b 'Estw upˆrqei A. kai . B mh kenˆ uposÔnola tou R . n+m inf A .   to sup(A ∩ B) R . fragmèna uposÔnola tou R . G = {5 + BreÐte to 6 n : n ∈ N} ∪ {7 − 8n : n ∈ N} kai to . tìte o eÐnai ˆrrhtoc. esk sei™   ymˆd— f9 PSF PTF √ n DeÐxte ìti oi arijmoÐ √ √ 2+ 3 kai √ √ √ 2+ 3+ 5 n den eÐnai eÐnai ˆrrhtoi. . DeÐxte ìti x = y ⇐⇒ Ax = Ay . DeÐxte inf(A ∩ B) ? PHF PIF 'Estw A. . B mh kenˆ fragmèna uposÔnola tou R me A⊆B . . kai inf 1 {n twn parakˆtw sunìlwn: 1 A = {x > 0 : 0 < x2 − 1 ≤ 2} B = {x ∈ Q : x ≥ 0. 2. x + x − 1 < 0} E = √ (x − 1)(x + 2) < 0} . sup B}. IVF 'Estw A. IWF 'Estw A. .} 3 4 . . B mh kenˆ. 1 .

Na tou sunìlou x : x∈A . +∞) (a) gia kˆje (b) . ìti brejoÔn. Upojètoume . . γ) kai B = [γ. tìte a1 bn + a2 bn−1 + · · · + an b1 n a1 + · · · + an b1 + · · · + bn · n n a1 b1 + · · · + an bn . . DeÐxte mìno an gia kˆje a∈A kai gia kˆje ε>0 b∈B ¸ste sup A ≤ sup B a−ε<b ìti . +∞) . . . an > 0 . ta max min sup B= kai inf A = 0 inf kai ìti to den eÐnai ˆnw fragmèno. an upˆrqoun. +∞) A   A = (−∞. kai a+b=1 2 . . me 0<n≤N a1 . B A. tètoioc ¸ste eÐte A = (−∞. DeÐxte ìti: gia kˆje upˆrqoun akèraioi kai n . kai QTBF An a1 ≥ a2 ≥ · · · ≥ an > 0 b1 ≥ b2 ≥ · · · ≥ bn > 0 ≤ ≤ . . . B mh . deÐxte ìti (1 + a1 ) · · · (1 + an ) ≥ 1 + a1 + · · · + an . (b) An 0 < a1 . DeÐxte ìti sup A = inf B A. 'Estw . . . . QSF (a) An a1 . ¸ste x∈R 1 |nx − m| < N 'Estw . an kai 'Estw mh kenˆ uposÔnola tou kai gia kˆje DeÐxte a∈A A∪B =R γ∈R B = (γ. an < 1 . n . ìti upˆrqei . . . tìte 1 − (a1 + · · · + an ) ≤ ≤ (1 − a1 ) · · · (1 − an ) 1 − (a1 + · · · + an ) + (a1 a2 + a1 a3 + · · · + an−1 an ). tìte a+ 1 a 2 + b+ 1 b 2 ≥ 25.32 · To sÔnolo twn pragmatik¸n arijm¸n (b) gia kˆje ε>0 upˆrqoun a∈A kai b∈B ¸ste b−a<ε . PVF PWF 'Estw kenˆ. DeÐxte ìti (a1 + a2 + · · · + an ) 1 1 1 + + ··· + a1 a2 an ≥ n2 . ˆnw fragmèna uposÔnola upˆrqei tou R . an > 0 . n . . DeÐxte ìti: gia kˆje n∈N N ≥2 upˆrqei akèraioc ¸ste < 1 √ . QRF An a>0 b>0 . γ] kai QHF A ⊂ (0. 'Estw R b∈B pou ikanopoioÔn ta ex c: isqÔei a<b . x+1 kn ∈ Z m x− k √n n QIF QPF QQF 'Estw x∈R .

. inf(A · B) = inf A · inf B. . .1. OrÐzoume jetik¸n A·B = DeÐxte ìti sup(A · B) = sup A · sup B. . . DeÐxte ìti sup(A + B) = sup A + sup B. . . b ∈ B} . A. OrÐzoume A + B = {a + b : a ∈ A. m = 1. pragmatik¸n arijm¸n. n − 1 n b0 = − k=1 ak . . fragmèna uposÔnola tou R . . an }. QVF QWF 'Estw A. B {ab : a ∈ A. orÐzoume tA = {ta : a ∈ A} . An RHF 'Estw A mh kenì. . R . DeÐxte ìti (a) an (b) an t≥0 t<0 tìte tìte sup(tA) = t sup A sup(tA) = t inf A kai kai inf(tA) = t inf A inf(tA) = t sup A . . kenˆ. an jetikoÐ pragmatikoÐ arijmoÐ. DeÐxte ìti dÔo diadoqikoÐ apì autoÔc eÐnai eterìshmoi. fragmèna sÔnola inf(A + B) = inf A + inf B. DeÐxte ìti upˆrqei 1 ≤ m ≤ n−1 me thn idiìthta m n ak − k=1 Upìdeixh: Jewr ste touc arijmoÔc ak ≤ max{a1 . . b ∈ B} 'Estw mh . B mh kenˆ.8 Ask seis · 33 QUBF 'Estw a1 . k=m+1 m n bm = k=1 kai ak − k=m+1 n ak . . fragmèno uposÔnolo tou t ∈ R . bn = k=1 ak . .

.

F en gnwrÐzoume tou™ an k—i an+1 tìte mporoÔme n— upologÐsoume ton an+2 qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn —n—dromik  sqèsh €—r—deÐgm—t— PFIFPF @—A 9istw c ∈ RF r —koloujЗ an = cD n = 1. .) qwrЙ —utì n— prok—leÐ sÔgqushF n=1 st—jer  —koloujЗ me tim  cF @˜A an = nF yi pr¸toi ìroi th™ (an ) eÐn—iX a1 = 1D a2 = 2D a3 = 3F 1 @gA an = n F yi pr¸toi ìroi th™ (an ) eÐn—iX a1 = 1D a2 = 1 D a3 = 1 F 2 3 @dA an = an D ìpou a ∈ RF yi pr¸toi ìroi th™ (an ) eÐn—iX a1 = aD a2 = a2 D a3 = a3 F √ @eA a1 = 1 k—i an+1 = 1 + an D n = 1. . . 2.F eut  h —koloujЗ orÐzet—i —n—dromikˆX —n gnwrÐzoume ton an tìte mporoÔme n— upologÐsoume ton an+1 qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn √ an+1 = 1 + an F hedomènou ìti èqei dojeÐ o pr¸to™ th™ ìro™D h (an ) eÐn—i k—lˆ orismènh @kˆnont—™ n − 1 ˜ m—t— mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme ton an AF yi pr¸toi ìroi th™ (an ) eÐn—iX √ √ √ a1 = 1D a2 = 2D a3 = 1 + 2D a4 = 1 + 1 + 2F @stA a1 = 1D a2 = 1 k—i an+2 = an + an+1 D n = 1. . lèget—i . . 2. . . a3 . . . a(2). 2. k—i lème ìti o —rijmì™ an eÐn—i o nEostì™ ìro™ th™ —koloujЗ™F r Ðdi— h —koloujЗ sum˜olÐzet—i me {an }∞ D {an }D (an )D (a1 . . . . . . . . . a3 . .Kefˆlaio 2 AkoloujÐec pragmatik¸n arijm¸n PFI ekoloujÐe™ pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n yrismì™ PFIFIF ekoloujЗ lèget—i kˆje sunˆrthsh a : N → R @me pedÐo orismoÔ to sÔnolo twn fusik¸n —rijm¸n k—i timè™ stou™ pr—gm—tikoԙ —rijmoԙAF entÐ n— sum˜olÐE zoume ti™ timè™ th™ —koloujЗ™ a me a(1).D grˆfoume a1 . a2 . a2 .

. @˜A „o ˆjroism—D h di—forˆD to ginìmeno k—i to phlÐko twn —kolouji¸n (an )D (bn ) eÐn—i oi —koloujÐe™ (an + bn )D (an − bn )D (an bn ) k—i (an /bn ) —ntÐstoiq— @gi— thn teleut—З prèpei n— kˆnoume thn epiplèon upìjesh ìti bn = 0 gi— kˆje n ∈ NAF yrismì™ PFIFR @sÔnolo twn ìrwnAF „o sÔnolo twn ìrwn th™ —koloujЗ™ (an ) eÐn—i to A = {an : n ∈ N}. . 31. 7. 1}F €—r—thr ste epÐsh™ ìti dÔo di—foretikè™ —koloujÐe™ mporeÐ n— èqoun to Ðdio sÔnolo tim¸n @d¸ste p—r—deÐgm—t—AF yrismì™ PFIFS @telikì tm m—AF 9istw (an ) mi— —koloujЗ pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸nF uˆje —koloujЗ th™ morf ™ (am+n−1 )∞ = (am . a2 . . qi— {megˆle™} timè™ tou n oi ìroi 1/n th™ (an ) ˜rÐskont—i @ìlo k—i pioA {kontˆ} sto 0F epì thn ˆllh pleurˆD oi ìroi (−1)n th™ (bn ) den plhsiˆzoun se kˆpoion pr—gm—tikì . −1. a3 = b3 . . 32. am+1 . .) k—i (30.36 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n an+2 = an + an+1 F hedomènou ìti èqoun dojeÐ oi pr¸toi dÔo ìroiD h (an ) eÐn—i k—lˆ orismènh @kˆnont—™ n − 2 ˜ m—t— mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme ton an AF yi pr¸toi ìroi th™ (an ) eÐn—iX a1 = 1D a2 = 1D a3 = 2D a4 = 3D a5 = 5D a6 = 8F 1 @zA an = n —n n = 2k k—i an = 1 —n n = 2k − 1F qi— ton upologismì tou n ostoÔ ìrou 2 an —rkeÐ n— gnwrÐzoume —n o n eÐn—i ˆrtio™   perittì™X gi— p—rˆdeigm—D a6 = 1 k—i a7 = 1 F 6 2 yrismì™ PFIFQF 9istw (an ) k—i (bn ) dÔo —koloujÐe™ pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸nF @—A vème ìti (an ) = (bn ) @oi —koloujÐe™ eÐn—i Ðse™A —n an = bn gi— kˆje n ∈ NF hhl—d D a1 = b1 . am+2 . . . . . .) eÐn—i to disÔnolo {−1. . . . . 1. . . . a2 = b2 . 6. −1.) ìpou m ∈ N lèget—i telikì n=1 tm m— th™ (an )F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D oi —koloujÐe™ (5. . hen j— prèpei n— sugqèei k—neЙ thn —koloujЗ (an ) = (a1 . .) eÐn—i telikˆ tm m—t— th™ an = nF 9eskhsh PFIFTF 9istw (an ) mi— —koloujЗ pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n k—i èstw (am+n−1 )∞ n=1 èn— telikì tm m— th™F heÐxte ìtiX @—A kˆje telikì tm m— th™ (am+n−1 ) eÐn—i telikì tm m— th™ (an )F @˜A kˆje telikì tm m— th™ (an ) perièqei kˆpoio telikì tm m— th™ (am+n−1 )F PFP PFP—þ ƒÔgklish —kolouji¸n yrismì™ tou orÐou 1 n tewroÔme ti™ —koloujÐe™ (an ) k—i (bn ) me n ostoԙ ìrou™ tou™ an = k—i bn = (−1)n .) me to sÔnolo twn tim¸n th™F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D to sÔnolo tim¸n th™ —koloujЗ™ (−1)n = (1.

a + ε) me kèntro ton a k—i —ktÐn— ε eÐn—i mi— perioq  tou a @h ε perioq  tou aAF rhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn ènnoi— th™ ε perioq ™ k—i thn ènnoi— tou telikoÔ tm m—to™ mi—™ —koloujЗ™D k—t—l goume sto ex ™X {h (an ) sugklÐnei ston a —n kˆje ε perioq  tou a perièqei kˆpoio telikì tm m— th™ (an )}F €—r—thr¸nt—™ ìti x ∈ (a − ε.2.2 SÔgklish akolouji¸n · 37 —rijmìF t— lèg—me ìti h —koloujЗ (an ) sugklÐnei @èqei ìrio to 0 k—j¸™ to n teÐnei sto ˆpeiroA en¸ h (bn ) den sugklÐneiF we ˆll— lìgi—D jèloume n— ekfrˆsoume —usthrˆ thn prìt—shX {h (an ) sugklÐnei ston a —n gi— megˆle™ timè™ tou n o an eÐn—i kontˆ ston a}F eutì pou prèpei n— kˆnoume s—fè™ eÐn—i to nìhm— twn frˆsewn {kontˆ} k—i {megˆle™ timè™}F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D —n kˆpoio™ jewreÐ ìti h —pìst—sh 1 eÐn—i ik—nopoihtikˆ mikr D tìte h (an ) èqei ìlou™ tou™ ìrou™ th™ kontˆ ston 1/2F ipÐsh™D —n kˆpoio™ jewreÐ ìti h frˆsh {megˆle™ timè™} shm—Ðnei {—rketè™ megˆle™ timè™}D tìte h (bn ) èqei —rketoԙ ìrou™ kontˆ ston 1 —llˆ k—i —rketoԙ ìrou™ kontˆ ston −1F ƒumfwnoÔme n— lème ìtiX {h (an ) sugklÐnei ston a —n se osod pote mikr  perioq  tou a ˜rÐskont—i telikˆ ìloi oi ìroi th™ (an )}F r ènnoi— th™ perioq ™ enì™ pr—gm—tikoÔ —rijmoÔ a orÐzet—i —usthrˆ w™ ex ™X gi— kˆje ε > 0 to —noiktì diˆsthm— (a − ε. a + ε) —n k—i mìno —n |x − a| < εD mporoÔme n— d¸soume ton ex ™ —usthrì orismìF yrismì™ PFPFI @ìrio —koloujЗ™AF 9istw (an ) mi— —koloujЗ pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸nF vème ìti h (an ) sugklÐnei ston pr—gm—tikì —rijmì a —n isqÔei to ex ™X qi— kˆje ε > 0 upˆrqei fusikì™ n0 = n0 (ε) me thn idiìtht—X —n n ∈ N k—i n ≥ n0 (ε)D tìte |an − a| < εF en h (an ) sugklÐnei ston aD grˆfoume lim an = a   lim an = a  D pio —plˆD an → aF n→∞ €—r—t rhsh PFPFPF ƒton p—r—pˆnw orismìD o deÐkth™ n0 ex—rtˆt—i kˆje forˆ —pì to εF 9yso ìmw™ mikrì ki —n eÐn—i to εD mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme n0 (ε) ¸ste ìloi oi ìroi an pou èpont—i tou an0 n— ˜rÐskont—i{εEkontˆ} ston aF ƒkefteÐte thn prospˆjei— epilog ™ tou n0 (ε) s—n èn— ep) ˆpeiron p—iqnÐdi me èn—n —ntÐp—lo o opoÐo™ epilègei oloèn— k—i mikrìtero ε > 0F qi— n— exoikeiwjoÔme me ton orismì j— —podeÐxoume ìti h an = den sugklÐnei @se k—nèn—n pr—gm—tikì —rijmìAF 1 n → 0 en¸ h bn = (−1)n 1 @—A r an = n sugklÐnei sto 0X tewroÔme tuqoÔs— ε perioq  (−ε. ε) tou 0F epì thn 1 erqim dei— idiìtht— upˆrqei n0 (ε) ∈ N ¸ste n0 < εF y mikrìtero™ tètoio™ fusikì™ .

ε)F ƒumfwn— +1 +2 me ton orismìD èqoume an → 0F @˜A r bn = (−1)n den sugklÐneiX e™ upojèsoume ìti upˆrqei a ∈ R ¸ste (−1)n → aF hi—krÐnoume dÔo peript¸sei™X @˜IA en a = 1 upˆrqei ε perioq  tou a ¸ste 1 ∈ (a − ε. an ∈ (a − ε. n2 }F „ìteD gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 isqÔoun t—utìqron— oi |an − a| < ε 9ymw™ tìteD gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 èqoume k—i |an − b| < ε. to opoÐo eÐn—i ˆtopoF tewroÔme treЙ —koloujÐe™ an . a + ε)F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D / mporoÔme n— epilèxoume ε = |1−a| F efoÔ bn → aD upˆrqei telikì tm m— (bm . a + ε) ∩ (b − ε. . bm+1 . b + ε) = ∅.) 2 pou perièqet—i sto (a − ε. γn pou ik—nopoioÔn t— ex ™X @—A an ≤ bn ≤ γn gi— kˆje n ∈ NF @˜A lim an = lim γn = F „ìteD h (bn ) sugklÐnei k—i lim bn = F 2 te¸rhm— PFPFR @krit rio p—rem˜ol ™   krit rio isosugklinous¸n —kolouji¸nAF . . bn .) 2 pou perièqet—i sto (a − ε. . th™ (an ) perièqet—i sto (−ε. bm+1 . . efoÔ an → aD mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme n1 ∈ N ¸ste gi— kˆje n ≥ n1 n— isqÔei |an − a| < εF ymoÐw™D —foÔ an → bD mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme n2 ∈ N ¸ste gi— kˆje n ≥ n2 n— isqÔei |an − b| < εF tètoume n0 = max{n1 .38 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n —rijmì™ eÐn—i o 1 + 1 @exhg ste gi—tÐAD ìmw™ —utì den èqei idi—Ðterh shm—sЗF „ìteD gi— ε kˆje n ≥ n0 isqÔei 1 1 −ε < 0 < ≤ < ε. . n01 . b + ε). . a + ε)F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D / mporoÔme n— epilèxoume ε = |1+a| F efoÔ bn → aD upˆrqei telikì tm m— (bm . a + ε)F iidikìter—D bn = −1 gi— kˆje n ≥ mF eutì eÐn—i ˆtopoX —n jewr soume perittì n ≥ m tìte bn = (−1)n = −1F te¸rhm— PFPFQ @mon—dikìtht— tou orÐouAF en an → a k—i an → bD tìte a = bF epìdeixhF …pojètoume ìti a = bF wrЙ periorismì th™ genikìtht—™D mporoÔme n— upojèE soume ìti a < bF en pˆroume ε = (b − a)/4D tìte a + ε < b − εF hhl—d D (a − ε. a + ε) ∩ (b − ε. n n0 1 hhl—d D to telikì tm m— n0 . . . . n01 . a + ε)F iidikìter—D bn = 1 gi— kˆje n ≥ mF eutì eÐn—i ˆtopoX —n jewr soume ˆrtio n ≥ m tìte bn = (−1)n = 1F @˜PA en a = −1 upˆrqei ε perioq  tou a ¸ste −1 ∈ (a − ε.

2 SÔgklish akolouji¸n · 39 epìdeixhF 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ an → k—i γn → D upˆrqoun fusikoÐ —rijmoÐ n1 . |an0 |. n2 ¸ste k—i |an − | < ε —n n ≥ n1 ssodÔn—m—D |γn − | < ε —n n ≥ n2 . tìte |an | ≤ |an − a| + |a| < 1 + |a|. . ipilègoume n0 = max{n1 . − ε < an < + ε —n n ≥ n1 k—i − ε < γn < + ε —n n ≥ n2 . tètoume M = max{|a1 |. 10   k—i 1010 A den ephreˆzoun th sÔgklish   mh mi—™ —koloujЗ™F rhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn 9eskhsh PFIFT deÐxte t— ex ™X IF 9istw m ∈ NF r —koloujЗ (an ) sugklÐnei —n k—i mìno —n h —koloujЗ (bn ) = (am+n−1 ) sugklÐneiD k—i mˆlist— limn an = limn am+n−1 F PF 9istw (an ) k—i (bn ) dÔo —koloujÐe™ pou di—fèroun se peper—smènou™ to pl jo™ ìrou™X upˆrqei m ∈ N ¸ste an = bn gi— kˆje n ≥ mF en h (an ) sugklÐnei ston a tìte h (bn ) sugklÐnei ki —ut  ston aF yrismì™ PFPFTF r —koloujЗ (an ) lèget—i fr—gmènh —n mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme kˆpoion M > 0 me thn idiìtht— |an | ≤ M gi— kˆje n ∈ N. 1 + |a|} k—i eÔkol— elègqoume ìti |an | ≤ M gi— kˆje n ∈ N @di—krÐnete peript¸sei™X n ≤ n0 k—i n > n0 AF 9er—D h (an ) eÐn—i fr—gmènhF 2 . te¸rhm— PFPFUF uˆje sugklÐnous— —koloujЗ eÐn—i fr—gmènhF epìdeixhF 9istw ìti an → a ∈ RF €—Ðrnoume ε = 1 > 0F wporoÔme n— ˜roÔme n0 ∈ N ¸ste |an − a| < 1 gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 F hhl—d D —n n ≥ n0 .2. . . n2 }F en n ≥ n0 D tìte − ε < an ≤ bn ≤ γn < + ε dhl—d D —n n ≥ n0 èqoume |bn − | < εF we ˜ˆsh ton orismìD bn → F 2 €—r—thr sei™ PFPFSF @—A fe˜—iwjeÐte ìti èqete k—t—lˆ˜ei th di—dik—sЗ —pìdeixh™X —n jèloume n— deÐxoume ìti tn → tD prèpei gi— —uj—Ðreto @mikrìA ε > 0   h —pìdeixh xekinˆei me thn frˆsh {èstw ε > 0}   n— ˜roÔme fusikì n0 @pou ex—rtˆt—i —pì to εA me thn idiìtht—X n ≥ n0 (ε) =⇒ |tn − t| < εF @˜A 9ssw™ èqete  dh p—r—thr sei ìti oi pr¸toi m ìroi @m = 2. .

. . . . a + ε)}F €—r—thr ste ìti —n (am .) eÐn—i èn— telikì tm m— th™ (an ) tìteX to (am . .) den perièqet—i sto (a − ε. . €—r—t rhsh PFPFWF rhsimopoi s—me th lèxh {teÐnei} sto ±∞X sumfwnoÔme pw™ mi— —koloujЗ (an ) sugklÐnei mìno —n sugklÐnei se kˆpoion pr—gm—tikì —rijmì a @o opoÐo™ lèget—i k—i ìrio th™ (an )AF ƒe ìle™ ti™ ˆlle™ peript¸sei™ j— lème ìti h —koloujЗ —poklÐneiF PFPgþ r ˆrnhsh tou orismoÔ uleÐnoume —ut n thn €—rˆgr—fo me thn —kri˜  di—tÔpwsh th™ ˆrnhsh™ tou orismoÔ tou orÐouF tumhjeÐte ìtiX {h (an ) sugklÐnei ston a —n kˆje ε perioq  tou a perièqei kˆpoio telikì tm m— th™ (an )}F ipomènw™D h (an ) den sugklÐnei ston a —n upˆrqei perioq  (a − ε. a + ε) tou a h opoЗ den perièqei k—nèn— telikì tm m— th™ (an )F ssodÔn—m—D {h (an ) den sugklÐnei ston a —n upˆrqei ε > 0 ¸steX kˆje telikì tm m— (am . . . tìte an > M. . a + ε) —n k—i mìno —n upˆrqei n ≥ m ¸ste an ∈ (a − ε. a + ε)D / dhl—d  |an − a| ≥ εF u—t—l goume loipìn sthn ex ™ prìt—shX {h (an ) den sugklÐnei ston a —n upˆrqei ε > 0 ¸steX gi— kˆje m ∈ N upˆrqei n ≥ m ¸ste |an − a| ≥ ε}F 9eskhsh PFPFIHF heÐxte ìti h —koloujЗ (an ) den sugklÐnei ston a —n k—i mìno —n upˆrqei ε > 0 ¸ste ˆpeiroi to pl jo™ ìroi th™ (an ) ik—nopoioÔn thn |an − a| ≥ εF . @˜A vème ìti an → −∞ @h —koloujЗ teÐnei sto −∞A —n gi— kˆje M > 0 @osod pote megˆloA upˆrqei fusikì™ n0 = n0 (M ) ¸ste —n n ≥ n0 . am+1 . am+1 . am+1 .40 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n PFP˜þ ekoloujÐe™ pou teÐnoun sto ˆpeiro yrismì™ PFPFVF 9istw (an ) mi— —koloujЗ pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸nF @—A vème ìti an → +∞ @h —koloujЗ teÐnei sto +∞A —n gi— kˆje M > 0 @osod pote megˆloA upˆrqei fusikì™ n0 = n0 (M ) ¸ste —n n ≥ n0 . tìte an < −M.) th™ (an ) èqei toulˆqiston èn—n ìro pou den —n kei sto (a − ε.

3 Algebra twn orÐwn · 41 PFQ 9elge˜r— twn orÐwn 9yle™ oi ˜—sikè™ idiìthte™ twn orÐwn —kolouji¸n —podeiknÔont—i eÔkol— me ˜ˆsh ton orismìF €rìt—sh PFQFIF an → a —n k—i mìno —n an − a → 0 —n k—i mìno —n |an − a| → 0F epìdeixhF erkeÐ n— grˆyoume tou™ treЙ orismoԙX @iA 9iqoume an → a —n gi— kˆje ε > 0 upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 n— isqÔei |an − a| < εF @iiA 9iqoume an − a → 0 —n gi— kˆje ε > 0 upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 n— isqÔei |(an − a) − 0| < εF @iiiA 9iqoume |an − a| → 0 —n gi— kˆje ε > 0 upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 n— isqÔei |an − a| − 0 < εF €—r—thr¸nt—™ ìti |an − a| = |(an − a) − 0| = |an − a| − 0 gi— kˆje n ∈ N ˜lèpoume ìti oi trei™ protˆsei™ lène —kri˜¸™ to Ðdio prˆgm—F 2 €rìt—sh PFQFPF an → 0 —n k—i mìno —n |an | → 0F epìdeixhF iidik  perÐptwsh th™ €rìt—sh™ PFQFI @a = 0AF 2 €rìt—sh PFQFQF en an → a tìte |an | → |a|F epìdeixhF 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ an → aD upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 n— isqÔei |an − a| < εF „ìteD gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 èqoume |an | − |a| ≤ |an − a| < ε. n2 }F „ìteD gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 èqoume t—utìqron— |an − a| < ε/2 k—i |bn − b| < ε/2F 9er—D gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 èqoume |(an + bn ) − (a + b)| = |(an − a) + (bn − b)| ≤ |an − a| + |bn − b| < efoÔ to ε > 0  t—n tuqìnD —utì deÐqnei ìti an + bn → a + bF ε ε + = ε. 2 2 2 . 2 ymoÐw™D —foÔ bn → bD upˆrqei n2 ∈ N ¸ste gi— kˆje n ≥ n2 n— isqÔei |bn − b| < tètoume n0 = max{n1 .2. —pì thn trigwnik  —nisìtht— gi— thn —pìluth tim F 2 €rìt—sh PFQFRF en an → a k—i bn → b tìte an + bn → a + bF epìdeixhF 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ an → aD upˆrqei n1 ∈ N ¸ste gi— kˆje n ≥ n1 n— isqÔei |an − a| < ε . 2 ε .

ƒunep¸™D tan → taF 2 €rìt—sh PFQFUF en an → a k—i bn → bD tìte an bn → abF epìdeixhF qrˆfoume an bn − ab = an (bn − b) + b(an − a). M 2 efoÔ to ε > 0  t—n tuqìnD —utì deÐqnei ìti an bn → 0F €rìt—sh PFQFTF en an → a k—i t ∈ R tìte tan → taF epìdeixhF epì thn an → a èpet—i ìti an − a → 0F tewroÔme thn st—jer  —koloujЗ bn = tF epì thn prohgoÔmenh €rìt—sh èqoume tan − ta = t(an − a) = bn (an − a) → 0. hhl—d D an bn − ab → 0F 2 €rìt—sh PFQFVF 9istw k ∈ ND k ≥ 2F en an → a tìte ak → ak F n epìdeixhF we ep—gwg  w™ pro™ k F en an → a k—i —n gnwrÐzoume ìti am → am D tìte n am+1 = an · am → a · am = am+1 n n —pì thn €rìt—sh PFQFUF 2 . €—r—throÔme t— ex ™X @iA r (an ) sugklÐneiD ˆr— eÐn—i fr—gmènhF efoÔ bn − b → 0D h €rìt—sh PFQFS deÐqnei ìti an (bn − b) → 0F @iiA efoÔ an − a → 0D h €rìt—sh PFQFT deÐqnei ìti b(an − a) → 0F „¸r—D h €rìt—sh PFQFR deÐqnei ìti an (bn − b) + b(an − a) → 0 + 0 = 0.42 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n €rìt—sh PFQFSF 9istw (an ) k—i (bn ) dÔo —koloujÐe™F …pojètoume ìti h (bn ) eÐn—i fr—gE mènh k—i ìti an → 0F „ìteD an bn → 0F epìdeixhF r (bn ) eÐn—i fr—gmènhD ˆr— upˆrqei M > 0 ¸ste |bn | ≤ M gi— kˆje n ∈ NF 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ an → 0D upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste |an | = |an − 0| < gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 F 9ipet—i ìtiD —n n ≥ n0 tìte ε M |an bn | = |an ||bn | < ε · M = ε.

.2. − ≤ 2 bn b |b| we ˜ˆsh ton orismìD 1 bn → 1F b 2 √ k €rìt—sh PFQFIHF 9istw k ∈ ND k ≥ 2F en an ≥ 0 gi— kˆje n ∈ N k—i —n an → aD tìte √ an → k aF epìdeixhF hi—krÐnoume dÔo peript¸sei™X @—A an → 0X 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ an → 0D ef—rmìzont—™ ton orismì gi— ton jetikì —rijmì ε1 = εk ˜rÐskoume n0 ∈ N ¸steX gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 isqÔei 0 ≤ an < εk . bn b |bn ||b| ssqurismì™F …pˆrqei n1 ∈ N ¸steX gi— kˆje n ≥ n1 D |bn | > |b| . 2 qi— thn —pìdeixh —utoÔ tou isqurismoÔ epilègoume ε = |b| > 0 k—iD lìgw th™ bn → bD 2 ˜rÐskoume n1 ∈ N ¸steX —n n ≥ n1 tìte |bn − b| < |b| F „ìteD gi— kˆje n ≥ n1 isqÔei 2 |bn | − |b| ≤ |bn − b| < |b| . n2 }F en n ≥ n0 D tìte 1 1 2|b − bn | < ε.3 Algebra twn orÐwn · 43 €rìt—sh PFQFWF 9istw (an ) k—i (bn ) —koloujÐe™ me bn = 0 gi— kˆje n ∈ NF en an → a k—i bn → b = 0D tìte an bn → aF b epìdeixhF erkeÐ n— deÐxoume ìti ti™ (an ) k—i 1 bn 1 bn → 1 F u—tìpinD ef—rmìzoume thn €rìt—sh PFQFU gi— b F eutì pou jèloume n— gÐnei mikrì gi— megˆle™ timè™ tou n eÐn—i h posìtht— 1 |b − bn | 1 − = . bn b |b|2 „¸r— mporoÔme n— deÐxoume ìti ¸ste |b − bn | < ε|b|2 2 1 bn → 1 bF 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ bn → bD upˆrqei n2 ∈ N gi— kˆje n ≥ n2 F ipilègoume n0 = max{n1 . 2 epì thn teleut—З —nisìtht— èpet—i ìti |bn | > |b| gi— kˆje n ≥ n1 F 2 y isqurismì™ èqei thn ex ™ sunèpei—X —n n ≥ n1 tìte 1 2|b − bn | 1 − ≤ .

2 2 2 a−b a−b a+b =⇒ bn < b + = . y ≥ 0 tìte |xk − y k | = |x − y|(xk−1 + xk−2 y + · · · + xy k−2 + y k−1 ) ≥ |x − y|y k−1 . √ 9er—D k an → 0F @˜A an → a > 0X tumhjeÐte ìti —n x. √ √ rhsimopoi¸nt—™ —ut n thn —nisìtht— me x = k an k—i y = k a ˜lèpoume ìti √ k an − √ k |an − a| a ≤ √ . „ìteD gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 isqÔei √ k ƒunep¸™D an − √ k |an − a| < ε. n2 }F „ìteD gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 èqoume bn < to opoÐo eÐn—i ˆtopoF a+b < an . 2 2 €rìt—sh PFQFIPF en m ≤ an ≤ M gi— kˆje n ∈ N k—i —n an → aD tìte m ≤ a ≤ M F epìdeixhF tewroÔme ti™ st—jerè™ —koloujÐe™ bn = mD γn = M k—i ef—rmìzoume thn prohgoÔmenh €rìt—shF 2 . a ≤ √ k ak−1 2 a−b 2 √ k an → √ k aF €rìt—sh PFQFIIF en an ≤ bn gi— kˆje n ∈ N k—i —n an → a. 2 2 2 |bn − b| < tètoume n0 = max{n1 . n2 ∈ N ¸steX |an − a| < k—i gi— kˆje n ≥ n2 isqÔei a−b a+b a−b =⇒ an > a − = . k ak−1 √ k ak−1 ·εD 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ an → 0D ef—rmìzont—™ ton orismì gi— ton jetikì —rijmì ε1 = ˜rÐskoume n0 ∈ N ¸steX gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 isqÔei √ k |an − a| < ak−1 · ε. bn → bD tìte a ≤ bF epìdeixhF …pojètoume ìti a > bF en jèsoume ε = gi— kˆje n ≥ n1 isqÔei tìte upˆrqoun n1 .44 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n „ìteD gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 isqÔei 0≤ √ k an < √ k εk = ε.

9ipet—i ìti xn → +∞F 2 €rìt—sh PFRFPF en 0 < a < 1D tìte h —koloujЗ xn = an sugklÐnei sto 0F epìdeixhF 9iqoume p—Ðrnoume 1 a > 1D ˆr— upˆrqei θ > 0 ¸ste 1 a = 1+θF epì thn —nisìtht— Bernoulli 1 = (1 + θ)n ≥ 1 + nθ > nθ xn 0 < xn < 1 nθ dhl—d  → 0 k—i —pì to krit rio twn isosugklinous¸n —kolouji¸n 2 √ €rìt—sh PFRFQF en a > 0D tìte h —koloujЗ xn = n a → 1F √ epìdeixhF @—A ixetˆzoume pr¸t— thn perÐptwsh a > 1F „ìteD n a > 1 gi— kˆje n ∈ NF yrÐzoume √ θn = n a − 1 = xn − 1. .4 Basikˆ ìria kai basikˆ krit ria sÔgklishs · 45 PFR f—sikˆ ìri— k—i ˜—sikˆ krit ri— sÔgklish™ ƒe —ut  thn €—rˆgr—fo ˜rÐskoume t— ìri— kˆpoiwn sugkekrimènwn —kolouji¸n oi opoÐe™ emf—nÐzont—i polÔ suqnˆ sth sunèqei—F we th ˜o jei— —ut¸n twn {˜—sik¸n orÐwn} —podeiknÔoume dÔo polÔ qr sim— krit ri— sÔgklish™ —kolouji¸n sto 0   sto +∞F PFR—þ f—sikˆ ìri— €rìt—sh PFRFIF en a > 1D tìte h —koloujЗ xn = an teÐnei sto +∞F epìdeixhF efoÔ a > 1D upˆrqei θ > 0 ¸ste a = 1 + θF epì thn —nisìtht— Bernoulli p—Ðrnoume xn = (1 + θ)n ≥ 1 + nθ > nθ gi— kˆje n ∈ NF 9istw t¸r— M > 0F epì thn erqim dei— idiìtht—D upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste n0 > M/θF „ìteD gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 èqoume xn > nθ ≥ n0 θ > M. 1 nθ gi— kˆje n ∈ NF epì thn èpet—i ìti xn → 0F €—r—thr ste ìti θn > 0 gi— kˆje n ∈ NF en deÐxoume ìti θn → 0D tìte èqoume to zhtoÔmenoX xn = 1 + θn → 1F √ efoÔ n a = 1 + θn D mporoÔme n— grˆyoume a = (1 + θn )n ≥ 1 + nθn > nθn .2.

n−1 k—i —pì to krit rio twn isosugklinous¸n —kolouji¸n sumper—Ðnoume ìti θn → 0F ƒunep¸™D xn = 1 + θn → 1F 2 PFR˜þ 0AF urit rio th™ rÐz—™ k—i krit rio tou lìgou €rìt—sh PFRFS @krit rio tou lìgouAF 9istw (an ) —koloujЗ mh mhdenik¸n ìrwn @an = an+1 an @—A en an > 0 gi— kˆje n ∈ N k—i @˜A en an+1 an → > 1D tìte an → +∞F → < 1D tìte an → 0F . θ > 2 2 n 0 < θn < 2 . a ƒunep¸™D xn → 1F @gA „èlo™D —n a = 1 tìte xn = 2 √ n 1 = 1 gi— kˆje n ∈ NF iÐn—i t¸r— f—nerì ìti xn → 1F √ n n → 1F €rìt—sh PFRFRF r —koloujЗ xn = epìdeixhF wimoÔm—ste thn —pìdeixh th™ prohgoÔmenh™ €rìt—sh™F yrÐzoume θn = √ n n − 1 = xn − 1. n k—i —pì to krit rio twn isosugklinous¸n —kolouji¸n sumper—Ðnoume ìti θn → 0F ƒunep¸™D xn = 1 + θn → 1F @˜A en 0 < a < 1 tìte 1 a > 1F epì to @—A èqoume 1 1 = √ = n xn a n 1 → 1 = 0.46 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n 9ipet—i ìti 0 < θn < a . €—r—thr ste ìti θn > 0 gi— kˆje n ∈ NF en deÐxoume ìti θn → 0D tìte èqoume to zhtoÔmenoX xn = 1 + θn → 1F √ efoÔ n n = 1 + θn D qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ to diwnumikì —nˆptugm—D mporoÔme n— grˆyoume n = (1 + θn )n ≥ 1 + nθn + 9ipet—i ìtiD gi— n ≥ 2D n 2 n(n − 1) 2 θn .

