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Handbook for Solar Pv Systems

Handbook for Solar Pv Systems

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Sections

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Types of Solar PV System
  • 1.3 Solar PV Technology
  • Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Technologies
  • 1.4 Technical Information
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Installation Angle
  • 2.3 Avoid Shading PV Modules
  • 2.5 Solar PV Output Profle
  • 2.4 Aesthetic and Creative Approaches in Mounting PV Modules
  • 2.6 Solar PV Yield
  • 2.7 Cost of a Solar PV System
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Getting Started
  • Get an experienced and licensed contractor
  • Solar PV system warranty
  • 4.1 Electrical Installation Licence
  • 4.2 Electrical Safety Standards and Requirements
  • 4.3 Application of Electrical Installation Licence
  • 4.4 Conservation and Development Control Requirements
  • 4.5 Guidelines on Conservation and Development Control
  • 4.6 Structural Safety and Lightning Protection
  • 4.7 Connection to the Power Grid
  • 4.8 Get Connected to the Power Grid
  • 4.9 Sale of Solar PV Electricity
  • 4.10 Design and Installation Checklist
  • no. design and Installation Checklist Check Box
  • 5.1 Operations of Solar PV Systems
  • 5.2 Recommended Preventive Maintenance Works
  • A.1 ZeRO eneRgy BuIldIng @ BCA ACAdeMy
  • Building name : Zero Energy Building @ BCA Academy
  • A.2 POh eRn ShIh (teMPle Of thAnKSgIVIng)
  • A.3 313 SOMeRSet CentRAl
  • A.4 SentOSA COVe
  • A.5 MARInA BARRAge
  • A.6 lOnZA BIOlOgICS
  • A.7 ZeRO eneRgy hOuSe
  • A.8 tAMPIneS gRAnde
  • A.9 hdB APARtMent BlOCKS At SeRAngOOn nORth PReCInCt
  • Building Name : HDB Apartment Blocks at Serangoon North Precinct
  • Building Name : HDB Apartment Blocks at Wellington Circle Precinct
  • A.10 hdB APARtMent BlOCKS At wellIngtOn CIRCle PReCInCt
  • B. engAgIng A lICenSed eleCtRICAl wORKeR
  • 1. Engaging a Licensed Electrical Worker (LEW)
  • C.1 COntACt InfORMAtIOn
  • d.1 SOlAR CAPABIlIty SCheMe (SCS)
  • d.2 MARKet deVelOPMent fund (Mdf)
  • d.3 gReen MARK SCheMe
  • d.4 gReen MARK gROSS flOOR AReA (gM-gfA) InCentIVe SCheMe

Handbook for

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

1

Contents
1 Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Types of Solar PV System 1.3 Solar PV Technology • Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Technologies • Conversion Efficiency • Effects of Temperature 1.4 Technical Information Solar PV Systems on a Building 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Installation Angle 2.3 Avoid Shading PV Modules 2.4 Aesthetic and Creative Approaches in Mounting PV Modules 2.5 Solar PV Output Profile 2.6 Solar PV Yield 2.7 Cost of a Solar PV System Appointing a Solar PV System Contractor 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Getting Started • Get an Experienced and Licensed Contractor • Choosing Between Bids • Solar PV System Warranty • Regular Maintenance • Other Relevant Matters Solar PV System Installation Requirements 4.1 Electrical Installation Licence 4.2 Electrical Safety Standards and Requirements 4.3 Application of Electrical Installation Licence 4.4 Conservation and Development Control Requirements 4.5 Guidelines on Conservation and Development Control 4.6 Structural Safety and Lightning Protection • Structural Safety • Lightning Protection 4.7 Connection to the Power Grid 4.8 Get Connected to the Power Grid 4.9 Sale of Solar PV Electricity • Non-residential User • Residential User 4.10 Design and Installation Checklist Operations and Maintenance 5.1 Operations of Solar PV Systems 5.2 Recommended Preventive Maintenance Works 4 4 5 6 8 8 9 10 12 12 12 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 25 26 28 28 29

2

3

4 5

Appendices
APPendIx A – exAMPleS Of SOlAR PV SySteM On BuIldIngS In SIngAPORe
A.1 ZERO ENERGY BUILDING @ BCA ACADEMY A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6 A.7 POH ERN SHIH (TEMPLE OF THANKSGIVING) 313 SOMERSET CENTRAL SENTOSA COVE MARINA BARRAGE LONZA BIOLOGICS ZERO ENERGY HOUSE 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50

A.8 TAMPINES GRANDE A.9 HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS AT SERANGOON NORTH PRECINCT A.10 HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS AT WELLINGTON CIRCLE PRECINCT

APPendIx B
B.1 ENGAGING A LICENSED ELECTRICAL WORKER 52

APPendIx C
C.1 CONTACT INFORMATION 54

APPendIx d – InCentIVeS fOR SOlAR PV SySteM
D.1 SOLAR CAPABILITY SCHEME (SCS) D.2 MARKET DEVELOPMENT FUND (MDF) D.3 GREEN MARK SCHEME D.4 GREEN MARK GROSS FLOOR AREA (GM-GFA) INCENTIVE SCHEME D.5 $100 MILLION GREEN MARK INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR ExISTING BUILDINGS (GMIS-EB) D.6 ENHANCED $20 MILLION GREEN MARK INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR NEW BUILDINGS (GMIS-NB) 55 56 57 58 59 60

1

market and technical requirements. as well as to incorporate examples of completed solar PV installations in Singapore. Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS) and Singapore Polytechnic. operations and recommended preventive maintenance works. architects. Licensed Electrical Workers and electricians on the key issues. we hope to be able to provide a comprehensive guide to the relevant parties. developers. and the corresponding demand for a comprehensive set of technical and regulatory information. david tan Deputy Chief Executive Energy Planning and Development Division Energy Market Authority Ang Kian Seng Director Centre of Sustainable Building & Construction Building and Construction Authority 2 . We have also refreshed the presentation of the handbook to make it more accessible and readerfriendly. requirements and processes pertaining to the installation of solar PV systems. As with the previous edition of the handbooks. Grenzone Pte Ltd. including owners.foreword Cognizant of the growing popularity of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations amongst residential dwellers as well as building developers. engineers. is this “Handbook for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems”. which also saw the involvement of industry partners and stakeholders such as Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd. it provides new information on the installation requirements for solar PV systems. and building and structural issues that are related to the implementation of solar PV systems in a building environment. and various incentives to promote solar PV systems in Singapore. the Energy Market Authority (EMA) and the Building Construction Authority (BCA) got together earlier this year to work on integrating their respective solar manuals into an all-in-one reference guide for those who are keen on installing solar PV systems in Singapore. The outcome of this joint project. In addition. We hope you will find this to be a useful guide. Through this integrated and revised handbook. this single volume covers and provides information on licensing.

Acknowledgements We would like to thank the following organisations for their support and contributions in the development of this handbook: 1) Grenzone Pte Ltd 2) Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd 3) Singapore Polytechnic 4) Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS) 5) SP PowerGrid 6) Urban Redevelopment Authority 3 .

solar thermal systems that trap heat to warm up water. so that it can feed into one of the building’s AC distribution boards (“ACDB”) without affecting the quality of power supply. the difference between solar thermal and solar PV systems When the PV modules are exposed to sunlight.1 Introduction 4 Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview The sun delivers its energy to us in two main forms: heat and light. .1 1. There are two main types of solar power systems. An inverter then converts the DC into alternating current (“AC”) electricity. namely. and solar PV systems that convert sunlight directly into electricity as shown in Figure 1. figure 1. they generate direct current (“DC”) electricity.

