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22599329-Bio-Sensors

22599329-Bio-Sensors

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Published by: shahjitu on Jan 06, 2011
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01/06/2011

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BIOSENSORS

INTRODUCTION
‡ What Is a Biosensor? ‡ Biosensor = bioreceptor + transducer. ‡ The bioreceptor is a biomolecule that recognizes the target analyte whereas the transducer converts the recognition event into a measurable signal. ‡ Enzyme is a Bioreceptor ‡ Requirements for Sensors

Need for Biosensor
‡ Diagnostic Market
The current climate of prevention the need for detection at increasingly lower limits is increasing in many diverse areas

‡ Clinical Testing
clinical testing is one of the biggest diagnostic markets clinical testing products market in excess of 4000 million US$ in the 1990s

‡ Other Markets
The medical arena (Technical Insights Inc.) with veterinary and agricultural applications

‡ Specificity
With biosensors, it is possible to measure specific analytes with great accuracy.

‡ Speed
analyte tracers or catalytic products can be directly and instantaneously measured

‡ Simplicity
receptor and transducer are integrated into one single sensor& the measurement of target analytes without using reagents is possible

‡ Continuous monitoring capability
Biosensors regenerate and reuse the immobilized biological recognition element

Applications of Biosensor
‡ Health Care
± ± ± ± ± Measurement of Metabolites Market Potential Diabetes Insulin Therapy Artificial Pancreas

‡ Industrial Process Control
± Bioreactor Control

‡ Military Application ‡ Environmental Monitoring
± Air and Water Monitoring

Bioreceptor Molecules
‡ Enzymes
Enzymes act as catalysts for biochemical reactions occurring in the cell

‡ Antibody
Antibodies constitute about 20% of the total plasma protein and are collectively called immunoglobulin

‡ Receptor Protein
Receptor proteins having specific affinity for hormones, antibodies, enzymes

‡ Other Possibilities

Transducers
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Conventional Transducers Piezoelectric Transducers Coniductimetry Capacitance Measurement Thermometry Enzyme Thermistor FET as a Transducer

Growth of Biosensor
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Biosensor Configurations Discriminative Membrane Sensitivity Requirements Immunoassay DNA Probe Evolution of Biosensors

Receptors
‡ Receptors at Membrane
Biological receptors are protein molecules most of them are bound to the cell membrane

‡ Hormone Receptors
Many hormones released into the blood do not penetrate the cell membrane but react with specific receptors at the cell surface

‡ Smell Receptor
taste and olfactory receptors are typical examples of this biospecific recognition process

‡ Light Receptor

Types of biosensor
‡ Glucose Biosensor

‡ Amperometric Biosensor
Glucose biosensor using glucose oxidase is used as an example

‡ Potentiometer Biosensor
Examples of Potentiometric Biosensor Penicillin biosensor Glucose biosensor Urea biosensor

Design Variables
‡ Immobilization Methods
(1) adsorption (2) entrapment (3) covalent coupling (4) cross-linking

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Change in Conformation Change in Microenvironment Non-Uniform Distribution Reaction and Diffusion

Future Prospects
‡ Data Processing and Pattern Recognition ‡ Micro Instrument ‡ Molecular Electronics ‡ Multi-Disciplinary Nature

CONCLUSION
Biosensors consist of bio-recognition systems, typically enzymes or binding proteins, such as antibodies, immobilized onto the surface of physico-chemical transducers Disadvantages ‡ They cannot be steam sterilized ‡ They react with the product ‡ And are oversensitive

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