2 an+1 < +ε= an €—r—thr ste ìti ρ := +1 < 1F „ìteD |an0 +1 | < ρ|an0 |D |an0 +2 | < ρ2 |an0 |D |an0 +3 | < 2 ρ3 |an0 |D k—i genikˆD —n n > n0 isqÔei @exhg ste gi—tÐA |an | < ρn−n0 |an0 | = efoÔ lim ρn = 0D èpet—i ìti an → 0F n→∞ |an0 | n ·ρ .4 Basikˆ ìria kai basikˆ krit ria sÔgklishs · 47 epìdeixhF @—A tètoume ε = n ≥ n0 D −1 2 > 0F efoÔ an+1 an → D upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸steX gi— kˆje +1 . ρn 0 2 dÐnei sumpèr—sm—F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D €—r—t rhsh PFRFTF en n+1 n → 1 k—i n → ∞D an+1 an → 1 tìte to krit rio den ìmw™ 1/(n+1) → 1 k—i 1/n → 0F 1/n intel¸™ —nˆlog— —podeiknÔet—i h —kìloujh €rìt—shF €rìt—sh PFRFUF @—A 9istw µ > 1 k—i (an ) —koloujЗ jetik¸n ìrwnF en an+1 ≥ µan gi— kˆje nD tìte an → +∞F @˜A 9istw 0 < µ < 1 k—i (an ) —koloujЗ me thn idiìtht— |an+1 | ≤ µ|an | gi— kˆje nF „ìteD an → 0F 2 €rìt—sh PFRFV @krit rio th™ rÐz—™AF 9istw (an ) —koloujЗ me mh —rnhtikoԙ ìrou™F @—A en @˜A en √ n √ n an → ρ < 1 tìte an → 0F 1−ρ 2 an → ρ > 1 tìte an → +∞F > 0F efoÔ √ n √ n an → ρD upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸steX gi— kˆje ρ+1 .2. 2 epìdeixhF @—A tètoume ε = n ≥ n0 D an < ρ + ε = . 2 an+1 > −ε= an €—r—thr ste ìti θ := +1 > 1F „ìteD an0 +1 > θan0 D an0 +2 > θ2 an0 D an0 +3 > θ3 an0 D k—i 2 genikˆD —n n > n0 isqÔei @exhg ste gi—tÐA an > θn−n0 an0 = efoÔ lim θn = +∞D èpet—i ìti an → +∞F n→∞ an0 n ·θ . θ n0 @˜A tètoume ε = 1− 2 > 0F efoÔ an+1 an → D upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸steX gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 D +1 .

efoÔ θ > 1D èqoume lim θn = +∞F 9ipet—i ìti an → +∞F n→∞ 2 √ n €—r—t rhsh PFRFWF en an → 1 tìte to krit rio den dÐnei sumpèr—sm—F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D n → 1 k—i n → ∞D ìmw™ 1/n → 1 k—i 1/n → 0F n √ n intel¸™ —nˆlog— —podeiknÔet—i h ex ™ €rìt—shF €rìt—sh PFRFIHF 9istw (an ) —koloujЗ me mh —rnhtikoԙ ìrou™F √ @—A en upˆrqei 0 < ρ < 1 ¸ste n an ≤ ρ gi— kˆje n ∈ N tìte an → 0F √ @˜A en upˆrqei ρ > 1 ¸ste n an ≥ ρ gi— kˆje n ∈ N tìte an → +∞F 2 PFS PFS—þ ƒÔgklish monìtonwn —kolouji¸n ƒÔgklish monìtonwn —kolouji¸n yrismì™ PFSFIF 9istw (an ) mi— —koloujЗ pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸nF vème ìti h (an ) eÐn—i @iA —Ôxous—D —n an+1 ≥ an gi— kˆje n ∈ NF @iiA fjÐnous—D —n an+1 ≤ an gi— kˆje n ∈ NF @iiiA gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous—D —n an+1 > an gi— kˆje n ∈ NF @ivA gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous—D —n an+1 < an gi— kˆje n ∈ NF ƒe k—jemЗ —pì ti™ p—r—pˆnw peript¸sei™ lème ìti h (an ) eÐn—i monìtonhF €—r—thr sei™ PFSFPF @—A iÔkol— elègqoume ìti —n h (an ) eÐn—i —Ôxous— tìte n ≤ m =⇒ an ≤ am .48 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n €—r—thr ste ìti θ := ρ+1 2 < 1 k—i 0 ≤ an ≤ θn gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 . efoÔ 0 < θ < 1D èqoume lim θn = 0F epì to krit rio twn isosugklinous¸n —kolouji¸n n→∞ èpet—i ìti an → 0F √ @˜A tètoume ε = ρ−1 > 0F efoÔ n an → ρD upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸steX gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 D 2 √ n €—r—thr ste ìti θ := ρ+1 2 an > ρ − ε = ρ+1 . 2 > 1 k—i an ≥ θn gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 . .

efoÔ h an eÐn—i —Ôxous—D gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 èqoume an0 ≤ an k—i epeid  o a eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AD an ≤ aF hhl—d D —n n ≥ n0 tìte a − ε < an0 ≤ an ≤ a < a + ε 9ipet—i ìti |an − a| < ε gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 F efoÔ to ε > 0  t—n tuqìnD sumper—Ðnoume ìti an → aF 2 we p—rìmoio trìpo —podeiknÔont—i t— ex ™X @iA en h (an ) eÐn—i fjÐnous— k—i kˆtw fr—gmènhD tìte an → inf{an : n ∈ N}F @iiA en h (an ) eÐn—i —Ôxous— k—i den eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènhD tìte teÐnei sto +∞F @iiiA en h (an ) eÐn—i fjÐnous— k—i den eÐn—i kˆtw fr—gmènhD tìte teÐnei sto −∞F e™ doÔme gi— p—rˆdeigm— thn —pìdeixh tou deÔterou isqurismoÔX 9istw M > 0F efoÔ h (an ) den eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènhD o M den eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou sunìlou A = {an : n ∈ N}F .2.5 SÔgklish monìtonwn akolouji¸n · 49 heÐxte to me ep—gwg X st—jeropoi ste to n k—i deÐxte ìti —n an ≤ am tìte an ≤ am+1 F entÐstoiqo sumpèr—sm— isqÔei gi— ìlou™ tou™ ˆllou™ tÔpou™ monotonЗ™F @˜A uˆje gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— —koloujЗ eÐn—i —Ôxous— k—i kˆje gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous— —koloujЗ eÐn—i fjÐnous—F @gA uˆje —Ôxous— —koloujЗ eÐn—i kˆtw fr—gmènhD gi— p—rˆdeigm— —pì ton pr¸to th™ ìro a1 F ƒunep¸™D mi— —Ôxous— —koloujЗ eÐn—i fr—gmènh —n k—i mìno —n eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènhF intel¸™ —nˆlog—D kˆje fjÐnous— —koloujЗ eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènhD gi— p—rˆdeigm— —pì ton pr¸to th™ ìro a1 F ƒunep¸™D mi— fjÐnous— —koloujЗ eÐn—i fr—gmènh —n k—i mìno —n eÐn—i kˆtw fr—gmènhF r di—Ðsjhsh upodeiknÔei ìti —n mi— —koloujЗ eÐn—i monìtonh k—i fr—gmènhD tìte prèpei n— sugklÐneiF qi— p—rˆdeigm—D —n h (an ) eÐn—i —Ôxous— k—i ˆnw fr—gmènhD tìte oi ìroi th™ susswreÔont—i sto elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm— tou sunìlou A = {an : n ∈ N}F t— d¸soume —usthr  —pìdeixh gi) —utìX te¸rhm— PFSFQ @sÔgklish monìtonwn —kolouji¸nAF uˆje monìtonh k—i fr—gmènh —koloujЗ sugklÐneiF epìdeixhF wrЙ periorismì th™ genikìtht—™ upojètoume ìti h (an ) eÐn—i —Ôxous—F „o sÔnolo A = {an : n ∈ N} eÐn—i mh kenì @gi— p—rˆdeigm—D a1 ∈ AA k—i ˆnw fr—gmèno diìti h (an ) eÐn—i @ˆnwA fr—gmènhF epì to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™D upˆrqei to elˆqisto ˆnw frˆgm— touF 9istw a = sup AF t— deÐxoume ìti an → aF 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ a − ε < aD o a − ε den eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AF hhl—d D upˆrqei stoiqeÐo tou A pou eÐn—i meg—lÔtero —pì ton a − εF we ˆll— lìgi—D upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste a − ε < an0 .

(n + 1)2 < n epì thn —nisìtht— Bernoulli èqoume 1− erkeÐ loipìn n— elègxoume ìti to opoÐo isqÔei gi— kˆje n ∈ NF 1 (n + 1)2 n >1− n . . 2 (n + 1) n+2 n+1 1 @˜A qi— n— deÐxoume ìti h (an ) eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènhD jewroÔme thn —koloujЗ bn = 1 + n F €—r—thr ste ìti an < bn gi— kˆje n ∈ NF r (bn ) eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous—X gi— n— deÐxoume ìti bn > bn+1 gi— kˆje n ∈ N p—r—throÔme ìti 1+ 1 n n+1 > 1+ 1 n+1 n+2 ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ n+1 n n+2 < n+1 1+ n+1 > n+2 n+1 n+1 n+1 n+2 n+1 (n + 1)2 n(n + 2) 1+ 1 < n+1 1 n(n + 2) n+1 . efoÔ o M > 0  t—n tuq¸nD an → +∞F 2 PFS˜þ y —rijmì™ e rhsimopoi¸nt—™ to je¸rhm— sÔgklish™ monìtonwn —kolouji¸n j— orÐsoume ton —rijmì e k—i j— doÔme p¸™ mporeÐ k—neЙ sqetikˆ eÔkol— n— epitÔqei k—lè™ proseggÐsei™ touF pou —n kei sto (2.50 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n ƒunep¸™D upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste an0 > M F efoÔ h (an ) eÐn—i —Ôxous—D gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 èqoume an ≥ an0 > M. 3)F yrÐzoume e := lim 1 + n→∞ 1 €rìt—sh PFSFRF r —koloujЗ an = 1 + n n 1 n F n sugklÐnei se kˆpoion pr—gm—tikì —rijmì epìdeixhF t— deÐxoume ìti h (an ) eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— k—i ˆnw fr—gmènhF @—A tèloume n— elègxoume ìti an < an+1 gi— kˆje n ∈ NF €—r—throÔme ìti 1+ 1 n n < 1+ 1 n+1 n+1 ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ n+1 n n+1 < n+2 1 1− n+2 n n+2 n+2 n+1 n+1 n n(n + 2) (n + 1)2 n 1 < 1− . (n + 1)2 n 1 < .

985984. bn ] perièqei —kri˜¸™ èn—n pr—gm—tikì . 2 PFSgþ erq  twn ki˜wtismènwn di—sthmˆtwn wi— shm—ntik  ef—rmog  tou tewr m—to™ PFSFQ eÐn—i h {—rq  twn ki˜wtismènwn di—sthE mˆtwn}X te¸rhm— PFSFSF 9istw [a1 . n=1 en epiplèon bn − an → 0D tìte to sÔnolo —rijmì @eÐn—i monosÔnoloAF ∞ n=1 [an . n(n + 2) n+1 1 > .48832 = hhl—d D 2 < e < 3F 6 5 5 <e< 6 5 6 = 2. bn+1 ] ⊇ · · · mi— fjÐnous— —koloujЗ kleist¸n di—sthmˆtwnF „ìteD ∞ [an .5 SÔgklish monìtonwn akolouji¸n · 51 epì thn —nisìtht— Bernoulli èqoume 1+ erkeÐ loipìn n— elègxoume ìti 1 n(n + 2) n+1 >1+ n+1 . b1 ] ⊇ · · · ⊇ [an . n→∞ ynomˆzoume e to koinì ìrio twn (an ) k—i (bn )F 9iqoume  dh deÐ ìti 2 < e < 4F qi— n— proseggÐsoume thn tim  tou orÐou k—lÔter—D p—r—throÔme ìtiD gi— p—rˆdeigm—D —n n ≥ 5 tìte a5 < an < e < bn < b5 D k—i sunep¸™D 2. bn ] = ∅.2. bn ] ⊇ [an+1 . n(n + 2) n+1 to opoÐo isqÔei gi— kˆje n ∈ NF 9ipet—i ìti an < bn < b1 gi— kˆje n ∈ NF hhl—d D an < (1 + 1)2 = 4 gi— kˆje n ∈ NF ipÐsh™D h fjÐnous— —koloujЗ (bn ) eÐn—i kˆtw fr—gmènhX bn > an > a1 = 2 gi— kˆje n ∈ NF epì to je¸rhm— sÔgklish™ monìtonwn —kolouji¸nD oi (an ) k—i (bn ) sugklinounF 9iqoun 1 mˆlist— to Ðdio ìrioX —foÔ bn = an · 1 + n D sumper—Ðnoume ìti n→∞ lim bn = lim an · lim n→∞ n→∞ 1+ 1 n = lim an .

efoÔ an ≤ bn gi— kˆje n ∈ ND h €rìt—sh PFQFII deÐqnei ìti a ≤ bF ipÐsh™D h monotonЗ twn (an ).52 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n epìdeixhF epì thn [an . bn ] ⊇ [an+1 . €rˆgm—tiD —n x ∈ n=1 [an . 1 n ⊇ 0. n n n hhl—d D a = bF 9er— to sÔnolo ton a(= b)F ∞ n=1 [an . b ∈ R ¸ste an → a k—i bn → b. b] = n=1 ∞ [an . bn ] tìte an ≤ x ≤ bn gi— kˆje n ∈ ND ˆr— a = limn an ≤ x ≤ limn bn = bF hhl—d D x ∈ [a. b] ⊆ n=1 [an . bn ]. b]F „èlo™D —n upojèsoume ìti bn − an → 0D èqoume b − a = lim bn − lim an = lim(bn − an ) = 0. b1 ] ˜lèpoume ìti a1 ≤ an ≤ bn ≤ b1 gi— kˆje n ∈ NF ƒunep¸™D h (an ) eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènh —pì ton b1 k—i h (bn ) eÐn—i kˆtw fr—gmènh —pì ton a1 F epì to je¸rhm— sÔgklish™ monìtonwn —kolouji¸nD upˆrqoun a. bn+1 ] èpet—i ìti an ≤ an+1 ≤ bn+1 ≤ bn gi— kˆje n ∈ NF ƒunep¸™D h (an ) eÐn—i —Ôxous— k—i h (bn ) eÐn—i fjÐnous—F epì thn [an . . bn ] perièqei —kri˜¸™ èn—n pr—gm—tikì —rijmìX 2 eÐn—i kleistˆ den mporeÐ n— p—r—leifjeÐF qi— p—rˆdeigm—D jewr ste t— —noiktˆ di—st m—t— 1 (an . 1 n+1 ⊇ ···. n F 9iqoume €—r—t rhsh PFSFTF r upìjesh ìti t— ki˜wtismèn— di—st m—t— tou tewr m—to™ PFSFS (0. (bn ) dÐnei an ≤ a k—i b ≤ bn gi— kˆje n ∈ ND dhl—d  ∞ [a. bn ] ⊆ [a1 . b] = {a} = {b} —n a = bF iidikìter—D ∞ [an . n=1 ssqÔei mˆlist— ìti ∞ [a. ìpou sumfwnoÔme ìti [a. bn ]. bn ] = ∅. 1 2 ⊇ ··· ⊇ 0. bn ) = 0. 1) ⊇ 0.

n=1 1 n = ∅. √ efoÔ an+1 = 1 + an D —pì th mon—dikìtht— tou orÐou o a prèpei n— ik—nopoieÐ thn √ exÐswsh a = 1 + aD dhl—d  a2 − a − 1 = 0F ƒunep¸™D √ √ 1− 5 1+ 5 a=   a= . 1 n eli¸™D j— up rqe x > 0 pou j— ik—nopoioÔse thn x < —dÔn—toD lìgw th™ erqim dei—™ idiìtht—™F gi— kˆje n ∈ NF eutì eÐn—i PFSdþ en—dromikè™ —koloujÐe™ uleÐnoume —ut n thn €—rˆgr—fo me èn— p—rˆdeigm— —n—dromik ™ —koloujЗ™F r teqnik  pou qrhsimopoioÔme gi— th melèth th™ sÔgklish™ —n—dromik¸n —kolouji¸n ˜—sÐzet—i suqnˆ sto je¸rhm— sÔgklish™ monìtonwn —kolouji¸nF €—rˆdeigm— PFSFUF tewroÔme thn —koloujЗ (an ) pou èqei pr¸to ìro ton a1 = 1 k—i √ ik—nopoieÐ thn —n—dromik  sqèsh an+1 = √ sugklÐnei ston —rijmì 1+2 5 F 1 + an gi— n ≥ 1F t— deÐxoume ìti h (an ) epìdeixhF epì ton trìpo orismoÔ th™ (an ) eÐn—i f—nerì ìti ìloi oi ìroi th™ eÐn—i jetikoÐ @deÐxte to —usthrˆ me ep—gwg AF e™ upojèsoume ìti èqoume k—t—fèrei n— deÐxoume ìti an → a gi— kˆpoion a ∈ RF „ìteD √ √ an+1 → a k—i 1 + an → 1 + a. 2 2 9ymw™D to ìrio th™ (an )D —n upˆrqeiD eÐn—i mh —rnhtikìF 9er—D a = 1+2 5 F √ wènei n— deÐxoume thn Ôp—rxh tou orÐouF €—r—throÔme ìti a2 = 2 > 1 = a1 F wi— idè— eÐn—i loipìn n— deÐxoume ìti eÐn—i —Ôxous— k—i ˆnw fr—gmènhF „ìteD —pì to je¸rhm— √ sÔgklish™ monìtonwn —kolouji¸nD h (an ) sugklinei @k—i to ìrio th™ eÐn—i o 1+2 5 AF @—A heÐqnoume me ep—gwg  ìti an+1 ≥ an gi— kˆje n ∈ NF 9iqoume  dh elègxei ìti a2 > a1 F …pojètont—™ ìti am+1 ≥ am D p—Ðrnoume √ am+2 = 1 + am+1 ≥ 1 + am = am+1 .5 SÔgklish monìtonwn akolouji¸n · 53 ìmw™ ∞ 0.2. dhl—d  èqoume deÐxei to ep—gwgikì ˜ m—F @˜A „èlo™D deÐqnoume me ep—gwg  ìti h (an ) eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènhF epì th stigm  pou èqoume deÐxei ìti h (an ) eÐn—i —Ôxous—D j— èprepe n— mporoÔme √ deÐxoume ìti kˆje pr—gm—tikì™ n— 1+ 5 —rijmì™ meg—lÔtero™   Ðso™ —pì to {upoy fio ìrio} 2 eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— th™ (an )F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D mporoÔme eÔkol— n— doÔme ìti an < 2√ kˆje n ∈ NF 9iqoume a1 = 1 < 2 gi— √ √ k—i —n am < 2 tìte am+1 = 1 + am < 1 + 2 = 3 < 2F 2 √ .

…penjÔmish —pì th jewrЗ IF 'Estw (an ) (bn ) . Upˆrqei gnhsÐwc fjÐnousa akoloujÐa fusik¸n arijm¸n. An eÐnai mia akoloujÐa jetik¸n pragmatik¸n arijm¸n. Kˆje sugklÐnousa akoloujÐa ˆrrhtwn arijm¸n sugklÐnei se ˆrrhto arijmì. dÔo akoloujÐec me an → a kai bn → b . IF PF QF RF SF TF UF VF WF 1 an Kˆje fragmènh akoloujÐa sugklÐnei. tìte an → +∞ . 'Estw aÔxousa akoloujÐa. Kˆje pragmatikìc arijmìc eÐnai ìrio kˆpoiac akoloujÐac ˆrrhtwn arijm¸n. An (an ) eÐnai mia akoloujÐa akeraÐwn arijm¸n. (a) An an ≤ bn an < bn gia kˆje n∈N n∈N . IHF IIF IPF An h eÐnai fragmènh kai h (bn ) sugklÐnei tìte h (an bn ) sugklÐnei. (an ) → +∞ An . deÐxte ìti a≤b . tìte h (an ) sugklÐnei an kai mìno an eÐnai telikˆ stajer . . tìte an → +∞ . (b) An gia kˆje . Kˆje sugklÐnousa akoloujÐa eÐnai fragmènh. IRF An h (an ) sugklÐnei kai an+2 = an gia kˆje n∈N . IQF an → +∞ megalÔteroi apì an mìno an gia kˆje M > 0 upˆrqoun ˆpeiroi ìroi thc (an ) pou eÐnai M . mporoÔme na sumperˆnoume ìti a<b ? (g) An m ≤ an ≤ M gia kˆje n∈N .54 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n PFT esk sei™ irwt sei™ k—t—nìhsh™ Exetˆste an oi parakˆtw protˆseic eÐnai alhjeÐc   yeudeÐc (aitiolog ste pl rwc thn apˆnths  sac). deÐxte ìti m≤a≤M . tìte an → 0 an kai mìno an an → a (an ) (an ) tìte h (an ) eÐnai monìtonh. An h (an ) den eÐnai ˆnw fragmènh. An h (|an |) sugklÐnei tìte kai h (an ) sugklÐnei. An an > 0 kai h (an ) kai den eÐnai ˆnw fragmènh. tìte h (an ) eÐnai stajer .

. cn =    1 2n 1 n2 +1 . . DeÐxte ìti h akoloujÐa sugklÐnei sto 0. DeÐxte ìti an an → a k |an | → An k |a| . . DeÐxte ìti RF (b) (a) 'Estw a>0 . gia kˆje n .99997 < an < 2. 4. n→∞ lim an = a > 0 bn = an . 13. DeÐxte ìti √ n a→1 . an+1 ≥ µan gia kˆje n . 'Estw (an ) akoloujÐa jetik¸n ? pragmatik¸n arijm¸n. alli¸c. n2 + n An (an ) akoloujÐa pragmatik¸n arijm¸n. DeÐxte ìti (d) 'Estw gia kˆje . . . n + n2 + 1 bn = n2 +2− n2 + 1. 5 exetˆste an (a) to N \ Aj eÐnai peperasmèno. .0001} {n ∈ N : an ≤ 2}. (a) DeÐxte ìti an → 0 an kai mìno an |an | → 0 . kai → <1 . (a) 'Estw a∈R me |a| < 1 . QF (b) (a) 'Estw µ>1 kai an > 0 (an ) n n gia kˆje n∈N me . An an → a > 0 tìte √ n a n → 1 . kai an+1 an an+1 an → >1 . esk sei™   ymˆd— e9 IF 'Estw (an ) akoloujÐa pragmatik¸n arijm¸n me n→∞ lim an = 2 .98} {n ∈ N : 1. 7. QF RF SF ApodeÐxte me ton orismì ìti an = 'Estw n2 − n → 1. 0<µ<1 an > 0 an = 0 kai akoloujÐa thn idiìthta |an+1 | ≤ µ|an | an → +∞ an → 0 . deÐxte ìti an > 0 telikˆ. PF ApodeÐxte me ton orismì ìti oi parakˆtw akoloujÐec sugklÐnoun sto 0: n an = 3 . .2. JewroÔme ta sÔnola A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Gia kˆje = = = = = {n ∈ N : an < 2. 10. (b) DeÐxte ìti an an → a = 0 tìte |an | → |a| tìte IsqÔei to antÐstrofo? (g) 'Estw k≥2 . (b) to j = 1. an n = 1. . . deÐxte ìti an → +∞ DeÐxte .003} {n ∈ N : an < 1. ìti an → 0 (g) 'Estw gia kˆje .6 Ask seis · 55 PF 'Estw (an ) akoloujÐa pragmatik¸n arijm¸n.001} {n ∈ N : an > 2. . 'Estw . Aj eÐnai peperasmèno. Ti mporeÐte na peÐte an (g) DeÐxte ìti √ n n→1 an → 0 . .

ak }. . nn ζn = νn = ηn = n2 sin √ √ n − n. a2 . . 6n − n 1+ βn = 1 − n n2 . δn = 1 n3 1+ 1 n2 n . 2n · n! . n! VF Exetˆste wc proc th sÔgklish tic parakˆtw akoloujÐec: an bn γn δn = = = = 1 1 1 √ +√ + ··· + √ n2 + 1 n2 + 2 n2 + n 1 + 22 + 33 + · · · + nn nn 1 1 1 + + ··· + n! (n + 1)! (2n)! 1 1 1 + + ··· + . εn = ( θn = sin n . n θn = (n!)2 2n . a2 . γn = √ n n−1 n . +1 n 1 1 + n. n 1+ . 2n 3 1 n+1 . n2/3 (n + 1)2/3 (2n)2/3 WF (a) 'Estw a1 . nn ξn = UF Gia kajemiˆ apì tic parakˆtw akoloujÐec exetˆste an sugklÐnei. δn = n2 1+ 1 εn = √ cos n2 . DeÐxte ìti an + an + · · · + an → max{a1 . . 1 2 k . n √ n 10 − 1)n . ak > 0 bn := n . σn = n2 . . kai an nai.56 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n 1−x2 1+x2 n ? (b) Gia poièc timèc tou x∈R sugklÐnei h akoloujÐa TF Gia kajemiˆ apì tic parakˆtw akoloujÐec exetˆste an sugklÐnei. . . breÐte to ìriì thc: αn = 5n + n . 3n + 2 γn = n − n6 . 6n n+ n2 − n . kai an nai. 1 2n n κn = ρn = sin(n3 ) √ . . . (2n)! λn = (−1)n n2 µn = nn . n! βn = 2n − 1 . . breÐte to ìriì thc: αn = 3n . 3n2 + n + 1 τn = 3n · n! .

DeÐxte ìti h akoloujÐa yn = 1 1 1 + n+2 +· · ·+ 2n n+1 sugklÐnei se pragmatikì arijmì. deÐxte ìti upˆrqei stoiqeÐwn tou A n→∞ lim an = a An.6 Ask seis · 57 (b) UpologÐste to ìrio thc akoloujÐac xn = 1√ n n 1 + 2n + · · · + nn . Exetˆste an sugklÐnei h akoloujÐa xn = n kai. An a = sup A .2. . tou R . nα 'Estw α∈R . ITF IUF IVF IWF DeÐxte sÔnolo (an ) A = {an : n ∈ N} ìti an eÐnai mia akoloujÐa jetik¸n pragmatik¸n arijm¸n me an → 0 . . to sup A den eÐnai stoiqeÐo tou A . 2an + 1 . epiplèon. breÐte to ìrio IIF thc. √ 6 + an . (a) DeÐxte ìti upˆrqoun (b) DeÐxte ìti δ>0 an bn → +∞ . . (bn ) akoloujÐec pragmatik¸n arijm¸n. tìte to èqei mègisto stoiqeÐo. 2. Upojètoume ìti n→∞ lim an = a > 0 an > δ . an nai. . OrÐzoume mia akoloujÐa (an ) me a1 = 1 kai an+1 = Exetˆste an sugklÐnei. kai bn → +∞ . n IHF thc. tìte inf{an : n ∈ N} > 0. kaj¸c epÐshc kai ìrio gnhsÐwc aÔxousac akoloujÐac ˆrrhtwn arijm¸n. Jètoume a1 = √ 6 kai. DeÐxte ìti h akoloujÐa bn = 1+nα (1+α)n eÐnai fjÐnousa kai prosdiorÐste to ìrio IPF 'Estw (an ). DeÐxte ìti an (an ) eÐnai mia akoloujÐa jetik¸n pragmatik¸n arijm¸n me an → a > 0 . IRF ISF DeÐxte ìti kˆje pragmatikìc arijmìc eÐnai ìrio gnhsÐwc aÔxousac akoloujÐac rht¸n ari- jm¸n. an + 1 n ∈ N. deÐxte ìti h parapˆnw akoloujÐa mporeÐ na epilegeÐ ¸ste na eÐnai gnhsÐwc aÔxousa. . an+1 = (an )n . kai ˆnw kai n0 ∈ N ¸ste: gia kˆje n ≥ n0 isqÔei IQF 'Estw akoloujÐa A (an ) mh kenì fragmèno me uposÔnolo . 'Estw α>0 . Upìdeixh: Exetˆste pr¸ta an h (yn ) eÐnai monìtonh. gia kˆje Exetˆste wc proc th sÔgklish thn akoloujÐa n = 1.

2.58 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n PHF (b) OrÐzoume mia akoloujÐa (αn ) me α1 = 0 kai αn+1 = 3α2 +1 n . 3. . . . . DeÐxte ìti bn := 1 a1 n + ··· + 1 an →a γn := √ n a1 · · · an → a. tìte n→∞ lim √ n a n = a . BreÐte to apì ton . 'Estw a>0 JewroÔme tuqìn x1 > 0 kai gia kˆje n∈N . n an → a . 2αn +2 n = 1. fragmènh apì ton √ a toulˆqiston . . 2. . . PIF PPF JewroÔme thn akoloujÐa (αn ) pou orÐzetai apì tic α1 = 3 kai αn+1 = 2αn +3 . n PTF 'Estw (an ) aÔxousa akoloujÐa me thn idiìthta bn := DeÐxte ìti a1 + · · · + an → a. 5 n = 1. DeÐxte ìti an → a. PRF 'Estw akoloujÐa jetik¸n ìrwn me an → a > 0 kai . sugklÐnei kai upologÐste to ìrio thc. DeÐxte ìti h (αn ) . DeÐxte ìti: (a) H (αn ) eÐnai aÔxousa. PUF DeÐxte ìti: an an > 0 kai n→∞ lim an+1 an =a . orÐzoume xn+1 = DeÐxte ìti h 1 2 xn + a xn (xn ) . αn → 1 . n bn → a (an ) . deÔtero ìro thc kai pèra. OrÐzoume mia deÔterh akoloujÐa (bn ) jètontac bn = DeÐxte ìti a1 + · · · + an . . eÐnai fjÐnousa kai kˆtw n→∞ lim xn esk sei™   ymˆd— f9 PQF 'Estw (an ) akoloujÐa me an → a . . PSF 'Estw (an ) akoloujÐa me n→∞ lim (an+1 − an ) = a .

[ (xn ) sugklÐnei kai breÐte to . gia kˆje rhtì arijmì n→∞ lim 1+ q n n = eq . sugklÐnoun kai èqoun to Ðdio ìrio. oi opoÐec ikanopoioÔn ta ex c: (a) xn → +∞ kai yn → +∞ . 1 n2 bn = n 1+ 2 n n . DeÐxte ìti 1 n→∞ an k ∈ N to sÔnolo lim =0 UpologÐste ta ìria twn parakˆtw akolouji¸n: an = kai 1+ 1 n−1 dn = n−1 .2. (b) H akoloujÐa xn yn eÐnai fragmènh allˆ den sugklÐnei se kˆpoion pragmatikì arijmì. me jetikoÔc ìrouc. 3 3 thc. . en = 1+ . QPF 'Estw 0 < a1 < b1 .6 Ask seis · 59 PVF ProsdiorÐste ta ìria twn akolouji¸n: αn βn γn = = = (2n)! (n!)2 1 [(n + 1)(n + 2) · · · (n + n)]1/n n 2 1 3 2 2 1/n 4 3 3 ··· n+1 n n 1/n PWF QHF (an ) Ak = {n ∈ N : |an | ≤ k} 'Estw akoloujÐa pragmatik¸n arijm¸n me thn idiìthta: gia .] ìriì Upìdeixh: Jewr ste thn yn = xn+1 − xn kai breÐte anadromikì tÔpo gia thn (yn ) QRF D¸ste parˆdeigma dÔo akolouji¸n (xn ) (yn ) . cn = 2 3n n 1− 1 n n 1− . kˆje eÐnai peperasmèno. (b) DeÐxte ìti oi (an ) (bn ) . . QQF Epilègoume x1 = a x2 = b kai jètoume xn+2 = DeÐxte ìti h xn 2xn+1 + . isqÔei: QIF JewroÔme gnwstì ìti n→∞ lim (1 + 1 n ) n =e DeÐxte ìti. q . . OrÐzoume anadromikˆ dÔo akoloujÐec jètontac an+1 = (a) DeÐxte ìti h √ an bn kai bn+1 = an + bn . 2 (an ) eÐnai aÔxousa kai h (bn ) fjÐnousa.

epiplèon. dÔo akoloujÐec pragmatik¸n arijm¸n me bn = 0 gia kˆje n ∈ N kai (a) An. bn kai λ∈R   λ = +∞ . bn+1 − bn an = λ. . . akoloujÐa (an ) me 0 < a1 < 1 an+1 = an (1 − an ) n = 1. . . arijm¸n kai èstw gnhsÐwc aÔxousa akoloujÐa pragmatik¸n arijm¸n me n→∞ lim bn = +∞ DeÐxte ìti an n→∞ ìpou lim an+1 − an = λ. allˆ den isqÔei n→∞ lim (an −bn ) = 0 (bn ) . DeÐxte ìti n→∞ lim nan = 1 .60 · AkoloujÐes pragmatik¸n arijm¸n QSF 'Estw an n→∞ bn lim (an ) (bn ) =1 . deÐxte ìti (b) D¸ste parˆdeigma akolouji¸n gia tic opoÐec n→∞ n lim an n→∞ b lim (an − bn ) = 0 =1 . QTF (L mma tou Stoltz ) 'Estw (an ) akoloujÐa pragmatik¸n . 2. . h (bn ) eÐnai fragmènh. tìte n→∞ lim QUF OrÐzoume . .

y ∈ Y }. y) ∈ f F 9istw f : X → Y mi— sunˆrthshF vème ìti to X eÐn—i to pedÐo orismoÔ th™ f k—i to Y eÐn—i to pedÐo tim¸n th™ f F „o sÔnolo tim¸n @  eikìn—A th™ f eÐn—i to sÔnolo f (X) = {y ∈ Y : upˆrqei x ∈ X ¸ste f (x) = y} = {f (x) : x ∈ X}. . y) ∈ f F r sunj kh —ut  perigrˆfei to gegonì™ ìti —p—itoÔme kˆje x ∈ X n— —peikonÐzet—i se kˆpoio y ∈ Y F @iiA en (x. ƒunˆrthsh f —pì to X sto Y lèget—i kˆje uposÔnolo f tou X × Y to opoÐo ik—nopoieÐ t— ex ™X @iA qi— kˆje x ∈ X upˆrqei y ∈ Y ¸ste (x. y) : x ∈ X. y1 ) ∈ f k—i (x.Kefˆlaio 3 Sunart seic QFI ƒun—rt sei™ 9istw X k—i Y dÔo mh kenˆ sÔnol—F we ton ìro sunˆrthsh —pì to X sto Y ennooÔme mi— —ntistoÐqish pou stèlnei kˆje stoiqeÐo x tou X se èn— k—i mon—dikì stoiqeÐo y tou Y F wporoÔme n— kwdikopoi soume thn plhroforЗ ìti to x —peikonÐzet—i sto y qrhsiE mopoi¸nt—™ to di—tet—gmèno zeÔgo™ (x. y2 ) ∈ f D tìte y1 = y2 F r sunj kh —ut  perigrˆfei to gegonì™ ìti —p—itoÔme kˆje x ∈ X n— èqei monos m—nt— orismènh eikìn— y ∈ Y F qrˆfont—™ f : X → Y ennooÔme ìti f eÐn—i mi— sunˆrthsh —pì to X sto Y F ƒumfwnoÔme epÐsh™ n— grˆfoume y = f (x) gi— thn eikìn— tou x mèsw th™ f F hhl—d D y = f (x) ⇐⇒ (x. y)X to pr¸to stoiqeÐo x tou zeÔgou™ eÐn—i sto X k—i to deÔtero eÐn—i to stoiqeÐo tou Y sto opoÐo —ntistoiqÐzoume to xF ydhgoÔm—ste ètsi ston ex ™ orismìX twn X k—i Y X yrismì™ QFIFIF 9istw X k—i Y dÔo mh kenˆ sÔnol—F tewroÔme to k—rtesi—nì ginìmeno X × Y = {(x.

1}F @eA r sunˆrthsh f : R → R me f (x) = 1 —n x = 0 rhtì™ o opoÐo™ grˆfet—i sth morf  q x = p ìpou p ∈ ZD q ∈ ND wuh(p. A2 ⊆ X D tìte f (A1 ∪ A2 ) = f (A1 ) ∪ f (A2 )F . €rìt—sh QFIFTF 9istw f : X → Y mi— sunˆrthshF ssqÔoun t— ex ™X @iA en A1 ⊆ A2 ⊆ X D tìte f (A1 ) ⊆ f (A2 )F @iiA en A1 . +∞)F @dA r sunˆrthsh f : R → R me f (x) = 1 —n x ∈ Q k—i f (x) = 0 —n x ∈ QF „o sÔnolo / tim¸n th™ f eÐn—i to sÔnolo f (X) = {0. r sunˆrthsh g ◦ f lèget—i sÔnjesh th™ g me thn f F yrismì™ QFIFS @eikìn— k—i —ntÐstrofh eikìn—AF 9istw f : X → Y mi— sunˆrthshF @—A qi— kˆje A ⊆ X D h eikìn— tou A mèsw th™ f eÐn—i to sÔnolo f (A) = {y ∈ Y : upˆrqei x ∈ A ¸ste f (x) = y} = {f (x) : x ∈ A}. q) = 1D k—i f (x) = 0 —n x ∈ Q   x = 0F „o sÔnolo / q tim¸n th™ f eÐn—i to sÔnolo f (X) = {0} ∪ {1/n : n ∈ N}F yrismì™ QFIFQF 9istw f : X → Y mi— sunˆrthshF r f lèget—i epÐ —n f (X) = Y D dhl—d  —n gi— kˆje y ∈ Y upˆrqei x ∈ X ¸ste f (x) = y F r sunˆrthsh f lèget—i IEI —n —peikonÐzei di—foretikˆ stoiqeЗ tou X se di—foretikˆ stoiqeЗ tou Y F hhl—d D —n gi— kˆje x1 .62 · Sunart seis €—r—deÐgm—t— QFIFPF @—A 9istw c ∈ RF r sunˆrthsh f : R → R me f (x) = c gi— kˆje x ∈ R lèget—i st—jer  sunˆrthshF „o sÔnolo tim¸n th™ f eÐn—i to monosÔnolo f (X) = {c}F @˜A r sunˆrthsh f : R → R me f (x) = xF „o sÔnolo tim¸n th™ f eÐn—i to sÔnolo f (X) = RF @gA r sunˆrthsh f : R → R me f (x) = x2 F „o sÔnolo tim¸n th™ f eÐn—i to sÔnolo f (X) = [0. @˜A qi— kˆje B ⊆ Y D h —ntÐstrofh eikìn— tou B mèsw th™ f eÐn—i to sÔnolo f −1 (B) = {x ∈ X : f (x) ∈ B}. x2 ∈ X me x1 = x2 èqoume f (x1 ) = f (x2 )F ssodÔn—m—D gi— n— elègxoume ìti h f eÐn—i IEI prèpei n— deÐxoume ìti —n x1 . x2 ∈ X k—i f (x1 ) = f (x2 )D tìte x1 = x2 F yrismì™ QFIFR @sÔnjesh sun—rt sewnAF 9istw f : X → Y k—i g : W → Z dÔo sun—rt sei™F …pojètoume ìti f (X) ⊆ W D dhl—d D h eikìn— th™ f perièqet—i sto pedÐo orismoÔ th™ g F „ìteD —n x ∈ X èqoume f (x) ∈ W k—i orÐzet—i h eikìn— g(f (x)) tou f (x) mèsw th™ g F wporoÔme loipìn n— orÐsoume mi— sunˆrthsh g ◦ f : X → Z D jètont—™ (g ◦ f )(x) = g(f (x)) (x ∈ X).