The combined power supply feeds all the loads connected to the main ACDB. they are either mounted on the roof or integrated into the building.2 Types of Solar PV System Solar PV systems can be classified based on the end-use application of the technology. grid-connected solar PV system configuration A building has two parallel power supplies. Most solar PV systems are installed on buildings or mounted on the ground if land is not a constraint. one from the solar PV system and the other from the power grid. With BIPV. The configuration of a grid-connected solar PV system is shown in Figure 2. The ratio of solar PV supply to power grid supply varies. For buildings. e. The latter is also known as Building Integrated Photovoltaics (“BIPV”).Chapter 1 SOlAR PhOtOVOltAIC (“PV”) SySteMS – An OVeRVIew 1. Grid-connected solar PV systems The main application of solar PV in Singapore is grid-connected.g. depending on the size of the solar PV system. the PV module usually displaces another building component. thereby serving a dual purpose and offsetting some costs. window glass or roof/wall cladding. figure 2. There are two main types of solar PV systems: grid-connected (or grid-tied) and off-grid (or stand alone) solar PV systems. the power grid will supply all of the building’s demand. as Singapore’s main island is well covered by the national power grid. When there is no sunlight to generate PV electricity at night. excess electricity will be exported into the grid. 5 . Whenever the solar PV supply exceeds the building’s demand.

Chapter 1 SOlAR PhOtOVOltAIC (“PV”) SySteMS – An OVeRVIew
A grid-connected system can be an effective way to reduce your dependence on utility power, increase renewable energy production, and improve the environment. Off-grid solar PV systems Off-grid solar PV systems are applicable for areas without power grid. Currently, such solar PV systems are usually installed at isolated sites where the power grid is far away, such as rural areas or off-shore islands. But they may also be installed within the city in situations where it is inconvenient or too costly to tap electricity from the power grid. For example, in Singapore, several URA parking sign lights are powered by off-grid solar PV systems. An off-grid solar PV system needs deep cycle rechargeable batteries such as lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or lithium-ion batteries to store electricity for use under conditions where there is little or no output from the solar PV system, such as during the night, as shown in Figure 3 below.

figure 3. Off-grid solar PV system configuration

1.3

Solar PV Technology This section gives a brief description of the solar PV technology and the common technical terms used. A solar PV system is powered by many crystalline or thin film PV modules. Individual PV cells are interconnected to form a PV module. This takes the form of a panel for easy installation.

6

Chapter 1 SOlAR PhOtOVOltAIC (“PV”) SySteMS – An OVeRVIew

Mono-Crystalline Silicon PV Cell

Poly-Crystalline Silicon PV Cell

figure 4. Mono-and Poly-Crystalline Silicon PV Cell

PV cells are made of light-sensitive semiconductor materials that use photons to dislodge electrons to drive an electric current. There are two broad categories of technology used for PV cells, namely, crystalline silicon, as shown in Figure 4 which accounts for the majority of PV cell production; and thin film, which is newer and growing in popularity. The “family tree” in Figure 5 gives an overview of these technologies available today and Figure 6 illustrates some of these technologies.

PV Cell Types Crystalline Silicon (wafer based)

Thin Film

Special

Poly-crystalline

Amorphous-Si (a-Si) Tandem a-Si/microcrystalline CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide)

Compound semiconductor eg GaAs-based

Mono-crystalline

CdTe (Cadmium Telluride)

Commercially available product, suitable for Singapore R&D or pilot stage, or unsuitable for Singapore

Dye-sensitised (TiO2)

figure 5. PV technology family tree

7

Chapter 1 SOlAR PhOtOVOltAIC (“PV”) SySteMS – An OVeRVIew

Mono-crystalline silicon

Poly-crystalline silicon

flexible amorphous thin film

CIgS thin film

figure 6. Common PV module technologies

Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Technologies Crystalline cells are made from ultra-pure silicon raw material such as those used in semiconductor chips. They use silicon wafers that are typically 150-200 microns (one fifth of a millimetre) thick. Thin film is made by depositing layers of semiconductor material barely 0.3 to 2 micrometres thick onto glass or stainless steel substrates. As the semiconductor layers are so thin, the costs of raw material are much lower than the capital equipment and processing costs. Conversion Efficiency technology Mono-crystalline Silicon Poly-crystalline Silicon Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Module efficiency 12.5-15% 11-14% 10-13% 9-12% 5-7%

table 1. Conversion efficiencies of various PV module technologies Apart from aesthetic differences, the most obvious difference amongst PV cell technologies is in its conversion efficiency, as summarised in Table 1. For example, a thin film amorphous silicon PV array will need close to twice the space of a crystalline silicon PV array because its module efficiency is halved, for the same nominal capacity under Standard Test Conditions1 (STC) rating.

1

Standard Test Conditions refer to the following testing conditions: • 1,000W/m2 of sunlight • 250C cell temperature • Spectrum at air mass of 1.5

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whereas PV modules are rated at a cell temperature of 25ºC. See Table 2 and chart in Figure 7.5 -0. wasted space that does not generate any power hence lower total efficiency.36 -0. Hence. under Singapore’s climatic condition. PV cell performance declines as cell temperature rises. Most thin film technologies have a lower negative temperature coefficient compared to crystalline technologies.32 to -0.. In other words. the module efficiency is lower compared to the sum of the component cell efficiency due to the presence of gaps between the cells and the border around the circuit i.21 table 2. A PV module data sheet should specify the temperature coefficient. thin film technologies will generate 5-10% more electricity per year.e. The loss in power output at 70ºC is therefore measured as (70 - 25) x temperature coefficient. technology Crystalline silicon CIGS CdTe a-Si temperature Coefficient [%/°C] -0. especially in hot climates. For example.4 to -0. temperature coefficient of various PV cell technologes module output relative to STC figure 7. in bright sunlight.Chapter 1 SOlAR PhOtOVOltAIC (“PV”) SySteMS – An OVeRVIew For crystalline silicon PV modules. they tend to lose less of their rated capacity as temperature rises. is the temperature coefficient of power. cell temperatures in Singapore can reach over 70ºC. the effects of a negative temperature coefficient of power on PV module performance 9 . Effects of Temperature Another important differentiator in solar PV performance.25 -0.

A PV array as shown in Figure 9 is formed by the parallel aggregation of PV strings. the AC current of the PV inverter is connected through PV supply cable to the building’s electrical installation (AC distribution board). and minimise the risk of earth faults and short circuits are used to interconnect the PV strings and arrays. figure 8. Figure 11 shows a typical PV inverter connected to the electrical installation of a building.4 Technical Information Single-core. After conversion. Junction Box Electricity produced by the solar PV installation is in the form of DC. The output of the PV installation is connected through the DC main cables to the DC terminals of the PV inverter where electricity is converted from DC into AC. 10 . double isolated sheathed cables that can withstand the environmental conditions. The cable connections are protected in enclosures known as junction box that provides the necessary connectors as shown in Figure 10. Note that the actual configuration of the PV inverter may vary across different systems. figure 10.Chapter 1 SOlAR PhOtOVOltAIC (“PV”) SySteMS – An OVeRVIew The PV modules are next connected in series into a PV string as shown in Figure 8. PV Array 1. PV String figure 9.

Chapter 1 SOlAR PhOtOVOltAIC (“PV”) SySteMS – An OVeRVIew dC Side AC Side PV Inverter AC distribution Board PV dC Main Cable PV Supply Cable figure 11. earthing is an important safety requirement for solar PV system. It is the responsibility of the consumers to have their solar PV systems maintained regularly to ensure safe operation of their solar PV systems and electrical installations. Arrangement must be made for proper connection of the solar PV system to the consumer’s electrical installation earthing system. and all the exposed metallic structures of the solar PV system must be bound to the lightning earthing system. In locations susceptible to lightning strikes. figure 12. See Figure 12 for a diagram showing the solar PV system forming part of a consumer’s electrical installation. typical PV inverter connected to a building’s electrical installation Just like any electrical installation in a building. a lightning protection system must be provided. Solar PV system forming part of a consumer’s electrical installation 11 .