B2 ⊆ Y D tìte f −1 (B1 ∪ B2 ) = f −1 (B1 ) ∪ f −1 (B2 )F @viA en B1 . A2 ⊆ X D tìte f (A1 ∩ A2 ) ⊆ f (A1 ) ∩ f (A2 )F y egkleismì™ mporeÐ n— eÐn—i gn sio™F ssqÔei ìmw™ pˆnt— isìtht— —n h f eÐn—i IEIF @ivA en B1 ⊆ B2 ⊆ Y tìte f −1 (B1 ) ⊆ f −1 (B2 )F @vA en B1 . we ˆll— lìgi—D f −1 (y) = x ⇐⇒ f (x) = y.1 Sunart seis · 63 @iiiA en A1 . r f −1 eÐn—i k—lˆ orismènh sunˆrthsh —pì to f (X) sto X D h —ntÐstrofh sunˆrthsh th™ f F €rìt—sh QFIFVF 9istw f : X → Y mi— IEI sunˆrthshF yi f −1 ◦ f : X → X k—i f ◦ f −1 : f (X) → f (X) orÐzont—i k—lˆ k—i ik—nopoioÔn ti™X @—A (f −1 ◦ f )(x) = x gi— kˆje x ∈ X F @˜A (f ◦ f −1 )(y) = y gi— kˆje y ∈ f (X)F yrismì™ QFIFW @prˆxei™ k—i diˆt—xhAF 9istw A èn— mh kenì sÔnolo k—i èstw f : A → R k—i g : A → R dÔo sun—rt sei™ me pedÐo tim¸n to RF „ìteD @iA r sunˆrthsh f + g : A → R orÐzet—i w™ ex ™X (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) gi— kˆje x ∈ AF @iiA r sunˆrthsh f · g : A → R orÐzet—i w™ ex ™X (f · g)(x) = f (x) · g(x) gi— kˆje x ∈ AF @iiiA qi— kˆje t ∈ R orÐzet—i h sunˆrthsh tf : A → R me (tf )(x) = tf (x) gi— kˆje x ∈ AF @ivA en g(x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ AD tìte orÐzet—i h x ∈ AF f g : A → R me f g (x) = f (x) g(x) gi— kˆje .3. B2 ⊆ Y D tìte f −1 (B1 ∩ B2 ) = f −1 (B1 ) ∩ f −1 (B2 )F @viiA en B ⊆ Y tìte f −1 (Y \ B) = X \ f −1 (B)F @viiiA en A ⊆ X tìte A ⊆ f −1 (f (A))F y egkleismì™ mporeÐ n— eÐn—i gn sio™F ssqÔei ìmw™ pˆnt— isìtht— —n h f eÐn—i IEIF @ixA en B ⊆ Y tìte f (f −1 (B)) ⊆ B F y egkleismì™ mporeÐ n— eÐn—i gn sio™F ssqÔei ìmw™ pˆnt— isìtht— —n h f eÐn—i epÐF yrismì™ QFIFU @—ntÐstrofh sunˆrthshAF 9istw f : X → Y mi— IEI sunˆrthshF wporoÔme n— jewr soume th sunˆrthsh f s—n sunˆrthsh —pì to X sto f (X) @h f p—Ðrnei timè™ sto sÔnolo f (X)AF r f : X → f (X) eÐn—i IEI k—i epÐF ƒunep¸™D gi— kˆje y ∈ f (X) upˆrqei x ∈ X ¸ste f (x) = y D k—i —utì to x ∈ X eÐn—i mon—dikì —foÔ h f eÐn—i IEIF wporoÔme loipìn n— orÐsoume mi— sunˆrthsh f −1 : f (X) → X D w™ ex ™X f −1 (y) = x. ìpou x eÐn—i to mon—dikì x ∈ X gi— to opoÐo f (x) = y.

y ∈ A me x < y isqÔei f (x) ≥ f (y)F @ivA r f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous— —n gi— kˆje x.64 · Sunart seis vème ìti f ≤ g —n f (x) ≤ g(x) gi— kˆje x ∈ AF yrismì™ QFIFIH @monìtone™ sun—rt sei™AF 9istw A èn— mh kenì uposÔnolo tou R k—i èstw f : A → R mi— sunˆrthshF vème ìtiX @iA r f eÐn—i —Ôxous— —n gi— kˆje x. y ∈ A me x < y isqÔei f (x) ≤ f (y)F @iiA r f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— —n gi— kˆje x. y ∈ A me x < y isqÔei f (x) < f (y)F @iiiA r f eÐn—i fjÐnous— —n gi— kˆje x. y ∈ A me x < y isqÔei f (x) > f (y)F @vA r f eÐn—i monìtonh —n eÐn—i —Ôxous—   fjÐnous—F @viA r f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ monìtonh —n eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous—   gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous—F yrismì™ QFIFII @fr—gmènh sunˆrthshAF 9istw A èn— mh kenì sÔnolo k—i èstw f : A → R mi— sunˆrthshF vème ìtiX @iA r f eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènh —n upˆrqei M ∈ R ¸ste gi— kˆje x ∈ A n— isqÔei f (x) ≤ M F @iiA r f eÐn—i kˆtw fr—gmènh —n upˆrqei m ∈ R ¸ste gi— kˆje x ∈ A n— isqÔei f (x) ≥ mF @iiiA r f eÐn—i fr—gmènh —n eÐn—i ˆnw k—i kˆtw fr—gmènhF ssodÔn—m—D —n upˆrqei M > 0 ¸ste gi— kˆje x ∈ A n— isqÔei |f (x)| ≤ M F yrismì™ QFIFIP @ˆrti—Eperitt  sunˆrthshAF wi— sunˆrthsh g : R → R lèget—i ˆrti— —n g(−x) = g(x) gi— kˆje x ∈ R k—i peritt  —n g(−x) = −g(x) gi— kˆje x ∈ RF qi— p—rˆdeigm—D h g1 (x) = x2 k—i h g2 (x) = |x| eÐn—i ˆrtie™ sun—rt sei™D h g3 (x) = x k—i h g4 (x) = x3 eÐn—i perittè™ sun—rt sei™F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D h sunˆrthsh f (x) = x − [x] eÐn—i periodik  me perÐodo 1F €—r—thr ste ìtiX —n h f eÐn—i periodik  me perÐodo a = 0D tìteD gi— kˆje k ∈ Z \ {0}D o ka eÐn—i epÐsh™ perÐodo™ th™ f F yrismì™ QFIFIQ @periodik  sunˆrthshAF wi— sunˆrthsh f : R → R lèget—i periE odik  @me perÐodo aA —n upˆrqei a = 0 sto R ¸ste f (x + a) = f (x) gi— kˆje x ∈ RF QFP QFP—þ €—r—deÐgm—t— pr—gm—tik¸n sun—rt sewn ekoloujÐe™ uˆje sunˆrthsh f : N → R pou èqei pedÐo orismoÔ to sÔnolo N twn fusik¸n —rijm¸n lèget—i —koloujЗ @—utì™  t—n ˆllwste o orismì™ pou d¸s—me sto uefˆl—io PAF .

. .3 Trigwnometrikès sunart seis · 65 QFP˜þ €oluwnumikè™ sun—rt sei™ p(x) = an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 €olu¸numo lèget—i kˆje sunˆrthsh p : R → R pou orÐzet—i —pì tÔpo th™ morf ™ ìpou n ∈ N ∪ {0} k—i a0 . q polu¸num— k—i bm = 0F „o pedÐo orismoÔ th™ f eÐn—i to sÔnolo X = {x ∈ R : q(x) = 0}F €—r—thr ste ìti to pl jo™ twn riz¸n enì™ poluwnÔmou q(x) = bm xm + bm−1 xm−1 + · · · + b1 x + b0 D bm = 0D eÐn—i to polÔ Ðso me mX deÐxte to me ep—gwg  w™ pro™ ton ˜—jmìD qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn p—r—t rhsh ìti —n ρ eÐn—i mi— rÐz— tou q tìte q(x) = (x − ρ)q1 (x) ìpou q1 eÐn—i polu¸numo ˜—jmoÔ m − 1F QFPdþ elge˜rikè™ sun—rt sei™ p0 (x) + p1 (x)f (x) + · · · + pk (x)[f (x)]k = 0 elge˜rik  lèget—i kˆje sunˆrthsh f : X → R pou ik—nopoieÐ exÐswsh th™ morf ™ gi— kˆje x ∈ X D ìpou p0 . . an ∈ R me an = 0F y mh —rnhtikì™ —kèr—io™ n eÐn—i o ˜—jmì™ tou poluwnÔmouF en n = 0 k—i a0 = 0D tìte p ≡ 0 k—i o ˜—jmì™ tou p den orÐzet—iF en n = 1 tìte to p(x) = a1 x + a0 lèget—i gr—mmik  sunˆrthshF QFPgþ ‚htè™ sun—rt sei™ p(x) an xn + an−1 xn−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 = q(x) bm xm + bm−1 xm−1 + · · · + b1 x + b0 ‚ht  lèget—i kˆje sunˆrthsh f : X → R pou orÐzet—i —pì tÔpo th™ morf ™ f (x) = ìpou p. p1 . . pk poluwnumikè™ sun—rt sei™ k—i pk = 0F €—r—thr ste ìti kˆje rht  sunˆrthsh eÐn—i —lge˜rik X h f = p/q ik—nopoieÐ thn exÐswsh p(x) − q(x)f (x) = 0 sto pedÐo orismoÔ X = {x ∈ R : q(x) = 0}F …pˆrqoun —lge˜rikè™ sun—rt sei™ pou den eÐn—i rhtè™X to —ploÔsteroD Ðsw™D p—rˆdeigm— eÐn—i h sunˆrthsh √ f (x) = xD me pedÐo orismoÔ to X = [0. a1 .3. . . . +∞)D h opoЗ ik—nopoieÐ thn x − 1 · [f (x)]2 = 0 @mporeÐte n— exhg sete gi—tÐ den eÐn—i rht  sunˆrthshcAF QFQ „rigwnometrikè™ sun—rt sei™ ƒe —ut  th sÔntomh p—rˆgr—fo dÐnoume {prok—t—rktikì orismì} k—i upenjumÐzoume kˆpoie™ ˜—sikè™ t—utìthte™ k—i —nisìthte™ gi— ti™ trigwnometrikè™ sun—rt sei™ sin @hmÐtonoAD cos @sunhmÐtonoAD tan @ef—ptomènhA k—i cot @sunef—ptomènhAF y orismì™ —utì™ sthrÐzet—i sth gewmetrik  epopteЗ k—i —rketè™ —pì ti™ eÔloge™ p—r—doqè™ pou siwphrˆ kˆnoume den k—lÔptont—i —ut  th stigm  —pì t— —xi¸m—t— twn pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n @gi— p—rˆdeigm—D den èqoume orÐsei thn ènnoi— tou m kou™ tìxouAF eusthrì™ orismì™ twn trigwnometrik¸n j— dojeÐ se epìmeno uefˆl—ioF . .

k—i | cos x| ≤ 1 k—i sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 π π − x = cos x. 2 2 yi sun—rt sei™ sin : R → [−1. s) tou epipèdou me tetmhmènh t k—i tet—gmènh s @—utè™ eÐn—i oi proshm—smène™ pro˜olè™ tou M stou™ dÔo ˆxone™AF „o shmeÐo O èqei suntet—gmène™ (0. . 0)D A = (1. y ∈ R —n k—i mìno —n o x − y eÐn—i —kèr—io poll—plˆsio tou 2π F we ˜ˆsh —utìn ton prok—t—rktikì orismìD k—i qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ to €uj—gìreio te¸rhm—D mporoÔme n— deÐxoume ìle™ ti™ gnwstè™ sqèsei™ —nˆmes— sti™ trigwnometrikè™ sun—rt sei™ @upojètoume ìti eÐn—i gnwstè™ ston —n—gn¸sthAX €rìt—sh QFQFIF qi— kˆje x ∈ R isqÔoun oi | sin x| ≤ 1. 0)D B = (0. 1) k—i B = (0. cos x cot x = cos x . 1] eÐn—i periodikè™D me elˆqisth perÐodo 2π F r sin eÐn—i peritt  sunˆrthshD en¸ h cos eÐn—i ˆrti—F sin €rìt—sh QFQFPF en 0 < x < π D tìte 2 sin x < x < tan x := sin x . π/2) isqÔoun oi —nisìthte™ | sin x| ≤ |x| ≤ | tan x| k—i ìti gi— kˆje x ∈ R isqÔei h | sin x| ≤ |x|. tan x = sin x . sin x = s. cos − x = sin x. cos x 9ipet—i ìtiD gi— kˆje x ∈ (−π/2.66 · Sunart seis epì to vÔkeio jumìm—ste ìti —n jewr soume dÔo kˆjetou™ ˆxone™ X OX k—i Y OY sto epÐpedo tìteD se kˆje di—tet—gmèno zeÔgo™ (t. 0)F tewroÔme kÔklo me kèntro O k—i —ktÐn— 1D o opoÐo™ tèmnei tou™ dÔo ˆxone™ st— shmeЗ A = (−1. s) pr—gm—tik¸n —rijm¸n —ntistoiqeÐ mon—dikì shmeÐo M = M (t. 1] k—i cos : R → [−1. sin x yi dÔo teleut—Ðoi —rijmoÐ orÐzont—i —n x ∈ {(2k + 1)π/2 : k ∈ Z}   x ∈ {kπ : k ∈ Z} / / —ntÐstoiq—F €—r—thr ste ìti to Ðdio shmeÐo M —ntistoiqeÐ stou™ —rijmoԙ x. −1)F uˆnoume thn p—r—doq  ìti se kˆje pr—gm—tikì —rijmì x —ntistoiqeÐ èn— shmeÐo —utoÔ tou kÔklou w™ ex ™X —n sum˜olÐsoume me π to misì tou m kou™ th™ perifèrei—™ tou kÔklouD ston x = 0 —ntistoiqeÐ to AD ston x = π/2 —ntistoiqeÐ to B D ston x = π —ntistoiqeÐ to A k—i genikˆD gi— dosmèno x metrˆme pˆnw sthn perifèrei— tou kÔklou tìxo AM pou èqei m ko™ Ðso me |x| xekin¸nt—™ —pì to A k—i —kolouj¸nt—™ k—teÔjunsh —ntÐjeth pro™ —ut n twn deikt¸n tou rologioÔ —n x > 0   k—teÔjunsh Ðdi— pro™ —ut n twn deikt¸n tou rologioÔ —n x < 0F en to shmeÐo M = M (t. s) —ntistoiqeÐ ston xD orÐzoume cos x = t.

2 2 QFR ikjetik  sunˆrthsh 9istw a èn—™ jetikì™ pr—gm—tikì™ —rijmì™F wporoÔme n— orÐsoume ton ax ìt—n o x eÐn—i rhtì™D —kolouj¸nt—™ t— ex ™ —plˆ ˜ m—t—X @—A en x ∈ ND jètoume ax = a · a · · · a @x forè™AF @˜A en x = 0D jètoume a0 = 1F 1 @gA en x ∈ Z k—i x < 0D jètoume ax = a−x we ˜ˆsh —utoԙ tou™ orismoԙ elègqoume eÔkol— ìtiX ax+y = ax · ay . a−x = 1 .4 Ekjetik  sunˆrthsh · 67 €rìt—sh QFQFQ @sunhmÐtono k—i hmÐtono —jroÐsm—to™ k—i di—forˆ™AF qi— kˆje a. €rìt—sh QFQFS @met—sqhm—tismì™ —jroÐsm—to™ se ginìmenoAF qi— kˆje x. b > 0F (ax )y = axy . b ∈ R isqÔoun oi t—utìthte™ cos(a − b) = cos a cos b + sin a cos(a + b) = cos a cos b − sin a sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin(a − b) = sin a cos b − cos a t—utìthte™ sin b sin b sin b sin b. gi— kˆje x.3. ax (ab)x = ax bx √ @gA en x = 1/n gi— kˆpoion n ∈ ND jètoume a1/n = n a @èqoume —podeÐxei thn Ôp—rxh k—i to monos m—nto jetik ™ nEost ™ rÐz—™ gi— kˆje jetikì pr—gm—tikì —rijmìAF . y ∈ Z k—i a. y ∈ R sin x + sin y sin x − sin y cos x + cos y cos x − cos y = = = = 2 sin x−y x+y cos 2 2 x−y x+y 2 sin cos 2 2 x+y x−y 2 cos cos 2 2 y−x x+y 2 sin sin . €rìt—sh QFQFR @sunhmÐtono k—i hmÐtono tou 2aAF qi— kˆje a ∈ R isqÔoun oi cos(2a) sin(2a) isqÔoun oi t—utìthte™ = cos2 a − sin2 a = 2 cos2 a − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 a = 2 sin a cos a.

k a efoÔ qn → 0D ef—rmìzont—™ ton orismì tou orÐou me ε = 1/k > 0D ˜rÐskoume n0 ∈ N ¸steX gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 isqÔei −1/k < qn < 1/k F „ìteD qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ th monotonЗ th™ aq D q ∈ QD p—Ðrnoume to ex ™X gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 D 1 − ε < a−1/k < aqn < a1/k < 1 + ε. y ∈ Q k—i a. (ax )y = axy . ax (ab)x = ax bx gi— kˆje x. epìdeixhF en a = 1 den èqoume tÐpot— n— deÐxoumeF r perÐptwsh 0 < a < 1 —nˆget—i sthn a > 1F …pojètoume loipìn ìti a > 1F iÔkol— ˜lèpoume ìti —n q. ax+y = ax · ay . b > 0F ƒe —ut  thn p—rˆgr—fo dÐnoume mi— sÔntomh perigr—f  tou {fusiologikoÔ} trìpou orismoÔ th™ ekjetik ™ sunˆrthsh™ ax X epekteÐnoume ton orismì gi— ˆrrhtou™ ekjète™ xF y orismì™ tou ax D x ∈ Q j— ˜—sisteÐ sto —kìloujo v mm—X / v mm— QFRFIF 9istw a > 0 k—i (qn ) —koloujЗ rht¸n —rijm¸n me qn → 0F „ìteD aqn → 1. q ∈ Q k—i q < q tìte aq < aq F √ 1 √ 9istw ε > 0F epì ti™ m a → 1 k—i m a → 1 ˜lèpoume ìti upˆrqei k ∈ N ¸ste √ 1 1 − ε < √ = a−1/k < a1/k = k a < 1 + ε. hhl—d D gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 isqÔei |aqn − 1| < εF 9ipet—i ìti aqn → 1F 2 r idè— m—™ gi— n— epekteÐnoume ton orismì tou ax gi— ˆrrhto x eÐn—i h ex ™X oi rhtoÐ —rijmoÐ eÐn—i puknoÐ sto RD epomènw™ —n m—™ d¸soun x ∈ Q upˆrqoun @pollè™A —koloujÐe™ / rht¸n qn → xF t— deÐxoume ìti gi— kˆpoi— —pì —utè™ to limn aqn upˆrqei k—i j— orÐsoume ax = lim aqn . n . = m1 n1 D tìte m a1/n hhl—d D o ax orÐzet—i k—i isqÔoun oi = a1/n1 m1 . a−x = 1 .68 · Sunart seis @eA en x = m/n ìpou m ∈ Z k—i n ∈ N eÐn—i tuq¸n rhtì™D jètoume ax = a1/n iÔkol— elègqoume ìti —n x = m n m .

b] : x → a + (b − a)x eÐnai 1-1 kai epÐ. y ∈ RF „ìteD ax+y = ax · ay . b ∈ R me 'Estw a<b . .3. 1] → [a. 1−x 1+x kai g(t) = 4t(1 − t) g −1 . n n eutì j— deÐqnei ìti h tim  a pou orÐs—me eÐn—i —nexˆrthth —pì thn epilog  th™ —koloujЗ™ rht¸n qn → xF x te¸rhm— QFRFPF 9istw x ∈ R k—i qn . fjÐnous— —n 0 < a < 1F (ax )y = axy . allˆ den orÐzetai h . n efoÔ limn a qn = limn a qn = limn a D p—Ðrnoume t— (i) k—i (ii) t—utìqron—F rn x 2 9iqoume loipìn orÐsei ton a gi— kˆje x ∈ RF ƒth sunèqei—D prèpei n— —podeÐxoume di—doqikˆ t— ex ™ @oi —podeÐxei™ eÐn—i mi— k—l  ˆskhsh pˆnw sth sÔgklish —kolouji¸nAF €rìt—sh QFRFQF 9istw a. a−x = 1 . 'Estw (a) Na breÐte tic f. 1] → [0. qn ∈ Q me limn qn = limn qn = xF en a > 1D tìte @iA t— limn aqn k—i limn aqn upˆrqounF @iiA limn aqn = limn aqn F epìdeixhF tewroÔme mi— —Ôxous— —koloujЗ rht¸n rn → xF 9istw q rhtì™ me q > xF „ìte arn < aq D dhl—d  h arn eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènhF ipÐsh™D —pì thn rn ≤ rn+1 èpet—i ìti arn ≤ arn+1 D dhl—d  h arn eÐn—i —Ôxous—F ƒunep¸™D h arn sugklÐneiF €—Ðrnoume t¸r— opoi—d pote —pì ti™ (qn )D (qn )F 9iqoume qn − rn → x − x = 0D opìte to v mm— QFRFI deÐqnei ìti aqn −rn → 1F „ìteD aqn = aqn −rn arn → lim arn .5 Ask seis · 69 qi— n— eÐn—i k—lì™ o orismì™D j— prèpei —n pˆroume mi— ˆllh —koloujЗ rht¸n —rijm¸n qn → x n— upˆrqei to limn aqn k—i n— isqÔei h lim aqn = lim aqn . DeÐxte ìti h apeikìnish f : [0. 1] f ◦g me kai (b) Na deÐxete ìti orÐzetai h f (x) = g◦f f −1 . ax (ab)x = ax bx . b > 0 k—i x. g : [0. €rìt—sh QFRFRF 9istw a > 0F r x → ax eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— —n a > 1 k—i gnhsÐw™ QFS IF PF esk sei™ a. n ymoÐw™D aqn → lim arn .

(g) Na brejoÔn ta 1 f ( x ). TF 'Estw f (x) = 1 . (a) an h eÐnai epÐ tìte kai h f g eÐnai epÐ. Na brejeÐ mia sunˆrthsh g : R → R ¸ste g◦f = f ◦g . (b) Na brejeÐ h f ◦f . EÐnai h g monadik ? IHF IIF ApodeÐxte ìti h sunˆrthsh f (x) = x |x|+1 eÐnai gnhsÐwc aÔxousa kai fragmènh sto R . (g) (d) A ⊆ B ⇐⇒ χA ≤ χB An kai (e) eÐnai mia sunˆrthsh me f2 = f . (b) χA∪B = χA + χB − χA · χB . 'Estw f (x) = x + 1 . DeÐxte ìti orÐzetai h thc f ◦g (f ◦ g)−1 = g −1 ◦ f −1 DeÐxte ìti 'Estw g : X → Y. 'Exetˆste an eÐnai monìtonh kai breÐte thn f −1 (an aut  orÐzetai). 1+x (a) Na brejeÐ to pedÐo orismoÔ thc f . f (cx). f (x) + f (y).70 · Sunart seis QF RF 'Estw antÐstrofh sunˆrthsh g : X → Y. . IsqÔoun ta antÐstrofa twn (a) kai (b)? SF f :X →Y h:Y →X f ◦ g = IdY 'Estw mia ¸ste sunˆrthsh. (b) an h eÐnai 1-1 tìte kai h eÐnai 1-1. thn q—r—kthristik  sunˆrthsh tou A pou ApodeÐxte ìti (a) χA∩B = χA · χB χR\A = 1 − χA f :R→R (eidikìtera χA = χ2 A ). sumbolÐzoume me orÐzetai apì thn χA (x) = 1 0 an an χA : R → R x∈A x∈A / . f : Y → Z (f ◦ g)−1 dÔo sunart seic kai ìti pou eÐnai 1-1 kai epÐ. f (x + y). f : Y → Z f ◦g f ◦g dÔo sunart seic. tìte upˆrqei A⊆R ¸ste f = χA . kai Upojètoume . . eÐnai al jeia ìti eÐnai 'Estw f (x) = x+1 x2 + 1 an an x≤1 x≥1 . ìti upˆrqoun sunart seic g :Y →X kai h ◦ f = IdX DeÐxte ìti h=g . upˆrqei (d) Gia poiˆ c∈R c∈R x∈R ¸ste f (cx) = f (x) ? (e) Gia poiˆ h sqèsh f (cx) = f (x) ikanopoieÐtai gia dÔo diaforetikèc timèc tou x∈R ? UF VF WF An mia sunˆrthsh gnhsÐwc aÔxousa sto f I1 ∪ I 2 eÐnai gnhsÐwc ? aÔxousa sta diast mata I1 kai I2 . . Poiì eÐnai to sÔnolo tim¸n f (R) ? An A ⊆ R .

(d) λ∈R ¸ste f (q) = λq gia kˆje q∈Q . . periodik  @me perÐodo aA f (x) = [x] an upˆrqei a = 0 sto R (a) DeÐxte ìti h sunˆrthsh f :R→R pou orÐzetai apì thn den eÐnai periodik . . diairèste to diˆsthma [a. ˆrtia kai lègetai ˆrti— ìti an DeÐxte kˆje g(−x) = g(x) x∈R f :R→R gia kˆje sunˆrthsh kai peritt  an grˆfetai wc ˆjroisma peritt . ApodeÐxte ìti f eÐnai stajer . IRF 'Estw n∈N . ApodeÐxte ìti (a) f (0) = 0 Gia kˆje f (−x) = −f (x) kai gia kˆje (b) n∈N x1 . (g) 1 f(n) = Upˆrqei f (1) n gia kˆje n∈N . (b) Exetˆste an h sunˆrthsh f :R→R pou orÐzetai apì thn f (x) = x − [x] eÐnai periodik .5 Ask seis · 71 IPF Mia sunˆrthsh gia g(−x) = −g(x) f = fa + fp ìpou g:R→R x∈R fa fp kˆje . (a) DeÐxte ìti h sunˆrthsh f (x) = [x] + x + 1/n n−1 1 + ··· + x + − [nx] n n 1 n . [ Upìdeixh: n Ðsa upodiast mata. y ∈ R . (b) UpologÐste thn tim  f (x) ìtan 0 ≤ x < 1/n (g) DeÐxte thn tautìthta [nx] = [x] + x + gia kˆje 1 n−1 + ··· + x + n n x∈R kai kˆje n∈N . ITF h 'Estw f :R→R An mia sunˆrthsh me f (y) − f (x) ≤ (y − x)2 gia kˆpoia gia kˆje x.3. b] se arketˆ megˆloc fusikìc arijmìc. y ∈ R . ìpou |f (b) − f (a)| = δ > 0 n a<b sto R . . kai ìti aut  h anaparˆstash eÐnai monadik . IQF ¸ste Mia f : R → R f (x + a) = f (x) x∈R sunˆrthsh gia kˆje lègetai . xn ∈ R f (x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ) = f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) + · · · + f (xn ). eÐnai periodik  me perÐodo . Dhlad . ISF 'Estw f :R→R kai mia sunˆrthsh me f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) x∈R isqÔei . x2 . gia kˆje x. . f x+ = f (x) gia kˆje x∈R .] .

.

x0 + δ) tou x0 ¸ste kˆje x ∈ A pou —n kei se —ut n thn perioq  tou x0 n— —peikonÐzet—i sto (f (x0 ) − ε. tìte |f (x) − f (x0 )| < ε. f (x0 ) + ε) th™ tim ™ f (x0 )F eutì pou zhtˆme eÐn—i n— mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme mi— perioq  (x0 − δ.Kefˆlaio 4 Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn RFI yrismì™ th™ sunèqei—™ yrismì™ RFIFIF 9istw A èn— mh kenì uposÔnolo tou RD èstw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ AF vème ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 —nX gi— kˆje ε > 0 upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i |x − x0 | < δ. vème ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto A —n eÐn—i suneq ™ se kˆje x0 ∈ AF €—r—thr sei™ RFIFPF @—A „o dojèn ε > 0 k—jorÐzei mi— perioq  (f (x0 ) − ε. hhl—d D mporoÔme n— epilèxoume opoiod pote δ > 0 @gi— p—rˆdeigm—D δ = 100AF @˜A f : R → R me f (x) = x gi— kˆje x ∈ RF t— deÐxoume ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ se kˆje x0 ∈ RF 9istw ε > 0F htˆme δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ R k—i |x − x0 | < δ D tìte . f (x0 ) + ε)F hhl—d D n— isqÔei f ((x0 − δ. f (x0 ) + ε)F en to p—r—pˆnw isqÔei gi— kˆje ε > 0D tìte lème ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F @˜A epì ton orismì eÐn—i f—nerì ìti exetˆzoume th sunèqei— mìno st— shmeЗ tou pedÐou orismoÔ th™ f F €—r—deÐgm—t— RFIFQF @—A f : R → R me f (x) = c gi— kˆje x ∈ RF t— deÐxoume ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ se kˆje x0 ∈ RF 9istw ε > 0F htˆme δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ R k—i |x − x0 | < δ D tìte |f (x) − f (x0 )| < εF 9ymw™D gi— kˆje x ∈ R èqoume |f (x) − f (x0 )| = |c − c| = 0 < ε. x0 + δ) ∩ A) ⊆ (f (x0 ) − ε.

€—r—thr ste ìti to δ pou epilèx—me ex—rtˆt—i —pì to dojèn ε —llˆ k—i —pì to shmeÐo x0 sto opoÐo exetˆzoume th sunèqei— th™ f F RFI—þ r ˆrnhsh tou orismoÔ 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ AF …pojètoume ìti h f den eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F we ˜ˆsh th suz thsh pou ègine metˆ ton orismì th™ sunèqei—™D —utì shm—Ðnei ìti upˆrqei kˆpoio ε me thn ex ™ idiìtht—X —n jewr soume opoiod pote δ > 0 k—i thn —ntÐstoiqh perioq  (x0 − δ. f (x0 ) + ε)F we ˆll— lìgi—D upˆrqei kˆpoio x ∈ A to opoÐo —n kei sto (x0 − δ. x0 + δ) ∩ A) ⊆ (f (x0 ) − ε. hhl—d D —n epilèxoume 0 < δ < min 1. |x − x0 | < δ =⇒ |f (x) − f (x0 )| < ε. enD epiplèonD δ < ε 2(2|x0 |+1) D tìteD gi— kˆje x ∈ R me |x − x0 | < δ j— èqoume |f (x) − f (x0 )| = 2|x + x0 | · |x − x0 | ≤ 2(2|x0 | + 1) |x − x0 | < 2(2|x0 | + 1)δ < ε. 0 0 htˆme loipìn δ > 0 ¸steX —n |x − x0 | < δ D tìte 2|x + x0 | · |x − x0 | < εF hedomènou ìti emeЙ j— kˆnoume thn epilog  tou δ D mporoÔme n— upojèsoume —pì thn —rq  ìti to δ j— eÐn—i mikrìtero —pì 1F „ìteD —n |x − x0 | < δ j— èqoume |x − x0 | < 1D k—i sunep¸™D |x + x0 | ≤ |x − x0 + 2x0 | ≤ |x − x0 | + 2|x0 | < 1 + 2|x0 |. x0 + δ) —llˆ den ik—nopoieÐ thn |f (x) − f (x0 )| < εF ssodÔn—m—D qi— kˆje δ > 0 upˆrqei x ∈ A me |x − x0 | < δ k—i |f (x) − f (x0 )| ≥ εF u—t—l goume loipìn sto ex ™X . èqoume ε 2(2|x0 | + 1) . €—r—thr ste ìtiD se —utì to p—rˆdeigm—D to δ ex—rtˆt—i —pì to ε —llˆ den ex—rtˆt—i —pì to x0 F @gA f : R → R me f (x) = 2x2 − 1 gi— kˆje x ∈ RF t— deÐxoume ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ se kˆje x0 ∈ RF 9istw ε > 0F htˆme δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ R k—i |x − x0 | < δ D tìte |f (x) − f (x0 )| < εF €—r—thr ste ìtiD gi— kˆje x ∈ RD |f (x) − f (x0 )| = |(2x2 − 1) − (2x2 − 1)| = |2x2 − 2x2 | = 2|x + x0 | · |x − x0 |.74 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn |f (x) − f (x0 )| < εF efoÔ |f (x) − f (x0 )| = |x − x0 |D —rkeÐ n— epilèxoume δ = εF „ìteD |x − x0 | < δ =⇒ |f (x) − f (x0 )| = |x − x0 | < δ = ε. x0 + δ) tou x0 D tìte den isqÔei f ((x0 − δ.

2 en o x0 eÐn—i ˆrrhto™D p—r—throÔme ìti sto (x0 − δ. x0 + δ) mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme rhtì q F epì ton orismì th™ f èqoume |f (q) − f (x0 )| = |1 − 0| = 1 ≥ 1 . x0 + δ) mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme ˆrrhto αF epì ton orismì th™ f èqoume |f (α) − f (x0 )| = |0 − 1| = 1 ≥ 1 . efoÔ to ε > 0  t—n tuqìnD f (xn ) → f (x0 )F qi— thn —ntÐstrofh k—teÔjunsh j— doulèyoume me —p—gwg  se ˆtopoF …pojètoume ìti gi— kˆje —koloujЗ (xn ) shmeÐwn tou A me xn → x0 D h —koloujЗ (f (xn )) sugklÐnei . 2 RFI˜þ erq  th™ met—forˆ™ 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ AF r —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ dÐnei èn—n q—r—kthrismì th™ sunèqei—™ th™ f sto x0 mèsw —kolouji¸nF te¸rhm— RFIFS @—rq  th™ met—forˆ™AF r f : A → R eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 ∈ A —n k—i mìno —nX gi— kˆje —koloujЗ (xn ) shmeÐwn tou A me xn → x0 D h —koloujЗ (f (xn )) sugklÐnei sto f (x0 )F epìdeixhF …pojètoume pr¸t— ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F 9istw xn ∈ A me xn → x0 F t— deÐxoume ìti f (xn ) → f (x0 )X 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 D upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i |x − x0 | < δ D tìte |f (x) − f (x0 )| < ε @—utì™ eÐn—i —kri˜¸™ o orismì™ th™ sunèqei—™ th™ f sto x0 AF 9iqoume upojèsei ìti xn → x0 F 9er—D gi) —utì to δ > 0 mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme n0 ∈ N ¸steX —n n ≥ n0 tìte |xn − x0 | < δ @—utì™ eÐn—i —kri˜¸™ o orismì™ th™ sÔgklish™ th™ (xn ) sto x0 AF ƒunduˆzont—™ t— p—r—pˆnw èqoumeX —n n ≥ n0 D tìte |xn − x0 | < δ ˆr— |f (xn ) − f (x0 )| < ε.1 Orismìs ths sunèqeias · 75 r f : A → R eÐn—i —suneq ™ sto x0 ∈ A —n k—i mìno —n upˆrqei ε > 0 ¸steX gi— kˆje δ > 0 upˆrqei x ∈ A me |x − x0 | < δ k—i |f (x) − f (x0 )| ≥ εF we lìgi—D j— lèg—me ìti h f eÐn—i —suneq ™ sto x0 —n {osod pote kontˆ sto x0 upˆrqei x ∈ A ¸ste oi timè™ f (x) k—i f (x0 ) n— —pèqoun —rketˆ}F  x∈Q  1 €—rˆdeigm— RFIFRF r sunˆrthsh tou DirichletD f (x) = D eÐn—i —suneq ™  0 x∈Q / se kˆje x0 ∈ RF ipilègoume ε = 1 > 0 k—i j— deÐxoume ìtiX gi— kˆje δ > 0 upˆrqei x ∈ R 2 1 me |x − x0 | < δ —llˆ |f (x) − f (x0 )| ≥ 2 F €rˆgm—tiD —n o x0 eÐn—i rhtì™D p—r—throÔme ìti sto (x0 − δ.4.

. .F qi— kˆje n ∈ N èqoume 2 1/n > 0 k—i —pì thn (∗) ˜rÐskoume xn ∈ A me |xn − x0 | < 1/n k—i |f (xn ) − f (x0 )| ≥ εF epì to krit rio p—rem˜ol ™ eÐn—i f—nerì ìti xn → x0 k—i —pì thn upìjesh pou kˆn—me prèpei h —koloujЗ (f (xn )) n— sugklÐnei sto f (x0 )F eutì ìmw™ eÐn—i —dÔn—to —foÔ |f (xn ) − f (x0 )| ≥ ε gi— kˆje n ∈ NF 2 €—r—t rhsh RFIFTF r —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ mporeÐ n— qrhsimopoihjeÐ me dÔo di—foreE tikoԙ trìpou™X @iA gi— n— deÐxoume ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 —rkeÐ n— deÐxoume ìti {xn → x0 =⇒ f (xn ) → f (x0 )}F @iiA gi— n— deÐxoume ìti h f den eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 —rkeÐ n— ˜roÔme mi— —koloujЗ xn → x0 @sto AA ¸ste limn f (xn ) = f (x0 )F €olÔ suqnˆD ex—sf—lÐzoume thn —sunèqei— th™ f sto x0 ˜rÐskont—™ dÔo —koloujÐe™ xn → x0 k—i yn → x0 @sto AA ¸ste limn f (xn ) = limn f (yn )F en h f  t—n suneq ™ sto x0 D j— èprepe t— dÔo ìri— n— eÐn—i Ðs— me f (x0 )D ˆr— k—i met—xÔ tou™ Ðs—F  x∈Q  1 eplì p—rˆdeigm—F r sunˆrthsh tou DirichletD f (x) = D eÐn—i —suneq E  0 x∈Q / ™ se kˆje x0 ∈ RF t— d¸soume mi— deÔterh —pìdeixhD qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™F epì thn puknìtht— twn rht¸n k—i twn —rr twnD mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme —kolouE jЗ (qn ) rht¸n —rijm¸n me qn → x0 k—i —koloujЗ (αn ) —rr twn —rijm¸n me αn → x0 F 9ymw™D f (qn ) = 1 → 1 k—i f (αn ) = 0 → 0F epì thn prohgoÔmenh p—r—t rhsh sumper—ÐE noume ìti h f den eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F RFIgþ ƒunèqei— k—i prˆxei™ met—xÔ sun—rt sewn „o je¸rhm— pou —koloujeÐ dÐnei th sqèsh th™ sunèqei—™ me ti™ sun jei™ —lge˜rikè™ prˆxei™ —nˆmes— se sun—rt sei™F r —pìdeix  tou eÐn—i ˆmeshD —n qrhsimopoi soume thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ se sundu—smì me ti™ —ntÐstoiqe™ idiìthte™ gi— t— ìri— —kolouji¸nF te¸rhm— RFIFUF 9istw f. 1 . . g eÐn—i suneqeЙ sto x0 F „ìteD @iA yi f + g k—i f · g eÐn—i suneqeЙ sto x0 F @iiA en epiplèon g(x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ AD tìte h sto x0 F f g orÐzet—i sto A k—i eÐn—i suneq ™ . . n . g : A → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ AF …pojètoume ìti oi f. .76 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn sto f (x0 )F …pojètoume epÐsh™ ìti h f den eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 k—i j— k—t—l xoume se ˆtopoF efoÔ h f den eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 D upˆrqei kˆpoio ε > 0 me thn ex ™ idiìtht—X (∗) qi— kˆje δ > 0 upˆrqei x ∈ A to opoÐo ik—nopoieÐ thn |x − x0 | < δ —llˆ |f (x) − f (x0 )| ≥ εF 1 rhsimopoioÔme thn (∗) di—doqikˆ me δ = 1. . .

cos : R → [−1. 1] eÐn—i suneqeЙF epìdeixhF 9istw x0 ∈ RF qi— kˆje x ∈ R èqoume | sin x − sin x0 | = 2 sin x + x0 x − x0 x − x0 · cos ≤ 2 sin . qi— kˆje —koloujЗ (xn ) shmeÐwn tou A me xn → x0 deÐx—me ìti (g ◦ f )(xn ) = g(f (xn )) → g(f (x0 )) = (g ◦ f )(x0 ).1 Orismìs ths sunèqeias · 77 epìdeixhF r —pìdeixh ìlwn twn isqurism¸n eÐn—i —pl X gi— p—rˆdeigm—D gi— n— deÐxoume ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 D sÔmfwn— me thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™D —rkeÐ n— deÐxoume ìtiD g gi— kˆje —koloujЗ (xn ) shmeÐwn tou A pou sugklÐnei sto x0 D h —koloujЗ sugklÐnei sto f g f g (xn ) (x0 )F epì thn upìjeshD oi f k—i g eÐn—i suneqeЙ sto x0 F epì thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ èqoume èqoume f (xn ) → f (x0 ) k—i g(xn ) → g(x0 )F efoÔ g(xn ) = 0 gi— kˆje n ∈ N k—i g(x0 ) = 0D èqoume f g (xn ) = f (xn ) f (x0 ) → = g(xn ) g(x0 ) f g (x0 ). 2 2 2 . epì thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™D h g ◦ f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F 2 RFIdþ ƒunèqei— twn trigwnometrik¸n sun—rt sewn k—i th™ ekjetik ™ sunˆrthshE ™ r st—jer  sunˆrthsh f (x) = c @c ∈ RA k—i h t—utotik  sunˆrthsh g(x) = x eÐn—i suneqeЙ sto RF 9ipet—i ìti oi poluwnumikè™ sun—rt sei™ eÐn—i suneqeЙ sto R k—i ìti kˆje rht  sunˆrthsh eÐn—i suneq ™ se ìl— t— shmeЗ tou pedÐou orismoÔ th™F heÐqnoume t¸r— th sunèqei— twn trigwnometrik¸n sun—rt sewn k—i th™ ekjetik ™ sunˆrthsh™F €rìt—sh RFIFWF yi sun—rt sei™ sin.4. r —pìdeixh th™ sunèqei—™ twn f +g k—i f ·g sto x0 —f net—i w™ 9eskhsh gi— ton —n—gn¸sthF 2 g : B → R dÔo sun—rt sei™ me f (A) ⊆ B F en h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 k—i h g eÐn—i suneq ™ sto f (x0 )D tìte h g ◦ f : A → R eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F €rìt—sh RFIFV @sÔnjesh suneq¸n sun—rt sewnAF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw epìdeixhF 9istw (xn ) —koloujЗ shmeÐwn tou A me xn → x0 F efoÔ h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 D h —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ deÐqnei ìti f (xn ) → f (x0 )F efoÔ h g eÐn—i suneq ™ sto f (x0 ) ∈ B D gi— kˆje —koloujЗ (yn ) shmeÐwn tou B me yn → f (x0 ) èqoume g(yn ) → g(f (x0 ))F 9ymw™D f (xn ) ∈ B k—i f (xn ) → f (x0 )F ƒunep¸™D g(f (xn )) → g(f (x0 )).

78 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn epì thn €rìt—sh QFQFP èqoume sin ƒunep¸™D x − x0 x − x0 ≤ . dhl—d  |fa (x) − fa (0)| = |ax − 1| < ε. heÐqnoume t¸r— th sunèqei— th™ fa sto tuqìn x0 ∈ R qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™X èstw (xn ) sto R me xn → x0 F epì th sunèqei— th™ fa sto 0 sumper—Ðnoume ìti fa (xn − x0 ) = axn −x0 → a0 = 1F „ìteD fa (xn ) = axn = ax0 · axn −x0 → ax0 · 1 = fa (x0 ). +∞) → (0. 2 2 x − x0 = |x − x0 |. r (xn )  t—n tuqoÔs—D ˆr— h fa eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F 2 x ƒto epìmeno uefˆl—io j— qrhsimopoi soume k—i th sunèqei— th™ sunˆrthsh™ a → a X €rìt—sh RFIFIIF 9istw x ∈ RF r sunˆrthsh gx : (0. 2 | sin x − sin x0 | ≤ 2 „¸r—D eÐn—i eÔkolo n— doÔme ìti h sin eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 @pˆrte δ = ε k—i ep—lhjeÔste ton orismì th™ sunèqei—™AF r cos eÐn—i suneq ™ w™ sÔnjesh th™ suneqoԙ x → π − x me 2 thn sinF enexˆrtht— —pì —utìD mporeÐte n— d¸sete —pìdeixh xekin¸nt—™ —pì thn t—utìtht— cos x − cos x0 = 2 sin k—i qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn | sin t| ≤ |t|F suneq ™F x + x0 x0 − x sin 2 2 2 €rìt—sh RFIFIHF 9istw a > 0F r sunˆrthsh fa : R → (0. +∞) me gx (a) = ax eÐn—i suneq ™F . 0 a ipilègoume δ = 1/n0 > 0F efoÔ h fa eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous—D gi— kˆje x ∈ R me |x| < δ èqoume 1 − ε < a−1/n0 < ax < a1/n0 < 1 + ε. +∞) me fa (x) = ax eÐn—i epìdeixhF wporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti a > 1 @—n a = 1 h fa eÐn—i st—jer  k—i —n 1 0 < a < 1 èqoume fa = f1/a AF √ heÐqnoume pr¸t— ìti h fa eÐn—i suneq ™ sto 0X èstw ε > 0F epì ti™ n a → 1 k—i 1 √ → 1 ˜lèpoume ìti upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste n a √ 1 1 − ε < n√ = a−1/n0 < a1/n0 = n0 a < 1 + ε.

x0 + ρ)) me |x − x0 | < δ1 n— isqÔei |f (x) − f (xo )| < εF tètoume δ = min{ρ. hhl—d D h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F 2 r epìmenh €rìt—sh deÐqnei ìti —n mi— sunˆrthsh f : A → R eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 ∈ AD tìte eÐn—i {topikˆ fr—gmènh}D dhl—d  fr—gmènh se mi— perioq  tou x0 F €—r—thr ste ìti mi— suneq ™ sunˆrthsh f den eÐn—i —p—r—Ðtht— fr—gmènh se olìklhro to pedÐo orismoÔ 1 th™F eplˆ p—r—deÐgm—t— m—™ dÐnoun oi sun—rt sei™ f (x) = x2 @x ∈ RA k—i g(x) = x @x ∈ (0. y} = x + y − |x − y| k—i 2 max{x.4. 1)AF . δ1 }F „ìteD èqoume δ > 0 k—i —n x ∈ A ∩ (x0 − δ. n 0 0 r (an )  t—n tuqoÔs—D ˆr— h gx eÐn—i suneq ™ sto a0 F 2 RFIeþ ƒunèqei— k—i topik  sumperiforˆ epì ton orismì th™ sunèqei—™ eÐn—i f—nerì ìti h sumperiforˆ mi—™ sunˆrthsh™ f {m—kriˆ} —pì to x0 den ephreˆzei th sunèqei—   mh th™ f sto x0 F €rìt—sh RFIFIPF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ AF …pojètoume ìti upˆrqei ρ > 0 ¸ste o periorismì™ th™ f sto A ∩ (x0 − ρ. y} = x + y + |x − y| ˜lèpoume ìti tn := min{am . x0 + δ) èqoume t—utìqron— x ∈ A ∩ (x0 − ρ. n n n n €—r—thr ste ìtiX —n an ≥ 1 tìte a−m ≤ ax ≤ am en¸ —n an ≤ 1 tìte am ≤ ax ≤ a−m F n n n n n n 9ipet—i ìti tn ≤ ax ≤ sn k—i —pì to krit rio p—rem˜ol ™ sumper—Ðnoume ìti gx (an ) = n ax → 1 = gx (1)F efoÔ h (an )  t—n tuqoÔs—D h —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ deÐqnei ìti h gx eÐn—i n suneq ™ sto 1F heÐqnoume t¸r— th sunèqei— th™ gx sto tuqìn a0 > 0 qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™X èstw (an ) sto (0. a−m } → 1. x0 +ρ) → ˜(x) = f (x)F R me f ˜ 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 D upˆrqei δ1 > 0 ¸ste gi— kˆje x ∈ ˜ ˜ (A ∩ (x0 − ρ.1 Orismìs ths sunèqeias · 79 epìdeixhF wporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti x > 0 @—n x = 0 h gx eÐn—i st—jer  k—i —n x < 0 1 èqoume gx = g−x AF heÐqnoume pr¸t— ìti h gx eÐn—i suneq ™ sto 1X upˆrqei m ∈ N ¸ste |x| ≤ mF 9istE w (an ) sto (0. +∞) me an → 1F „ìteD am → 1 k—i a−m → 1F epì ti™ t—utìthte™ n n 2 min{x. a−m } → 1 k—i sn := max{am . x0 + ρ) k—i |x − x0 | < δ ≤ δ1 F 9er—D ˜ ˜ |f (x) − f (x0 )| = |f (x) − f (xo )| < ε. +∞) me an → a0 F epì th sunèqei— th™ gx sto 1 sumper—Ðnoume ìti gx (an /a0 ) = ax /ax → 1x = 1F „ìteD n 0 gx (an ) = ax = ax (an /a0 )x → ax · 1 = gx (a0 ). x0 + ρ) n— eÐn—i sunˆrthsh suneq ™ sto x0 F „ìteD h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F ˜ epìdeixhF we ton ìro {periorismì™ th™ f } ennooÔme th sunˆrthsh f : A∩(x0 −ρ.

x0 + δ)F epìdeixhF …pojètoume pr¸t— ìti f (x0 ) > 0F efoÔ h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 D —n jewr E soume ton ε = f (x0 ) > 0 upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i |x − x0 | < δ tìte 2 |f (x) − f (x0 )| < f (x0 ) f (x0 ) f (x0 ) =⇒ − < f (x) − f (x0 ) =⇒ f (x) > > 0. 2 2 2 2 hhl—d D f (x) < 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ A ∩ (x0 − δ. x0 + δ)F RFP f—sikˆ jewr m—t— gi— suneqeЙ sun—rt sei™ ƒe —ut n thn p—rˆgr—fo j— —podeÐxoume dÔo jemeli¸dh k—i di—isjhtikˆ —n—menìmen— jewE r m—t— gi— suneqeЙ sun—rt sei™ pou eÐn—i orismène™ se èn— kleistì diˆsthm—X to je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™ k—i to je¸rhm— Ôp—rxh™ mègisth™ k—i elˆqisth™ tim ™F r —pìdeixh tou™ —p—iteÐ ousi—stik  qr sh tou —xi¸m—to™ th™ plhrìtht—™F . 9ipet—i to zhtoÔmenoD me M = 1 + |f (x0 )|F 2 r teleut—З p—r—t rhsh eÐn—i ìti —n mi— sunˆrthsh f : A → R eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 ∈ A k—i —n f (x0 ) = 0D tìte h f di—threÐ to prìshmo tou f (x0 ) se mi— olìklhrh @endeqomènw™ mikr A perioq  tou x0 F €rìt—sh RFIFIRF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ AF …pojètoume ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 k—i ìti f (x0 ) = 0F @iA en f (x0 ) > 0D tìte upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸ste f (x) > 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ A ∩ (x0 − δ. 2 2 2 hhl—d D f (x) > 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ A ∩ (x0 − δ.80 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn €rìt—sh RFIFIQF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ AF …pojètoume ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F „ìteD mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme δ > 0 k—i M > 0 ¸ste gi— kˆje x ∈ A ∩ (x0 − δ. x0 + δ)F @iiA en f (x0 ) < 0D tìte upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸ste f (x) < 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ A ∩ (x0 − δ. x0 + δ) n— isqÔei |f (x)| ≤ M F epìdeixhF if—rmìzoume ton orismì th™ sunèqei—™ th™ f sto x0 me ε = 1 > 0F …pˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i |x − x0 | < δ D tìte |f (x) − f (x0 )| < 1F hhl—d D gi— kˆje x ∈ A ∩ (x0 − δ. x0 + δ) èqoume |f (x)| ≤ |f (x) − f (x0 )| + |f (x0 )| < 1 + |f (x0 )|. x0 + δ)F …pojètoume t¸r— ìti f (x0 ) < 0F efoÔ h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 D —n jewr soume ton ε = − f (x0 ) > 0 upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i |x − x0 | < δ tìte 2 |f (x) − f (x0 )| < − f (x0 ) f (x0 ) f (x0 ) =⇒ f (x) − f (x0 ) < − =⇒ f (x) < < 0.

b]F efoÔ h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto bD qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ x—nˆ thn €rìt—sh RFIFIQ ˜rÐskoume 0 < δ2 < b − a k—i M3 > 0 ¸ste gi— kˆje x ∈ (b − δ2 .4. ssqurismì™ IF „o A eÐn—i mh kenì k—i ˆnw fr—gmènoF epìdeixhF iÐn—i s—fè™ ìti o b eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— gi— to AF qi— n— deÐxoume ìti to A eÐn—i mh kenìD skeftìm—ste w™ ex ™X —foÔ h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto aD —pì thn €rìt—sh RFIFIQ upˆrqoun M ∈ R k—i 0 < δ < b − a ¸ste f (x) ≤ M gi— kˆje x ∈ [a. M ∈ R ¸steX gi— kˆje x ∈ [a. hhl—d D h f eÐn—i ˆnw k—i kˆtw fr—gmènhF epìdeixhF tewroÔme to sÔnolo A = {y ∈ [a.2 Basikˆ jewr mata gia suneqeÐs sunart seis · 81 RFP—þ „o je¸rhm— elˆqisth™ k—i mègisth™ tim ™ „o pr¸to ˜—sikì je¸rhm— m—™ lèei ìti —n f : [a. b] mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme y3 ∈ A —pì ton q—r—kthrismì tou supremumF efoÔ y3 ∈ AD upˆrqei M4 > 0 ¸ste f (x) ≤ M4 gi— kˆje x ∈ [a. b] → R eÐn—i mi— suneq ™ sunˆrthshD tìte h f eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènh k—i kˆtw fr—gmènhD k—i mˆlist— p—Ðrnei mègisth k—i elˆqisth tim F te¸rhm— RFPFIF 9istw f : [a. ξ + δ1 ) n— èqoume f (x) ≤ M1 F „¸r—D sto diˆsthm— (ξ − δ1 . y]}. M2 } gi— kˆje x ∈ [a. b]X . a + δ) ⊆ A @to A eÐn—i mh kenìAF 2 epì to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™ upˆrqei o ξ = sup AF ssqurismì™ PF ξ = bF epìdeixhF e™ upojèsoume ìti ξ < bF efoÔ h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto ξ D qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn €rìt—sh RFIFIQ ˜rÐskoume 0 < δ1 < min{b − ξ. b] n— èqoume f (x) ≤ M3 F ƒto diˆsthm— (b − δ2 . y3 ]F „ìteD f (x) ≤ M := max{M3 . ξ − a} k—i M1 > 0 ¸ste gi— kˆje x ∈ (ξ − δ1 . M4 } gi— kˆje x ∈ [a. ξ + δ1 ) tìte y2 ∈ A @exhg ste gi—tÐA k—i y2 > ξ = sup AF wporoÔme t¸r— n— deÐxoume ìti h f eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènh sto [a. b] → R suneq ™ sunˆrthshF …pˆrqoun m. b] → R p—Ðrnei mègisth k—i elˆqisth tim  sto [a. y1 ]F „ìteD f (x) ≤ M := max{M1 . b]F we ton Ðdio trìpo deÐqnoume ìti h f eÐn—i kˆtw fr—gmènh @ D —n jèleteD jewr ste thn −f X gnwrÐzete  dh ìti eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènhAF 2 uˆnont—™ èn— —kìm— ˜ m—D deÐqnoume ìti kˆje suneq ™ sunˆrthsh f : [a. b] : h f eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènh sto [a. ξ + δ1 )F eutì eÐn—i ˆtopoX —n epilèxoume y2 ∈ (ξ. b]D m ≤ f (x) ≤ M. a + δ)F en loipìn a < y < a + δ D tìte gi— kˆje x me a ≤ x ≤ y isqÔei f (x) ≤ M D to opoÐo shm—Ðnei ìti y ∈ AF ƒunep¸™D (a. ξ] mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme y1 ∈ A —pì ton q—r—kthrismì tou supremumF efoÔ y1 ∈ AD upˆrqei M2 > 0 ¸ste f (x) ≤ M2 gi— kˆje x ∈ [a.

b) j— isqÔei f (ξ) = 0 @h k—mpÔlh y = f (x) j— tm sei ton orizìntio ˆxon—AF t— d¸soume trei™ —podeÐxei™X ìle™ qrhsimopoioÔn ousi—stikˆ to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™F u—jemЗ —pì —utè™ {stoqeÔei} se {di—foretik  rÐz— th™ exÐswsh™ f (x) = 0}F te¸rhm— RFPFQF 9istw f : [a. b] ¸ste f (y1 ) ≤ f (x) ≤ f (y2 ) gi— kˆje x ∈ [a. b) gi— to opoÐo f (ξ) = 0 k—i f (x) < 0 gi— kˆje x me a ≤ x < ξ F €r¸th —pìdeixhF t— prosp—j soume n— {˜roÔme} th mikrìterh lÔsh th™ exÐswsh™ . b]F ƒunep¸™D mporoÔme n— orÐsoume g : [a. b]D opìte eÐn—i fr—gmènhX upˆrqei M > 0 ¸ste g(x) ≤ M gi— kˆje x ∈ [a. b] → R suneq ™ sunˆrthshF …pˆrqoun y1 . b] → R me g(x) = 1 . b] me f (y2 ) = ρF …pojètoume ìti h f den p—Ðrnei mègisth tim  sto [a. ρ − f (x) r g eÐn—i suneq ™ sto [a. y2 ∈ [a. n „ìteD 1 M ≥ g(xn ) = > n. b] gi— to opoÐo 1 ρ − < f (xn ) < ρ. b]F eutì odhgeÐ se ˆtopo w™ ex ™X —pì ton orismì tou supremumD gi— kˆje n ∈ N mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme stoiqeÐo tou A sto (ρ − 1/n. b]F epìdeixhF epì to te¸rhm— RFPFID h f eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènhF ƒunep¸™D to sÔnolo A = {f (x) : x ∈ [a. b]} eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènoF 9istw ρ = sup AF tèloume n— deÐxoume ìti upˆrqei y2 ∈ [a. b) ¸ste f (ξ) = 0F f (x) = 0 sto (a. b] → R p—Ðrnei eterìshme™ timè™ st— ˆkr— tou [a. ρ)F hhl—d D upˆrqei xn ∈ [a. b]F „ìteD f (x) < ρ gi— kˆje x ∈ [a.82 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn te¸rhm— RFPFPF 9istw f : [a. b)F ‰ˆqnoume dhl—d  gi— kˆpoio ξ ∈ (a. b] → R suneq ™ sunˆrthshF …pojètoume ìti f (a) < 0 k—i f (b) > 0F „ìteD upˆrqei ξ ∈ (a. ρ − f (xn ) hhl—d D to N eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmèno —pì ton M D ˆtopoF we ton Ðdio trìpo deÐqnoume ìti h f p—Ðrnei elˆqisth tim  @ D —n jèleteD jewr ste thn −f X gnwrÐzete  dh ìti p—Ðrnei mègisth tim AF 2 RFP˜þ „o je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™ e™ upojèsoume ìti mi— suneq ™ sunˆrthsh f : [a. b]F „ìteD —utì pou perimènei k—neЙ —pì thn gr—fik  p—rˆst—sh th™ f eÐn—i ìti gi— kˆpoio shmeÐo ξ ∈ (a.

b] n— èqoume f (x) > 0F „ìteD o b − δ1 eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AF €rˆgm—tiD —n y ∈ A tìte f (x) < 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ [a. b − ξ} ¸ste f (x) > 0 sto (ξ − δ3 .4. b]∩(a−δ. to opoÐo shm—Ðnei ìti y ∈ AF 9er—D (a. a + δ) ⊆ AF y ∈ A =⇒ f (z) < 0 en¸ z ∈ (ξ − δ3 . ξ + δ3 )F en pˆroume y ∈ A me y > ξ − δ3 k—i z me y > z > ξ − δ3 D tìte 2 epì to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™ upˆrqei o ξ = sup AF ipÐsh™D a < ξ diìti (a.2 Basikˆ jewr mata gia suneqeÐs sunart seis · 83 r idè— eÐn—i ìti —utì to ξ prèpei n— eÐn—i to supremum tou sunìlou ìlwn twn y ∈ (a. b] : a ≤ x < y =⇒ f (x) < 0}. y) ∪ (ξ − δ2 . b−ξ} ¸ste f (x) < 0 sto (ξ − δ2 . y) k—i —foÔ f (x) > 0 sto (b − δ1 . yrÐzoume loipìn A = {y ∈ (a. ξ + δ3 ) =⇒ f (z) > 0 dhl—d  odhgoÔm—ste se ˆtopoF 2 . a + δ)F en loipìn a < y < a + δ D tìte gi— kˆje x me a ≤ x < y isqÔei f (x) < 0. ξ + δ2 ) @gi—tÐ upˆrqei y ∈ A me y > ξ − δ2 D opìte f (x) < 0 sto [a. ξ + δ2 ) = [a. ξ + δ2 ) @exhg ste gi—tÐAF 9ymw™ tìteD f (x) < 0 sto [a. ssqurismì™ IF „o A eÐn—i mh kenì k—i ˆnw fr—gmènoF epìdeixhF iÐn—i s—fè™ ìti o b eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— gi— to AF qi— n— deÐxoume ìti to A eÐn—i mh kenìD skeftìm—ste w™ ex ™X h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto a k—i f (a) < 0F epì thn €rìt—sh RFIFIRD upˆrqei 0 < δ < b−a ¸ste h f n— p—Ðrnei —rnhtikè™ timè™ sto [a. ξ + δ2 )AF ipomènw™D ξ + δ2 ∈ AF eutì eÐn—i ˆtopo —foÔ ξ = sup AF @iiA 9istw ìti f (ξ) > 0F „ìteD upˆrqei 0 < δ3 < min{ξ − a. a + δ) ⊆ A @to A eÐn—i mh kenìAF ssqurismì™ PF qi— ton ξ = sup A isqÔoun oi a < ξ < b k—i f (ξ) = 0F epìdeixhF heÐqnoume pr¸t— ìti ξ < bX 9iqoume f (b) > 0 k—i h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto bF rhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn €rìt—sh RFIFIRD ˜rÐskoume 0 < δ1 < b − a ¸ste gi— kˆje x ∈ (b − δ1 . a+δ) = [a. b) pou ik—nopoioÔn to ex ™X gi— kˆje x me a ≤ x < y isqÔei f (x) < 0. b] èqoume y ≤ b − δ1 F ƒunep¸™D a < a + δ ≤ ξ ≤ b − δ1 < b. iidikìter—D a < ξ < bF wènei n— deÐxoume ìti f (ξ) = 0F t— —pokleÐsoume t— endeqìmen— f (ξ) < 0 k—i f (ξ) > 0F @iA 9istw ìti f (ξ) < 0F epì th sunèqei— th™ f sto ξ D upˆrqei 0 < δ2 < min{ξ −a.

a + δ) ⊆ AF ssqurismì™ PF qi— ton ξ = sup A isqÔoun oi a < ξ < b k—i f (ξ) = 0F epìdeixhF heÐqnoume pr¸t— ìti ξ < bX 9iqoume f (b) > 0 k—i h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto bF rhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn €rìt—sh RFIFIRD ˜rÐskoume 0 < δ1 < b − a ¸ste gi— kˆje x ∈ (b − δ1 . b) gi— to opoÐo f (ξ) = 0 k—i f (x) > 0 gi— kˆje x me ξ < x ≤ bF r idè— eÐn—i ìti —utì to ξ prèpei n— eÐn—i to supremum tou sunìlou A = {y ∈ [a. b] jewr¸nt—™ to mèso tou a+b F en sum˜eÐ n— 2 èqoume f a+b = 0D jètoume ξ = a+b k—i èqoume f (ξ) = 0F elli¸™D upˆrqoun dÔo 2 2 endeqìmen—F iÐte f ( a+b ) > 0 opìte jètoume a1 = a k—i b1 = a+b D  D f ( a+b ) < 0D opìte 2 2 2 . b]F r Ôp—rxh th™ rÐz—™ j— ex—sf—listeÐ —pì thn —rq  twn ki˜wtismènwn di—sthmˆtwn k—i thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™F ƒto pr¸to ˜ m—D diqotomoÔme to [a. b)F ‰ˆqnoume dhl—d  gi— kˆpoio ξ ∈ (a. b − δ1 ]F 9ipet—i ìti ξ = sup A ≤ b − δ1 < b. b] : f (y) ≤ 0}. b] me yn → ξ @gi— / p—rˆdeigm—D h yn = ξ + b−ξ AF qi— kˆje n ∈ N èqoume yn ∈ AD k—i sunep¸™D n f (yn ) > 0F epì thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ p—Ðrnoume f (ξ) = limn f (yn ) ≥ 0F 2 we thn —pìdeixh tou deÔterou isqurismoÔ oloklhr¸net—i k—i h —pìdeixh tou tewr m—to™F 2 „rÐth —pìdeixhF €rosp—joÔme n— proseggÐsoume mi— rÐz— x0 th™ f {opoud pote} —nˆmeE s— st— a k—i bD me di—doqikè™ diqotom sei™ tou [a. ssqurismì™ IF „o A eÐn—i mh kenì k—i ˆnw fr—gmènoF epìdeixhF iÐn—i s—fè™ ìti o b eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— gi— to AF „o A eÐn—i mh kenìX —foÔ f (a) < 0D èqoume a ∈ AF 2 epì to —xÐwm— th™ plhrìtht—™ upˆrqei o ξ = sup AF ipÐsh™D a < ξ F €rˆgm—tiD sthn prohgoÔmenh —pìdeixh eÐd—me ìti upˆrqei 0 < δ < b − a ¸ste (a. b] n— èqoume f (x) > 0F „ìteD o b − δ1 eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou AF €rˆgm—tiD —n y ∈ A tìte f (y) ≤ 0D ˆr— y ∈ [a. wènei n— deÐxoume ìti f (ξ) = 0F t— deÐxoume ìti f (ξ) ≤ 0 k—i f (ξ) ≥ 0 qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™F @iA efoÔ ξ = sup AD upˆrqei —koloujЗ (xn ) shmeÐwn tou A me xn → ξ F 9iqoume f (xn ) ≤ 0 k—i h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto ξ F epì thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ p—Ðrnoume f (ξ) = limn f (xn ) ≤ 0F @iiA efoÔ ξ < bD upˆrqei gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous— —koloujЗ (yn ) sto (ξ.84 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn we thn —pìdeixh tou deÔterou isqurismoÔ oloklhr¸net—i k—i h —pìdeixh tou tewr m—to™F 2 heÔterh —pìdeixhF t— prosp—j soume n— {˜roÔme} th meg—lÔterh lÔsh th™ exÐswsh™ f (x) = 0 sto (a.

b] k—i g(a) = f (a) − ρ < 0D g(b) = f (b) − ρ > 0F epì to te¸rhm— RFPFQ upˆrqei ξ ∈ (a. b] → R suneq ™ sunˆrthshF en f (a) < f (b) k—i f (a) < ρ < f (b))D tìte upˆrqei ξ ∈ (a. b] me f (ξ) = 0   orÐzoume —koloujÐe™ (an ) k—i (bn ) sto [a.2 Basikˆ jewr mata gia suneqeÐs sunart seis · 85 jètoume a1 = a+b k—i b1 = bF ƒe kˆje perÐptwshD èqoume f (a1 ) < 0 k—i f (b1 ) > 0F 2 €—r—thr ste epÐsh™ ìti a ≤ a1 < b1 ≤ b k—i ìti to m ko™ tou [a1 . n→∞ n→∞ dhl—d D f (ξ) = 0F ƒ—n pìrism— p—Ðrnoume to je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™X 2 te¸rhm— RFPFRF 9istw f : [a. b1 ] eÐn—i Ðso me b−a F 2 ip—n—l—m˜ˆnoume th di—dik—sЗ sto [a1 . b) me g(ξ) = 0D dhl—d  f (ξ) = ρF qi— thn ˆllh perÐptwshD qrhsimopoi ste th suneq  sunˆrthsh h(x) = ρ − f (x)F 2 yrismì™ RFPFS @diˆsthm—AF 9in— uposÔnolo I tou R lèget—i diˆsthm— —n gi— kˆje x. y] perièqet—i sto I F we ˆll— lìgi—D di—st m—t— eÐn—i t— —noiktˆD kleistˆ   hmi—noiktˆ di—st m—t— k—i oi —noiktè™   kleistè™ hmieujeÐe™F te¸rhm— RFPFTF 9istw I èn— diˆsthm— sto R k—i èstw f : I → R suneq ™ sunˆrthshF „ìteD h eikìn— f (I) th™ f eÐn—i diˆsthm—F . b) ¸ste f (ξ) = ρF 9ymoi—D —n f (b) < f (a) k—i f (b) < ρ < f (a))D tìte upˆrqei ξ ∈ (a. b]F efoÔ f (an ) < 0 k—i f (bn ) > 0D —pì th sunèqei— th™ f k—i —pì thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ p—Ðrnoume f (ξ) = lim f (an ) ≤ 0 ≤ lim f (bn ) = f (ξ). b] me ti™ ex ™ idiìthte™X @iA a ≤ a1 ≤ a2 ≤ · · · ≤ an ≤ an+1 < bn+1 ≤ bn ≤ · · · ≤ b2 ≤ b1 ≤ b gi— kˆje n ∈ NF @iiA f (an ) < 0 < f (bn ) gi— kˆje n ∈ NF @iiiA bn − an = b−a 2n gi— kˆje n ∈ NF r —koloujЗ (an ) pou k—t—skeuˆs—me eÐn—i —Ôxous— k—i ˆnw fr—gmènh k—i h (bn ) eÐn—i fjÐnous— k—i kˆtw fr—gmènhF 9er—D sugklÐnounF epì thn bn − an = b−a → 0D èpet—i ìti 2n n→∞ lim an = lim bn = ξ n→∞ gi— kˆpoio ξ ∈ [a. y ∈ I me x < y olìklhro to eujÔgr—mmo tm m— [x. b) ¸sste f (ξ) = ρF epìdeixhF tewroÔme thn g(x) = f (x) − ρF r g eÐn—i suneq ™ sto [a.4. b1 ]F en f a1 +b1 = 0D jètoume ξ = a1 +b1 2 2 k—i èqoume f (ξ) = 0F elli¸™D ˜rÐskoume a2 . b2 pou ik—nopoioÔn ti™ a1 ≤ a2 < b2 ≤ b1 D f (a1 ) < 0D f (b1 ) > 0 k—i b2 − a2 = b−a F 22 ƒuneqÐzont—™ ep—gwgikˆD eÐte ˜rÐskoume ξ ∈ [a.

b]) ⊇ [m. y ∈ I ¸ste f (x) = u k—i f (y) = v F wrЙ periorismì th™ genikìtht—™ mporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti x < y F efoÔ to I eÐn—i diˆsthm—D èqoume [x. 2]F r f eÐn—i —suneq ™ sto shmeÐo 1F @gA tewroÔme thn f (x) = 1/x sto (0. 1]F 9iqoume 1 = sup{f (x) : x ∈ [−1. 1]D —llˆ den eÐn—i ˆnw fr—gmènhF „o pedÐo orismoÔ th™ f den eÐn—i kleistì diˆsthm—F @dA tewroÔme thn f (x) = x sto (0. 1)D —llˆ den p—Ðrnei mègisth oÔte elˆqisth tim F „o pedÐo orismoÔ th™ f den eÐn—i kleistì diˆsthm—F RFPdþ if—rmogè™ twn ˜—sik¸n jewrhmˆtwn „o je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™ qrhsimopoieÐt—i suqnˆ gi— thn —pìdeixh th™ Ôp—rxh™ rÐz—™ kˆpoi—™ exÐswsh™F „o pr¸to m—™ p—rˆdeigm— eÐn—i h {Ôp—rxh n ost ™ rÐz—™} pou eÐq—me ex—sf—lÐsei me qr sh tou —xi¸m—to™ th™ plhrìtht—™F te¸rhm— RFPFVF 9istw n ≥ 2 k—i èstw ρ èn—™ jetikì™ pr—gm—tikì™ —rijmì™F …pˆrqei mon—dikì™ ξ > 0 ¸ste ξ n = ρF epìdeixhF 9istw ρ > 0F tewroÔme th suneq  sunˆrthsh f : [0.86 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn epìdeixhF 9istw u. 1]F r f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto (0. b]F ƒunep¸™D h f p—Ðrnei elˆqisth tim  m k—i mègisth tim  M sto [a. y]F efoÔ f (x) = u < w < v = f (y)D upˆrqei z ∈ (x. b]F hhl—d D m. b]) ⊆ [m. +∞) → R me f (x) = xn F €r¸t— j— deÐxoume ìti upˆrqei b > 0 ¸ste f (b) > ρF hi—krÐnoume treЙ peript¸sei™X . b]) eÐn—i diˆsthm— k—i perièqei t— m. 1)F r f eÐn—i suneq ™ k—i fr—gmènh sto (0. M ]F epìdeixhF r f eÐn—i suneq ™ k—i orÐzet—i sto kleistì diˆsthm— [a. b]) = [m. b]) = [m. b]) k—i f ([a. v ∈ f (I) me u < v k—i èstw u < w < v F …pˆrqoun x. M ]F 2 RFPgþ €—r—deÐgm—t— r sunèqei— th™ f —llˆ k—i h upìjesh ìti to pedÐo orismoÔ eÐn—i kleistì diˆsthm— eÐn—i —p—r—Ðthte™ st— prohgoÔmen— jewr m—t—F  x=0  1 − |x| @—A tewroÔme th sunˆrthsh f (x) = sto [−1. 1]}D —llˆ o 1 den eÐn—i tim  th™ f X p—r—thr ste ìti 0 ≤ f (x) < 1 gi— kˆje x ∈ [−1. 1]F r f eÐn—i —suneq ™ sto shmeÐo 0F  0≤x≤1  −1 @˜A tewroÔme thn sunˆrthsh f (x) = F „ìteD f (0) < 0 k—i f (2) > 0D  1 1<x≤2 —llˆ den upˆrqei lÔsh th™ f (x) = 0 sto [0. y] → R eÐn—i suneq ™ sto [x. y) ¸ste f (z) = wF efoÔ z ∈ I D sumper—Ðnoume ìti w = f (z) ∈ f (I)F epì ton orismì tou di—st m—to™ èpet—i ìti to f (I) eÐn—i diˆsthm—F 2 €ìrism— RFPFUF 9istw f : [a. M ∈ f ([a. b] → R suneq ™ sunˆrthshF …pˆrqoun m ≤ M sto R ¸ste f ([a. y] ⊆ I k—i h f : [x. M ]F epì to prohgoÔmeno je¸rhm—D to f ([a. M F 9er—D f ([a. 1]F r f den p—Ðrnei  0 x=0 mègisth tim  sto [−1. M ]F 9ipet—i ìti f ([a.