To maximise electricity production for use in Singapore.5 to the north or south. This is because we are located near the Equator. In Singapore. as south-facing façades in these regions are well exposed to the sun. figure 13. Therefore there are optimal positions to locate the PV modules that have to be taken into consideration. we have to consider that the sun passes almost directly overhead. and the path of the sun follows the Equator. Refer to Appendix A for examples of solar PV systems on buildings in Singapore. facing the sky.1 Introduction 2.2 2. They work particularly well in Europe and North America. The possible installation options are shown in Figure 13. where to install PV modules on a building in Singapore . o with seasonal variations of up to 23. the best location for the PV modules to be installed is right on top of a building.2 Installation Angle 12 Solar PV Systems on a Building There are many examples overseas where PV modules are mounted on the roof and integrated into building façades.

3 Avoid Shading PV Modules PV modules should be free from shade. to allow rain water to properly drain off figure 14. Typical culprits include shadows cast by tall trees and neighbouring buildings. such as on cloudy or hazy days.Chapter 2 SOlAR PV SySteMS On A BuIldIng Vertical façades and steeply sloped roofs tend to suffer a big loss in the ability to generate electricity in exchange for higher public visibility. PV module frames trap dirt as water evaporates from a flat-mounted PV module 2. However. Thin film PV modules are more tolerant to partial shading than crystalline silicon PV modules. With the PV modules facing the sky. It is therefore better to mount the PV modules at an o o incline (10-15 for framed modules. The down side of having flat-mounted PV modules is that they tend to get dirty from rain water and dust. and from north to south during seasonal changes (dual-axis trackers). it is possible to improve the yield by installing PV modules on trackers to follow the sun from east to west during the day (single-axis trackers). 13 . and they give no advantage in diffused sunlight conditions. or as little as 3-5 for unframed modules). See Figure 14. Shading of any single cell of a crystalline silicon PV module will drastically reduce the output of the entire PV module. trackers can only improve system performance under direct sunshine.

weather conditions. temperature. 14 .Chapter 2 SOlAR PV SySteMS On A BuIldIng 2. BIPV modules integrated into a skylight canopy 2. skylights. in terms of its capacity factor2 .4 Aesthetic and Creative Approaches in Mounting PV Modules Besides mounting PV modules on the rooftop. and external shading devices. [2] PV Output capacity factor = Ratio of the actual output of the PV installation at time (t) over its output if it had operated at full rated output.g. BIPV modules integrated into a façade figure 16. They can also be integrated into external structures such as façades and canopies. The output of a solar PV system varies with its rated output. and time of the day. customised PV modules can be integrated into the building façade in a creative. The power output profile of the PV installation as shown in Figure 17. respectively. at a selected test site in Singapore collected over a period from 2002-2004. windows. figure 15. They can be mounted on any part of the rooftop or external walls that is well exposed to sunlight e. shows a high variation of solar PV output. aesthetically pleasing manner.5 Solar PV Output Profile Solar PV only produces electricity when sunlight is available. as shown in Figure 15 and Figure 16. cladding.

6 Solar PV Yield The amount of electricity you are able to generate from a solar PV system depends not only on the availability of sunshine but also on the technology you choose to install.000 to 12. The operating costs for solar PV installations are negligible. But even with these savings. Therefore on an overall basis.500 kWh annually using crystalline PV modules. a typical 10-kW rooftop solar PV system in Singapore would produce about 11. please refer to Appendix D. and the amount of electricity it produces.Chapter 2 SOlAR PV SySteMS On A BuIldIng PV output capacity factor figure 17. solar PV systems entail high capital costs.000 to 14.500 kWh annually with amorphous silicon thin film PV modules. equipment options. The cost also depends on the system size or rating. For example. and if this continues. solar PV-derived electricity is still much more expensive than that from the power grid. solar PV may be competitive within the next 10 years.7 Cost of a Solar PV System The cost of your solar PV system will depend on many factors: system configuration. Varying daily power output profile of PV installation at a selected test site in Singapore 2. 2. labour cost and financing cost. and 12. it will take a long time to recover the capital cost of the solar PV installation.5% to 1% of the capital cost of the installation. and whether the PV modules are integrated into the roof or mounted on the roof. For incentives on solar PV system. the cost of solar PV has historically been falling by about 4% a year. 15 . However. With solar power. you can save on the purchase of electricity from the grid. Prices also vary depending on factors such as whether or not your home is new. Generally. but the annual maintenance cost beyond the warranty period may amount to 0.

by calling 6827 6838 or by visiting http://www.sg/about-seas/our-committees/cleanenergy/54 • The Singapore Sustainable Development Industry Directory 2008/2009. by calling 6338 8578 or by visiting http://www. If interested. and maintenance of your solar PV system.3 3.sbf. testing.org. installation.jsp Your contractor will appoint a Licensed Electrical Worker (“LEW”) who will be responsible for the design.1 Introduction 16 Appointing a Solar PV System Contractor You will need to select a contractor to install your solar PV system. Please refer to Appendix B for details on how you can engage an LEW and the necessary consultation process. commissioning.org.sg/public/publications/industrydirectory.seas. you may check with the following organisations for some solar PV system designers and contractors: • The List of Solar PV System companies in Singapore. . the appointed LEW who supervises the electrical work (“Design LEW”) may not be the one who takes charge of your electrical installation (“Installation LEW”). available from Sustainable Energy Association of Singapore. available from the Singapore Business Federation. In the case of non-residential electrical installations that require an electrical installation licence. The Design LEW will then have to work with the Installation LEW to work out the technical issues.

including hardware. meter. typically two to three decades for grid-connected applications. It is also important to get a contractor who is an LEW. and future maintenance cost (if applicable). and price their products and services competitively. or specify the output of the system at the inverter. compile a list of potential solar PV system contractors. consumers should take steps to ensure that all of the bids received are made on the same basis. particularly interconnection with the grid. The industry standard for a PV module warranty is 20-25 years on the power output. The following pointers may give consumers a good sense of the contractor’s capabilities: Get an experienced and licensed contractor Experience in installing grid-connected solar PV systems is invaluable. The period varies from one to as long as ten years. depending on the manufacturer. and 17 . software. Choosing between bids If there are several bids for the installation of a solar PV system (it is generally a good practice to obtain multiple bids). the bids should specify the system capacity in AC watts. because some elements of the installation process. permitting. Solar PV system warranty A solar PV system is an investment that should last a long time. replace or refund the purchase in case of defects. Next. Two to five years is typical. warranty. Comparing a bid for a solar PV system mounted on the ground against another bid for a rooftop system is like comparing apples to oranges. are unique to these systems. Bids should clearly state the maximum generating capacity of the solar PV system [measured in watts peak (Wp) or kilowatts peak (kWp)]. If possible. Bids should also include the total cost of getting the solar PV system components. goods and services tax. installation. A contractor with years of experience will also demonstrate an ability to work with consumers.Chapter 3 APPOIntIng A SOlAR PV SySteM COntRACtOR 3.2 Getting Started First. connection to the grid (if applicable). There are two main components to a PV module warranty: • A workmanship warranty that offers to repair. contact the contractors to find out the products and services they offer. supporting structure.

Take note that the minimum rated output is usually defined as 95% of the rated output to allow for manufacturing and measurement tolerances. the annual deduction is normally 4%. Most manufacturers warrant at least 90% of the minimum rated output for 10 years. In all cases. the manufacturer may opt to supply you with 1kW of PV modules to make up for the shortfall. accidental breakage or abuse. and 80% of the minimum rated output for 20-25 years. figure 18. and reinstalling the PV modules. they may offer to: • Repair the defective PV modules. or • Refund you for the lost power output. changes or dismounting by unqualified personnel. See Figure 18 for details. For example. For a 25-year warranty. after deduction according to the number of years in use.Chapter 3 APPOIntIng A SOlAR PV SySteM COntRACtOR • A limited power output warranty that offers a variety of remedies in case the PV module’s output under STC drops below certain level. For example. if you find that your 20kW PV array only produces 16.1kW under STC. the manufacturer does not cover your costs of dismounting. six years after installation. understanding a manufacturer’s limited power warranty Take note that under the limited power warranty. the manufacturer may opt to reimburse your purchase price minus 24% (6 years x 4%). manufacturers seldom offer to replace the PV module itself. transporting.1kW under STC. six years after installation. if your 20kW PV array only produces 16. • Supply enough new PV modules to replace the lost power output in a PV array. 18 . repairs. Rather. lightning strikes and other acts of God. The warranty also excludes problems resulting from improper installations. at their sole discretion.