. . ξ2 > 0D tìte ξ1 = ξ2 F 2 te¸rhm— RFPFWF uˆje polu¸numo perittoÔ ˜—jmoÔ èqei toulˆqiston mЗ pr—gm—tik  rÐz—F epìdeixhF 9istw P (x) = am xm +am−1 xm−1 +. 1. 1] suneq ™ sunˆrthshF …pˆrqei x0 ∈ [0. b > 0 tìte an = bn —n k—i mìno —n n n a = bF en loipìn èqoume ξ1 = ρ = ξ2 gi— kˆpoiou™ ξ1 . 2 2 hhl—d D —n |x| ≥ M tìte oi P (x) k—i am xm èqoun to Ðdio prìshmoF 9ipet—i ìti o P (−M )P (M ) eÐn—i omìshmo™ me ton a2 (−M )m M m = a2 M 2m (−1)m D dhl—d  —rnhtikì™F m m epì to je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™ upˆrqei ξ ∈ (−M.4. b) ¸ste f (ξ) = ρD dhl—d  ξ n = ρF r mon—dikìtht— eÐn—i —pl X èqoume deÐ ìti —n a. 1] ¸ste f (x0 ) = x0 F . . am xm |am−1 | + · · · + |a1 | + |a0 | +1 |am | |x| > 2 tìte |x|k ≤ |x|m−1 gi— kˆje k = 0. 1] → [0. m − 1D k—i sunep¸™D |∆(x)| ≤ ≤ = < |am−1 |xm−1 + · · · + |a1 |x + |a0 | |am | |x|m m−1 |am−1 | |x| + · · · + |a1 | |x|m−1 + |a0 | |x|m−1 |am | |x|m |am−1 | + · · · + |a1 | + |a0 | |am | |x| 1 . . . M ) ¸ste P (ξ) = 0F 2 te¸rhm— RFPFIH @je¸rhm— st—jeroÔ shmeÐouAF 9istw f : [0.+a1 x+a0 D ìpou am = 0 k—i m perittì™F qrˆfoume P (x) = am xm + · · · + a1 x + a0 = am xm (1 + ∆(x)) ìpou ∆(x) = €—r—thr ste ìti —n am−1 xm−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 . 2 9er—D upˆrqei M > 0 ¸ste —n |x| ≥ M tìte 1 + ∆(x) ≥ 1 − |∆(x)| ≥ 1 − 1 1 = > 0. .2 Basikˆ jewr mata gia suneqeÐs sunart seis · 87 @iA en ρ < 1D tìte f (1) = 1n = 1 > ρF @iiA en ρ > 1D tìte f (ρ) = ρn > ρF @iiiA en ρ = 1D tìte f (2) = 2n > 2 > 1F heÐx—me ìti upˆrqei b > 0 ¸ste f (0) = 0 < ρ < f (b)F epì to je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™D upˆrqei ξ ∈ (0.

x0 + δ) k—i x = x0 AF hhl—d D o x0 eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A —n osod pote kontˆ ston x0 mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme stoiqeЗ tou A di—foretikˆ —pì ton x0 F €—r—thr ste ìti den —p—itoÔme —pì ton x0 n— eÐn—i stoiqeÐo tou AF yrismì™ RFQFIF 9istw A èn— mh kenì uposÔnolo tou R k—i èstw x0 ∈ RF vème ìti o x0 eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A —n gi— kˆje δ > 0 mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme x ∈ A ¸ste €—r—deÐgm—t— RFQFPF @—A en A = [a.} den èqei k—nèn— shmeÐo suss¸reush™F @dA en A = {1. . . 2. x0 + δ)F @iiiA …pˆrqei —koloujЗ (xn ) di—foretik¸n —nˆ dÔoD k—i di—foretik¸n —pì to x0 D shmeÐwn tou AD h opoЗ sugklÐnei sto x0 F . b]D tìte kˆje shmeÐo tou A eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AD k—i upˆrqei ˆllo èn— shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AD to aD to opoÐo den —n kei sto sÔnoloF @˜A en A = [0. 1] ∪ {2}D tìte 2 ∈ A —llˆ o 2 den eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AF @gA „o N = {1. 1 . 1 . . b]F en A = (a. . . 1) ¸ste h(x0 ) = 0F hhl—d D f (x0 ) = x0 F 2 RFQ ƒhmeЗ suss¸reush™ k—i memonwmèn— shmeЗ 0 < |x − x0 | < δ @isodÔn—m—X x ∈ (x0 − δ. 3.}D tìte o 0 eÐn—i to mon—dikì shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A @k—i den 2 3 —n kei sto AAF yrismì™ RFQFQF 9istw A èn— mh kenì uposÔnolo tou R k—i èstw x0 ∈ AF vème ìti o x0 eÐn—i memonwmèno shmeÐo tou A —n den eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AD dhl—d D —n upˆrqei perioq  tou x0 h opoЗ den perièqei ˆll— shmeЗ tou A ektì™ —pì to x0 @isodÔn—m—D —n upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸ste A ∩ (x0 − δ. . x0 + δ) = {x0 }AF r epìmenh €rìt—sh dÐnei qr simou™ q—r—kthrismoԙ tou shmeÐou suss¸reush™F €rìt—sh RFQFRF 9istw A èn— mh kenì uposÔnolo tou R k—i èstw x0 ∈ RF „— ex ™ eÐn—i isodÔn—m—X @iA „o x0 eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AF @iiA qi— kˆje δ > 0 upˆrqoun ˆpeir— to pl jo™ shmeЗ tou A sto (x0 − δ. 1]F en f (0) = 0   f (1) = 1 èqoume to zhtoÔmeno gi— x0 = 0   x0 = 1 —ntÐstoiq—F …pojètoume loipìn ìti f (0) > 0 k—i f (1) < 1F „ìteD h(0) = f (0) > 0 k—i h(1) = f (1) − 1 < 0F epì to je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™D upˆrqei x0 ∈ (0. b]D tìte o x0 eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A —n k—i mìno —n x0 ∈ [a.88 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn epìdeixhF tèloume n— deÐxoume ìti h k—mpÔlh y = f (x) tèmnei thn di—g¸nio y = xF erkeÐ n— deÐxoume ìti h suneq ™ sunˆrthsh h(x) = f (x) − x mhdenÐzet—i kˆpou sto [0.

. . x0 + δ) mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme shmeЗ tou A di—foretikˆ —pì to x0 F e™ upojèsoume ìti —utˆ t— shmeЗ eÐn—i peper—smèn— to pl jo™D t— y1 . x1 . x2 . . ym F uˆpoio —pì —utˆD —™ poÔme to yj gi— kˆpoion 1 ≤ j ≤ mD eÐn—i to plhsièstero pro™ to x0 F tètoume δ1 = |x0 − yj |F „ìteD δ1 > 0 @diìti yj = x0 A k—i sthn perioq  (x0 − δ1 . 2. . . . x1 k—i |x2 − x0 | < 1 F 2 ƒuneqÐzoume me ton Ðdio trìpoX èstw ìti èqoume ˜reÐ x1 . x0 + δ)F efoÔ to δ > 0  t—n tuqìnD to x0 eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AF 2 RFR yrismì™ tou orÐou ∈R yrismì™ RFRFI @ìrio sunˆrthsh™AF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 èn— shmeÐo suss¸reushE ™ tou AF vème ìti to ìrio th™ f k—j¸™ to x teÐnei sto x0 upˆrqei k—i isoÔt—i me —nX qi— kˆje ε > 0 upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i 0 < |x − x0 | < δ D tìte |f (x) − | < εF en èn—™ tètoio™ —rijmì™ upˆrqeiD tìte eÐn—i mon—dikì™ @deÐxte toA k—i grˆfoume limx→x0 f (x)   f (x) → k—j¸™ x → x0 F = yrismì™ RFRFPF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 èn— shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AF @—A vème ìti h f teÐnei sto +∞ k—j¸™ to x → x0 —nX qi— kˆje M > 0 upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i 0 < |x − x0 | < δ tìte f (x) > M F ƒe —ut n thn perÐptwshD grˆfoume limx→x0 f (x) = +∞F @˜A vème ìti h f teÐnei sto −∞ k—j¸™ to x → x0 —nX . x0 + n upˆrqoun ˆpeir— to pl jo™ shmeЗ tou AF wporoÔme loipìn n— ˜roÔme 1 xn ∈ A me xn = x0 . n − 1F ƒto 1 1 x0 − n . . xn−1 ∈ A di—foretikˆ 1 —nˆ dÔo @k—i di—foretikˆ —pì to x0 A ¸ste |xk − x0 | < k gi— kˆje k = 1. . xn−1 k—i |xn − x0 | < n F r —koloujЗ (xn )D pou orÐzet—i me —utìn ton trìpoD sugklÐnei sto x0 k—i èqei ìrou™ pou —n koun sto AD eÐn—i di—foretikoÐ —nˆ dÔo k—i di—foretikoÐ —pì ton x0 F (iii)⇒(i) …pojètoume ìti upˆrqei —koloujЗ (xn ) di—foretik¸n —nˆ dÔo shmeÐwn tou AD h opoЗ sugklÐnei sto x0 F 9istw δ > 0F …pˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste |xn − x0 | < δ gi— kˆje n ≥ n0 F efoÔ oi ìroi th™ (xn ) eÐn—i di—foretikoÐ —nˆ dÔoD kˆpoio™ —pì —utoԙ @gi— thn —krИei—D ˆpeiroi to pl jo™A eÐn—i di—foretikì™ —pì to x0 k—i —n kei sto (x0 − δ. . . .4. . . x0 + 1) upˆrqoun ˆpeir— to pl jo™ shmeЗ tou AF wporoÔme loipìn n— ˜roÔme x1 ∈ A me x1 = x0 k—i |x1 − x0 | < 1F 1 ymoÐw™D sto x0 − 2 . . . x0 + 1 upˆrqoun ˆpeir— to pl jo™ shmeЗ tou AF wporoÔme 2 loipìn n— ˜roÔme x2 ∈ A me x2 = x0 . .4 Orismìs tou orÐou · 89 epìdeixhF (i)⇒(ii) 9istw δ > 0F efoÔ to x0 eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AD sto (x0 − δ. x0 + δ1 ) den upˆrqei shmeÐo tou A di—foretikì —pì to x0 @exhg ste gi—tÐAF eutì eÐn—i ˆtopoD diìti to x0 eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AF (ii)⇒(iii) epì thn upìjeshD sto (x0 − 1.

q ∈ N k—i wuh(p. +∞) → R me f (x) = x F „ìteD limx→0 f (x) = +∞F en jewr soume thn 1 g : R \ {0} → R me g(x) = x D tìte to ìrio limx→0 g(x) den upˆrqeiF wporeÐte n— —podeÐxete ìlou™ —utoԙ tou™ isqurismoԙ me ˜ˆsh ton orismì @9eskhshAF wporeÐte epÐsh™ n— qrhsimopoi sete thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™D thn opoЗ j— suzht soume p—r—kˆtwD ¸ste n— —n—qjeÐte st— —ntÐstoiq— ìri— —kolouji¸nF @dA 9istw f : [0. . x0 + δ) @èn— tètoio x0 lèget—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A —pì dexiˆAF vème ìtiX . . 1] to ìrio limx→x0 f (x) upˆrqei k—i isoÔt—i me HF €rˆgm—tiD èstw x0 ∈ [0. |x0 − ym |} eÐn—i gn si— jetikì™F 9istw x ∈ [0. q) = 1F „ìteD gi— kˆje x0 ∈ [0. q ∈ ND p ≤ q k—i f (y) = 1 ≥ εF „o pl jo™ —ut¸n twn q q —rijm¸n eÐn—i to polÔ Ðso me to pl jo™ twn zeug—ri¸n (p. . x0 ) @èn— tètoio x0 lèget—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A —pì —risterˆAF vème ìtiX (i) limx→x− f (x) = ∈ R @o eÐn—i to pleurikì ìrio th™ f k—j¸™ to x teÐnei 0 sto x0 —pì —risterˆA —nX gi— kˆje ε > 0 upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸ste —n x ∈ A k—i x0 − δ < x < x0 tìte |f (x) − | < εF „eleÐw™ —nˆlog—D èstw x0 shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A ¸ste gi— kˆje δ > 0 n— upˆrqoun stoiqeЗ tou A sto (x0 . 1] : y = x0 k—i f (y) ≥ ε}F en o y —n kei sto A(ε) tìte eÐn—i rhtì™ o opoÐo™ grˆfet—i sth morf  y = p ìpou p. 1] me 0 < |x − x0 | < δ F „ìteD x ∈ A(ε)D ˆr— 0 ≤ f (x) < εF efoÔ to ε > 0  t—n tuqìnD / sumper—Ðnoume ìti limx→x0 f (x) = 0F —n x = 0 F „o limx→0 f (x) upˆrqei k—i eÐn—i Ðso —n x = 0 yrismì™ RFRFS @pleurikˆ ìri—AF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A ¸ste gi— kˆje δ > 0 n— upˆrqoun stoiqeЗ tou A sto (x0 − δ. 1] k—i èstw ε > 0F tètoume M = M (ε) = 1 k—i A(ε) = ε {y ∈ [0. ym } ìpou m = m(ε) ∈ NF y —rijmì™ δ = min{|x0 − y1 |.90 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn qi— kˆje M > 0 upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i 0 < |x − x0 | < δ tìte f (x) < −M F ƒe —ut n thn perÐptwshD grˆfoume limx→x0 f (x) = −∞F th™ f : A → R se kˆje shmeÐo suss¸reush™ x0 tou AF „o x0 mporeÐ n— —n kei   n— mhn —n kei sto AX —rkeÐ n— upˆrqoun x ∈ A osod pote kontˆ sto x0 F ipÐsh™D —kìm— ki —n to x0 —n kei sto pedÐo orismoÔ th™ f D h tim  f (x0 ) den ephreˆzei thn Ôp—rxh   mh tou limx→x0 f (x) oÔte k—i thn tim  tou orÐou @—n —utì upˆrqeiAF €—r—t rhsh RFRFQF €—r—thr ste ìti mporoÔme n— exetˆsoume thn Ôp—rxh   mh tou orÐou €—r—deÐgm—t— RFRFRF @—A limx→3 x2 = 9F @˜A 9istw f : R → R me f (x) = x2 2 me 0D en¸ f (0) = 2F 1 @gA 9istw f : (0. . . 1] → R me f (x) = 0 —n x ˆrrhto™   x = 0D k—i f (x) = 1 —n x = p me q q p. . . . q) fusik¸n —rijm¸n ìpou q ≤ M k—i p ≤ q F ipomènw™D den xepernˆei ton M (M + 1)/2F hhl—d D to A(ε) eÐn—i peper—smèno sÔnoloF wporoÔme loipìn n— grˆyoume A(ε) = {y1 .

4 Orismìs tou orÐou · 91 (ii) limx→x+ f (x) = ∈ R @o eÐn—i to pleurikì ìrio th™ f k—j¸™ to x teÐnei 0 sto x0 —pì dexiˆA —nX gi— kˆje ε > 0 upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸ste —n x ∈ A k—i x0 < x < x0 + δ tìte |f (x) − | < εF ef noume w™ ˆskhsh gi— ton —n—gn¸sth n— d¸sei —usthroԙ orismoԙ gi— t— ex ™X limx→x− f (x) = +∞D limx→x− f (x) = −∞D limx→x+ f (x) = +∞ k—i limx→x+ f (x) = 0 0 0 0 −∞F epì ton orismì twn pleurik¸n orÐwn èpet—i ˆmes— h —kìloujh €rìt—shF €rìt—sh RFRFTF 9istw f : A → R mi— sunˆrthsh k—i èstw x0 ∈ R shmeÐo suss¸reush™ 0 0 tou A —pì —risterˆ k—i —pì dexiˆF „ìte to limx→x0 f (x) upˆrqei —n k—i mìnon —n t— dÔo pleurikˆ ìri— limx→x− f (x) k—i limx→x+ f (x) upˆrqoun k—i eÐn—i Ðs—F 2 yrismì™ RFRFUF 9istw A èn— mh kenì uposÔnolo tou RF vème ìti to +∞ eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A —n gi— kˆje M > 0 mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme x ∈ A ¸ste x > M F iÔkol— elègqoume ìti —utì sum˜—Ðnei —n k—i mìno —n upˆrqei —koloujЗ (xn ) sto A me xn → +∞F entÐstoiq—D lème ìti to −∞ eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A —n gi— kˆje M > 0 mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme x ∈ A ¸ste x < −M F iÔkol— elègqoume ìti —utì sum˜—Ðnei —n k—i mìno —n upˆrqei —koloujЗ (xn ) sto A me xn → −∞F yrismì™ RFRFVF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw ìti to +∞ eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AF @—A vème ìti to ìrio th™ f k—j¸™ to x teÐnei sto +∞ upˆrqei k—i isoÔt—i me ∈ R —nX qi— kˆje ε > 0 upˆrqei M > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i x > M D tìte |f (x)− | < εF en èn—™ tètoio™ —rijmì™ limx→+∞ f (x)F upˆrqeiD tìte eÐn—i mon—dikì™ @deÐxte toA k—i grˆfoume = @˜A vème ìti h f teÐnei sto +∞ k—j¸™ to x → +∞ —nX qi— kˆje M1 > 0 upˆrqei M2 > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i x > M2 tìte f (x) > M1 F ƒe —ut n thn perÐptwshD grˆfoume limx→+∞ f (x) = +∞F @gA vème ìti h f teÐnei sto −∞ k—j¸™ to x → +∞ —nX qi— kˆje M1 > 0 upˆrqei M2 > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i x > M2 tìte f (x) < −M1 F ƒe —ut n thn perÐptwshD grˆfoume limx→+∞ f (x) = −∞F „eleÐw™ —nˆlog—D —n f : A → R k—i —n to −∞ eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AD mporoÔme n— orÐsoume k—jemЗ —pì ti™ protˆsei™ limx→−∞ f (x) = D limx→−∞ f (x) = +∞ k—i limx→−∞ f (x) = −∞F .4.

1 . . .92 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn RFR—þ erq  th™ met—forˆ™ 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ R èn— shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AF r —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ dÐnei èn—n q—r—kthrismì th™ Ôp—rxh™ tou orÐou th™ f k—j¸™ to x teÐnei sto x0 mèsw —kolouji¸nF te¸rhm— RFRFW @—rq  th™ met—forˆ™ gi— to ìrioAF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 èn— shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AF „ìteD limx→x0 f (x) = —n k—i mìno —nX gi— kˆje —koloujЗ (xn ) shmeÐwn tou A me xn = x0 k—i xn → x0 D h —koloujЗ (f (xn )) sugklÐnei sto F epìdeixhF …pojètoume pr¸t— ìti limx→x0 f (x) = F 9istw xn ∈ A me xn = x0 k—i xn → x0 F t— deÐxoume ìti f (xn ) → X 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ limx→x0 f (x) = D upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i 0 < |x − x0 | < δ D tìte |f (x) − | < εF 9iqoume upojèsei ìti xn = x0 k—i xn → x0 F 9er—D gi) —utì to δ > 0 mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme n0 ∈ N ¸steX —n n ≥ n0 tìte 0 < |xn − x0 | < δ F ƒunduˆzont—™ t— p—r—pˆnw èqoumeX —n n ≥ n0 D tìte 0 < |xn − x0 | < δ ˆr— |f (xn ) − | < ε. . yn = x0 D ¸ste limn f (xn ) = limn f (yn )F en up rqe to limx→x0 f (x)D j— èprepe t— dÔo ìri— n— eÐn—i met—xÔ tou™ Ðs—F . efoÔ to ε > 0  t—n tuqìnD f (xn ) → F qi— thn —ntÐstrofh k—teÔjunsh j— doulèyoume me —p—gwg  se ˆtopoF …pojètoume ìti gi— kˆje —koloujЗ (xn ) shmeÐwn tou A me xn = x0 k—i xn → x0 D h —koloujЗ (f (xn )) sugklÐnei sto F …pojètoume epÐsh™ ìti den isqÔei h limx→x0 f (x) = k—i j— k—t—l xoume se ˆtopoF efoÔ den isqÔei h limx→x0 f (x) = D upˆrqei kˆpoio ε > 0 me thn ex ™ idiìtht—X (∗) qi— kˆje δ > 0 upˆrqei x ∈ A to opoÐo ik—nopoieÐ thn 0 < |x − x0 | < δ —llˆ |f (x) − | ≥ εF 1 rhsimopoioÔme thn (∗) di—doqikˆ me δ = 1.F qi— kˆje n ∈ N èqoume 2 1/n > 0 k—i —pì thn (∗) ˜rÐskoume xn ∈ A me 0 < |xn − x0 | < 1/n k—i |f (xn ) − | ≥ εF 9iqoume xn = x0 k—i —pì to krit rio p—rem˜ol ™ eÐn—i f—nerì ìti xn → x0 F epì thn upìjesh pou kˆn—me prèpei h —koloujЗ (f (xn )) n— sugklÐnei sto F eutì ìmw™ eÐn—i —dÔn—to —foÔ |f (xn ) − | ≥ ε gi— kˆje n ∈ NF 2 €—r—thr sei™ RFRFIHF @—A r —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ mporeÐ n— qrhsimopoihjeÐ me dÔo diE —foretikoԙ trìpou™X @iA gi— n— deÐxoume ìti limx→x0 f (x) = x0 =⇒ f (xn ) → }F —rkeÐ n— deÐxoume ìti {xn = x0 k—i xn → @iiA gi— n— deÐxoume ìti den isqÔei h limx→x0 f (x) = —rkeÐ n— ˜roÔme mi— —koloujЗ xn → x0 @sto AAD me xn = x0 D ¸ste limn f (xn ) = F €olÔ suqnˆD ex—sf—lÐzoume kˆti isqurìteroD ìti den upˆrqei to limx→x0 f (x)D ˜rÐskont—™ dÔo —koloujÐe™ xn → x0 k—i yn → x0 @sto AAD me xn . . n . . . .

qi— kˆje —koloujЗ (xn ) shmeÐwn tou A me xn = x0 k—i xn → x0 deÐx—me ìti (g ◦ f )(xn ) = g(f (xn )) → g( ). x €rìt—sh RFRFIQ @˜—sikì ìrioAF x→0 lim epìdeixhF r sunˆrthsh x → @exhg ste gi—tÐA ìti sin x x eÐn—i ˆrti— sto R \ {0}F erkeÐ loipìn n— deÐxoume x→0 lim+ sin x = 1. x . epì thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™D sumper—Ðnoume ìti limx→xo (g ◦ f )(x) = g( )F 2 RFR˜þ hÔo ˜—sikˆ p—r—deÐgm—t— sin x = 1.4 Orismìs tou orÐou · 93 @˜A wporoÔme n— di—tup¸soume k—i n— —podeÐxoume —ntÐstoiqe™ morfè™ th™ —rq ™ th™ met—forˆ™ gi— tou™ upìloipou™ tÔpou™ orÐwn   pleurik¸n orÐwn pou suzht s—meF „o je¸rhm— pou —koloujeÐ dÐnei th sqèsh tou orÐou me ti™ sun jei™ —lge˜rikè™ prˆxei™ —nˆmes— se sun—rt sei™F r —pìdeix  tou eÐn—i ˆmeshD —n qrhsimopoi soume thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ se sundu—smì me ti™ —ntÐstoiqe™ idiìthte™ gi— t— ìri— —kolouji¸nF te¸rhm— RFRFIIF 9istw f.4. g : A → R k—i èstw x0 shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AF …pojèE toume ìti upˆrqoun t— limx→x0 f (x) = k—i limx→x0 g(x) = mF „ìteD @iA limx→x0 (f (x) + g(x)) = + m k—i limx→x0 (f (x)g(x)) = · mF @iiA en epiplèon g(x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ A k—i limx→x0 g(x) = m = 0D tìte h sto A k—i limx→x0 f (x) g(x) f g orÐzet—i = mF epìdeixhF r —pìdeixh ìlwn twn isqurism¸nD me —pl  qr sh th™ —rq ™ th™ met—forˆ™D —f net—i w™ 9eskhsh gi— ton —n—gn¸sthF 2 €rìt—sh RFRFIPF 9istw A èn— mh kenì uposÔnolo tou RD èstw x0 ∈ R shmeÐo suss¸reushE ™ tou A k—i f : X → RF …pojètoume ìti to ìrio limx→x0 f (x) upˆrqei k—i eÐn—i Ðso me F 9istw g : B → R me f (A) ⊆ B k—i ∈ B F en h g eÐn—i suneq ™ sto D tìte to ìrio limx→xo (g ◦ f )(x) upˆrqei k—i isoÔt—i me g( )F epìdeixhF 9istw (xn ) —koloujЗ shmeÐwn tou A me xn = x0 k—i xn → x0 F efoÔ limx→x0 f (x) = D h —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ deÐqnei ìti f (xn ) → F efoÔ h g eÐn—i suneq ™ sto ∈ B D gi— kˆje —koloujЗ (yn ) shmeÐwn tou B me yn → èqoume g(yn ) → g( )F 9ymw™D f (xn ) ∈ B k—i f (xn ) → F ƒunep¸™D g(f (xn )) → g( ).

fr k—me δ > 0 ¸ste gi— kˆje x ∈ A me |x − x0 | < δ n— isqÔei |f (x) − f (x0 )| < εF we ˜ˆsh ton orismì th™ sunèqei—™D h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F 2 en to x0 ∈ A eÐn—i k—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AD tìte h sqèsh orÐou k—i sunèqei—™ dÐnet—i —pì thn epìmenh €rìt—shF . yn = 0A ¸ste lim sin x1 = lim sin y1 F tewroÔme ti™ —koloujÐe™ xn = πn k—i n n 1 yn = 2πn+ π (n ∈ N)F iÔkol— elègqoume ìti limn xn = 0 = limn yn F 9ymw™D 2 sin k—i 1 = sin(πn) = 0 → 0 xn = 1 → 1. π F ƒunep¸™D 2 cos x < sin x <1 x x→0+ sto 0. x0 + δ) = {x0 }F hhl—d D —n x ∈ A k—i |x − x0 | < δ D tìte x = x0 F t— deÐxoume ìti {—utì to δ douleÔei gi— ìl— t— ε}F 9istw ε > 0F en x ∈ A k—i |x − x0 | < δ D tìte x = x0 D k—i sunep¸™D |f (x) − f (x0 )| = |f (x0 ) − f (x0 )| = 0 < ε. 2 sin 1 π = sin 2πn + yn 2 1 „eleÐw™ —nˆlog—D mporeÐte n— deÐxete ìti to ìrio lim cos x den upˆrqeiF x→0 RFS ƒqèsh orÐou k—i sunèqei—™ ƒe —ut n thn p—rˆgr—fo j— sundèsoume thn ènnoi— tou orÐou me thn ènnoi— th™ sunèqei—™F €—r—thr ste ìti h sunèqei— elègqet—i se kˆje shmeÐo tou pedÐou orismoÔ mi—™ sunˆrthsh™D èqei loipìn nìhm— n— exetˆsoume pr¸t— th sunèqei— st— memonwmèn— shmeЗ tou pedÐou orismoÔF 9ypw™ deÐqnei h epìmenh €rìt—shD kˆje sunˆrthsh eÐn—i suneq ™ se ìl— —utˆ t— shmeЗF €rìt—sh RFSFIF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 èn— memonwmèno shmeÐo tou AF „ìteD h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F epìdeixhF efoÔ to x0 eÐn—i memonwmèno shmeÐo tou AD upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸ste A ∩ (x0 − δ. π F efoÔ h cos eÐn—i suneq ™D èqoume lim cos x = cos 0 = 1F epì to krit rio 2 p—rem˜ol ™ èpet—i to zhtoÔmenoF x→0 x→0 2 1 1 €rìt—sh RFRFIRF „— ìri— lim sin x k—i lim cos x den upˆrqounF epìdeixhF epì thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™D —rkeÐ n— ˜roÔme dÔo —koloujÐe™ xn → 0D yn → 0 1 @me xn .94 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn epì thn €rìt—sh QFQFP èqoume sin x < x < tan x sto 0.

4. „o A− (x0 ) eÐn—i mh kenì k—i ˆnw fr—gmèno —pì to f (x0 )F ƒunep¸™D orÐzet—i o − = sup A− (x0 )F epì ton orismì tou supremum èqoume − ≤ f (x0 )F t— deÐxoume ìti limx→x− f (x) = − F 0 €—r—t rhsh RFSFR @—sunèqeie™ monìtonwn sun—rt sewnAF 9istw I èn— diˆsthm— . x→x+ 0 „ìte lème ìti sto x0 p—rousiˆzet—i {—sunèqei— —9 eÐdou™} @  ˆlm—AF r di—forˆ limx→x+ f (x) − limx→x− f (x) eÐn—i to {ˆlm—} th™ f sto x0 F 0 0 @iiiA „o limx→x0 f (x) den upˆrqei @gi— p—rˆdeigm—D kˆpoio —pì t— pleurikˆ ìri— th™ f k—j¸™ x → x0 den upˆrqeiAF „ìteD lème ìti sto x0 p—rousiˆzet—i —sunèqei— ˜9 eÐdou™ @  {ousi¸dh™ —sunèqei—}FA k—i èstw f : I → R mi— monìtonh sunˆrthshF „ìte t— pleurikˆ ìri— th™ f upˆrqoun se kˆje x0 ∈ I F ƒunep¸™D —n h f eÐn—i —suneq ™ se kˆpoio x0 ∈ I D tìte j— p—rousiˆzei ˆlm— sto x0 F epìdeixhF …pojètoume ìti h f eÐn—i —Ôxous— k—i ìti x0 eÐn—i èn— eswterikì shmeÐo tou I F yrÐzoume A− (x0 ) = {f (x) : x ∈ I.5 Sqèsh orÐou kai sunèqeias · 95 €rìt—sh RFSFPF 9istw f : A → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ A shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou AF „ìteD h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 —n k—i mìno —n limx→x0 f (x) = f (x0 )F epìdeixhF …pojètoume pr¸t— ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F 9istw ε > 0F …pˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i |x − x0 | < δ D tìte |f (x) − f (x0 )| < εF iidikìter—D —n x ∈ A k—i 0 < |x − x0 | < δ D èqoume |f (x) − f (x0 )| < εF 9er—D limx→x0 f (x) = f (x0 )F entÐstrof—D —™ upojèsoume ìti limx→x0 f (x) = f (x0 )F 9istw ε > 0F …pˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ A k—i 0 < |x − x0 | < δ D tìte |f (x) − f (x0 )| < εF €—r—thr ste ìtiD gi— x = x0 D èqoume oÔtw™   ˆllw™ |f (x) − f (x0 )| = 0 < εF 9er—D gi— kˆje x ∈ A me |x − x0 | < δ D èqoume |f (x) − f (x0 )| < εF 9ipet—i ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F 2 frˆshX {h f den eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 }D ìpou x0 eÐn—i shmeÐo sto pedÐo orismoÔ th™ f : A → RF en—gk—stikˆD to x0 j— eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A k—i upojètoume ìti eÐn—i shmeÐo suss¸reush™ tou A tìso —pì —risterˆ ìso k—i —pì dexiˆ @diereun ste ti mporeÐ n— sum˜eÐ sti™ upìloipe™ peript¸sei™AF …pˆrqoun trЗ endeqìmen—X @iA „— pleurikˆ ori— th™ f k—j¸™ x → x0 upˆrqoun k—i limx→x− f (x) = = limx→x+ f (x)D 0 0 ìmw™ h tim  th™ f sto x0 den eÐn—i o X dhl—d D f (x0 ) = F „ìte lème ìti sto x0 p—rousiˆzet—i ˆrsimh —sunèqei— @  {epousi¸dh™} —sunèqei—AF r f sumperifèret—i ˆrist— gÔrw —pì to x0 D —llˆ h tim  th™ sto x0 eÐn—i {l—nj—smènh}F @iiA „— pleurikˆ ìri— th™ f k—j¸™ x → x0 upˆrqoun —llˆ eÐn—i di—foretikˆX x→x− 0 €—r—t rhsh RFSFQ @eÐdh —sunèqei—™AF e™ exetˆsoume pio prosektikˆ ti shm—Ðnei h lim f (x) = lim f (x). x < x0 }.

f (b) k—i f (c) eÐn—i di—foretikoÐ —nˆ dÔoF wporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti f (a) < f (b) @—lli¸™D jewroÔme thn −f AF t— deÐxoume ìti f (a) < f (b) < f (c)D —pokleÐont—™ ti™ peript¸sei™ f (c) < f (a) k—i f (a) < f (c) < f (b)F @iA en f (c) < f (a) < f (b) tìte —pì to je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™ upˆrqei x ∈ (b. x0 ) èqoume y ∈ I @diìti to I eÐn—i diˆsthm—A k—i − − ε < f (x0 − δ) ≤ f (y) ≤ − < − + ε. b) me f (y) = f (c)D to opoÐo eÐn—i epÐsh™ ˆtopoD —foÔ y < c k—i h f eÐn—i IEIF . x > x0 } .96 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn 9istw ε > 0F efoÔ o − − ε den eÐn—i ˆnw frˆgm— tou sunìlou A− (x0 )D upˆrqei x < x0 sto I me f (x) > − − εF tètoume δ = x0 − xF „ìteD gi— kˆje y ∈ (x0 − δ. 1)  x−1 1<x<2 k—i —Ôxous— sto (1. x0 )D tìte |f (y) − − | < ε. c) me f (x) = f (a)D to opoÐo eÐn—i ˆtopoD —foÔ a < x k—i h f eÐn—i IEIF @iiA en f (a) < f (c) < f (b) tìte —pì to je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™ upˆrqei y ∈ (a. 2) → R pou orÐzet—i  0<x<1  4−x 2 x=1 —pì thn f (x) = F r f eÐn—i IEID ìmw™ eÐn—i fjÐnous— sto (0. b. diìti h f eÐn—i —Ôxous—F hhl—d D —n y ∈ (x0 − δ. c ∈ I me a < b < cD tìteX   f (a) < f (b) < f (c)   f (a) > f (b) > f (c)F epìdeixhF efoÔ h f eÐn—i IEID oi f (a). en t— dÔo pleurikˆ ìri— di—fèrounD tìte èqoume —sunèqei— —9 eÐdou™ @ˆlm—AD en¸ —n eÐn—i Ðs—D tìte f (x0 ) = limx→x− f (x) = limx→x+ f (x)D opìte h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F 0 0 RFT ƒunèqei— —ntÐstrofh™ sunˆrthsh™ 9istw I èn— diˆsthm— sto RF ˆekinˆme —pì thn p—r—t rhsh ìti mi— IEI sunˆrthsh f : I → R den eÐn—i upoqrewtikˆ monìtonhF €ˆrte gi— p—rˆdeigm— thn f : (0. 2)F „o je¸rhm— pou —koloujeÐ deÐqnei ìti —n mi— suneq ™ sunˆrthsh f : I → R eÐn—i èn— pro™ èn—D tìte eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ monìtonhF te¸rhm— RFTFIF 9istw f : I → R suneq ™ k—i IEI sunˆrthshF „ìteD h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous—   gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous— sto I F €r¸th —pìdeixhF t— kˆnoume thn —pìdeixh se trЗ ˜ m—t—F f m— IF en a. eutì —podeiknÔei ìti limx→x− f (x) = − ≤ f (x0 )D k—i me ton Ðdio trìpo deÐqnoume ìti 0 upˆrqei to limx→x+ f (x) = + ≥ f (x0 )D ìpou 0 + = inf {f (x) : x ∈ I.

. y sthn tetrˆd— a. d ∈ I me a < b < c < dD tìteX   f (a) < f (b) < f (c) < f (d)   f (a) > f (b) > f (c) > f (d)F epìdeixhF wporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti f (a) < f (b)F if—rmìzont—™ to f m— I gi— thn triˆd— a. x. y D to f m— P @  to f m— I —n x = a   y = bA deÐqnei ìti h Ðdi— diˆt—xh j— isqÔei gi— ti™ eikìne™ f (x). 1]F yrÐzoume H(t) = f (h(t)) − f (g(t))F r H eÐn—i suneq ™ sunˆrthsh w™ di—forˆ sunjèsewn suneq¸n sun—rt sewnF efoÔ h(t) = g(t) k—i h f eÐn—i IEID p—Ðrnoume H(t) = 0 gi— kˆje t ∈ [0.4. ˆekin¸nt—™ —pì thn upìjesh ìti f (a) > f (b)D deÐqnoume me ton Ðdio trìpo ìti f (a) > f (b) > f (c) > f (d). d ˜lèpoume ìti f (b) < f (c) < f (d)F hhl—d D f (a) < f (b) < f (c) < f (d).6 Sunèqeia antÐstrofhs sunˆrthshs · 97 f m— PF en a. b. c. f (b). f (x). 1] → I me h(t) = (1 − t)x0 + tx1 k—i g(t) = (1 − t)y0 + ty1 . f (y)F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D —n x < a < b < y tìte f (x) < f (a) < f (b) < f (y)D ˆr— f (x) < f (y)F en a < x = b < y tìte f (a) < f (x) = f (b) < f (y)D ˆr— f (x) < f (y)F 2 heÔterh —pìdeixhF ipilègoume tuqìnt— shmeЗ x0 < y0 sto I F 9iqoume f (x0 ) = f (y0 )D ˆr— f (x0 ) < f (y0 )   f (x0 ) > f (y0 )F …pojètoume ìti f (x0 ) < f (y0 ) k—i j— deÐxoume ìti h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— @ìmoi— deÐqnoume ìti —n f (x0 ) > f (y0 ) tìte h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous—AF 9istw x1 . b. 1]D to h(t) kineÐt—i —pì to x0 pro™ to x1 k—i to g(t) kineÐt—i —pì to y0 pro™ to y1   —foÔ to I eÐn—i diˆsthm—D t— h(t)D g(t) mènoun mès— s) —utìAF €—r—thr ste epÐsh™ ìtiD lìgw twn x0 < y0 k—i x1 < y1 èqoume h(t) = (1 − t)x0 + tx1 < (1 − t)y0 + ty1 = g(t) gi— kˆje t ∈ [0. 1] @k—j¸™ to t di—trèqei to [0. c ˜lèpoume ìti f (a) < f (b) < f (c)F if—rmìzont—™ x—nˆ to f m— I gi— thn triˆd— b. f (y) sthn tetrˆd— f (a). b. 1]X —n h H èp—irne kˆpou jetik  tim D tìte j— èp—irne k—i thn tim  H —pì to je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™ @ˆtopoAF 9iqoume loipìn f (h(t)) < f (g(t)) gi— kˆje t ∈ [0. g : [0. 1]F 9ymw™D H(0) = f (h(0))−f (g(0)) = f (x0 )−f (y0 ) < 0 —pì thn upìjesh m—™F 9ipet—i ìti H(t) < 0 gi— kˆje t ∈ [0. c. 1]. y1 ∈ I me x1 < y1 F tèloume n— deÐxoume ìti f (x1 ) < f (y1 )F tewroÔme ti™ sun—rt sei™ h. g(t) ∈ I gi— kˆje t ∈ [0. €—r—thr ste ìti h(t). y ∈ I k—i x < y D tìte f (x) < f (y)F en x = a k—i y = bD tìte f (x) = f (a) < f (b) = f (y)F elli¸™D —nˆlog— me thn diˆt—xh twn x. f m— QF ƒt—jeropoioÔme dÔo shmeЗ a < b sto I F wporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti f (a) < f (b)F t— deÐxoume ìti h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous—D deÐqnont—™ ìti —n x.

eutì eÐn—i ˆtopoD ˆr— f −1 (y1 ) < f −1 (y2 )F t— deÐxoume ìti h —ntÐstrofh suneqoԙ k—i IEI sunˆrthsh™ eÐn—i epÐsh™ suneq ™F eÐn—i suneq ™F te¸rhm— RFTFPF 9istw f : I → R suneq ™ k—i IEI sunˆrthshF „ìteD h f −1 : f (I) → R epìdeixhF wporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous—F 9istw y0 ∈ f (I)F …pojètoume ìti to y0 den eÐn—i ˆkro tou f (I) @oi ˆlle™ peript¸sei™ elègqont—i ìmoi—AF „ìteD y0 = f (x0 ) gi— kˆpoio eswterikì shmeÐo tou I F 9istw ε > 0F wporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti x0 − ε. y2 ∈ f (I) me y1 < y2 F en  t—n f −1 (y1 ) ≥ f −1 (y2 )D tìte j— eÐq—me f (f −1 (y1 )) ≥ f (f −1 (y2 )). δ2 } > 0F en |y − y0 | < δ D tìte f (x0 − ε) < y < f (x0 + ε)F epì to je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™D upˆrqei x ∈ I ¸ste f (x) = y F „o x eÐn—i mon—dikì gi—tÐ h f eÐn—i IEID k—i x0 − ε < x < x0 + ε gi—tÐ h f −1 eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous—F 9er—D |f −1 (y) − f −1 (y0 )| = |x − x0 | < εF hhl—d D h f −1 eÐn—i suneq ™ sto y0 F 2 .98 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn iidikìter—D f (h(1)) < f (g(1))D dhl—d  f (x1 ) < f (y1 )F 2 hen eÐn—i dÔskolo n— perigrˆyei k—neЙ thn eikìn— f (I) mi—™ suneqoԙ k—i IEI sunˆrthshE ™ f : I → RF e™ upojèsoume gi— p—rˆdeigm— ìti to I eÐn—i èn— kleistì diˆsthm— [a. f (b)]F en to I eÐn—i diˆsthm— —noiktì se kˆpoio   k—i st— dÔo —pì t— ˆkr— tou @  diˆsthm— me ˆkro kˆpoio —pì t— ±∞AD tìteD ìpw™ eÐd—meD h eikìn— f (I) th™ f eÐn—i kˆpoio diˆsthm—F yrÐzoume thn —ntÐstrofh sunˆrthsh f −1 : f (I) → I w™ ex ™X —n y ∈ f (I)D upˆrqei mon—dikì x ∈ I ¸ste f (x) = y F tètoume f −1 (y) = xF hhl—d D f −1 (y) = x ⇐⇒ f (x) = y. dhl—d  y1 ≥ y2 . qi— thn epilog  tou δ douleÔoume w™ ex ™X —foÔ f (x0 − ε) < y0 = f (x0 ) < f (x0 + ε)D upˆrqoun δ1 . δ2 > 0 ¸ste f (x0 − ε) = y0 − δ1 k—i f (x0 + ε) = y0 + δ2 F ipilègoume δ = min{δ1 . €—r—thr ste ìti h f −1 èqei thn Ðdi— monotonЗ me thn f F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D —™ upojèsoume ìti h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous—F 9istw y1 . b] k—i ìti h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— @—pì to te¸rhm— RFTFI h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ monìtonhAF „ìteD h eikìn— th™ f eÐn—i to kleistì diˆsthm— [f (a). x0 + ε ∈ I @oÔtw™   ˆllw™D gi— n— elègxoume th sunèqei— m—™ endi—fèroun t— mikrˆ ε > 0AF tèloume n— ˜roÔme δ > 0 ¸ste |y − y0 | < δ k—i y ∈ f (I) =⇒ |f −1 (y) − x0 | < ε.

+∞) me fa (x) = ax k—i deÐx—me ìti eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— —n a > 1 k—i gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous— —n 0 < a < 1F €—r—thr ste ìti h fa eÐn—i epÐ tou (0. . r monotonЗ k—i h sumperiforˆ twn sun—rt sewn x → ax k—i x → loga (x) st— {ˆkr—} tou pedÐou orismoÔ tou™ perigrˆfont—i —pì thn epìmenh €rìt—sh @h —pìdeix  th™ eÐn—i mi— —pl  ˆskhshAF €rìt—sh RFTFQ @monotonЗ k—i sumperiforˆ st— ˆkr—AF @iA en 0 < a < 1D tìte h ax eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous— k—i x→−∞ lim ax = +∞ k—i x→+∞ lim ax = 0. +∞)F −1 yrÐzet—i loipìn k—i pˆli h loga = fa sto (0. n0 ) ¸ste fa (x) = ax = y F −1 yrÐzet—i loipìn h —ntÐstrofh sunˆrthsh fa : (0.4. n0 ] ˜rÐskoume x ∈ (−n0 . r fa eÐn—i suneq ™D opìteD ef—rmìzont—™ to je¸rhm— endiˆmesh™ tim ™ sto [−n0 . +∞)D a = 1F ƒthn €—rˆgr—fo QFR orÐs—me thn ekjetik  sunˆrthsh fa : R → (0. +∞)F ƒum˜olismì™F ƒumfwnoÔme n— grˆfoume exp gi— thn fe @thn ekjetik  sunˆrthsh me ˜ˆsh ton eA k—i ln gi— thn loge @thn log—rijmik  sunˆrthsh me ˜ˆsh ton eAF €—r—thr ste ìtiX gi— kˆje a > 0D @iA ax = exp(x log a) = ex log a F @iiA loga (x) = ln x ln a D —n a = 1F rhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn ˜—sik  idiìtht— ax+y = ax ay th™ ekjetik ™ sunˆrthsh™D elègxte ìtiX —n a = 1 k—i x. +∞) → R k—i to te¸rhm— RFTFP −1 −1 deÐqnei ìti h fa eÐn—i suneq ™F t— sum˜olÐzoume thn fa me loga @log—rijmik  sunˆrthsh me ˜ˆsh aAF intel¸™ —nˆlog— —podeiknÔet—i ìtiX —n 0 < a < 1 tìte h fa eÐn—i epÐ tou (0. @iiA en a > 1D tìte h ax eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— k—i x→−∞ lim ax = 0 k—i x→+∞ lim ax = +∞. y > 0D tìte loga (xy) = loga (x) + loga (y). +∞)F e™ doÔme gi— p—rˆdeigm— thn perÐptwsh a > 1X èstw y > 0F qnwrÐzoume ìti h —koloujЗ an → +∞ k—i h —koloujЗ a−n → 0F ƒunep¸™D upˆrqei n0 ∈ N ¸ste a−n0 < y < an0 .6 Sunèqeia antÐstrofhs sunˆrthshs · 99 RFT—þ vog—rijmik  sunˆrthsh 9istw a ∈ (0.

Upˆrqei sunˆrthsh f :R→R pou eÐnai suneq c sto 0 kai asuneq c se ìla ta ˆlla shmeÐa. . . tìte h f eÐnai asuneq c sto shmeÐo 0 . b) kai f (q) = 0 gia kˆje rhtì q ∈ (a. . . . .100 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn @iiiA en 0 < a < 1D tìte h loga (x) eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous— k—i x→0+ lim loga (x) = +∞ k—i x→+∞ lim loga (x) = −∞. 2 kai suneq c se ìla ta ˆlla shmeÐa. . 5 f :N→R me f (x) = eÐnai suneq c. 1 . @ivA en a > 1D tìte h loga (x) eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— k—i x→0+ lim loga (x) = −∞ k—i x→+∞ lim loga (x) = +∞. tìte upˆrqei δ >0 ¸ste: gia kˆje isqÔei f (x) > 1 x 4 . b) . b) → R f eÐnai suneq c. . IHF IIF IPF An h f :R→R eÐnai suneq c kai f (0) = −f (1) f tìte upˆrqei x0 ∈ [0. b] . Upˆrqei f :R→R pou eÐnai asuneq c sta shmeÐa 1 1. an kai mìno an x0 ∈ N / Upˆrqei f :R→R eÐnai asuneq c sta shmeÐa 1 0. b) An h An eÐnai suneq c sto (a. . n . b) . . RFU esk sei™ eF irwt sei™ k—t—nìhsh™ Exetˆste an oi parakˆtw protˆseic eÐnai alhjeÐc   yeudeÐc (aitiolog ste pl rwc thn apˆnths  sac). tìte eÐnai suneq c se kˆje x . 1 . tìte f (x) = 0 gia kˆje . x0 + δ) An h H eÐnai suneq c sto x0 kai f (x0 ) = 1 . tìte h paÐrnei mègisth kai elˆqisth tim  sto An h eÐnai suneq c sto [a. b] tìte h f eÐnai fragmènh sto [a. . tic: f (x) = 0 an x∈N kai f (x) = 1 an x∈N / . . An h f : (a. f x ∈ (a. An h f :R→R eÐnai suneq c se kˆje ˆrrhto x . . 1. IF PF QF RF SF TF UF VF WF f :R→R x ∈ (x0 − δ. . 2 kai suneq c se ìla ta ˆlla shmeÐa. . . 1] ¸ste f (x0 ) = 0 (a. f 1 n = (−1)n gia kˆje n∈N . n . H sunˆrthsh eÐnai suneq c sto f :R→R x0 pou pou orÐzetai apì .

4.7 Ask seis · 101

IQF

An

x→0

lim g(x) = 0

tìte

x→0

lim g(x) sin

1 x

=0

.

esk sei™X sunèqei— sun—rt sewn   ymˆd— e9 IF
'Estw

f :X→R f (x0 ) > 0

kai èstw

x0 ∈ X

.

An h

f

eÐnai suneq c sto

x0

kai

f (x0 ) = 0 f (x) > f (x) <

, deÐxte ìti:

(a)

an

, upˆrqei

δ>0 δ>0

¸ste:

an

|x − x0 | < δ |x − x0 | < δ

kai

x∈X x∈X

tìte

f (x0 ) 2 f (x0 ) 2

>0 <0

.

(b)

an

f (x0 ) < 0

, upˆrqei

¸ste:

an

kai

tìte

.

PF QF

'Estw

gia kˆje

f :X→R x∈X y∈X
kai

sunˆrthsh. .

Upojètoume ìti upˆrqei

M ≥0

¸ste

|f (x)−f (y)| ≤ M ·|x−y|

,

DeÐxte ìti h

f

eÐnai suneq c.

'Estw

f :R→R f

sunˆrthsh me

|f (x)| ≤ |x| 0
.

gia kˆje

x∈R

.

(a)

DeÐxte ìti h

eÐnai suneq c sto

(b)

D¸ste parˆdeigma miac tètoiac

f

pou na eÐnai asuneq c se kˆje

x=0

.

RF

'Estw .

f :R→R

kai

g:R→R

suneq c

sunˆrthsh

me

g(0) = 0

kai

|f (x)| ≤ |g(x)|

gia

kˆje

x∈R

DeÐxte ìti h

f

eÐnai suneq c sto

0

.

SF f : R → R n = 1, 2, . . . an → a ∈ R
'Estw . An

suneq c tìte

sunˆrthsh

kai

èstw

a1 ∈ R

.

OrÐzoume

an+1 = f (an )

gia

f (a) = a

.

TF

DeÐxte ìti h sunˆrthsh

f :R→R

me

f (x) =

  x  x3

an

x∈Q
eÐnai suneq c mìno sta

an

x∈Q /

shmeÐa

−1, 0, 1

.

UF

'Estw

f, g : R → R f (x) = 0 f (x) = g(x) f (x) ≤ g(x)

suneqeÐc sunart seic.

DeÐxte ìti:

(a)

An

gia kˆje

x∈Q

, tìte

f (y) = 0

gia kˆje

y∈R

.

(b)

An

gia kˆje

x∈Q x∈Q

, tìte

f (y) = g(y) f (y) ≤ g(y)

gia kˆje

y∈R y∈R

.

(g)

An

gia kˆje

, tìte

gia kˆje

.

VF WF

'Estw

f : [a, b] → [a, b] f : [a, b] → R f
DeÐxte ìti h

suneq c sunˆrthsh.

Na deiqjeÐ ìti upˆrqei

x ∈ [a, b]
kˆje

me

f (x) = x

.

'Estw

suneq c

sunˆrthsh

me

thn

ex c

idiìthta:

gia

x ∈ [a, b]

isqÔei

|f (x)| = 1

.

eÐnai stajer .

IHF

'Estw .

f, g : [a, b] → R

suneqeÐc ìti

sunart seic gia

pou

ikanopoioÔn .

thn

x ∈ [a, b] [a, b]
.

Upojètoume

epÐshc

f (x) = 0

kˆje

x ∈ [a, b]

DeÐxte

ìti

f 2 (x) = g 2 (x) g ≡ f g ≡ −f
gia  

kˆje sto

IIF

'Estw

DeÐxte ìti h

f : [0, 1] → R f

suneq c

sunˆrthsh

me

thn

idiìthta

f (x) ∈ Q

gia

kˆje

x ∈ [0, 1]

.

eÐnai stajer  sunˆrthsh.

102 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn

IPF IQF

'Estw

f : (0, 1) → R
Na brejeÐ to

suneq c

sunˆrthsh

me

thn

ex c

idiìthta:

f (x) = x2

gia

kˆje

rhtì

x ∈ (0, 1)

.

f

2 2

.

Aitiolog ste pl rwc thn apˆnths  sac.

f : [0, 2] → R f (x + 1) = f (x)
'Estw .

suneq c

sunˆrthsh

me

f (0) = f (2)

.

DeÐxte

ìti

upˆrqei

x ∈ [0, 1]

me

IRF ISF ITF

Upojètoume

ìti

h

f

eÐnai

suneq c

sto

[0, 1]
.

kai

f (0) = f (1)

.

'Estw

n ∈ N

.

DeÐxte

ìti

upˆrqei

x ∈ 0, 1 −

1 n

¸ste

f (x) = f x +

1 n

'Estw

upˆrqei

f : [a, b] → R yt ∈ [a, b]
¸ste

suneq c

sunˆrthsh

kai

x1 , x2 ∈ [a, b]

.

DeÐxte

ìti

gia

kˆje

t ∈ [0, 1]

f (yt ) = tf (x1 ) + (1 − t)f (x2 ).
'Estw

f : [a, b] → R

suneq c

sunˆrthsh,

kai

x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ∈ [a, b]

.

DeÐxte

ìti

upˆrqei

y ∈ [a, b]

¸ste

f (y) =

f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) + · · · + f (xn ) . n f (x) > 0
gia kˆje

IUF

'Estw

ξ>0

¸ste

f : [a, b] → R f (x) ≥ ξ

suneq c sunˆrthsh me

x ∈ [a, b]

.

DeÐxte ìti upˆrqei

gia kˆje

x ∈ [a, b]

.

IsqÔei to sumpèrasma an antikatast soume to diˆsthma

[a, b]

me to diˆsthma

(a, b]

?

IVF IWF PHF PIF PPF

'Estw .

f, g : [a, b] → R

suneqeÐc

sunart seic

pou

ikanopoioÔn gia kˆje

x ∈ [a, b]

DeÐxte ìti upˆrqei

ρ>0

¸ste

f (x) > g(x) + ρ
shmeÐo tou

f (x) > g(x) x ∈ [a, b]
thn . ìti gia kˆje

gia

kˆje

'Estw

upˆrqei

f : [a, b] → R y ∈ [a, b] |f (y)| ≤ 1 |f (x)| 2
suneq c se ¸ste suneqeÐc

kˆje .

[a, b]

.

Upojètoume

x ∈ [a, b]
.

DeÐxte ìti upˆrqei

x0 ∈ [a, b]
gia

¸ste

f (x0 ) = 0
.

f, g : [a, b] → R max(f ) < max(g)
'Estw . 'Estw

sunart seic

me

f (x) < g(x)

kˆje

x ∈ [a, b]

DeÐxte

ìti

f, g : [a, b] → [c, d] f (ξ) = g(ξ)
. 'Estw

suneqeÐc

kai

epÐ

sunart seic.

DeÐxte

ìti

upˆrqei

ξ ∈ [a, b]

¸ste

α, β, γ > 0

kai

λ<µ<ν

.

DeÐxte ìti h exÐswsh

α β γ + + =0 x−λ x−µ x−ν
èqei toulˆqiston mÐa rÐza se kajèna apì ta diast mata

(λ, µ)

kai

(µ, ν)

.

esk sei™X ìri— sun—rt sewn   ymˆd— e9 PQF
Qrhsimopoi¸ntac ton orismì tou orÐou, deÐxte ìti

√ √ 1+x− 1−x lim =1 x→0 x

kai

x→+∞

lim

√ √ √ a x x+a− x = , 2

a ∈ R.

PRF

Exetˆste an upˆrqoun ta parakˆtw ìria kai, an nai, upologÐste ta.

4.7 Ask seis · 103
3 lim x −8 , x→2 x−2

(a)

(b)

x→x0

lim [x], x x

(g)

x→x0

lim (x − [x]).

PSF

'Estw

f :R→R

me

f (x) =
x→x0

x −x
.

an an

rhtìc . ˆrrhtoc DeÐxte ìti

x→0

lim f (x) = 0

kai

ìti

an

x0 = 0

tìte den upˆrqei to

lim f (x)

PTF

Exetˆste an eÐnai suneqeÐc oi akìloujec sunart seic:

(a)

f :R→R

me

f (x) =
me

sin x x

an an

0

x=0 x=0
1 x
an an

(b)

fk : [−1, 0] → R f :R→R
me

fk (x) =
1 x

xk sin 0
1 x2
an an

x=0 x=0

(

k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

)

(g)

f (x) =

sin 0

x=0 x=0

PUF

DeÐxte ìti an

a, b > 0

tìte

x→0+
Ti gÐnetai ìtan

lim

x b b = a x a

kai

x→0+

lim

b x = 0. x a

x → 0−

?

PVF
x→0

'Estw .

f :R→R

me

f (x) = 1

an

x∈

1 n

: n∈N

kai

0

alli¸c.

Exetˆste

an

upˆrqei

to

lim f (x)

PWF

'Estw

f, g : R → R

dÔo sunart seic.

Upojètoume ìti upˆrqoun ta

x→x0
gia kˆje

lim f (x), lim g(x)
x→x0
.

.

(a)

DeÐxte ìti an

f (x) ≤ g(x)

x∈R

, tìte

x→x0

lim f (x) ≤ lim g(x)
x→x0

(b)

D¸ste èna parˆdeigma ìpou

f (x) < g(x)

gia kˆje

x∈R

en¸

x→x0

lim f (x) = lim g(x)
x→x0

.

QHF
.

X ⊂ R, f, g : X → R X δ>0 f lim g(x) = 0 lim f (x)g(x) = 0
'Estw Upojètoume . ìti Ôpˆrqei ¸ste h DeÐxte ìti

dÔo sunart seic kai èstw na eÐnai

x0 ∈ R

èna shmeÐo suss¸reushc tou

fragmènh

sto

(x0 − δ, x0 + δ) ∩ X

kai

ìti

.

x→x0

x→x0

QIF

x→+∞

f : R → R lim f (x) = b ∈ R
'Estw . 'Estw

periodik 

sunˆrthsh

me

perÐodo

T > 0

.

Upojètoume

ìti

upˆrqei

to

DeÐxte ìti h

f

eÐnai stajer .

QPF QQF

exÐswsh

P (x) = am xm + · · · + a1 x + a0 P (x) = 0 f :R→R
suneq c kai

polu¸numo

me

thn

idiìthta

a0 am < 0

.

DeÐxte

ìti

h

èqei jetik  pragmatik  rÐza.

'Estw

fjÐnousa

sunˆrthsh.

DeÐxte

ìti

h

f

èqei

monadikì

stajerì

shmeÐo:

upˆrqei akrib¸c ènac pragmatikìc arijmìc

x0

gia ton opoÐo

f (x0 ) = x0 .

(b) = α m gia kˆje m = 1. QUF 'Estw f :R→R suneq c sunˆrthsh. h opoÐa gia kˆje x. QSF (b) (a) 'Estw diathreÐ prìshmo: g : [0. +∞) . . An x→−∞ lim f (x) = α kai x→+∞ lim f (x) = α .   An kˆje . suneq c sunˆrthsh. y ∈ R . f : R → R f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) deÐxte an gia kˆje eÐnai suneq c sunˆrthsh me f (1) = α gia kˆje x. x≥0 deÐxte ìti h g gia kˆje x≥0 g(x) < 0 x≥0 x→+∞ f : [0. DeÐxte ìti f ((α. y ∈ R ìti AntÐstrofa. 2. x∈R . +∞) → R eÐnai suneq c kai ìti x→+∞ lim f (x) = +∞. +∞) → R g(x) > 0   . QVF ìti 'Estw f :R→R . lim f (x)). tìte: (a) f (n) = nα 1 f(m) n∈N . x→α+ x→β − esk sei™X sunèqei— k—i ìri— sun—rt sewn   ymˆd— f9 RHF α ∈ R f (x) + f (y) An ikanopoieÐ thn . h sunˆrthsh f : R → R .104 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn QRF 'Estw f :R→R suneq c sunˆrthsh me f (x) > 0 x→+∞ gia kˆje x∈R kai x→−∞ lim f (x) = lim f (x) = 0. x0 ∈ [a. DeÐxte f (R) = R 'Estw QWF f : (α. upˆrqei DeÐxte ìti h f paÐrnei mègisth tim : y∈R ¸ste f (y) ≥ f (x) g(x) = 0 gia kˆje gia gia kˆje x∈R . suneq c sunˆrthsh me x→−∞ lim f (x) = −∞ kai x→+∞ lim f (x) = +∞ . β) → R sunˆrthsh gnhsÐwc aÔxousa kai suneq c. . +∞) → [0. . (g) f (x) = αx gia kˆje . me f (x) = αx mia profan¸c ikanopoieÐ thn f (x + y) = . deÐxte ìti QTF Upojètoume ìti h f : [a. An f (x) = x gia kˆje x≥0 . tìte h f paÐrnei mègisth   elˆqisth tim . +∞) lim f (x) = +∞ 'Estw suneq c sunˆrthsh. +∞) me DeÐxte ìti h f paÐrnei elˆqisth tim . . dhlad  ìti upˆrqei f (x) ≥ f (x0 ) gia kˆje x ∈ [a. β)) = ( lim f (x).

kai eÐnai suneq c sto isqÔei kai akoloujÐec ìti: gia DeÐxte . DeÐxte ìti h shmeÐwn tou (a. suneq c sunˆrthsh me thn idiìthta f (x) = f x + 1 n gia kˆje x∈R kai DeÐxte ìti h f eÐnai stajer . Upojètoume ìti f eÐnai suneq c sto kai ìti f (x/2) = f (x) gia kˆje eÐnai stajer . b] : f (x) = 0} . MKD . f (x + T ) = f (x) f : [0. RPF RQF RRF RSF RTF RUF RVF RWF 'Estw . a<b f (xn ) → a f (yn ) → b zn → +∞ f (zn ) → c . 'Estw a ∈ [0. +∞) → R aÔxousa . 1] suneq c sunˆrthsh. b) me f xn → x0 x0 f (xn ) → f (x0 ) an kai mìno an gia . p. b] → R x0 ∈ (a. b) (zn ) [0. ¸ste Upojètoume . 1] → R me f (x) =  0  1 q . +∞) xn → +∞ yn → +∞ c ∈ (a. (a) 'Estw f : (a. b) . OrÐzoume akoloujÐa me a1 = a kai an+1 = sin(an ) ìti . b]) ìti h eÐnai suneq c se . . q ∈ N q h (p. +∞) → R . 'Estw f (x) = 0 gia kˆje f :R→R x∈R suneq c . 'Estw . 1] ¸ste f (x0 ) = 0 gia kˆje f :R→R x∈R . x∈Q /   x=0 . π] . f (xn ) → 0 'Estw Tìte. upˆrqoun xn ∈ [0.4. b) → R kai kˆje monìtonh akoloujÐa x0 ∈ (a. . sunˆrthsh me thn idiìthta |f (x) − f (y)| ≥ |x − y| gia kˆje . DeÐxte ìti 'Estw kˆje f :R→R n∈N . SHF SIF (tn ) 'Estw f : (a. sto me kˆje upˆrqei akoloujÐa sto Upojètoume ìti upˆrqoun kai me . DeÐxte ìti an → 0 . 'Estw deÐxte ìti f : [a.7 Ask seis · 105 RIF Melet ste wc proc th sunèqeia th sunˆrthsh f : [0. b) (xn ) . 1] → R x0 ∈ [0. . OrÐzoume A = {x ∈ [a. An n→∞ lim f a + 1 n =L tìte x→a+ lim f (x) = L . sunˆrthsh me m f ( 2n ) = 0 gia kˆje m∈Z kai n∈N . lim f (a + tn ) = L gia kˆje gnhsÐwc fjÐnousa akoloujÐa me tn → 0 x→a+ lim f (x) = L (b) Swstì   lˆjoc? 'Estw f : (a. gnhsÐwc sunˆrthsh. +∞) → R (xn ) (yn ) [0. : dhlad . y ∈ R DeÐxte ìti h f : R → R f suneq c eÐnai epÐ. An . SPF SQF 'Estw kˆpoio f : [a. suneq c periodik  sunˆrthsh me perÐodo DeÐxte ìti upˆrqei x∈R ¸ste f (x) = f (x + T √ >0 2) . +∞) 'Estw suneq c sunˆrthsh. Upojètoume DeÐxte ìti to f (x0 ) eÐnai shmeÐo suss¸reushc tou f f ([a. tìte n→∞ . x∈R DeÐxte ìti h f :R→R f . q) = 1 0 . upˆrqei f : [0. x = p . An A=∅ . b] → R sup A ∈ A inf A ∈ A suneq c kai sunˆrthsh. 'Estw . x.

To koinì f g (giatÐ?). upˆrqei x1 ∈ [0. gia STF SUF 'Estw kanèna shmeÐo tou f : [a. 1] g◦f = f ◦g f f (y) = y g(y) = y Upìdeixh: f (x1 ) = x1 'Estw . ìriì thc ja eÐnai ¸ste isqÔei ìti deÐxte thc eÐnai shmeÐa g . b) 'Estw shmeÐa f : [a. b] → R me thn ex c idiìthta: gia kˆje x0 ∈ [a. An h . b] tou suneq c sunˆrthsh. topikì elˆqisto) sto 'Estw an x ∈ X ∩ (x0 − δ. g : [0. b] → R (a. Lème upˆrqei topikì . f eÐnai fragmènh. x0 + δ) isqÔei h anisìthta x0 ∈ X f (x) ≤ f (x0 ) ìti h (antÐstoiqa. Gia tic epìmenec dÔo ask seic dÐnoume ton ex c orismì: topikì mègisto (antÐstoiqa. 1] g(x1 ) = x1 xn+1 = f (xn ) upˆrqei . An . 1] thc me telei¸sei. 1] → [0.] SSF h 'Estw f : [a. f :X →R δ > 0 f (x0 ) ≤ f (x) . x2 [a. jewr ste stajerˆ thn akoloujÐa y ∈ [0. Tìte. b] upˆrqei to x→x0 lim f (x) . Upojètoume f den èqei elˆqisto se DeÐxte ìti h f eÐnai monìtonh sto (a. tìte upˆrqei x3 anˆmesa sta f x1 . DeÐxte ìti [ oi kai . h . koinì ìti Upojètoume ìti h f eÐnai aÔxousa kai g An èqoun stajerì shmeÐo: Xèroume ìqi. b] → R x1 . x2 èqei topikì mègisto se dÔo diaforetikˆ sto opoÐo h f èqei topikì elˆqisto. .106 · Sunèqeia kai ìria sunart sewn SRF kai f. b) . èqoume ìti eÐnai monìtonh kai ìloi kai oi ìroi stajerì shmeÐo twn suneqeÐc kai sunart seic. suneq c. mègisto   ìti h f èqei kˆje ¸ste ).

b)F vème ìti h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 —n upˆrqei to ìrio f (x0 ) := lim x→x0 f (x) − f (x0 ) . b) → R mi— sunˆrthsh k—i èstw x0 ∈ (a. x − x0 „o ìrio f (x0 ) @—n upˆrqeiA lèget—i p—rˆgwgo™ th™ f sto x0 F tètont—™ h = x − x0 ˜lèpoume ìtiD isodÔn—m—D f (x0 ) = lim —n to teleut—Ðo ìrio upˆrqeiF f (x0 + h) − f (x0 ) h→0 h ƒhmeÐwshF en f : I → R ìpou I diˆsthm— k—i —n to x0 ∈ I eÐn—i —risterì   dexiì ˆkro tou I D tìte orÐzoume thn p—rˆgwgo f (x0 ) @—n upˆrqeiA mèsw tou pleurikoÔ orÐou (x (x limx→x+ f (x)−f 0 0 )   limx→x− f (x)−f 0 0 ) —ntÐstoiq—F x−x x−x 0 0 €—r—deÐgm—t— SFIFPF @—A 9istw f : R → R me f (x) = c gi— kˆje x ∈ RF r f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje x0 ∈ R k—i f (x0 ) = 0F €rˆgm—tiD f (x0 + h) − f (x0 ) c−c = =0→0 h h k—j¸™ to h → 0F @˜A 9istw f : R → R me f (x) = x gi— kˆje x ∈ RF r f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje x0 ∈ R k—i f (x0 ) = 1F €rˆgm—tiD f (x0 + h) − f (x0 ) x0 + h − x0 h = = =1→1 h h h .Kefˆlaio 5 Parˆgwgoc SFI yrismì™ th™ p—r—g¸gou yrismì™ SFIFIF 9istw f : (a.

108 · Parˆgwgos k—j¸™ to h → 0F @gA 9istw f : R → R me f (x) = |x| gi— kˆje x ∈ RF r f den eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto 0 @k—i eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje x0 = 0AF €rˆgm—tiD h→0+ lim f (h) − f (0) |h| h = lim+ = lim+ = lim+ 1 = 1. h h h h→0 h→0 h→0 efoÔ t— dÔo pleurikˆ ìri— eÐn—i di—foretikˆD to limh→0 f (h)−f (0) den upˆrqeiF h @dA 9istw f : R → R me f (x) = x2 gi— kˆje x ∈ RF r f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje x0 ∈ R k—i f (x0 ) = 2x0 F €rˆgm—tiD (x0 + h)2 − x2 2x0 h + h2 f (x0 + h) − f (x0 ) 0 = = = 2x0 + h → 2x0 h h h k—j¸™ to h → 0F @eA 9istw f : R → R me f (x) = sin x gi— kˆje x ∈ RF r f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje x0 ∈ R k—i f (x0 ) = cos x0 F €rˆgm—tiD sin(x0 + h) − sin x0 1 h h f (x0 + h) − f (x0 ) = = · 2 sin cos x0 + h h h 2 2 → cos x0 k—j¸™ to h → 0D —foÔ limh→0 sin(h/2) = 1 k—i limh→0 cos(x0 +h/2) = cos x0 F we —nˆlogo h/2 trìpo mporoÔme n— deÐxoume ìti h g : R → R me g(x) = cos x eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje x0 ∈ R k—i g (x0 ) = − sin x0 F x2 —n x ∈ Q @stA 9istw f : R → R me f (x) = F r f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto 0X 0 —n x ∈ Q / p—r—throÔme ìti f (h) − f (0) h —n h ∈ Q = 0 —n h ∈ Q / h 9ipet—i ìti limh→0 f (h)−f (0) = 0F hhl—d D f (0) = 0F €—r—thr ste ìti h f eÐn—i —suneq ™ h se kˆje x0 = 0 @k—i eÐn—i suneq ™ sto 0AF x3 —n x ≥ 0 @zA 9istw f : R → R me f (x) = F r f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje x2 —n x < 0 x0 ∈ RF qi— to shmeÐo 0D jewroÔme to f (h) − f (0) = h h2 h —n h > 0 —n h < 0 9ipet—i ìti to ìrio limh→0 f (h)−f (0) upˆrqei k—i eÐn—i Ðso me 0F hhl—d D f (0) = 0F iÔkol— h elègqoume ìti f (x0 ) = 3x2 —n x0 > 0 k—i f (x0 ) = 2x0 —n x0 < 0F 0 . h h h→0 h→0 h h→0 en¸ h→0 lim− |h| −h f (h) − f (0) = lim− = lim− = lim− (−1) = −1.

b)F …pojèE toume ìti oi f.2 Kanìnes parag¸gishs · 109 te¸rhm— SFIFQF 9istw f : (a. sumper—Ðnoume ìti limx→x0 (f (x) − f (x0 )) = 0D k—i sunep¸™D limx→x0 f (x) = f (x0 )F eutì —podeiknÔei ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F 2 eÐn—i —p—r—Ðtht— p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D h f (x) = |x| eÐn—i suneq ™ sto 0 —llˆ den eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto 0F €—r—t rhsh SFIFRF „o —ntÐstrofo den isqÔeiX —n h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 D tìte den SFP u—nìne™ p—r—g¸gish™ rhsimopoi¸nt—™ ti™ —ntÐstoiqe™ idiìthte™ twn orÐwnD mporoÔme n— —podeÐxoume tou™ ˜—sikoԙ {k—nìne™ p—r—g¸gish™} se sqèsh me ti™ ˆlge˜rikè™ prˆxei™ met—xÔ sun—rt E sewnF te¸rhm— SFPFIF 9istw f. b) → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ (a. b) → R dÔo sun—rt sei™ k—i èstw x0 ∈ (a. x − x0 lim f (x) − f (x0 ) = f (x0 ) k—i x − x0 x→x0 lim (x − x0 ) = 0. b)F en h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 D tìte h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F epìdeixhF qi— x = x0 grˆfoume f (x) − f (x0 ) = efoÔ x→x0 f (x) − f (x0 ) · (x − x0 ). (g(x0 ))2 epìdeixhF e™ doÔme gi— p—rˆdeigm— thn —pìdeixh tou @gAX grˆfoume (f · g)(x0 + h) − (f · g)(x0 ) h = f (x0 + h) g(x0 + h) − g(x0 ) h f (x0 + h) − f (x0 ) +g(x0 ) h gi— h = 0 @kontˆ sto 0AF . g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsime™ sto x0 F „ìteX @—A r f + g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 k—i (f + g) (x0 ) = f (x0 ) + g (x0 )F @˜A qi— kˆje t ∈ RD h t · f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 k—i (t · f ) (x0 ) = t · f (x0 )F @gA r f · g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 k—i (f · g) (x0 ) = f (x0 )g(x0 ) + f (x0 )g (x0 )F @dA en g(x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a. g : (a.5. b)D tìte h f g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 k—i f g (x0 ) = f (x0 )g(x0 ) − f (x0 )g (x0 ) .

b)\{x0 }F x−x „ìteD f (x0 ) = φ(x0 ). b) → R w™ ex ™X f (x)−f (x0 ) —n x = x0 x−x0 φ(x) = f (x0 ) —n x = x0 r φ eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 X prˆgm—tiD x→x0 lim φ(x) = lim x→x0 f (x) − f (x0 ) = f (x0 ) = φ(x0 ). b)F r f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 —n k—i mìnon —n upˆrqei sunˆrthsh φ : (a. b) → R ìpw™ sthn €rìt—shF efoÔ h φ eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 D èqoume limx→x0 φ(x) = φ(x0 )F hhl—d D upˆrqei to x→x0 lim f (x) − f (x0 ) = lim φ(x) = φ(x0 ). x→x0 x − x0 2 epì ton orismì th™ p—r—g¸gouD h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 k—i f (x0 ) = φ(x0 )F . x − x0 entÐstrof—D upojètoume ìti upˆrqei φ : (a. b) → R (x pou eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 k—i ik—nopoieÐ thn φ(x) = f (x)−f 0 0 ) gi— kˆje x ∈ (a. epìdeixhF …pojètoume pr¸t— ìti h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 F yrÐzoume φ : (a. @iiA uˆje rht  sunˆrthsh eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje shmeÐo tou pedÐou orismoÔ th™F SFP—þ u—nìn—™ th™ —lusÐd—™ €rìt—sh SFPFP @p—r—t rhsh tou u—r—jeodwr AF 9istw f : (a. b) → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ (a. = −g (x0 ) · g(x0 )2 h→0 lim ìpou qrhsimopoi s—me to gegonì™ ìti limh→0 g(x0 + h) = g(x0 )D pou isqÔei logw th™ sunèqei—™ th™ g sto x0 F 2 9emese™ sunèpeie™ tou prohgoÔmenou jewr m—to™ eÐn—i oi ex ™X @iA uˆje poluwnumik  sunˆrthsh eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje x0 ∈ RF €io sugkekrimèE n—D —n p(x) = am xm + am−1 xm−1 + · · · + a1 x + a0 D tìte p (x) = mam xm−1 + (m − 1)am−1 xm−2 + · · · + a1 .110 · Parˆgwgos 9iqoume limh→0 g(x0 +h)−g(x0 ) = g (x0 ) k—i limh→0 f (x0 +h)−f (x0 ) = f (x0 )F ipÐsh™D h h h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimhD ˆr— k—i suneq ™D sto x0 F ƒunep¸™D limh→0 f (x0 + h) = f (x0 )F ef nont—™ to h → 0D k—i qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ ti™ ˜—sikè™ idiìthte™ twn orÐwnD p—Ðrnoume to zhtoÔmenoF qi— to @dA —rkeÐ n— deÐxoume ìti h 1/g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 k—i èqei p—rˆgwgo g (x ) Ðsh me − g(x00 2 @k—i n— ef—rmìsoume to @gAAF €—r—thr ste ìti ) h→0 lim 1 h 1 1 − g(x0 + h) g(x0 ) = g(x0 ) − g(x0 + h) 1 · h g(x0 + h)g(x0 ) 1 .

b) → (c. b) → R mi— 1 − 1 k—i suneq ™ sunˆrthshF …pojètoume oti h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 ∈ (a. x − x0 2 dhl—d  to zhtoÔmenoF SFP˜þ €—rˆgwgo™ —ntÐstrofh™ sunˆrthsh™F te¸rhm— SFPFRF 9istw f : (a. d) k—i jewroÔme th sunˆrthsh ψ : (c. b) k—i ìti f (x0 ) = 0F „ìteD h f −1 eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto f (x0 ) k—i 1 (f −1 ) (f (x0 )) = . d) → R ìpou ψ(y) = g(y)−g(y0 ) y−y0 g (y0 ) —n y = y0 —n y = y0 r ψ eÐn—i suneq ™ sto y0 D diìti h g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto y0 F 9istw x ∈ (a. b)\{x0 }F en f (x) = f (x0 )D tìte ψ(f (x)) = ˆr— èqoume g(f (x)) − g(f (x0 )) .2 Kanìnes parag¸gishs · 111 te¸rhm— SFPFQ @k—nìn—™ th™ —lusÐd—™AF 9istw f : (a. tètoume y0 = f (x0 ) ∈ (c. d) k—i g : (c. epìdeixhF tèloume n— deÐxoume ìti to ìrio x→x0 lim g(f (x)) − g(f (x0 ) x − x0 upˆrqei k—i eÐn—i Ðso me g (f (x0 )) · f (x0 ). ipistrèfont—™ sthn (∗) k—i p—Ðrnont—™ to ìrio k—j¸™ to x → x0 D ˜lèpoume ìti x→x0 lim g(f (x)) − g(f (x0 )) = ψ(f (x0 )) · f (x0 ) = g (f (x0 )) · f (x0 ). f (x) − f (x0 ) (∗) f (x) − f (x0 ) g(f (x)) − g(f (x0 )) = ψ(f (x)) . b) k—i h g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto f (x0 )D tìte h g ◦ f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 k—i (g ◦ f ) (x0 ) = g (f (x0 )) · f (x0 ). f (x0 ) .5. x − x0 x − x0 en gi— to x isqÔei f (x) = f (x0 ) tìte h (∗) ex—koloujeÐ n— isqÔei @t— dÔo mèlh mhdenÐE zont—iAF hhl—d D h (∗) isqÔei gi— kˆje x ∈ (a. d) → R dÔo sun—rt sei™F en h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 ∈ (a. b)\{x0 }F (x €—r—throÔme ìti to ìrio limx→x0 f (x)−f 0 0 ) upˆrqei k—i isoÔt—i me f (x0 )F ipÐsh™D x−x h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 k—i h ψ eÐn—i suneq ™ sto y0 = f (x0 )D ˆr— h sÔnjes  tou™ ψ ◦ f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto x0 F ƒunep¸™D to ìrio limx→x0 ψ(f (x)) upˆrqei k—i isoÔt—i me ψ(y0 ) = g (y0 ) = g (f (x0 )).