This means that you may no longer be able to buy an identical PV module to replace a defective one in your PV array a few years after installation. 19 . But on a building-mounted solar PV system it may spoil the aesthetics. Newer PV modules are likely to be more efficient or have different physical dimensions. The solar PV system contractor should assist in determining whether a PV module defect is covered by warranty. and should handle the situation with the manufacturer. and adapting new sizes and dimensions to suit market requirements. rather than by a third party. Other relevant matters Another matter to be aware of is that PV module manufacturers are constantly upgrading their products. and may no longer fit exactly into the gap left by the old PV module. ground-mounted solar PV power plant. They should come on site to rectify any problems flagged by the remote monitoring service. and may cause problems to the electrical configuration. because the new modules can form a new row. most manufacturers specify that the PV module output will be determined by the flash testers in their own premises.Chapter 3 APPOIntIng A SOlAR PV SySteM COntRACtOR Significantly. solar PV system contractors usually use remote monitoring data to prepare monthly performance reports of the installed solar PV system. This does not matter much on a large. Regular maintenance During the defect liability period (usually for 12 months after installation).

2 20 Solar PV System Installation Requirements Electrical Installation Licence An electrical installation refers to any electrical wiring. For residential electrical installations and non-residential electrical installations with demand below the threshold 45kVA.1 4. with demand exceeding 45 kilo volt ampere or kVA. PV array junction box. and the electrical installation with the solar PV system connected is considered as the load. PV modules should comply with the requirements of IEC 61215 for crystalline silicon terrestrial PV modules or IEC 61646 for thin-film terrestrial PV modules. the Electricity (Electrical Installations) Regulations and the Singapore Standard CP5 Code of Practice for Electrical Installations. if you wish to operate your solar PV system in parallel with the power grid. The objective is to ensure all electrical installations. PV generator junction box and switchgear assemblies should comply with the requirements of IEC 60439-1. 89A). are safe to use. Electrical Safety Standards and Requirements A grid-connected solar PV system operates in parallel with the power grid supply. . fitting or apparatus used for the conveyance and control of electricity in any premises.4 4. In addition. no electrical installation licence is required. Your appointed LEW shall consult SP PowerGrid Ltd on their technical requirements and procedures. The technical requirement for installation of a solar PV system is given in Section 612 of the Singapore Standard CP5. A solar PV system installed within such premises forms part of the consumer’s electrical installation and should comply with the requirements stipulated in the Electricity Act (Cap. including solar PV systems. For example. The power grid supply is considered the source. Under the Electricity Act. The licence requires the owner of the electrical installation to engage an LEW to take charge of the electrical installation and comply with the relevant safety standards and requirements. the Energy Market Authority (“EMA”) licenses all nonresidential electrical installations. There are international product standards on PV modules and electrical components.

sg Tel: 6223 4811 21 . depending on which structure(s) the solar PV system is installed onto.5 Should you have further enquiries on whether your installations conflict with the Urban Design or Development Control guidelines. The electrical licence fee payable to EMA is $100 per year (exclusive of goods and services tax). Guidelines on Conservation and Development Control Architects are advised to refer to the conservation and development control guidelines when designing a development with a solar PV system installation.gov. For example.4 4. then the pavilion guidelines will apply.pdf http://www. then the attic guidelines will apply.Chapter 4 SOlAR PV SySteM InStAllAtIOn RequIReMentS 4. The standard development control guidelines apply to projects that may not be subject to conservation or urban design requirements.3 Application of Electrical Installation Licence Your LEW will be able to advise you whether you need to apply to EMA for an Electrical Installation Licence for the use or operation of the electrical installation within the premises of your building. If you already have an Electrical Installation Licence issued by EMA. you may submit your enquiries to URA either in person or through a Qualified Person (“QP”) — a QP is either a registered architect or an engineer — with the accompanying plans of the structures on which the solar PV system will be installed: Conserved buildings Email: ura_conservation_cso@ura.gov.ura. If an Electrical Installation Licence is needed.ura. or projects within the Central Area are subject to URA’s Urban Design evaluation process.sg Tel: 6329 3355 Non-conserved buildings Email: ura_dcd@ura. there is no specific requirement or control by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (“URA”) on the use of installations such as a solar PV system.html 4. you need not apply for a separate licence for the solar PV system within the same premises.gov. Conservation and Development Control Requirements At present.sg/circulars/text/dchandbook.sg/conservation/Cons%20Guidelines. if a solar PV system is installed on raised structures like a pavilion. if a solar PV system is installed on the rooftop of an attic. your LEW will submit the licence application to EMA on your behalf. Likewise. conservation projects.gov. The respective guideline is available at URA’s website: http://www. However.

and do a calculation on the structural loading.bca. the system will need to be interconnected with the power grid to meet the remainder of the consumer’s needs for electricity. the design of the structure must take into consideration the loading of the solar PV system installation. If a solar PV system needs to be grid-connected. The inverters should be protected by appropriately rated surge arrestors on the DC side. just like any other equipment mounted onto a building structure. Structures and PV module frames must be properly grounded. 4. structural plans will need to be submitted to the Building and Construction Authority (“BCA”) for approval before a building permit can be issued for commencement of installation works.Chapter 4 SOlAR PV SySteM InStAllAtIOn RequIReMentS 4. The details can be checked at the two web links below: http://www. For new building developments.6 Should a formal development application to URA be required. As lightning can cause damage to the PV modules and inverters.boa. If the roof is unable to withstand the loading of the solar PV system.html Lightning Protection Given a certain location.html http://www. interconnection is key to the safety of both consumers and electrical workers.gov.gov. solar PV systems are exposed to the threat of lightning strikes. The application guideline is available at the following BCA’s website: http://www. extra care must be taken to ensure that proper lightning protection is provided for the solar PV system and the entire structure.sg/register. and to the protection of equipment. It is good practice to also install surge arrestors on the AC side.gov. it must be made via a QP.sg/StructuralPlan/structural_plan_application. a professional structural engineer may be required to carry out an inspection of the roof structure.peb.sg/peb/process/searchPe Structural Safety and Lightning Protection Structural Safety To ensure safety. For existing buildings. there are measures and steps that need to be taken or considered when installing a solar PV system onto a new or an existing building.7 22 . Connection to the Power Grid If a solar PV system is designed to meet only a fraction of the electricity load.

gov.sg/media/files/codes_of_practice/electricity/transmission_ code.sppowerassets.pdf 4.sg/PDF/howtoapply.pdf http://www.8 Get Connected to the Power Grid If you intend to connect and operate your solar PV system in parallel to the power grid. you will be required to apply for a Wholesaler (Generation) Licence and register with the Energy Market Company (“EMC”) to participate in the wholesale electricity market. The following documents set out the detailed consultation process and technical requirements: • The Transmission Code and the Metering Code are published at EMA’s website: http://www. The arrangements needed to enable this sale of solar PV electricity vary. Non-residential User If you are a non-residential user generating electricity less than 10MW from the solar PV system and wish to sell and get paid for the electricity you inject into the power grid.sg/media/files/codes_of_practice/electricity/Metering_ Code.ema. which is called the National Electricity Market of Singapore or NEMS.gov.com.9 Sale of Solar PV Electricity The excess electricity generated from a grid-connected solar PV can be sold back to the power grid. is published at SP PowerAsset’s website: http://www.ema.Chapter 4 SOlAR PV SySteM InStAllAtIOn RequIReMentS 4. your appointed LEW will have to consult SP PowerGrid (“SPPG”) on the connection scheme and technical requirements. depending on whether you are a non-residential or residential user. How to Apply for Electricity Connection. 23 .pdf • SPPG’s handbook.

com/n393. 24 .Chapter 4 InStAllIng A SOlAR PV SySteM The flowchart in Figure 19 describes the circumstances under which the Wholesaler (Generation) Licence is required. you will need to comply with the Market Rules. but you will be subjected to market charges in respect to the gross generation output from your registered PV system. you will be paid the prevailing spot electricity price for the electricity that you inject into the power grid. for the provision of the market services and system resources.12.86. which is available at EMC’s website: http://www. flowchart for electricity licences for non-residential users The application procedures for Market Participant registration.html By selling electricity in the wholesale electricity market.emcsg. which is available at the EMC website: http://www. depending on the demand-supply situation in the wholesale electricity market. Proposed Solar PV System Generation Capacity ≥ 10 MW? Yes Apply to EMA for Generation Licence No 1MW ≥ Generation Capacity < 10 MW? No To sell and be paid for the electricity exported to the power gird? Yes Connected to power grid? No No Generation Licence or Wholesaler (Generation) Licence not required Yes Apply to EMA for Wholesaler (Generation) Licence Yes figure 19. and for generation facility registration are set out in the Market Administration Market Manual – Registration and Authorisation. The price of spot electricity varies every half-hour.emcsg.com/n916.html As a Market Participant. The market will also offer services and system resources to you.

you will have to apply to SP Services (“SPS”) by following the application procedure set out in Appendix B. Under a master-sub metering arrangement. The credit adjustment will effectively compensate the residential user for the amount of electricity exported into the power grid during that month. S307684 Telephone: 67793000 E-mail:MPregistration@emcsg. Residential solar PV systems are compensated by SPS for electricity exported to the power grid by way of a credit adjustment to the household’s monthly electricity bill. based on the prevailing low-tension electricity tariff less the grid charge. Master-sub metering schemes refer to metering arrangements where there is a master-meter measuring the overall electricity consumed by the building (i. #11-01 Novena Square Tower A. with sub-meters measuring the usage of the individual units. Such metering schemes are typically used in private condominiums and commercial buildings. the electricity that an individual unit attempts to export into the grid may in fact be used up by the common services or by other individual units. This scheme to compensate residential electricity consumers for the electricity they export into the power grid is not applicable to those residential consumers whose electricity consumption is metered under the master-sub metering scheme.e. 25 . As it is not possible to track the actual flow of the electricity exported by the individual units.com Residential User If you are a residential user. both the individual units and the common services).Chapter 4 InStAllIng A SOlAR PV SySteM The EMC contact is: Market Administration Team Energy Market Company 238A Thomson Road. the credit adjustment scheme cannot be applied to those under the master-sub metering scheme.

and access for maintenance. The appointed LEW will be responsible for the design and implementation of the connection of your solar PV system to the electrical installation and/or power grid.10 Design and Installation Checklist You are advised to refer to the following checklist once you have decided to install solar PV system in your premises. ii) Select inverter type. Ensure there are fixing and mounting points available. Ensure the structure for mounting is safe: i) Additional loading by solar PV system is considered. Perform a site survey for space needed. Determine the energy requirement and estimate the size of the system. Select inverter to match PV array: i) Number of inverters needed. no.Chapter 4 SOlAR PV SySteM InStAllAtIOn RequIReMentS 4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 design and Installation Checklist Set your budget and select a location. Select a PV module type and mounting method. and iii) Location of inverters (accessible for inspection and maintenance). Engage a licensed electrical worker (“LEW”) if your proposed solar PV system: i) is to be connected to the electrical installation within the premises of the building. Finalise the mounting system. Ensure solar access: i) Ensure location to be mounted will get maximum exposure to sunlight. and iii) Waterproofing is not compromised during installation. Check Box 26 . ii) Wind loading is considered. and /or ii) to be connected and operated in parallel to the power grid. and ii) Choose a location that is not shaded.

stepladders. iii) Installer must wear PPE. Ensure the PV module frame is earthed. and iv) Only proper certified safety equipment can be used e. documentation/manual handover to clients.g. scaffolding. ii) Safety rules must be observed. and iii) Cable insulation on outdoor cables must withstand high temperature and UV exposure for an estimated period of more than 20 years. Proper system. Completion of testing and system commissioning. During installation: i) PV system should be installed by qualified/experienced installers. Ensure: i) Cabling used meet sufficient current-carrying capacity and are suitably rated for usage in the environment. Check Box 27 . Determine if a Lightning Protection System is needed. Ensure sufficient ventilation space behind the PV array for cooling purposes. Finalise the Inverter and AC wiring system. and routed. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 design and Installation Checklist Ensure all PV modules connected to the same inverter face the same direction. Note that PVC and xLPE cables are inadequate on the DC side and must not be exposed to the weather elements. or as low as 3-5 degrees for unframed modules) for self-cleaning. secured.Chapter 4 SOlAR PV SySteM InStAllAtIOn RequIReMentS no. Ensure continuity and insulation tests are done. Cables must be properly connected. Ensure PV modules are mounted at an incline (10 to 15 degrees for framed modules. etc. ii) DC cables are single-core and double-insulated.

routine maintenance is required to ensure the solar PV system will continue to perform properly. O&M data. test and commissioning data. See Figure 20 for typical performance monitoring displays. as they do not usually have moving parts. figure 20. and warranty information. and annual output for comparison of the actual system performance against the expected system performance. . It is a good practice for contractors of solar PV systems to provide an operation & maintenance (“O&M”) manual for the client. monthly. However. The manual should include basic system data. examples of performance monitoring displays (Courtesy of Phoenix Solar) Solar PV systems require minimal maintenance. The data logging software will record daily.1 28 Operations and Maintenance Operations of Solar PV Systems The most practical indicator of the performance of the solar PV systems can be obtained from the remote monitoring and data logging software supplied by most inverter manufacturers.5 5.

dirt build-up or shade encroachment. etc. Check for cable conditions Check functionality. PV arrays. The PV modules require routine visual inspection for signs of damage. and circuit breakers. S/n 1 Components/equipment PV modules description Check for dust/debris on surface of PV module Check for physical damage to any PV module Check for loose cable terminations between PV modules. and the corresponding remedial actions to be carried out by qualified personnel.2 Recommended Preventive Maintenance Works It is recommended that preventive inspection and maintenance works are carried out every six to twelve months. Do not use any solvents other than water Recommend replacement if found damaged Retighten connection Replace cable if necessary Recommend replacement if functionality fails 2 PV inverter Clear dust and dirt in ventilation system Tighten connection Recommend replacement 29 . only on-site inspection can verify the state of lightning surge arrestors. The following table shows some recommendations on the preventive maintenance works on the components and equipment. automatic disconnection upon loss of grid power supply Check ventilation condition Check for loose cable terminations Check for abnormal operating temperature Remedy/Action Wipe clean.g. Solar PV system fixtures must be checked for corrosion. e. While the inverter’s functionality can be remotely verified. cable connections. This is to ensure that the solar PV system is safely secured.Chapter 5 OPeRAtIOnS And MAIntenAnCe 5.

wear and tear or loose connections Check for warning notices Check for physical damage Check functionality replacement Replace cable if necessary Tighten connections or recommend replacement Tighten or recommend replacement Replace warning notice if necessary Recommend replacement Recommend 4 Junction boxes 5 Means of isolation 6 Earthing of solar PV system Check earthing cable conditions Check the physical earthing connection Check continuity of the cable to electrical earth Recommend replacement Retighten connection Troubleshoot or recommend replacement Recommend replacement Tighten connection Troubleshoot or recommend replacement 7 Bonding of the exposed Check bonding cable metallic structure of solar conditions PV system to lightning earth Check physical bonding connection Check continuity of the bonding to lightning earth 30 .e. wear and tear Check cable terminals for burnt marks.g.Chapter 5 OPeRAtIOnS And MAIntenAnCe 3 Cabling Check for cable conditions i. hot spots or loose connections Check cable terminals e.

A Appendices 31 .

Asia) Pte Ltd Beca Carter Hollings & Ferner (S. Singapore 579700 DP Architects Pte Ltd National University of Singapore / SERIS Beca Carter Hollings & Ferner (S. a-Si. Railing. CIGS) 32 .090 : BCA / Grenzone Pte Ltd : Zero Energy Building @ BCA Academy : Building and Construction Authority (BCA) : 200 Braddell Road. E.1 ZeRO eneRgy BuIldIng @ BCA ACAdeMy A : Academic Institution : 2009 : : : : : : : : : 1. Canopy. E. Asia) Pte Ltd Davis Langdon & Seah Singapore Pte Ltd ACP Construction Pte Ltd Grenzone Pte Ltd Various (7 manufacturers) : on Metal Roof. HIT.540 : 190 : 207.Appendix Building name Owner Location Building type Completion Working groups • Project architects • Principal investigators • Structural engineers • M&E engineers • Quantity surveyor • Contractors • PV design • PV manufacturer Type of PV integration Type of PV cell technology PV area (m2) PV system peak power (kWp) Estimated energy output (kWh / yr) PV Yield (kWh / kWp / year) Photographs and information courtesy of A. Louver.000 : 1. Façade : Various (mc-Si. pc-Si.

Building exterior figure A.Appendix A.1.1. PV array view (PV Sunshade) figure A. PV array view (PV Main Roof) figure A.2. PV array view (PV Staircase facade) 33 .1 ZeRO eneRgy BuIldIng @ BCA ACAdeMy The Solar Photovoltaic System installed at BCA Academy’s Zero-Energy Building (ZEB) consists of 12 systems with six systems connected to grid and six standalone systems.1. the ZEB @ BCA Academy’s Solar PV system is designed to achieve zero-energy and for advance academic research on various PV performances. Featuring different types of Solar PV technology and mounting techniques.4. figure A.1.3.1.

150 34 .2 POh eRn ShIh (teMPle Of thAnKSgIVIng) A : POH ERN SHIH : Religious : 2006 (Phase I) : KTP Consultants Pte Ltd : Squire Mech Pte Ltd : Grenzone Pte Ltd : Uni-Solar.7 11.250 6.150 : Grenzone Pte Ltd : POH ERN SHIH (Temple of Thanksgiving) : 9 Chwee Chian Road. Sharp.232 : 2.1 39.036 1.340 13.038 1.2 : 2.566 : 1.150 5. Singapore 117488 : Lee Coo Consultant Associates : WT Partnership International Limited : Wee Hur Construction Pte Ltd Polycrystalline silicon 84. Mitsubishi : Standing Mounting Structure : Amorphous onocrystalline M silicon silicon : 36.Appendix Building name Owner Location Building type Completion Working groups • Project architects • Structural engineers • M&E engineers • Quantity surveyor • Contractors • PV design • PV manufacturer Type of PV integration Type of PV cell technology PV area (m2) PV system peak power (kWp) Estimated energy output (kWh / yr) PV Yield (kWh / kWp / year) Photographs and information courtesy of A.

PV array view 35 .3.2. Building exterior figure A.1.2.4.2. Building interior The PV arrays are mounted on the rooftop with standing mounting structure.2. figure A.Appendix A. About 25% of electrical power demand in the building are supplied by the solar PV system. PV array view figure A. allowing sufficient ventilation to improve PV performance.2.2 POh eRn ShIh (teMPle Of thAnKSgIVIng) figure A.

Polycrystalline.381 PV Yield (kWh / kWp / year) Photographs and information courtesy of 36 . Singapore 238895 : Meinhardt Infrastructure Pte Ltd : Bescon Consulting Engineers Pte Ltd : Monocrystalline.Appendix Building name Owner Location Building type Completion Working groups • Project architects • Structural engineers • M&E engineers • Quantity surveyor • Contractors • PV design • PV manufacturer Type of PV integration Type of PV cell technology PV area (m2) PV system peak power (kWp) A.150 : Bovis Lend Lease : Lend Lease Retail Investment 1 Pte Ltd : 313 Orchard Road.3 313 SOMeRSet CentRAl A : 313 SOMERSET CENTRAL : Shopping Mall : 2009 : Aedas Pte Ltd : WT Partnership Pte Ltd : Bovis Lend Lease Pte Ltd : Grenzone Pte Ltd : Various (4 manufacturers) : on Trellis and Metal Roof : 587 : 76 : 1. Micromorph Estimated energy output (kWh / year) : 87.

The solar photovoltaic system consists of four PV arrays.Appendix A.1. figure A. polycrystalline and micromorph solar modules that are accessible by visitors.3. with a main PV array of 60 kWp mounted on the trellis. Building exterior 37 . Building exterior Architect’s Impression of Somerset Central viewed from Orchard Road figure A.3.3 313 SOMeRSet CentRAl 313 Somerset Central is centrally located in the heart of Singapore’s famous Orchard Road.2. and three smaller arrays featuring monocrystalline.

and Sheet Metal International 38 .4 SentOSA COVe A : Private : Private : Sentosa Cove.Appendix Building name Owner Location Building type Completion Working groups • Project architects • M&E consultant • PV design • Main contractors • Roofing contractor • PV manufacturer Type of PV integration Type of PV cell technology PV area (m2) PV system peak power (kWp) Estimated energy output kWh / yr) PV Yield (kWh / kWp / yr) Photographs and information courtesy of A.250 : Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd.100 : 1. Guz Architects.712 : 7. Singapore : Two-storey bungalow with basement : July 2008 : Guz Architects : Herizal Fitri Pte Ltd : Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd : Sunho Construction Pte Ltd Sheet Metal International : Uni-Solar : Glued onto approved Fazonal metal roof : Flexible amorphous silicon : 92 : 5.

flexible laminates follow the curved roof figure A. the roof can make do with a lighter and lower substructure cost than if it had to carry conventional clay tiles. testing the uni-Solar laminates during installation 39 . lightweight. Thanks to the laminates’ light weight (less than 4kg/m2). bonded unobtrusively on top. which do not generally permit bare metal roofs on bungalow developments.3.4. This configuration meets Sentosa Resort Management’s strict guidelines for roof aesthetics. twin curved roofs.4.1. while the front roof generates electricity with flexible solar laminates.Appendix A.2.4. green grass and PV figure A. figure A. The rear roof has a turf lawn to keep it cool.4 SentOSA COVe This striking house stands out for its open layout. capped with twin curved roofs.

Appendix Building name Owner Location Building type Completion Working groups • Project architects • Structural engineers • PV design • Building services • Contractors • PV manufacturer Type of PV integration Type of PV cell technology PV area (m2) PV system peak power (kWp) Estimated energy output (kWh / yr) PV Yield (kWh / kWp/ yr) Photographs and information courtesy of A. Singapore’s national water agency 40 .650 : 1.5 MARInA BARRAge A : Marina Barrage : Singapore : Flood Control : 2008 : Architects Team 3 Pte Ltd : Cegelec Pte Ltd : Roof Top : Monocrystalline silicon : 1200 : 70 : 76. Singapore’s national water agency : Koh Brothers Building & Civil Engineering Contractor (Pte) Ltd : Renewpowers Technologies Pte Ltd : Koh Brothers Building & Civil Engineering Contractor (Pte) Ltd : SolarWorld Asia Pacific Pte Ltd : PUB.095 : PUB.

and its first in the city. the barrage exemplifies the national water agency’s commitment towards environmental and water sustainability. Its 70kWp DC grid-tied solar PV system is the first to be employed on such a large scale locally.Appendix A. and it comes with aesthetically arranged solar panels (panels are arranged in nine arrays of 15 by three panels) on the barrage’s green roof. figure A. But more than an engineering showpiece. Marina Barrage’s solar park houses one of the largest collection of solar panels – 405 panels in all – currently in operation in Singapore. and keeps the water level consistent. One of Singapore’s largest commissioned solar PV system at a single site to date.1.2.5. creating Singapore’s 15th reservoir. offering a venue for water-based activities in the heart of the city. The environmentally-friendly gridtied solar PV system does not require batteries.5 MARInA BARRAge Marina Barrage spans the mouth of the Marina Channel. Marina Barrage Solar Park 41 . acts as a tidal barrier to prevent flooding in low-lying city areas. The barrage creates a freshwater lake to boost Singapore’s water supply. control room and offices. Aerial view of Marina Barrage figure A. The solar panels generate 50% of utility grade electricity for lighting and general power in the visitor centre.5. hence eliminating the costs for battery replacement.

200 : Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd and Lonza Biologics Tuas Pte Ltd 42 .Appendix Building name Owner Location Building type Completion Working groups • Project architects • M&E engineers • PV design • Contractors • PV manufacturer Type of PV integration Type of PV cell technology PV area (m2) PV system peak power (kWp) Estimated energy output (kWh/yr) PV Yield (kWh/kWp/yr) Photographs and information courtesy of A.330 : 181 : 217.000 : 1.6 lOnZA BIOlOgICS A : LBxS2 : Lonza Biologics Tuas Pte Ltd : Tuas. Singapore : Biotech factory and laboratory : May 2009 : RSP Architects Planners & Engineers Pte Ltd : Jacobs Engineering Singapore Pte Ltd : Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd : Bovis Lend Lease Pharmaceutical Pte Ltd : REC (framed modules) and Solar-Fabrik (frameless laminates) : Roof mounted on Bluescope Lysaght KlipLok metal roof : Polycrystalline silicon : 1.

while the flatter upper section of the roof is covered with 104 SF130/2 frameless laminates from Solar-Fabrik. Roof clamps were specially engineered to attach the PV module rails to the KlipLok roof seams without any penetrations. figure A. The bulk of the PV array consists of 744 pieces of REC210 modules.6. Modules installed on the 6o-16o slope figure A.6.Appendix A.6. Lonza Biologics was a recipient of one of the inaugural Solar Pioneer grants under EDB’s Solar Capability Scheme.1. Without frames to trap water at shallow installation angles. Building exterior (Rendering by RSP Architects Planners & engineers Pte ltd) The curved laboratory roof of the Lonza Biologic’s LBxS2 factory offers prominent visibility to maximise public awareness for a 181kWp solar PV system on an industrial building.2.6 lOnZA BIOlOgICS figure A.3. these laminates will avoid dirt accumulation. Installing the ReC modules 43 .

Appendix Building name Owner Location Building type Completion (renovation) Working groups • Project architects • Structural engineers • PV design • Contractors • PV manufacturer Type of PV integration Type of PV cell technology PV area (m ) 2 A.000 PV Yield (kWh/kWp/yr) Photographs and information courtesy of 44 .58 : 1. Singapore : Residential. 21/2-storey semi-detached house : April 2008 : Art & Architecture Collaborative : Portwood & Associates : Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd : MCL Construction & Engineering Pte Ltd : Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Phoenix Solar : Roof mounted on metal roof : amorphous silicon and micromorph silicon thin films : 120 : 8.7 ZeRO eneRgy hOuSe A : Zero Energy House : Private : District 15.400 : Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd PV system peak power (kWp) Estimated energy output (kWh/year) : 12.

Appendix A. The PV modules are mounted on rails that are clamped to the seams of the aluminium Kalzip roof without any roof penetrations.7.2.7 ZeRO eneRgy hOuSe This 1960s semi-detached house was converted into Singapore’s first modern zero-energy home by reducing solar heat gain.7. the PV modules shade the roof. Building roof with two types of PV module figure A. keeping the attic rooms much cooler than they would be under a roof fully exposed to the sun. west roof flank with micromorph PV modules 45 . improving natural ventilation and adding a rooftop solar PV system. which generates more electricity than the 6-person household consumes.1. figure A. As an important added benefit.

200 : Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd and City Developments Ltd PV system peak power (kWp) Estimated energy output (kWh/yr) PV Yield (kWh/kWp/yr) Photographs and information courtesy of 46 .Appendix Building name Owner Location Building type Completion Working groups • Project architects • M&E engineers • PV design • Contractors • PV manufacturer Type of PV integration Type of PV cell technology PV area (m ) 2 A. Singapore : Office building : May 2009 : Architects 61 Pte Ltd : Conteem Engineers Pte Ltd : Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd : Dragages Singapore Pte Ltd / BYME Singapore : Suntech (rooftop) and Schott Solar (BIPV) : Roof mounted and Building Integrated façade : Monocrystalline silicon and amorphous silicon thin film BIPV : 934 : 107 : 120.000 : 1.8 tAMPIneS gRAnde A : Tampines Grande : City Developments Ltd : Tampines.

3. Partially completed PV array figure A.8 tAMPIneS gRAnde 101kWp of monocrystalline PV modules form the main rooftop PV array on Towers 1 and 2. this was Singapore’s largest PV system. 6kwp BIPV façade on tower 2 figure A. figure A.2.8. At the time of completion. Tampines Grande was a recipient of one of the inaugural Solar Pioneer grants under EDB’s Solar Capability Scheme. The building also boasts a solar air-conditioning system powered by solar thermal collectors. Aerial view of both towers 47 .Appendix A.8.8.1. while the west façade of Tower 2 has 6kWp of BIPV comprising 40 large. custom-built amorphous silicon thin film modules. and the first commercial application of a thin film BIPV façade.

9 hdB APARtMent BlOCKS At SeRAngOOn nORth PReCInCt A : Residential : 2008 : Roof top : Mono-crystalline silicon : 667.300 : 1.Appendix Building Name Owner Location Building type Completion Working groups • Contractors • PV manufacturer Type of PV integration Type of PV cell technology Precinct PV area (m2) A.75 : Estimated energy output (kWh / yr) PV Yield (kWh / kWp/yr) PV Photographs and information courtesy of 48 .060 : HDB : HDB Apartment Blocks at Serangoon North Precinct : Ang Mo Kio- Yio Chu Kang Town Council : Serangoon North Avenue 3 Block 548 to 554 and 550A (Multi-storey Carpark) : King Wan Construction Pte Ltd & Asiatic Engineering Pte Ltd : Sunset Energietechnik GmbH Precinct PV system peak power (kWp) 75.61 : 80.

Sixty-nine pieces of solar PV panels are mounted at the rooftop of each residential block and 22 pieces of the panel at the staircase roof of the MSCP.Appendix A.9. figure A. typical rooftop PV array layout at Serangoon north Precinct 49 .1.9 hdB APARtMent BlOCKS At SeRAngOOn nORth PReCInCt The Serangoon North Precinct consists of five blocks of 16 storey and two blocks of nine storey residential apartments and a multi storey car park (MSCP).

61 : 80. 510A-B & 508 (MSCP) : King Wan Construction Pte Ltd & Asiatic Engineering Pte Ltd : Sunset Energietechnik GmbH Precinct PV system peak power (kWp) 75.Appendix Building Name Owner Location Building type Completion Working groups • Contractors • PV manufacturer Type of PV integration Type of PV cell technology Precinct PV area (m2) A.060 : HDB : HDB Apartment Blocks at Wellington Circle Precinct : Wellington Circle 508A-C.75 : Estimated energy output (kWh / yr) PV Yield (kWh / kWp/ yr) Photographs and information courtesy of 50 .10 hdB APARtMent BlOCKS At wellIngtOn CIRCle PReCInCt A : Sembawang Town Council : Residential : 2008 : Roof top : Mono-crystalline silicon : 667. 509A-B.300 : 1.

Appendix A. figure A.10.1. typical rooftop PV array layout at wellington Circle Precinct 51 . Sixty-nine pieces of solar PV panels are mounted at the rooftop of each residential block and 22 pieces of the panel at the staircase roof of the MSCP.10 HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS AT WELLiNgTON CiRCLE PRECiNCT The Wellington Circle Precinct consists of seven blocks of 12 storey residential apartments and a MSCP.

operate.Appendix B.2 The Singapore Standard for electrical safety applicable to solar PV Systems is set out in the Code of Practice for Electrical Installations (Singapore Standard CP5:2008). The LEW whom you appoint to carry out or supervise the electrical works associated with your PV system will be responsible for the compliance with the relevant safety standards and requirements. 1. and Licensed Electrical Engineer.1 There are three classes of LEWs: Licensed Electrician.gov. Licensed Electrical Technician.4 For enquiries on LEWs. install. engAgIng A lICenSed eleCtRICAl wORKeR Engaging a Licensed Electrical Worker (LEW) B Approved load Not exceeding 45 kVA Voltage level 1000V & below 1000V & below No limit Subject to licence conditions 1.sg 1.gov. which is published by SPRING Singapore. 1. repair.3 You can search for LEWs and their contact particulars at the following EMA website: http://elise.sg 52 . you can contact EMA’s Electricity Inspectorate Branch at: Tel: 6835 8060 Email: ema_rs@ema. inspect and test electrical installations according to the conditions stated below: Class of lew Electrician Electrical Technician Not exceeding 150 kVA (Design). maintain. not exceeding 500 kVA (Operation) Electrical Engineer 1. The various classes of LEWs are authorised to design.ema.

Appendix B.1 engAgIng A lICenSed eleCtRICAl wORKeR 2 Guide for consumers – Installation of Solar PV Systems 53 .

Appendix (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Buildings issues C.sg Tel: 6823 8572 SP Services ltd (SPS) Tel: 6823 8287 / 6823 7340 C Development Planning Control – Conserved Buildings Development Planning Control – Non-conserved Buildings Electricity Licences Licensed Electrical Workers (“LEWs”) Electricity market rules.com.sg Tel: 6329 3355 urban Redevelopment Authority (uRA) Non-conserved buildings Email: ura_dcd@ura.sg Tel: 6223 4811 energy Market Authority (eMA) Ms Sharon Chuo Dy Director (Economic Regulation & Licensing) Email: ema_rs@ema.com Tel: 6779 3000 SP Powergrid ltd (SPPg) Email: dgconnection@singaporepower.sg Tel: 6835 8060 energy Market Company (eMC) Market Administration Team Email: MPregistration@emcsg.sg Tel: 6376 7551 energy Market Authority (eMA) Electricity Inspectorate Branch Email: ema_rs@ema.gov.sg Tel: 1800-3425222 (1800-DIAL BCA) urban Redevelopment Authority (uRA) Building Conservation Email: ura_conservation_cso@ura. and market charges Connection to the power grid Connection to the power grid 54 .gov. please contact: Building And Construction Authority (BCA) Email: bca_equiry@bca.gov.gov.1 COntACt InfORMAtIOn for enquiries on the following matters pertaining to Solar PV systems.gov. market registration process.

File. architecture and system integration through increased implementation of solar energy technologies by lead users in Singapore.gov.edb. $1 Million per project or up to 40% of total capital cost of solar technology.pdf 55 .sg/edb/sg/en_uk/index/news/articles/ Award_Ceremony_for_Solar_Testbeds.edb.1 SOlAR CAPABIlIty SCheMe (SCS) The Economic Development Board (EDB) unveiled the Solar Capability Scheme to spur demand and build up expertise for this young but growing field.Appendix d. D Agency Quantum : EDB : $20 Million (Overall).sg/edb/sg/en_uk/index/news/articles/ cepo_launches_solar. System Integration (With implementation of solar energy technologies) : http://www.html Target Group For Reading For Details : http://www. Architecture.gov. The scheme – the latest by Clean Energy Programme Office (CEPO) – seeks to strengthen critical capabilities of companies engaged in activities such as engineering.edb. : Engineering.sg/etc/medialib/downloads/industries.html http://www.98811.tmp/Solar%20Capability%20Scheme%20Factsheet.gov. Par.

: Non-residential consumers and developers who choose to sell excess electricity generated from clean and renewable energy technologies to the power grid.2 MARKet deVelOPMent fund (Mdf) The MDF seeks to incentivise the use of clean and renewable energy resources among non-residential consumers and developers by offsetting the market charges and related costs associated with selling clean and renewable energy into the power grid.gov.sg/index. $50. : http://www.ema.000 over a span of 5 years or 90% of incurred market charges for approved projects.Appendix d. This will help to promote energy efficiency as well as help in the market integration of innovative clean and renewable energy resources. D Agency Quantum Target Group For Details : Energy Market Authority (EMA) : $5 million.php?option=com_content&view=artic le&id=125&Itemid=141 56 . whichever is lower.

sg http://www.greenmark.gov. D Agency Target Group For Reading For Details : Building and Construction Authority (BCA) : Developers Designers Builders : http://www.pdf 57 . It is a benchmarking scheme that aims to achieve a sustainable built environment by incorporating best practices in environmental design and construction.html : http://www.bca.bca.sg/GreenMark/green_mark_buildings.3 gReen MARK SCheMe The Green Mark Scheme was launched to promote environmental awareness in the construction and real estate sectors.Appendix d.sg/greenmark/others/gmtc. and the adoption of green building technologies.gov.

Appendix d. Green Mark Platinum or Green Mark GoldPLUS).gov. BCA and the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) have introduced a set of Gross Floor Area (GFA) incentives on 29 Apr 2009. redevelopments and reconstruction developments submitted on or after the effective date. D Agency Target Group For Details : BCA and URA : All new private developments.sg/GreenMark/gmgfa.html 58 .e.bca. URA will grant additional floor area over and above the Master Plan Gross Plot Ratio (GPR) control. For developments attaining Green Mark Platinum or GoldPLUS.4 gReen MARK gROSS flOOR AReA (gM-gfA) InCentIVe SCheMe To encourage the private sector to develop buildings that attain higher tier Green Mark ratings (i. : http://www.

gov.5 $100 MIllIOn gReen MARK InCentIVe SCheMe fOR exIStIng BuIldIngS (gMIS-eB) The GMIS-EB aims to encourage private building owners of existing buildings to undertake improvements and/or retrofits to achieve substantial improvement in energy efficiency.Appendix d.bca. It provides a cash incentive that cofunds up to 35% (capped at $1. with gross floor area of 2. D Agency Target Group : BCA : Building owners/developers of private existing non- residential developments that is centrally air-conditioned. hotels.sg/GreenMark/gmiseb. energy intensive buildings such as shopping malls.5 million) of the upgrading/retrofitting costs for energy efficiency improvement in their existing buildings. office buildings.000 sqm above e.g.html 59 . hospitals. and other centrally air-conditioned buildings. For Details : http://www.

: http://www.gov.6 enhAnCed $20 MIllIOn gReen MARK InCentIVe SCheMe fOR new BuIldIngS (gMIS-nB) The GMIS-NB is to help accelerate the adoption of environmentallyfriendly green building technologies and building design practices.Appendix d. project architects and M&E engineers who make efforts to achieve at least a BCA Green Mark Gold rating or higher in the design and construction of new buildings.sg/GreenMark/GMIS. building owners. The enhanced scheme offers cash incentives.html 60 .bca. D Agency Target Group For Details : BCA : Developers.

Persons who may be in doubt about how the information in this handbook may affect them or their commercial activities are advised to seek independent legal advice or any other professional advice as they may deem appropriate. regulation. to adapt to the continual development and evolvement of the electricity and building and construction industries and is not a substitute for any law.disclaimer The information in this handbook is subject to change or revision. Both Authorities assume no responsibility or liability for any consequences (financial or otherwise) suffered directly or indirectly by persons who have entered into commercial activities upon reliance on any information in this document. standard of performance. 61 . It does not in any way bind the Energy Market Authority (“EMA”) and the Building and Construction Authority (“BCA”) to grant any approval or official permission for any matters. including but not limited to the grant of any exemption nor to the terms of any exemption. Market Rules or Building Control Act which may apply to the said industries in Singapore. Both EMA and BCA reserve the right to change its policies and/or to amend any information in this handbook without prior notice. code of practice.

Energy Market Authority 991G Alexandra Road. #01-29 Singapore 119975 Tel: (65) 6835 8000 Fax: (65) 6835 8020 Building and Construction Authority 5 Maxwell Road #16-00 Tower Block MND Complex Singapore 069110 Main Line: 1800-3425222 (1800-DIAL BCA) ISBN: 978-981-08-4462-2 62 .

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