y − f (x0 ) f (x) − f (x0 ) opìte h (∗) dÐnei f −1 (y) − f −1 (f (x0 )) 1 − < ε. lim x→x0 x − x0 ipiplèon èqoume upojèsei oti f (x0 ) = 0D ˆr— x→x0 lim 1 x − x0 = . y2 ) eÐn—i èn— —noiqtì diˆsthm— pou perièqei to f (x0 )D ˆr— upˆrqei δ1 > 0 ¸ste (f (x0 ) − δ1 . y2 ) = (f (x0 − δ) . f (x) − f (x0 ) f (x0 ) 9istw ε > 0F wporoÔme n— ˜roÔme δ > 0 ¸ste [x0 −δ. 9ymw™D (f −1 ◦ f )(x) = xD ˆr— (f −1 ◦ f ) (x0 ) = 1D opìte odhgoÔm—ste se ˆtopoF . f (x0 ) + δ1 ) ⊆ (y1 . y − f (x0 ) f (x0 ) y→f (x0 ) lim hhl—d D h f −1 eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto f (x0 ) k—i (f −1 ) (f (x0 )) = 1 f (x0 ) F 2 k—nìn— th™ —lusÐd—™ h p—rˆgwgo™ th™ sÔnjesh™ f −1 ◦ f sto x0 j— up rqeD k—i j— eÐq—me €—r—t rhsh SFPFSF en f (x0 ) = 0 tìte h (f −1 ) (y0 ) den upˆrqeiF elli¸™D —pì ton (f −1 ◦ f ) (x0 ) = (f −1 ) (f (x0 )) · f (x0 ) = 0. f (x) − f (x0 ) f (x0 ) y1 = f (x0 − δ) k—i y2 = f (x0 + δ) . 9istw y pou ik—nopoieÐ thn 0 < |y − f (x0 )| < δ1 F „ìteD y = f (x) gi— kˆpoio x ∈ (a. f (x0 + δ)) . b) me 0 < |x − x0 | < δ F 9er—D x − x0 f −1 (y) − f −1 (f (x0 )) = .112 · Parˆgwgos epìdeixhF epì to te¸rhm— RFTFI gnwrÐzoume ìti h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ monìtonh k—i qwrЙ periorismì th™ genikìtht—™ mporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous—F r f (x0 ) upˆrqeiD dhl—d  f (x) − f (x0 ) = f (x0 ). b) k—i —n 0 < |x−x0 | < δ tìte (∗) tètoume x − x0 1 − < ε. „ìteD to (y1 . y − f (x0 ) f (x0 ) efou to ε > 0  t—n tuqìnD èpet—i oti f −1 (y) − f −1 (f (x0 )) 1 = . x0 +δ] ⊂ (a.

k! k = 0. b)D tìte h p—rˆgwgo™ th™ f (n) D orÐzet—i sto (a. b) → R p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje x ∈ (a. 1. b) k—i sum˜olÐzet—i me f (n+1) F wi— sunˆrthsh pou èqei p—rˆgwgo tˆxh™ n lèget—i n forè™ p—r—gwgÐsimhF wi— sunˆrthsh f : (a.5. b)F r p—rˆgwgo™ sunˆrthsh th™ f eÐn—i h sunˆrthsh f : (a.3 Parˆgwgos ekjetik s kai logarijmik s sunˆrthshs · 113 SFPgþ €—rˆgwgoi —n¸terh™ tˆxh™ yrismì™ SFPFTF 9istw f : (a. b)D lèget—i deÔterh p—rˆgwgo™ th™ f D k—i sum˜olÐzet—i me f F ip—gwgikˆD —n èqei oristeÐ h nEost  p—rˆgwgo™ f (n) : (a. . . r —pìdeixh gÐnet—i me di—doqikè™ p—r—gwgÐsei™ k—i upologismì th™ p(k) (0)F en k > mD tìte h p(k) eÐn—i mhdenÐzet—i se kˆje x0 ∈ RF SFQ €—rˆgwgo™ ekjetik ™ k—i log—rijmik ™ sunˆrthsh™ ƒe —ut  th sÔntomh p—rˆgr—fo —podeiknÔoume ìti h ekjetik  sunˆrthsh exp(x) = ex eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimhF ƒth sunèqei—D qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ to genikì m—™ —potèlesm— gi— thn p—rˆgE wgo —ntÐstrofh™ sunˆrthsh™D ˜rÐskoume thn p—rˆgwgo th™ log—rijmik ™ sunˆrthsh™ lnF yi tÔpoi gi— ti™ p—r—g¸gou™ twn upìloipwn ekjetik¸n k—i log—rijmik¸n sun—rt sewn prokÔptoun me —pl  ef—rmog  tou k—nìn— th™ —lusÐd—™F p—r—gwgÐsimh k—i gi— kˆje x ∈ RF epìdeixhF heÐqnoume pr¸t— ìti €rìt—sh SFQFIF r ekjetik  sunˆrthsh exp : R → (0. b)D tìte h p—rˆgwgo™ sunˆrthsh th™ f orÐzet—i sto (a. t→0 t lim ˆekinˆme —pì dÔo —nisìthte™ pou sun—nt s—me sti™ esk sei™ tou uef—l—Ðou IX —n a ≥ −1 1 tìte (1 + a)n ≥ 1 + na @—nisìtht— BernoulliA k—i —n 0 ≤ a < 1/n tìte (1 + a)n < 1−na @deÐxte thn me ep—gwg  w™ pro™ nAF 9istw s rhtì™ —rijmì™ sto (0. +∞) me exp(x) = ex eÐn—i exp (x) = exp(x) et − 1 = 1. . b) → R me x → f (x)F en h sunˆrthsh f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (a. . b) → R lèget—i —periìrist— p—r—gwgÐsimh sto shmeÐo x0 ∈ (a. b) —n h f (n) (x0 ) upˆrqei gi— kˆje n ∈ NF €—rˆdeigm— SFPFUF uˆje poluwnumik  sunˆrthsh p(x) = am xm + · · · + a1 x + a0 eÐn—i —periìrist— p—r—gwgÐsimh se kˆje shmeÐo x0 ∈ RF yi suntelestè™ tou poluwnÔmou p {upologÐzont—i} —pì ti™ ak = p(k) (0) . b) → R th™ f k—i eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh sto (a. b)D lèget—i h (n + 1) tˆxh™ p—rˆgwgo™ th™ f sto (a. 1)F wporoÔme n— . m.

1) ∩ Q me sn → tD k—i qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn —rq  th™ met—forˆ™ gi— ti™ trei™ sun—rt sei™ sthn (∗)D sumper—Ðnoume ìti 1 1 + t ≤ et ≤ 1−t gi— kˆje t ∈ (0. 1)F ssodÔn—m—D mporoÔme n— grˆyoume 0≤ k—i —f nont—™ to t → 0+ p—Ðrnoume et − 1 t −1≤ . t 1−t t→0 lim + et − 1 = 1. 1−s (∗) 1 + s ≤ es ≤ 1 1−s gi— kˆje s ∈ (0. 1) ∩ QF 9istw t¸r— t ∈ (0. q ipÐsh™D —foÔ 1/q < 1/pD —pì thn deÔterh —nisìtht— ˜lèpoume ìti 1+ gi— kˆje k ∈ ND ˆr— 1 kq kp < 1 1 = 1 − p/q 1−s e = we ˆll— lìgi—D s k→∞ lim 1 1+ kq kq p/q = lim k→∞ 1+ 1 kq kp ≤ 1 . t −u u ìpou qrhsimopoi s—me to prohgoÔmeno ìrio k—i th sunèqei— th™ ekjetik ™ sunˆrthsh™ sto 0F . 1)F tewr¸nt—™ —koloujЗ (sn ) sto (0.114 · Parˆgwgos grˆyoume a = p/q D ìpou p < q fusikoÐ —rijmoÐF qnwrÐzoume ìti e > qrhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn pr¸th —nisìtht— ˜lèpoume ìti q 1+ 1 q D opìte es > 1+ 1 q qs = 1+ 1 q p ≥1+ p = 1 + s. t qi— to ìrio k—j¸™ t → 0− jètoume u = −t k—i èqoume et − 1 e−u − 1 eu − 1 = = e−u → 1 · 1 = 1.

5.4 AntÐstrofes trigwnometrikès sunart seis · 115 9istw t¸r— x ∈ RX èqoume ex+t − ex ex et − ex et − 1 = = ex → ex · 1 = ex t t t k—j¸™ to t → 0+ D ˆr— h exp eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x k—i (exp) (x) = exp(x)F 2 ƒto prohgoÔmeno uefˆl—io eÐd—me ìti h exp : R → (0. π/2] k—i arcsin y = x —n k—i mìno —n x ∈ [−π/2. π/2] eÐn—i mi— gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— sunˆrthsh me sÔnolo tim¸n to [−1. π/2)D sumper—Ðnoume ìti h arcsin eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (−1. +∞)F 2 SFR entÐstrofe™ trigwnometrikè™ sun—rt sei™ @—A „ìxo hmitìnou r sunˆrthsh sin : R → [−1. cos x sin (x) ìpou x ∈ (−π/2. π/2] k—i sin (x) = cos x = 0 —n x ∈ (−π/2. +∞) → R eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh k—i ln (y) = gi— kˆje y > 0F epìdeixhF iÐd—me ìti h exp eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh k—i exp (x) = exp(x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ RF 9ipet—i ìti h ln eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (0. exp (x) exp(x) 1 y ìpou exp(x) = y F we ˆll— lìgi—D ln (y) = gi— kˆje y ∈ (0. π/2) k—i sin x = y F rhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 k—i to gegonì™ ìti cos x > 0D ˜lèpoume ìti cos x = 1 − sin2 x = 1 − y2 . +∞) → R k—i ln y = x —n k—i mìno —n ex = y F €rìt—sh SFQFPF r log—rijmik  sunˆrthsh ln : (0. 1] eÐn—i periodik D me elˆqisth jetik  perÐodo Ðsh me 2π F y periorismì™ th™ sto [−π/2. π/2] k—i sin x = y F €—r—thr¸nt—™ ìti h sin eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto [−π/2. 1]F wporoÔme loipìn n— orÐsoume thn —ntÐstrof  th™D h opoЗ lèget—i tìxo hmitìnou k—i sum˜olÐzet—i me arcsinF hhl—d D arcsin : [−1. 1) k—i arcsin (y) = 1 1 = . 1] → [−π/2. +∞) k—i 1 y ln (y) = 1 1 = . . +∞) eÐn—i sunˆrthsh gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— k—i epÐF wporoÔme loipìn n— orÐsoume thn —ntÐstrof  th™D h opoЗ sum˜olÐzet—i me lnF hhl—d D ln : (0.

1 + y2 y ∈ R. π] k—i cos x = y F €—r—thr¸nt—™ ìti h cos eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto [0. π/2) k—i arctan y = x —n k—i mìno —n x ∈ (−π/2. π)D sumper—Ðnoume ìti h arccos eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (−1. y ∈ (−1. 1) k—i arccos (y) = 1 1 =− . @gA „ìxo ef—ptomènh™ r sunˆrthsh tan : (−π/2. @˜A „ìxo sunhmitìnou r sunˆrthsh cos : R → [−1. π) k—i cos x = y F rhsimopoi¸nt—™ thn sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 k—i to gegonì™ ìti sin x > 0D ˜lèpoume ìti sin x = dhl—d  1 − cos2 x = 1 − y2 . π/2)D sumper—Ðnoume ìti h arctan eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto R k—i 1 1 arctan (y) = = . π] eÐn—i mi— gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous— sunˆrthsh me sÔnolo tim¸n to [−1. y ∈ (−1. π] k—i cos (x) = − sin x = 0 —n x ∈ (0. π/2) → R eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— k—i epÐF wporoÔme loipìn n— orÐsoume thn —ntÐstrof  th™D h opoЗ lèget—i tìxo ef—ptomènh™ k—i sum˜olÐzet—i me arctanF hhl—d D arctan : R → (−π/2. 1). 1] → [0. π/2) k—i tan x = y F €—r—thr¸nt—™ ìti h tan eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (−π/2. 1] eÐn—i periodik D me elˆqisth jetik  perÐodo Ðsh me 2π F y periorismì™ th™ sto [0. . cos (x) sin x ìpou x ∈ (0.116 · Parˆgwgos dhl—d  arcsin (y) = 1 1 − y2 . tan (x) 1 + tan2 x ìpou tan x = y F 9ipet—i ìti arctan (y) = 1 . 1]F wporoÔme loipìn n— orÐsoume thn —ntÐstrof  th™D h opoЗ lèget—i tìxo sunhmitìnou k—i sum˜olÐzet—i me arccosF hhl—d D arccos : [−1. arccos (y) = − 1 1 − y2 . π/2) k—i tan (x) = 1/ cos2 x = 1 + tan2 x = 0 —n x ∈ (−π/2. 1). π] k—i arccos y = x —n k—i mìno —n x ∈ [0.

b) → R p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthshF en h f eÐn—i —Ôxous— sto (a. x0 + δ) ⊆ (a. h h h→0 9istw 0 < h < δ F efoÔ h f eÐn—i —Ôxous— sto (a. b) k—i f (x0 ) > 0F „ìteD upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸ste (x0 − δ.5. b) tìte f (x) ≥ 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a. b)F en loipìn |h| < δ tìte h f orÐzet—i sto x + hF efoÔ h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto xD èqoume f (x) = lim+ h→0 f (x + h) − f (x) f (x + h) − f (x) = lim− . h h h→0 €—r—thr ste ìti deÐx—me to zhtoÔmeno qwrЙ n— koitˆxoume ti gÐnet—i gi— —rnhtikè™ timè™ tou h @elègxte ìmw™ ìti —n −δ < h < 0 tìte h klÐsh f (x+h)−f (x) eÐn—i pˆli mh —rnhtik D h opìte odhgoÔm—ste sto Ðdio sumpèr—sm—AF 2 eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous—D den mporoÔme n— isquristoÔme ìti h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ jetik  sto (a. x0 )F . b)F epìdeixhF 9istw x ∈ (a. b)F …pˆrqei δ > 0 ¸ste (x − δ. b) k—i @—A f (x) > f (x0 ) gi— kˆje x ∈ (x0 .5 KrÐsima shmeÐa · 117 SFS urÐsim— shmeЗ ƒkopì™ m—™ sti™ epìmene™ €—r—grˆfou™ eÐn—i n— —podeÐxoume t— kÔri— jewr m—t— tou hiE —forikoÔ vogismoÔ k—i n— doÔme p¸™ ef—rmìzont—i sth melèth sun—rt sewn pou orÐzont—i se kˆpoio diˆsthm— I th™ pr—gm—tik ™ eujeЗ™F t— xekin soume me kˆpoi— p—r—deÐgm—t— pou deÐqnoun ìti h monotonЗ   h Ôp—rxh kˆpoiou topikoÔ —krìt—tou mi—™ p—r—gwgÐsimh™ sunˆrthsh™ dÐnoun kˆpoie™ plhroforÐe™ gi— thn p—rˆgwgoF „o mon—dikì erg—leÐo pou j— qrhsimopoi soume eÐn—i o orismì™ th™ p—r—g¸gouF v mm— SFSFIF 9istw f : (a. b)F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D h f : R → R me f (x) = x3 eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— sto RD ìmw™ f (x) = 3x2 D ˆr— upˆrqei shmeÐo sto opoÐo h p—rˆgwgo™ mhdenÐzet—iX f (0) = 0F „o v mm— SFSFI m—™ ex—sf—lÐzei fusikˆ ìti f ≥ 0 p—ntoÔ sto RF €—r—t rhsh SFSFPF en upojèsoume ìti h p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh f : (a. b) èqoume f (x + h) ≥ f (x)F ƒunep¸™D f (x + h) − f (x) f (x + h) − f (x) ≥ 0 ˆr— f (x) = lim+ ≥ 0. b) → R €—r—t rhsh SFSFQF „o —ntÐstrofo er¸thm— di—tup¸net—i w™ ex ™X —n f (x) ≥ 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a. x + δ) ⊂ (a. b) → RF …pojètoume ìti h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 ∈ (a. x0 + δ)F @˜A f (x) < f (x0 ) gi— kˆje x ∈ (x0 − δ. b) tìte eÐn—i swstì ìti h f eÐn—i —Ôxous— sto (a. b)c r —pˆnthsh eÐn—i {n—i}D —ut  eÐn—i mЗ —pì ti™ ˜—sikè™ sunèpeie™ tou jewr m—to™ mèsh™ tim ™ @˜lèpe §SFTAF rhsimopoi¸nt—™ mìno ton orismì th™ p—r—g¸gouD mporoÔme n— deÐxoume kˆti polÔ —sE jenèsteroX v mm— SFSFRF 9istw f : (a.

x0 )F 2 yrismì™ SFSFSF 9istw f : I → R k—i èstw x0 ∈ I F vème ìti h f èqei topikì mègisto sto x0 —n upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ I k—i |x − x0 | < δ tìte f (x0 ) ≥ f (x)F ymoÐw™D lème ìti h f èqei topikì elˆqisto sto x0 —n upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸steX —n x ∈ I k—i |x − x0 | < δ tìte f (x0 ) ≤ f (x)F en h f èqei topikì mègisto   topikì elˆqisto sto x0 tìte lème ìti h f èqei topikì —krìt—to sto shmeÐo x0 F eutì pou qrei—st k—me gi— thn —pìdeixh tou v mm—to™ SFSFI  t—n h Ôp—rxh th™ f (x) @o orismì™ th™ p—r—g¸gouA k—i to gegonì™ ìti @lìgw monotonЗ™A h elˆqisth tim  th™ f sto [x. x − x0 2 9ipet—i ìtiX @—A qi— kˆje x ∈ (x0 . x0 ) èqoume f (x) − f (x0 ) < f (x0 ) (x − x0 ) < 0 ˆr— f (x) < f (x0 ). δ)F en 0 < h < δ tìte f (x0 + h) − f (x0 ) ≤ 0. h ˆr— h→0 lim+ f (x0 + h) − f (x0 ) ≤ 0. x0 +δ) ⊆ (a. epìdeixhF wrЙ periorismì th™ genikìtht—™ upojètoume oti h f èqei topikì mègisto sto x0 F …pˆrqei δ > 0 ¸ste (x0 −δ. x + δ)  t—n h f (x)F ip—n—l—m˜ˆnont—™ loipìn to Ðdio ousi—stikˆ epiqeÐrhm— p—Ðrnoume thn —kìloujh €rìt—sh @FermatAF te¸rhm— SFSFT @FermatAF 9istw f : [a. h . 2 @˜A qi— kˆje x ∈ (x0 − δ.118 · Parˆgwgos epìdeixhF 9iqoume upojèsei ìti lim f (x)−f (x0 ) x−x0 x→x0 = f (x0 ) > 0F if—rmìzont—™ ton ε − δ (0) orismì tou orÐou me ε = f 2 > 0D ˜rÐskoume δ > 0 ¸steX —n 0 < |x − x0 | < δ tìte x ∈ (a. b) k—i ìti h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 F „ìteD f (x0 ) = 0. b] → RF …pojètoume ìti h f èqei topikì —krìt—to se kˆpoio x0 ∈ (a. b) k—i f (x) − f (x0 ) f (x0 ) > f (x0 ) − ε = > 0. 2 2 €—r—thr ste ìti t— @—A k—i @˜A den deÐqnoun ìti h f eÐn—i —Ôxous— sto (x0 . b) k—i f (x0 +h) ≤ f (x0 ) gi— kˆje h ∈ (−δ. x0 + δ) èqoume f (x) − f (x0 ) > f (x0 ) (x − x0 ) > 0 ˆr— f (x) > f (x0 ). x0 + δ)   sto (x0 − δ.

b) k—i h f den eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 F hedomènou ìtiD sthn prˆxhD to pl jo™ twn shmeÐwn pou —n koun se —utè™ ti™ {trei™ omˆde™} eÐn—i sqetikˆ mikrìD mporoÔme me —plì upologismì k—i sÔgkrish merik¸n tim¸n th™ sunˆrthsh™ n— —p—nt soume sto er¸thm—F €—rˆdeigm—X x— ˜rejeÐ h mègisth tim  th™ sunˆrthsh™ f (x) = x3 − x sto [−1. 2]F r f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (−1. 2)D me p—rˆgwgo f (x) = 3x2 − 1F „— shmeЗ st— opoЗ 1 1 mhdenÐzet—i h p—rˆgwgo™ eÐn—i t— x1 = − √3 k—i x2 = √3 t— opoЗ —n koun sto (−1. b] → R suneq ™ sunˆrthshF qnwrÐzoume ìti h f p—Ðrnei mègisth tim  max(f ) k—i elˆqisth tim  min(f ) sto [a. b) k—i f (x0 ) = 0 @krÐsimo shmeÐoAF @iiiA x0 ∈ (a. 3 1 x2 = √ . yi —ntÐstoiqe™ timè™ eÐn—iX 1 x1 = − √ . f (−1) = 0. 2)F 9er—D t— shmeЗ st— opoЗ mporeÐ n— p—Ðrnei mègisth   elˆqisth tim  h f eÐn—i t— ˆkr— tou di—st m—to™ k—i t— dÔo krÐsim— shmeЗX x0 = −1. b] k—i f (x0 ) = max(f )   f (x0 ) = min(f )D tìte —n—gk—stikˆ sum˜—Ðnei kˆpoio —pì t— p—r—kˆtwX @iA x0 = a   x0 = b @ˆkro tou di—st m—to™AF @iiA x0 ∈ (a. √ 2 f (−1/ 3) = √ . h ˆr— h→0− lim f (x0 + h) − f (x0 ) ≥ 0. ƒugkrÐnont—™ —utè™ ti™ tèsseri™ timè™ ˜lèpoume ìti max(f ) = f (2) = 6 k—i min(f ) = √ √ f (1/ 3) = −2/(3 3)F 2 . 3 x3 = 2. h 2 ƒunep¸™D f (x0 ) ≥ 0F epì ti™ dÔo —nisìthte™ èpet—i ìti f (x0 ) = 0F yrismì™ SFSFUF 9istw f : I → RF 9in— eswterikì shmeÐo x0 tou I lèget—i krÐsimo shmeÐo gi— thn f —n f (x0 ) = 0F €—rˆdeigm— SFSFVF „— krÐsim— shmeЗ mi—™ sunˆrthsh™ eÐn—i polÔ qr sim— ìt—n jèloume n— ˜roÔme th mègisth   thn elˆqisth tim  th™F 9istw f : [a. 3 3 √ 2 f (1/ 3) = − √ .5.5 KrÐsima shmeÐa · 119 ƒunep¸™D f (x0 ) ≤ 0F en −δ < h < 0 tìte f (x0 + h) − f (x0 ) ≥ 0. b]F en x0 ∈ [a. 3 3 f (2) = 6.

120 · Parˆgwgos

SFT

te¸rhm— wèsh™ „im ™

9istw f : [a, b] → R mi— st—jer  sunˆrthshF hhl—d D upˆrqei c ∈ R ¸ste f (x) = c gi— kˆje x ∈ [a, b]F qnwrÐzoume ìti f (x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)F entÐstrof—D —™ upojèsoume ìti f : [a, b] → R eÐn—i mi— suneq ™ sunˆrthshD p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (a, b)D me thn idiìtht— f (x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)F iÐn—i swstì ìti h f eÐn—i st—jer  sto [a, b]c „o er¸thm— —utì eÐn—i p—rìmoi—™ fÔsh™ me ekeÐno th™ €—r—t rhsh™ SFSFQX —n mi— p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh èqei p—ntoÔ mh —rnhtik  p—rˆgwgoD eÐn—i swstì ìti eÐn—i —ÔxE ous—c iÐn—i logikì n— perimènoume ìti h —pˆnthsh eÐn—i {n—i} st— dÔo —utˆ erwt m—t—F ƒkefteÐte èn— kinhtìX f (x) eÐn—i h proshm—smènh —pìst—sh —pì thn —rqik  jèsh th qronik  stigm  x k—i f (x) eÐn—i h t—qÔtht— th qronik  stigm  xF en h t—qÔtht— eÐn—i suneq¸™ mhdenik D to kinhtì {mènei —kÐnhto} k—i h —pìst—sh p—r—mènei st—jer F en h t—qÔtht— eÐn—i p—ntoÔ mh —rnhtik D to kinhtì {—pom—krÔnet—i —pì thn —rqik  tou jèsh} k—i h —pìst—sh —uxˆnei me thn pˆrodo tou qrìnouF qi— thn —usthr  ìmw™ —pìdeixh —ut¸n twn dÔo isqurism¸nD j— qrei—steÐ n— sunduˆE soume thn ènnoi— th™ p—r—g¸gou me t— ˜—sikˆ jewr m—t— gi— suneqeЙ sun—rt sei™ se kleistˆ di—st m—t—F „o ˜—sikì teqnikì ˜ m— eÐn—i h —pìdeixh tou {jewr m—to™ mèsh™ tim ™}F 9istw f : [a, b] → R suneq ™ sunˆrthshF …pojètoume oti h f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (a, b)X dhl—d D gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b) orÐzet—i k—lˆ h ef—ptomènh tou gr—f m—to™ th™ f sto (x, f (x))F tewroÔme thn eujeЗ ( ) pou pernˆei —pì t— shmeЗ A = (a, f (a)) k—i B = (b, f (b))F en th met—kin soume p—rˆllhl— pro™ ton e—utì th™D kˆpoi— —pì ti™ p—rˆllhle™ j— efˆptet—i sto grˆfhm— th™ f se kˆpoio shmeÐo (x0 , f (x0 ))D x0 ∈ (a, b)F r klÐsh th™ ef—ptomènh™ j— prèpei n— isoÔt—i me thn klÐsh th™ eujeЗ™ ( )F hhl—d D

f (x0 ) =

f (b) − f (a) . b−a

ƒto pr¸to mèro™ —ut ™ th™ p—r—grˆfou dÐnoume —usthr  —pìdeixh —utoÔ tou isqurismoÔ @te¸rhm— wèsh™ „im ™AF epodeiknÔoume pr¸t— mi— eidik  perÐptwshX to je¸rhm— tou RolleF

te¸rhm— SFTFI @RolleAF 9istw f : [a, b] → RF …pojètoume ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto [a, b] k—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (a, b)F …pojètoume epiplèon ìti f (a) = f (b)F „ìteD upˆrqei x0 ∈ (a, b) ¸ste f (x0 ) = 0.
epìdeixhF ixetˆzoume pr¸t— thn perÐptwsh pou h f eÐn—i st—jer  sto [a, b]D dhl—d  f (x) = f (a) = f (b) gi— kˆje x ∈ [a, b]F „ìteD f (x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b) k—i opoiod pote —pì —utˆ t— x mporeÐ n— p—Ðxei to rìlo tou x0 F 9istw loipìn ìti h f den eÐn—i st—jer  sto [a, b]F „ìteD upˆrqei x1 ∈ (a, b) ¸ste f (x1 ) = f (a) k—i qwrЙ periorismì th™ genikìtht—™ mporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti f (x1 ) >

5.6 Je¸rhma Mèshs Tim s · 121

f (a)F r f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto [a, b]D ˆr— p—Ðrnei mègisth tim X upˆrqei x0 ∈ [a, b] ¸ste f (x0 ) = max{f (x) : x ∈ [a, b]} ≥ f (x1 ) > f (a).
iidikìter—D x0 = a, bF hhl—d D to x0 ˜rÐsket—i sto —noiktì diˆsthm— (a, b)F r f èqei @olikìA mègisto sto x0 k—i eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 F epì to te¸rhm— SFSFT @FermatA sumper—Ðnoume ìti f (x0 ) = 0F 2 „o je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ eÐn—i ˆmesh sunèpei— tou jewr m—to™ tou RolleF

te¸rhm— SFTFP @je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™AF 9istw f : [a, b] → R suneq ™ sto [a, b] k—i
p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (a, b)F „ìteD upˆrqei x0 ∈ (a, b) ¸ste

f (x0 ) =

f (b) − f (a) . b−a

epìdeixhF t— —n—qjoÔme sto te¸rhm— tou Rolle w™ ex ™F tewroÔme th gr—mmik  sunˆrthsh h : [a, b] → R pou p—Ðrnei ti™ Ðdie™ timè™ me thn f st— shmeЗ a k—i bF hhl—d D

h(x) = f (a) +
yrÐzoume mi— sunˆrthsh g : [a, b] → R me

f (b) − f (a) (x − a). b−a

g(x) = f (x) − h(x) = f (x) − f (a) −

f (b) − f (a) (x − a). b−a

r g eÐn—i suneq ™ sto [a, b]D p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (a, b) k—i —pì ton trìpo epilog ™ th™ h èqoume g(a) = f (a) − h(a) = 0 k—i g(b) = f (b) − h(b) = 0. ƒÔmfwn— me to je¸rhm— tou RolleD upˆrqei x0 ∈ (a, b) ¸ste g (x0 ) = 0F 9ymw™D

g (x) = f (x) −

f (b) − f (a) b−a 2

sto (a, b)F 9er—D to x0 ik—nopoieÐ to zhtoÔmenoF

mopoi jhke sthn —pìdeixh k—i eÐn—i —p—r—ÐththF tewr steD gi— p—rˆdeigm—D thn f : [0, 1] → R me f (x) = x —n 0 ≤ x < 1 k—i f (1) = 0F r f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh @ˆr—D suneq ™A sto (0, 1) k—i èqoume f (0) = f (1) = 0F 9ymw™ den upˆrqei x ∈ (0, 1) pou n— ik—nopoieÐ thn f (x) = f (1)−f (0) = 0D —foÔ f (x) = 1 gi— kˆje x ∈ (0, 1)F „o prì˜lhm— eÐn—i sto shmeÐo 1−0 1X h f eÐn—i —suneq ™ sto 1D dhl—d  den eÐn—i suneq ™ sto [0, 1]F „o je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ m—™ epitrèpei n— —p—nt soume st— erwt m—t— pou suzht s—me sthn —rq  th™ p—r—grˆfouF

€—r—t rhsh SFTFQF r upìjesh ìti h f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto kleistì diˆsthm— [a, b] qrhsiE

122 · Parˆgwgos

te¸rhm— SFTFRF 9istw f : (a, b) → R p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthshF
@iA en f (x) ≥ 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)D tìte h f eÐn—i —Ôxous— sto (a, b)F @iiA en f (x) > 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)D tìte h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— sto (a, b)F @iiiA en f (x) ≤ 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)D tìte h f eÐn—i fjÐnous— sto (a, b)F @ivA en f (x) < 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)D tìte h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous— sto (a, b)F @vA en f (x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)D tìte h f eÐn—i st—jer  sto (a, b)F epìdeixhF t— deÐxoume èn—n —pì tou™ pr¸tou™ tèsseri™ isqurismoԙX upojètoume ìti f (x) ≥ 0 sto (a, b)D k—i j— deÐxoume ìti —n a < x < y < b tìte f (x) ≤ f (y)F tewroÔme ton periorismì th™ f sto [x, y]F r f eÐn—i suneq ™ sto [x, y] k—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (x, y)D opìte ef—rmìzont—™ to je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ ˜rÐskoume ξ ∈ (x, y) pou ik—nopoieÐ thn

f (ξ) =

f (y) − f (x) . y−x

efoÔ f (ξ) ≥ 0 k—i y − x > 0D èqoume f (y) − f (x) ≥ 0F hhl—d D f (x) ≤ f (y)F qi— ton teleut—Ðo isqurismì p—r—thr ste ìti —n f = 0 sto (a, b) tìte f ≥ 0 k—i f ≤ 0 sto (a, b)F 9er—D h f eÐn—i t—utìqron— —Ôxous— k—i fjÐnous—X —n x < y sto (a, b) tìte f (x) ≤ f (y) k—i f (x) ≥ f (y)D dhl—d  f (x) = f (y)F 9ipet—i ìti h f eÐn—i st—jer F 2 wi— p—r—ll—g  @k—i genÐkeushA tou jewr m—to™ wèsh™ „im ™ eÐn—i to je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ tou CauchyX

te¸rhm— SFTFS @je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ tou CauchyAF 9istw f, g : [a, b] → RD suneqeЙ sto [a, b] k—i p—r—gwgÐsime™ sto (a, b)F „ìteD upˆrqei x0 ∈ (a, b) ¸ste
(∗) [f (b) − f (a)] g (x0 ) = [g(b) − g(a)] f (x0 ).

ƒhmeÐwshX €—r—thr ste pr¸t— ìti to je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ eÐn—i eidik  perÐptwsh tou jewr m—to™ pou jèloume n— deÐxoumeX —n g(x) = x tìte g (x) = 1 k—i h (∗) p—Ðrnei th morf  [f (b) − f (a)] · 1 = (b − a) f (x). r Ôp—rxh kˆpoiou x0 ∈ (a, b) to opoÐo ik—nopoieÐ —ut n thn isìtht— eÐn—i —kri˜¸™ o isqurismì™ tou jewr m—to™ mèsh™ tim ™F tumhjeÐte t¸r— thn idè— th™ —pìdeixh™ tou jewr m—to™ mèsh™ tim ™F if—rmìs—me to je¸rhm— tou Rolle gi— th sunˆrthsh

f (x) − f (a) −

f (b) − f (a) (x − a). b−a

g(b) − g(a) g (x0 ) epìdeixhF epì to je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ tou CauchyD upˆrqei x0 ∈ (a. „ìte upˆrqei x0 ∈ (a. p—Ðrnoume thn (∗)F 2 €—r—t rhsh SFTFTF „o endi—fèron shmeÐo sthn (∗) eÐn—i ìti oi p—rˆgwgoi f (x0 ) k—i g (x0 ) {upologÐzont—i sto Ðdio shmeÐo} x0 F €olÔ suqnˆD to je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ tou Cauchy di—tup¸net—i w™ ex ™F …pojètoume epiplèon ìti @—A oi f k—i g den èqoun koin  rÐz— sto (a. b) @gi—tÐ oi f k—i g èqoun ti™ Ðdie™ idiìthte™AF iÔkol— elègqoume ìti h(a) = 0 = h(b). b] k—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (a. r h eÐn—i suneq ™ sto [a. b) ¸ste €ìrism— SFTFUF 9istw f.5. b) ¸ste (f (b) − f (a))g (x0 ) = (g(b) − g(a))f (x0 ). b] → RD suneqeЙ sto [a. t— jewr soume loipìn sunˆrthsh —ntÐstoiqh me —ut nD {—ntik—jist¸nt—™ thn x me thn g(x)}F epìdeixhF tewroÔme th sunˆrthsh h : [a. b] k—i p—r—gwgÐsime™ sto (a. wporoÔme loipìn n— ef—rmìsoume to je¸rhm— tou RolleX upˆrqei x0 ∈ (a. g : [a. €—r—throÔme ìti g (x0 ) = 0X —n eÐq—me g (x0 ) = 0D tìte j—  t—n (g(b) − g(a))f (x0 ) = 0 k—iD —foÔ —pì thn upìjes  m—™ g(b) − g(a) = 0D j— èprepe n— èqoume f (x0 ) = 0F hhl—d  oi f k—i g j— eÐq—n koin  rÐz—F wporoÔme loipìn n— di—irèsoume t— dÔo mèlh th™ isìtht—™ me (g(b) − g(a))g (x0 ) k—i n— pˆroume to zhtoÔmenoF 2 . b] → R me h(x) = [f (x) − f (a)] (g(b) − g(a)) − [f (b) − f (a)] (g(x) − g(a)).6 Je¸rhma Mèshs Tim s · 123 ssodÔn—m— @poll—pl—siˆste thn prohgoÔmenh sunˆrthsh me b − aA j— mporoÔs—me n— èqoume pˆrei thn [f (x) − f (a)] (b − a) − [f (b) − f (a)] (x − a). b)F f (x0 ) f (b) − f (a) = . b) ¸ste h (x0 ) = 0F efoÔ h (x0 ) = f (x0 ) (g(b) − g(a)) − g (x0 ) (f (b) − f (a)). b)F @˜A g(b) − g(a) = 0.

b) → R p—r—gwgÐsime™ sun—rt sei™ me ti™ ex ™ idiìthte™X @—A g(x) = 0 k—i g (x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a. b)F t— deÐxoume ìti x→x+ 0 lim f (x) f (x) = = lim+ . x0 ) ∪ (x0 . g(x) x→x0 g (x) 9iqoume f (x) f (x) − f (x0 ) = g(x) g(x) − g(x0 ) . x→x0 oi f k—i g gÐnont—i t¸r— suneqeЙ sto (a. x→x0 „ìte lème ìti èqoume —prosdiìristh morf  0 @  ∞ —ntÐstoiq—A sto x0 F 0 ∞ yi k—nìne™ tou l’Hospital m—™ epitrèpoun suqnˆ n— ˜roÔme tètoi— ìri— @—n upˆrqounA me th ˜o jei— twn p—r—g¸gwn twn f k—i g F „upikì je¸rhm— —utoÔ tou eÐdou™ eÐn—i to ex ™F te¸rhm— SFUFIF 9istw f. x0 ) ∪ (x0 . g : (a.124 · Parˆgwgos SFU eprosdiìriste™ morfè™ „o je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ tou Cauchy qrhsimopoieÐt—i sthn —pìdeixh twn {k—nìnwn tou L’ Hospital} gi— ìri— th™ morf ™ 0   ∞ F „upikˆ p—r—deÐgm—t— th™ k—tˆst—sh™ pou j— 0 ∞ suzht soume se —ut  thn p—rˆgr—fo eÐn—i t— ex ™X jèloume n— exetˆsoume —n upˆrqei to ìrio f (x) lim x→x0 g(x) ìpou f. x→x0 g (x) g(x) epìdeixhF yrÐzoume ti™ f k—i g sto x0 jètont—™ f (x0 ) = g(x0 ) = 0F efoÔ x→x0 lim f (x) = lim g(x) = 0. b)F @˜A lim f (x) = lim g(x) = 0F x→x0 x→x0 en upˆrqei to lim f (x) x→x0 g (x) = ∈ RD tìte upˆrqei to lim lim f (x) x→x0 g(x) k—i x→x0 f (x) f (x) = = lim . g eÐn—i dÔo sun—rt sei™ p—r—gwgÐsime™ dexiˆ k—i —risterˆ —pì to x0 D me g(x) = 0 —n x kontˆ sto x0 k—i x = x0 k—i x→x0 lim f (x) = lim g(x) = 0 x→x0   x→x0 lim f (x) = lim g(x) = +∞.

+∞) → R p—r—gwgÐsime™ sun—rt sei™ me ti™ ex ™ idiìthte™X @—A g(x) = 0 k—i g (x) = 0 gi— kˆje x > aF @˜A lim f (x) = lim g(x) = 0F x→+∞ x→+∞ en upˆrqei to lim f (x) x→+∞ g (x) = ∈ R tìte upˆrqei to lim lim f (x) x→+∞ g(x) k—i x→+∞ f (x) f (x) = = lim . . − 12 f f1 (x) = x1 g1 (x) − x2 g 1 x 1 x = f g 1 x 1 x . g(x) x→x0 g (x) 0 we —nˆlogo trìpo deÐqnoume ìti limx→x− f (x) g(x) = F 2 y —ntÐstoiqo™ k—nìn—™ ìt—n x0 = +∞ eÐn—i o ex ™F te¸rhm— SFUFPF 9istw f. b)F yi f . a → R me f1 (x) = f yi f1 . ƒunduˆzont—™ ti™ p—r—pˆnw sqèsei™ ˜lèpoume ìti —n x0 < x < x0 + δ tìte f (x) − g(x) @gi—tÐ x0 < ξx < x < x0 + δ AF 9er—D x→x+ 0 = f (ξx ) − g (ξx ) <ε lim f (x) f (x) = = lim+ .5. g1 : 0. x→+∞ g (x) g(x) 1 epìdeixhF yrÐzoume f1 . g(x) g (ξx ) 9istw t¸r— ìti limx→x0 x0 < y < x0 + δ tìte f (x) g (x) = k—i èstw ε > 0F wporoÔme n— ˜roÔme δ > 0 ¸steX —n f (y) − g (y) < ε. g1 eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsime™ k—i 1 x k—i g1 (x) = g 1 x . g : (a. g den èqoun koin  rÐz— sto (x0 . x) ¸ste f (ξx ) f (x) = .7 Aprosdiìristes morfès · 125 gi— kˆje x ∈ (x0 . b) n— ˜roÔme ξx ∈ (x0 . x) gi—tÐ h g den mhdenÐzet—i poujenˆF ipÐsh™ g(x) = 0D dhl—d  g(x) − g(x0 ) = 0F if—rmìzont—™ loipìn to je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ tou Cauchy mporoÔme gi— kˆje x ∈ (x0 .

1/a)F „èlo™D lim x→0+ x→+∞ x→0+ x→+∞ x→0+ f f1 (x) = lim + g g1 (x) x→0 1 x 1 x = lim x→+∞ f (x) .126 · Parˆgwgos 9iqoume lim f1 (x) = lim f (x) = 0 k—i lim g1 (x) = lim g(x) = 0 @gi—tÐcAF ipÐsh™D g1 = 0 k—i g1 = 0 sto (0. b)F @˜A lim f (x) = lim g(x) = +∞F x→a+ x→a+ f (x) g (x) en upˆrqei to lim x→a+ = ∈ RD tìte upˆrqei to lim+ x→a f (x) g(x) k—i x→a lim+ f (x) f (x) = lim+ . g : (a. g(x) x→0+ g1 (x) 2 efoÔ x→+∞ lim èpet—i to zhtoÔmenoF …pˆrqoun —rketè™ —kìm— peript¸sei™ —prosdiìristwn morf¸n gi— ti™ opoÐe™ mporoÔme n— di—tup¸soume k—tˆllhlo {k—nìn— tou l’Hospital}F hen j— d¸soume ˆlle™ —podeÐxei™D ∞ —™ doÔme ìmw™ th di—tÔpwsh enì™ k—nìn— gi— —prosdiìristh morf  ∞ F te¸rhm— SFUFQF 9istw f. g(x) x→a g (x) SFV sdiìtht— Darboux gi— thn p—rˆgwgo yrismì™ SFVFIF vème ìti mi— sunˆrthsh f : I → R èqei thn idiìtht— Darboux @idiìtht— th™ endiˆmesh™ tim ™A —nX gi— kˆje x < y sto I me f (x) = f (y) k—i gi— kˆje pr—gm—tikì —rijmì ρ —nˆmes— stou™ f (x) k—i f (y) mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme z ∈ (x. b) → R p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthshF „ìteD h f èqei thn . y) ¸ste f (z) = ρF epì to te¸rhm— indiˆmesh™ „im ™ èpet—i ìti kˆje suneq ™ sunˆrthsh f : I → R èqei thn idiìtht— DarbouxF t— deÐxoume ìti h p—rˆgwgo™ mi—™ p—r—gwgÐsimh™ sunˆrthsh™ èqei pˆnt— thn idiìtht— Darboux @—n k—i den eÐn—i pˆnt— suneq ™ sunˆrthshAF idiìtht— DarbouxF te¸rhm— SFVFPF 9istw f : (a. g (x) 9er—D ef—rmìzet—i to te¸rhm— SFUFI gi— ti™ f1 . g1 (x) x→0 g1 (x) x→+∞ g (x) f1 (x) f (x) = lim . g1 k—i èqoume x→0 lim+ f1 (x) f (x) f (x) = lim+ 1 = lim . b) → R p—r—gwgÐsime™ sun—rt sei™ me ti™ ex ™ idiìthte™X @—A g(x) = 0 k—i g (x) = 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a.

y) ¸ste g(x1 ) < g(x) k—i g(y1 ) < g(y)F epìdeixh tou isqurismoÔF r g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto xD dhl—d  h→0 lim+ g(x + h) − g(x) = g (x) < 0. y1 ∈ (x. y]F ipomènw™D h g p—Ðrnei elˆqisth tim  sto [x. y) k—i g(y1 ) < g(y)F 2 ƒunèqei— th™ —pìdeixh™ tou tewr m—to™ SFVFPF r g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (a. y] me thn idiìtht— g(x0 ) ≤ g(t) gi— kˆje t ∈ [x. y) k—i g(x1 ) < g(x)F 9ymoi—D h g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto y D dhl—d  h→0− lim g(y + h) − g(y) = g (y) > 0. h ipilègont—™ ε = (x) −g 2 > 0 ˜lèpoume ìti upˆrqei 0 < δ1 < y − x ¸ste g(x + h) − g(x) g (x) < g (x) + ε = <0 h 2 1 gi— kˆje 0 < h < δ1 F €—Ðrnont—™ x1 = x + δ2 èqoume x1 ∈ (x. y)F efoÔ h g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto x0 D to te¸rhm— SFSFT @FermatA m—™ ex—sf—lÐzei ìti g (x0 ) = 0F 9ipet—i to zhtoÔmenoD me z = x0 F 2 SFW qewmetrik  shm—sЗ th™ deÔterh™ p—r—g¸gou ƒthn §SFS eÐd—me ìti o mhdenismì™ th™ p—r—g¸gou se èn— shmeÐo x0 den eÐn—i ik—n  sunj kh gi— thn Ôp—rxh topikoÔ —krìt—tou sto x0 F r sunˆrthsh f (x) = x3 den èqei —krìt—to sto x0 = 0D ìmw™ f (x0 ) = 0F uoitˆzont—™ th deÔterh p—rˆgwgo st— shmeЗ mhdenismoÔ th™ pr¸th™ p—r—g¸gou mporoÔme pollè™ forè™ n— sumperˆnoume —n èn— krÐsimo shmeÐo eÐn—i ìntw™ shmeÐo —krìt—touF . y]X upˆrqei x0 ∈ [x.5. y) me thn idiìtht— g (z) = 0F ssqurismì™F …pˆrqoun x1 .9 Gewmetrik  shmasÐa ths deÔterhs parag¸gou · 127 epìdeixhF 9istw x < y ∈ (a. h ipilègont—™ ε = g (y) 2 > 0 ˜lèpoume ìti upˆrqei 0 < δ1 < y − x ¸ste g(y + h) − g(y) g (y) > g (y) − ε = >0 h 2 gi— kˆje −δ1 < h < 0F €—Ðrnont—™ y1 = y − δ1 2 èqoume y1 ∈ (x. b) → R pou orÐzet—i —pì thn g(t) = f (t) − ρtF „ìteD h g eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto (a. y]F epì ton ssqurismì ˜lèpoume ìti h g den p—Ðrnei elˆqisth tim  sto x oÔte sto y F 9er—D x0 ∈ (x. y) ¸ste f (z) = ρF tewroÔme th sunˆrthsh g : (a. b)D ˆr— suneq ™ sto [x. b) k—i g (t) = f (t) − ρF 9er—D èqoume g (x) < 0 < g (y) k—i zhtˆme z ∈ (x. b) me f (x) = f (y)F wrЙ periorismì th™ genikìtht—™ mporoÔme n— upojèsoume ìti f (x) < f (y)F …pojètoume ìti f (x) < ρ < f (y) k—i j— ˜roÔme z ∈ (x.

x0 ] ˜rÐskoume x ∈ (y. b) me f (x0 ) = 0F @—A en upˆrqei h f (x0 ) k—i f (x0 ) > 0D tìte èqoume topikì elˆqisto sto x0 F @˜A en upˆrqei h f (x0 ) k—i f (x0 ) < 0D tìte èqoume topikì mègisto sto x0 F ƒhmeÐwshX en f (x0 ) = 0   —n den upˆrqei h f (x0 )D tìte prèpei n— exetˆsoume ti sum˜—Ðnei me ˆllo trìpoF epìdeixhF t— deÐxoume mìno to @—AF 9iqoume 0 < f (x0 ) = lim x→x0 f (x) f (x) − f (x0 ) = lim . x0 + δ)F 9er—D h f èqei topikì elˆqisto sto x0 F 2 SFW—þ uurtè™ k—i koÐle™ sun—rt sei™ ƒe epìmeno uefˆl—io j— —sqolhjoÔme susthm—tikˆ me ti™ kurtè™ k—i ti™ koÐle™ sun—rt E sei™ f : I → RF ƒe —ut  thn upop—rˆgr—fo —podeiknÔoume kˆpoie™ —plè™ protˆsei™ gi— p—r—gwgÐsime™ sun—rt sei™D oi opoÐe™ m—™ ˜ohjˆne n— {sqediˆsoume th gr—fik  tou™ p—rˆst—sh}F tewroÔme mi— p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh f : (a. b) → R p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh k—i èstw x0 ∈ (a. b) → RF en x0 ∈ (a. vème ìti h f eÐn—i kurt  sto (a. b) èqoume (∗) f (x) ≥ f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x − x0 ) . x→x0 x − x0 x − x0 ipomènw™D mporoÔme n— ˜roÔme δ > 0 ¸steX @iA en x0 < x < x0 + δ. x0 ) ¸ste f (y) − f (x) = f (x)(y − x0 ) > 0. @iiA en x0 −δ < y < x0 D tìte ef—rmìzont—™ to je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ sto [y. y) ¸ste f (y) − f (x) = f (x)(y − x0 ) > 0. f (x0 )) eÐn—i h y = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x − x0 ). y] ˜rÐskoume x ∈ (x0 . b) —n gi— kˆje x0 ∈ (a. b)D h {exÐswsh th™ ef—ptomènh™} tou gr—f m—to™ th™ f sto (x0 . tìte f (x) > 0F @iiA en x0 − δ < x < x0 tìte f (x) < 0F 9istw y ∈ (x0 − δ. x0 + δ)F @iA en x0 < y < x0 +δ D tìte ef—rmìzont—™ to je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™ sto [x0 . hhl—d D f (y) ≤ f (x0 ) gi— kˆje y ∈ (x0 − δ.128 · Parˆgwgos te¸rhm— SFWFIF 9istw f : (a.

5.9 Gewmetrik  shmasÐa ths deÔterhs parag¸gou · 129 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)F hhl—d D —n to grˆfhm— {(x, f (x)) : a < x < b} ˜rÐsket—i pˆnw —pì thn ef—ptomènhF vème ìti h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ kurt  sto (a, b) —n gi— kˆje x = x0 h —nisìtht— sthn (∗) eÐn—i gn si—F vème ìti h f eÐn—i koÐlh sto (a, b) —n gi— kˆje x0 ∈ (a, b) èqoume

(∗∗)

f (x) ≤ f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x − x0 )

gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)F hhl—d D —n to grˆfhm— {(x, f (x)) : a < x < b} ˜rÐsket—i kˆtw —pì thn ef—ptomènhF vème ìti h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ koÐlh sto (a, b) —n gi— kˆje x = x0 h —nisìtht— sthn (∗∗) eÐn—i gn si—F „èlo™D lème ìti h f èqei shmeÐo k—mp ™ sto shmeÐo x0 ∈ (a, b) —n upˆrqei δ > 0 ¸ste h f n— eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ kurt  sto (x0 − δ, x0 ) k—i gnhsÐw™ koÐlh sto (x0 , x0 + δ)   gnhsÐw™ koÐlh sto (x0 − δ, x0 ) k—i gnhsÐw™ kurt  sto (x0 , x0 + δ)F

te¸rhm— SFWFPF 9istw f : (a, b) → R p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthshF
@—A en h f eÐn—i @gnhsÐw™A —Ôxous— sto (a, b)D tìte h f eÐn—i @gnhsÐw™A kurt  sto (a, b)F @˜A en h f eÐn—i @gnhsÐw™A fjÐnous— sto (a, b)D tìte h f eÐn—i @gnhsÐw™A koÐlh sto (a, b)F epìdeixhF 9istw x0 ∈ (a, b) k—i èstw x ∈ (a, b)F …pojètoume pr¸t— ìti x > x0 F epì to je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™D upˆrqei ξx ∈ (x0 , x) me thn idiìtht—

f (x) − f (x0 ) = (x − x0 )f (ξx ).
efoÔ x0 < ξx èqoume f (ξx ) ≥ f (x0 )D k—i —foÔ x − x0 > 0 ˜lèpoume ìti

f (x) − f (x0 ) = (x − x0 )f (ξx ) ≥ (x − x0 )f (x0 ).
…pojètoume t¸r— ìti x < x0 F epì to je¸rhm— mèsh™ tim ™D upˆrqei ξx ∈ (x, x0 ) me thn idiìtht— f (x) − f (x0 ) = (x − x0 )f (ξx ). efoÔ ξx < x0 èqoume f (ξx ) ≤ f (x0 )D k—i —foÔ x − x0 < 0 ˜lèpoume ìti

f (x) − f (x0 ) = (x − x0 )f (ξx ) ≥ (x − x0 )f (x0 ).
ƒe kˆje perÐptwshD isqÔei h (∗)F ilègxte ìti —n h f upotejeÐ gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— sto (a, b) tìte p—Ðrnoume gn si— —nisìtht— sthn (∗)F @˜A we ton Ðdio trìpoF 2 r deÔterh p—rˆgwgo™ @—n upˆrqeiA mporeÐ n— m—™ d¸sei plhroforЗ gi— to —n h f eÐn—i kurt    koÐlhF

te¸rhm— SFWFQF 9istw f : (a, b) → R dÔo forè™ p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthshF @—A en f (x) > 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)D tìte h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ kurt  sto (a, b)F @˜A en f (x) < 0 gi— kˆje x ∈ (a, b)D tìte h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ koÐlh sto (a, b)F

130 · Parˆgwgos epìdeixhF @—A efou f > 0 sto (a, b)D h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— sto (a, b) @te¸rhm— SFTFRAF epì to te¸rhm— SFWFP èpet—i to zhtoÔmenoF @˜A we ton Ðdio trìpoF „èlo™D dÐnoume mi— —n—gk—З sunj kh gi— n— eÐn—i to x0 shmeÐo k—mp ™ th™ f F

2

te¸rhm— SFWFRF 9istw f : (a, b) → R dÔo forè™ p—r—gwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh k—i èstw
x0 ∈ (a, b)F en h f èqei shmeÐo k—mp ™ sto x0 D tìte f (x0 ) = 0F
epìdeixhF tewroÔme th sunˆrthsh g(x) = f (x) − f (x0 ) − f (x0 )(x − x0 )F r g den èqei topikì mègisto   elˆqisto sto x0 X èqoume g(x0 ) = 0 k—i g > 0 —risterˆ tou x0 D g < 0 dexiˆ tou x0     to —ntÐstrofoF ipÐsh™D g (x0 ) = 0 k—i g (x0 ) = f (x0 )F en  t—n g (x0 ) > 0   g (x0 ) < 0 tìte —pì to te¸rhm— SFWFI h g j— eÐqe —krìt—to sto x0 D ˆtopoF 9er—D f (x0 ) = 0F 2 ƒhmeÐwshF r sunj kh tou tewr m—to™ SFWFR den eÐn—i ik—n F r f (x) = x4 den èqei shmeÐo k—mp ™ sto x0 = 0F iÐn—i gnhsÐw™ kurt  sto RF 9ymw™ f (x) = 12x2 D ˆr— f (0) = 0F €—rˆdeigm—F welet ste th sunˆrthsh f : R → R me

f (x) =
r f eÐn—i p—r—gwgÐsimh sto RD me

1 . x2 + 1

f (x) = −

2x . (x2 + 1)2

9er—D h f eÐn—i gnhsÐw™ —Ôxous— sto (−∞, 0) k—i gnhsÐw™ fjÐnous— sto (0, +∞)F €—Ðrnei mègisth tim  sto 0X f (0) = 1D k—i lim f (x) = 0F r deÔterh p—rˆgwgo™ th™ f orÐzet—i p—ntoÔ k—i eÐn—i Ðsh me
x→±∞

f (x) =
1 9er—D f > 0 st— −∞, − √3

2(3x2 − 1) . (x2 + 1)3
1 1 D en¸ f < 0 sto − √3 , √3 F 9ipet—i ìti h

k—i

1 √ ,∞ 3

1 1 f èqei shmeÐo k—mp ™ st— ± √3 k—i eÐn—iX gnhsÐw™ kurt  st— −∞, − √3 1 1 − √3 , √3

k—i

1 √ ,∞ 3

D

gnhsÐw™ koÐlh sto F eutè™ oi plhroforÐe™ eÐn—i —rketè™ gi— n— sqediˆsoume {—rketˆ pistˆ} th gr—fik  p—rˆst—sh th™ f F

5.9 Gewmetrik  shmasÐa ths deÔterhs parag¸gou · 131

SFW˜þ

esÔmptwte™

IF 9istw f : (a, +∞) → RF @—A vème ìti h eujeЗ y = β eÐn—i orizìnti— —sÔmptwth th™ f sto +∞ —n
x→+∞

lim f (x) = β.

x+1 €—rˆdeigm—X h f : (1, +∞) → R me f (x) = x−1 èqei orizìnti— —sÔmptwth thn y = 1F @˜A vème ìti h eujeЗ y = αx + β @α = 0A eÐn—i plˆgi— —sÔmptwth th™ f sto +∞ —n x→+∞

lim (f (x) − (αx + β)) = 0.

€—r—thr ste ìti h f èqei to polÔ mЗ plˆgi— —sÔmptwth sto +∞ k—i ìti —n y = αx + β eÐn—i h —sÔmptwth th™ f tìte h klish th™ α upologÐzet—i —pì thn

α = lim
k—i h st—jerˆ β upologÐzet—i —pì thn

x→+∞

f (x) x

β = lim (f (x) − αx).
x→+∞

entÐstrof—D gi— n— doÔme —n h f èqei plˆgi— —sÔmptwth sto +∞D exetˆzoume pr¸t— —n upˆrqei to lim f (x) F en —utì to ìrio upˆrqei k—i —n eÐn—i di—foretikì —pì to 0D to x sum˜olÐzoume me α k—i exetˆzoume —n upˆrqei to lim (f (x) − αx)F en k—i —utì to ìrio   —™ to poÔme β   upˆrqeiD tìte h y = αx + β eÐn—i h plˆgi— —sÔmptwth th™ f sto +∞F €—rˆdeigm—X h f : (1, +∞) → R me f (x) = y = x + 2F €rˆgm—tiD
x2 +x−1 x−1 x→+∞ x→+∞

èqei plˆgi— —sÔmptwth sto +∞ thn

f (x) x2 + x − 1 = lim = 1, x→+∞ x x→+∞ x2 − x lim
k—i
x→+∞

lim (f (x) − x) = lim

2x − 1 = 2. x→+∞ x − 1

PF we —nˆlogo trìpo orÐzoume   k—i ˜rÐskoume   thn orizìnti—   plˆgi— —sÔmptwth mi—™ sunˆrthsh™ f : (−∞, a) → R sto −∞ @—n upˆrqeiAF QF „èlo™D lème ìti h f : (a, x0 )∪(x0 , b) → R èqei @—rister    dexiˆA k—t—kìrufh —sÔmptwth sto x0 —n lim f (x) = ±∞   lim f (x) = ±∞
x→x− 0 x→x+ 0 1 —ntÐstoiq—F qi— p—rˆdeigm—D h f (x) = x èqei —rister  k—i dexiˆ —sÔmptwth sto 0 thn 1 1 eujeЗ x = 0D —foÔ lim x = −∞ k—i lim x = +∞F x→0− x→0+

b) . eÐnai paragwgÐsimh sto 0 . δ) An h f eÐnai paragwgÐsimh gnhsÐwc aÔxousa sto x0 ∈ R (x0 − δ. b) → R x ∈ (a.132 · Parˆgwgos SFIH esk sei™ irwt sei™ k—t—nìhsh™ Exetˆste an oi parakˆtw protˆseic eÐnai alhjeÐc   yeudeÐc (aitiolog ste pl rwc thn apˆnths  sac). tìte h f eÐnai suneq c sto (a. kai f (x0 ) > 0 . paragwgÐsimh se . . SF f x0 ∈ (0. b) \ {x0 } f :R→R kai èstw kai an upˆrqei to x0 ∈ (a. IF PF QF RF An h f f f eÐnai paragwgÐsimh sto (a. tìte x→x0 f (x0 ) = ¸ste h An h . tìte . An f (x) ≥ 0 h eÐnai ¸ste gia kˆje x ∈ [0. An h eÐnai paragwgÐsimh sto x0 = 0 kai an f (0) = f (0) = 0 . 1−x PF UpologÐste tic parag¸gouc (sta shmeÐa pou upˆrqoun) twn parakˆtw sunart sewn: f (x) = sin (x + 1)2 (x + 2) . x QF (a) (b) Exetˆste an oi sunart seic f. h eÐnai paragwgÐsimec sto . An h eÐnai suneq c sto x0 . tìte n→∞ lim nf (1/n) = 0 . An h eÐnai paragwgÐsimh sto [a. b) . 2) An dÔo forèc paragwgÐsimh . 2] kai f (0) = f (1) = f (2) = 0 tìte upˆrqei f (x0 ) = 0 TF UF VF 'Estw kˆje f : (a. b) f lim f (x) = ∈ R . . 1 + sin x 0 h(x) = sin cos x . g. f (x) = x g(x) = 0 an x∈Q / x∈Q / kai f (x) = 0 g(x) = x2 an x∈Q . tìte upˆrqei δ>0 ¸ste h f na eÐnai esk sei™   ymˆd— e9 IF UpologÐste tic parag¸gouc (sta shmeÐa pou upˆrqoun) twn parakˆtw sunart sewn: f (x) = 1 − x2 . tìte upˆrqei δ>0 f na eÐnai suneq c sto (−δ. x0 + δ) sto . [0. an kai an x∈Q . 1 + x2 g(x) = 3 1+ 1 . x h(x) = 1+x . b] kai paÐrnei th mègisth tim  thc sto x0 = a f (a) = 0 . ∞) . g(x) = sin(x2 ) sin2 x . tìte f (x) ≥ 0 gia kˆje x ∈ [0. ∞) kai f (0) = 0 sto . .

h R . f :R→R me f (x) = x3 + 2x + 1 . IPF sto sto x0 x0 . .10 Ask seis · 133 (g) h(x) = sin x Exetˆste an x∈Q / kai h(x) = x f. Upojètoume ìti upˆrqei ρ>0 ¸ste |f (x) − f (x0 )| ≤ f eÐnai suneq c sto x0 . n n≥2 . p.5. deÐxte ìti h f eÐnai paragwgÐsimh sto x0 . 3] . IHF D¸ste parˆdeigma sunˆrthshc f : (0. . (a) DeÐxte ìti h . . 1) → R me f (x) = 0 1 q . me tic ex c idiìthtec: f (−1) = 0 f (2) = 1 . UpologÐste thn (f −1 ) (y) sta shmeÐa f (0) f (1) . an x∈Q . 1) allˆ den eÐnai paragwgÐsimh sto shmeÐo x0 = xn = (b) eÐnai suneq c sto allˆ den eÐnai paragwgÐsimh sta shmeÐa 1 . 1 x an x=0 . b) 'Estw kai gia kˆje . Poiˆ eÐnai h tim  thc f (x0 ) ? (g) D¸ste parˆdeigma ìpou ρ=1 allˆ h f den eÐnai paragwgÐsimh sto x0 . x∈Q / x = p . IIF (a) (b) D¸ste parˆdeigma sunˆrthshc f :R→R . (d) f (m) = (−1) kai gia kˆje m ∈ Z |f (x)| ≤ . (b) An ρ>1 . f (x0 ) = 0 ginìmeno DeÐxte sunˆrthsh f f ·g h eÐnai eÐnai paragwgÐsimh paragwgÐsimh . q   MKD x=0 (p. kai g(0) = 0 . g. 1) → R h opoÐa: (a) eÐnai suneq c sto (0. f :R→R me f (0) = 3 kai f (x) = sin2 (sin(x + 1)) gia kˆje x∈R . b) → R a < x0 < b M |x − x0 |ρ x ∈ (a. kai f (−1) f : (a. q ∈ N. (b) an x=0 . kai f (0) = 0 . kai (g) f (0) = 0 f (3) = 1 f (1) = 0 f (m) = 0 'Estw kai kai h f eÐnai gnhsÐwc aÔxousa sto [0. . 2 1 . kai f (1) > 0 f (1) < 0 m f (−1) = 0 f (2) = 1 . RF (a) an oi sunart seic eÐnai paragwgÐsimec sto R . kai h f. exetˆste an h parˆgwgìc touc eÐnai suneq c sto f (x) = sin g(x) = x sin 1 x 1 x an x=0 . An eÐnai. BreÐte (an upˆrqoun) ta shmeÐa sta opoÐa eÐnai paragwgÐsimh h sunˆrthsh f : (0. q) = 1 (f −1 ) (3) UF 'Estw . 1) (0. SF TF sunˆrthsh se kˆje x0 ∈ R Exetˆste an h f :R→R f (x) = f :R→R sin x x an x=0 kai f (0) = 1 eÐnai paragwgÐsimh eÐnai suneq c sunˆrthsh. UpologÐste thn VF WF 'Estw . (g) h(x) = x2 sin DeÐxte ìti h . g : R → R g eÐnai èstw sto suneq c x0 ∈ R x0 . . . kai h(0) = 0 me . Upojètoume ìti h ìti: 1 2 gia kˆje x∈R .

DeÐxte ìti h exÐswsh lÔseic. DeÐxte ìti h mègisth tim  thc sunˆrthshc f (x) = 1 1 + 1 + |x| 1 + |x − a| . x f (x) = x + touc to 3 . (b) [−1. (g) sto [−1. (g) x3 + 9x2 + 33x − 8 = 0 DeÐxte ìti h exÐswsh èqei akrib¸c mÐa pragmatik  rÐza.134 · Parˆgwgos IQF (a) Gia kajemÐa apì tic parakˆtw sunart seic breÐte th mègisth kai thn elˆqisth tim  thc sto diˆsthma pou upodeiknÔetai. PPF 'Estw . 2] . IWF PHF PIF BreÐte . ISF ITF IUF xn + ax + b = 0 èqei to polÔ dÔo pragmatikèc rÐzec an o n eÐnai ˆrtioc kai to polÔ treic pragmatikèc rÐzec an o n eÐnai perittìc. DeÐxte ìti: apì ìla ta orjog¸nia parallhlìgramma me stajer  perÐmetro. 'Estw f (x) = 0 èqei akrib¸c a1 < · · · < an n−1 sto R kai èstw f (x) = (x − a1 ) · · · (x − an ) . ta shmeÐa thc uperbol c x2 − y 2 = 1 pou èqoun elˆqisth apìstash apì to shmeÐo (0. to tetrˆgwno èqei to mègisto embadìn. . f (x) = x3 − x2 − 8x + 1 f (x) = x5 + x + 1 f (x) = x3 − 3x sto sto [−2. x2 − 1 tou f (x) = R sto 1 1 + x2 opoÐo mporoÔn na orismoÔ megalÔtero uposÔnolo IVF (b) (a) DeÐxte ìti: apì ìla ta orjog¸nia parallhlìgramma me stajer  diag¸nio. DÐnontai pragmatikoÐ arijmoÐ a1 < a2 < · · · < an . to tetrˆgwno èqei to mègisto embadìn. x2 f (x) = x2 . 2] IRF (a) (b) DeÐxte ìti h exÐswsh: 4ax3 + 3bx2 + 2cx = a + b + c 6x − 7x + 1 = 0 4 èqei toulˆqiston mÐa rÐza sto (0. èqei to polÔ dÔo pragmatikèc rÐzec. 1] . san pedÐo 1 . B . Sqediˆste tic grafikèc parastˆseic twn sunart sewn f (x) = x + jewr¸ntac oristoÔn. Na brejeÐ h elˆqisth tim  thc sunˆrthshc n k=1 f (x) = (x − ak ) a>0 2 . 1) Pˆnw se kÔklo aktÐnac 1 jewroÔme dÔo antidiametrikˆ shmeÐa A. BreÐte ta shmeÐa Γ tou kÔklou gia ta opoÐa to trÐgwno ABΓ èqei th mègisth dunat  perÐmetro. 1) .

paragwgÐsimh . me f (a) = f (b) . b) . EpÐshc. g : (a. +∞) → R √ lim [f (x + x) − f (x)] = 0 paragwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh . DeÐxte ìti x→+∞ lim (f (x + 1) − f (x)) = 0. +∞) → R paragwgÐsimh. DeÐxte 'Estw f : (0. deÐxte ìti h eÐnai aÔxousa sto (0. a) . PRF gia DÐnontai kˆje dÔo paragwgÐsimec . DeÐxte ìti sunart seic anˆmesa se x ∈ (a. g(x)) sto gia to opoÐo oi efaptìmenec eÐnai parˆllhlec   tautÐzontai. PSF PTF 'Estw ìti upˆrqoun f : [a.10 Ask seis · 135 2+a . me thn idiìthta: |f (x)| ≤ 1 x gia kˆje x→+∞ f. a) . f (x)) kai x (a. PUF PVF ìti 'Estw . kai antÐstrofa. b) → R f (x)g (x) − f (x)g(x) = 0 f (x) = 0 ¸ste dÔo rÐzec thc brÐsketai mia rÐza thc g(x) = 0 . Upojètoume (a) An h f f g eÐnai aÔxousa sto . +∞) . gia kˆje 1 . b) (x. b) . (b) DeÐxte ìti gia kˆje x>0 isqÔei 1− 1 ≤ log x ≤ x − 1. b] kai ìti f (a) = g(a) kai f (b) = g(b) DeÐxte ìti upˆrqei toulˆqiston èna shmeÐo twn grafik¸n parastˆsewn twn f kai g sta (x. (ax ) = ax ln a. sto (a. sto f (x) > 0 g (x) > 0 (0. f kai g eÐnai paragwgÐsimec sto [a. b) f. b] → R x1 = x2 ∈ (a. a] (0. x>1 DeÐxte ìti f : (1. suneq c ¸ste sto [a.5. a) . a) sto [0. x . . 1+a eÐnai Ðsh me PQF Upojètoume ìti oi sunart seic . paragwgÐsimec sto (0. a) f (x) x f g kai . h a x eÐnai kurt  sto R kai h loga x eÐnai koÐlh sto (0. x ln a a>0 . g f (0) = g(0) = 0 'Estw dÔo sunart seic kai suneqeÐc . deÐxte ìti h eÐnai aÔxousa sto (0. QHF (a) DeÐxte ìti gia kˆje x∈R isqÔei ex ≥ 1 + x . (b) An h eÐnai aÔxousa sto (0. b] f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) = 0 . deÐxte ìti (loga ) (x) = (b) DeÐxte ìti. a) esk sei™X ekjetik  k—i log—rijmik  sunˆrthsh   trigwnometrikè™ sun—rt sei™   ymˆd— e9 PWF (a) An 0<a<1   a>1 . me x→+∞ lim f (x) = 0 .

QQF sto Melet ste th sunˆrthsh f (x) = (0. π . DeÐxte ìti upˆrqei a∈R ¸ste f (x) = aecx (a. [ Upìdeixh: Jewr ste thn limx→b− f (x) = e−x f (x) . 'Estw gia kˆje f : [a. b) . +∞) ln x x Poiìc eÐnai megalÔteroc. b) . f (x) = cf (x) x∈R gia kˆje gia . isqÔei gia Sumperˆnate ìti √ limn→∞ n ( n x − 1) = ln x x∈R isqÔei x>0 . a.] QVF DeÐxte ìti gia kˆje isqÔei sin x ≥ 2x . h sunˆrthsh gλ : [a. eπ   o πe ? QRF DeÐxte ìti oi sunart seic ln kai exp ikanopoioÔn ta ex c: (a) gia kˆje s>0 . QSF QTF 'Estw f :R→R paragwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh me thn idiìthta ìpou c mia stajerˆ. kˆje x∈R .136 · Parˆgwgos QIF DeÐxte ìti gia kˆje x>0 kai gia kˆje n∈N √ √ ln x ≤ n n x − 1 ≤ n x ln x. (b) DeÐxte ìti gia kˆje x∈R isqÔei n→∞ lim 1+ x n n = ex . b ∈ R me DeÐxte ìti upˆrqei a<b ξ ∈ (a. b) → R f (ξ) > f (ξ) paragwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh ¸ste . b] → R λ∈R suneq c. b] → R gλ (x) := f (x) + λf (x) èqei mia rÐza sto diˆsthma (a. en¸ h ln bradÔtera apì opoiad pote (mikr ) dÔnamh tou x . QUF +∞ 'Estw . o kai sqediˆste th grafik  thc parˆstash. QPF (a) DeÐxte ìti gia kˆje n→∞ lim n ln 1 + x n = x. b) x ∈ 0. h lim auxˆnei sto exp +∞ auxˆnei sto +∞ taqÔtera apì x . x→+∞ kai (b) lim e = +∞ xs ln x = 0. π 2 kai èstw ¸ste f : (a. DeÐxte ìti: . paragwgÐsimh me sto ¸ste f (a) = f (b) = 0 . xs opoiad pote (megˆlh) dÔnamh tou x x→+∞ Dhlad .

6 . 'Estw (0. esk sei™   ymˆd— f9 RPF DÐnontai pragmatikoÐ arijmoÐ a1 < a2 < · · · < an . x ≥ 0 f (x) ≥ 0 f (x) ≥ 0 f (x) ≥ 0 x∈R 1− . DeÐxte . x3 . ìlec sto diˆsthma f (x) = (x2 − 1)n (−1. x− x3 ≤ sin x ≤ x. (b) DeÐxte ìti. ìti h exÐswsh f (n) (x) = 0 èqei akrib¸c n Na brejoÔn ìloi oi a>1 gia touc opoÐouc h anisìthta xa ≤ ax isqÔei gia kˆje x>1 . . 1) . .5. . BreÐte. 1) . ìti f (x) > f (x) gia kˆje x∈R DeÐxte ìti f (x) > 0 gia kˆje x>0 RUF α>0 . Upojètoume ìti f (0) = f (0) = 0 Jewr ste gia kˆje x∈R . sunˆrthsh. Upojètoume ìti h ìti h f eÐnai paragwgÐsimh kai Ðsh me DeÐxte f eÐnai stajer  0 . [ Upìdeixh: (b) kai f :R→R f (x) + f (x) = 0 'Estw dÔo forèc paragwgÐsimh . DeÐxte ìti h exÐswsh αex = 1 + x + x2 /2 èqei akrib¸c mÐa pragmatik  rÐza. Na brejeÐ h elˆqisth tim  thc sunˆrthshc n g(x) = k=1 |x − ak | . 1] kai f : [0.] 'Estw dÔo forèc paragwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh. gia kˆje x 2 2 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 kai. . RHF f :R→R h sunˆrthsh f (x) = sin x − x + (a) DeÐxte ìti: gia kˆje . ìrio ak limk→∞ (ak+1 − ak ) lÔsh thc parapˆnw exÐswshc sto diˆsthma Ik k ∈ N . an upˆrqei. . to kai d¸ste gewmetrik  ermhneÐa. DeÐxte ìti f (x) = 0 gia kˆje x∈R . gia kˆje x≥0 .10 Ask seis · 137 QWF kai thn f :R→R f (x) + f (x) = 0 g = f 2 + (f )2 (a) 'Estw . 1] → R 0 ≤ f (x) ≤ 2f (x) suneq c sunˆrthsh me gia kˆje f (0) = 0 x ∈ (0. 6 RIF (b) (a) DeÐxte ìti h exÐswsh tan x = x èqei akrib¸c mÐa lÔsh se kˆje diˆsthma thc morf c Ik = kπ − 'Estw π . RQF RRF RSF sto sto 'Estw n∈N kai èstw diaforetikèc lÔseic. RTF kai f :R→R f (0) = 0 'Estw . kπ 2 h + π 2 . Upojètoume . Upojètoume gia kˆje gia kˆje x∈R DeÐxte ìti f (x) = cos x f (0) = 1 f (0) = 0 x∈R ìti . . 1) [0. 'Estw paragwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh.

. 1] SHF SIF to f : (a. DeÐxte ìti an upˆrqei to lim f (x) tìte eÐnai Ðso me 0 . b) → R paragwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh me x→b− lim f (x) = +∞ . deÐxte oti h asunèqeia thc f x0 eÐnai ousi¸dhc (den upˆrqei to ìrio x→x0 lim f (x) 'Estw f : (a. sto An h f eÐnai asuneq c se kˆpoio shmeÐo ). +∞) → R x→+∞ paragwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh me x→+∞ lim f (x) = L ∈ R . DeÐxte ìti an upˆrqei x→b− lim f (x) tìte eÐnai Ðso me +∞ . x0 ∈ (a. Upojètoume ìti h f eÐnai fragmènh. xα sunˆrthsh RWF kai a>0 f (x) ≥ a 'Estw 'Estw . b) → R paragwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh. SPF 'Estw f : (0. DeÐxte ìti den . 1] → R me f (0) = 0 gia kˆje x ∈ (0. x→+∞ lim f (x) = 0. paragwgÐsimh sunˆrthsh. b) .138 · Parˆgwgos RVF 'Estw DeÐxte ìti: f : (0. upˆrqei paragwgÐsimh f : [0. +∞) → R α>1 gia kˆje .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful