French Level3

Prog ram Desig n Dr. William Henning Dr. John Miles

About the authors: Dr. William A. Henning earned his MA and Ph.D degrees in French from Indiana University. He is Professor of French and Linguistics of Wheaton College, Illinois. Dr. John Miles has his M.A. in English from Oxford University and his Ph.D. in French from the University of Illinois. A former resident of Belgium and French-speaking Africa and a frequent visitor to France, he also teaches French at Wheaton College.

The complete French system (5 albums)

consists of

2 Albums Basic French

2 Albums Advanced French

1 Album Practical French Vocabulary

Published by Oasis Audio LLC, 289 Main Place, Carol Stream, Illinois 60188.

Copyright 1980 Advance Memory Research, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of Oasis Audio LLC, 289 Main Place, Carol Stream, Illinois 60188.

Second Revised Edition 1986 ISBN 1-55536-287-7

The AMR® patented SPLIT-SOUND® system

\ \

~~N J~E /

LISTEN & PARTICIPATE

CHECK FLUENCY

• Foreign language followed by English translation

• Foreign language only (check how much you have learned)

• English only (you translate)

This course features the patented AMR® Split-Sound System using the unique two-track stereophonic recording. The foreign language is recorded on one track, and the English translation on the other. By simply adjusting the balance control, you can select either the foreign language, the English translation or both. You control the method and the pace of learning.

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MODULE 3

INDEX

DIALOG

PAGE

CASSETTE 1

Composed past tense (avoir + past participle).

Adjectives with similar and dissimilar forms 9

2 Composed past tense (etre + past participle).

Position of adjectives 17

3 Familiar second person singular tu. Verb devoir 25

4 Object pronouns me, te, moi, toi. Disjunctive pronouns moi, toi. Adverbs with -ment.

Position of adverbs 33

CASSETTE 2

5 Object pronouns nous, vous, pronominal verbs

(1 st & 2nd person) formation. Command forms ... .41

6 Pronominal verbs - composed past tense.

Object pronouns Ie, la. Verb pouvoir .49

7 Object pronoun les. Verb dire 57

8 Pronominal verbs (3rd person).

Subject pronouns on 65

CASSETTE 3

9 Verb groups in -ir and -dre. Verb faire 73

10 Indirect object pronouns lui, leur.

Verbs avoir, connaitre 81

11 Future tense (regular verb groups) 89

12 Future tense (irregular verb groups).

Negative expressions ne jamais/rien/plus 97

5

CASSETTE 4

13 Verb falloir (il faut) with nouns and infinitives .... 105 14 Comparative of adjectives, adverbs and

nouns (aussi/plus/moins que; autant de 113

15 Indefinite relative pronoun ce qui, ce que.

Comparative of bon, bien 121

16 Pronoun and adverb y.

Impersonal expressions with il. 129

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HOW TO USE THIS COURSE

About this course: This course is built around the importance of the spoken word. In this advanced course, listening and speaking are still the main focus, but it introduces more complex vocabulary and emphasizes the mastery of structures. In addition, it introduces some idiomatic and familiar expressions to help expand your vocabulary.

USING THE MATERIALS

Each cassette contains several dialogs presented in French with each sentence followed immediately by the English equivalent. The French dialog is then presented without the translation, much as you might hear it in real life. Because language is a social event, the dialogs at this level present a typical family situation, with interaction between three generations in everyday and special situations.

As the course progresses, the expressions introduced become more complex. As a serious student, you might want to learn both the technical terms and the grammatical structures. You are invited to interact with the taped program, which provides the opportunity to combine new words and old phrases in different structural forms. This will help to increase your wordpower.

A unique feature of this course is that the tapes are recorded in stereo, with the French voices on one channel and the English on the other. (On monaural, or one speaker equipment, you will hear the French language followed by the English translation.) See page 3 for a graphic explanation.

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First: Listening to both channels, you will hear the French and then the English translation. With this method you can associate the meanings with the words and sentences.

Second: Listening only to the French channel (adjust balance control), try to translate it yourself. This will help you test your progress.

Third: Again, listening only to the French channel, repeat the French out loud. We suggest that you continue repeating each lesson until you feel your pronunciation is satisfactory.

Fourth: Listening only to the English channel, try to say the French equivalent. We suggest that you continue doing this until you feel you have mastered each lesson.

This course has been designed in two ways. You can listen to the tapes and follow along in the book or you can listen to the tapes without the book. You can now make your driving time more profitable by listening to the tapes as you drive.

The Books: The handbooks are useful reference tools. They contain transcripts of the taped material, because you might want to check the spoken against the written language. Though the course is not designed primarily to teach reading or writing, the books can help. The extra grammatical notes provided can help by explaining spelling problems as well as clarifying structural difficulties. In addition, there are in-depth cultural notes to accompany the dialogs, and an expanded vocabulary section full of useful words.

Advance Memory Research® has a patent on this unique bilingual stereo teaching system. The Stereo Self-TestTM method has proven to be very effective. The learning of a foreign language is now easy and enjoyable!

8

Dialog 1

First we meet Mrs. Cordier, Yvette's mother. She has been called for advice by a young neighbor whose child is sick. Concerned, she returns to the family apartment and phones her doctor.

All~, docteur. C'est madame Cordier.

Bonjour, madame. Je peux vous aider?

C'est la petite Suzanne •••

••• la fille de madame Laurent.

Ah oui, votre voisine. Elle semble tr~s malade. Quels sont ses sympt~mes?

Elle a mal au ventre.

Est-ce que les douleurs ont ete constantes?

Oui, si j'ai bien compris.

ot sont-elles localisees? Du c~t: droit, je pense. Elle a une fievre?

Elle a une temp~rature assez 6lev~e.

A-t-elle vomi?

Non, elle n'a pas vomi ••• ••• mais elle a des naus~es.

Ah, c'est peut-gtre s~rieux.

L'appendicite, n'est-ce pas? Oui, ou une colique s~rieuse.

J'arrive tout de suite.

Hello, doctor. This is Mrs. Cordier.

Good morning, ma'am. Can I he l p you?

It's litt l:e Suzanne •••

. .• Mrs. Laurent's daughter •

Oh yes, your neighbor.

She seems very sick.

What are her symptoms?

She has a pain in the stomach.

Have the pains been constant?

Yes, if I have understood right.

Where are they localized?

On the right side, I think.

She has a fever?

She has a rather high temperature.

Has she been ill?

No, she has not been ill •••

• •• but she does feel nauseated.

Oh, it may be serious.

Appendicitis, isn't it?

Yes, or a seriouB coLia.

I'll be there right away.

docteur

Now we will go back over the dialog phrase by phrase.

doctor

all~, docteur

madame Cordier

c'est madame Cordier

Allo, docteur. C'est madame Cordier.

hello, doctor

Mrs. Cordier

this is Mrs. Cordier

Hello, doctor. This is Mrs. Cordier.

9

bonjour, madame

je peux

je peux vous aider

Bonjour, madame. Je peux vous aider?

Suzanne

petite

la petite Suzanne

C'est la peti~e Suzanne •••

madame Laurent

fille

••• la fille de madame Laurent.

voisine

votre voisine

Ah oni, votre voisine.

malade

tres malade

semble

elle semble

Elle semble tr~s malade.

symptomes

ses symptomes

sont

quels sont

Quels sont ses symptomes?

ventre

au ventre

mal

mal au ventre

elle a

Elle a mal au ventre.

constantes

good morning., ma'am
I can
ean I help you
Good morning_, ma I am. Can I
help you?
Suzanne
little little Suzanne

It'8 little Suzanne •••

Mr8. Laurent

daughter

••• Mrs. Laurent'8 daughter

neighbor

your neighbor

Oh yes. your neighbor.

8ick

very sick

6eemB

8he seemB

She 8eems very sick.

symptoms

her symptoms

are

what are

What are her symptoms?

8tomach

in the e t o ma c]i

pain

pain in the 8tomach

8he has

She has a pain in the stomach.

conatant

been

have been

10

ont ete constantes

douleurs

les douleurs ont ete constantes

~s~-ce que les douleurs ont ete constantes?

compris

j'ai compris

bien

j'ai bien compris

si j'ai bien compris

Qui, si j'ai bien compris.

localisees

elles sont

sont-elles

sont··elles localisees

QU sont-elles localisees?

je pense

droit

cote

du cote droit

Du cote droit, je pense. Uevre

Elle a une fievre?

une temperature

une temperature assez elevee Elle a une temperature assez elevee.

vomi

elle a vomi

A-t-elle vorni?

elle a vomi

elle n'a pas vomi

have been constant

pains

the pains have been constant

Have the pains been constant?

understood

I have understood

u e l L

I have understood right

if I have understood right

Yes, if I have understood right.

Localized

they are

are they

are they LocaLized

Where are they locaLized?

I think

right

side

on the right side

On the right side, I think.

fever

She has a fever?

high

rather high

a temperature

a rather high temperature

She has a rather high temperature.

vomited

she has vomited

Has she been ilL?

she has vomited

she has not vomited

11

Non, elle n'a pas vomi •••

, nausees

elle a des nausees

••• mais elle a des nausees.

, .

ser a eux

c'est serieux

peut-etre

Ah, c'est peut-etre serieux.

n'est-ce pas

l'appendicite

L'appendicite, n'est-ce pas?

, .

ser~euse

une colique
colique ' .
une serJ.euse
Qui, ou une colique serieuse.
tout de suite j'arrive

J'arrive tout de suite.

No, she has not been ill •••

nausea

she doe8 feeL nau8eated

• •• but she d o e e feeL nauseated.

e e t- i ou e

it's serious

maybe

Oh, it may be serious.

isn't it

appendicitis

Appendicitis, isn't it?

seriou8

a co lie

a seriouB colic

Ye8~ or a seriouB colic.

right away

I arrive

Allo, docteur. C'est madame Cordier.

Now here is the dialog again, just in French.

I'll be there right away.

C'est la petite Suzanne •••

Bonjour, madame. Je peux vous aider?

••• la fille de madame Laurent.

Ah oui, votre voisine. Elle semble tr~s malade.

Quels sont ses symptomes?

Elle a mal au ventre.

Est-ce que les douleurs ont ete constantes?

Qui, si j'ai bien compeis. Qu sont-elles localisees? Du c8te droit, je pense. Elle a une fi~vre?

Elle a une temperature assez elevee.

12

A-t-eIIe vomi?

Non, eIIe n'a pas vomi ••• ••• mais eIIe a des nausees.

Ah, c'est peut-etre serieux.

L'appendicite, n'est-ce pas? Oui, ou une colique serieuse.

J'arrive tout de suite.

Now let's review how we formed the past tense of verbs. In most verbs you combine a form of the verb 'to have' with a form of the main verb that sounds the same as the ~ form. Compare and repeat these pairs of sentences. The first will be in the present--the second will be in the past.

Je cherche un telephone. J'ai cherche un telephone.

II traverse la rue.

II a traverse la rue.

Suzanne achete des tickets.

Suzanne a achete des tickets.
Elle telephone . Marie.
a
Elle a telephone a Marie.
Nous etudions Ie dossier. Nous avons etudie Ie dossier.

Vous reg~rdez Ie plan. Vous avez regarde Ie plan.

I'm looking for a telephone.

I looked for a telephone.

He crosses the street.

He crossed the street.

Suzanne buys tickets.

Suzanne bought tickets.

She phones Mary.

She phoned Mary.

We are studying the file.

We studied the file.

You are looking at the map.

You looked at the map.

Now we will give you some sentences in the present. See if you can change them to the past. After a pause, you will be given the correct form.

Je regarde Ie plan.

Nous telephonons a Didier.

Elle etudie Ie dossier.

Vous achetez des tickets.

II cherche un telephone.

J'ai regarde Ie plan.

Nous avons telephone a Didier.

Elle a etudie Ie dossier.

Vous avez achete des tickets.

II a cherche un telephone.

Some verbs do not follow this pattern. They use 'to have' plus a special past participle, which must be learned. Repeat these pairs of sentences which contrast the present and past form.

J'ai une fievre.

Elle est tres malade.

J'ai eu une fievre.

Elle a ete tres malade.

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Yvette prend Ie metro.

Yvette a pris Ie metro.

J'attends un taxi.

J'ai attendu un taxi.

Elle voit sa voisine.

Elle a vu sa voisine.

In the dialog you encountered a number of adjectives. TheLe are two general types. The first kind are pronounced the same whether they are used with masculine or feminine nouns. Here are some examples.

malade sick
Loca Li s d localized
eleve high
artistique artistic
irrite in i tated
vrai true A number of other adjectives have different forms when used with masculine and feminine nouns. Very commonly you can form the masculine by dropping the final consonant from the feminine form. Here are some pairs with the feminine first, and then the masculine.

constante--constant

constant

, . , .

ser1euse--ser1eux

serious

petite--petit

little

grande--grand

tall

grosse--gros

fat

v er te--ver t

green

blanche-blanc

white

Now you will hear adjectives in the feminine form. Convert them to the masculine form. After a pause, you will hear the correct form.

/ , .
serieuse ser1eux
blanche blanc
petite petit
verte vert
grosse gros
grande grand
constante constant
CULTURE KEY In France, the whole population is covered by some form of medical insurance; 98~ through social security to whiCh employer and employee contribute. A person is free to choose his own general practitioner, specialist, pharmacy, hospital or clinic.

14

A doctor is free to charge his patient his own rates; a pharmacist charges his own price for any prescriptions. Both doctor and pharmacist must fill in, sign and stamp a standard treatment form (Feuille des Soins), giving a brief account of diagnosis, treatment, drugs prescribed and administered, and costs. Though confidentiality is guaranteed by law, it is on the basis of this form that the patient is promptly reimbursed at fixed rates for doctor's services and medications. Presently a doctor's visit costs about $12.00--and yes, French doctors still make house callsl

15

Dialog 2

That afternoon, Yvette returns home from the office earlier than usual. She finds her younger brother alone in the apartment doing his homework at the kitchen table.

Salut, Jean-Paul. Maman n'est pas la.?

Non, elle est sortie. Qu est-elle alors?

Elle est allee a l'hopital. Quoi?1 Elle est malade?

Bien sur que non.

C'est la petite Suzanne.

Comment? Qu'est-ce qu'elle a?

L'appendicite, paralt-il. Madame Laurent a appele Maman.

Et Maman a telephone au docteur, sans doute.

Qui, il est venu immediatement •••

••• dans sa grosse voiture neuve.

Et elle a du aller a l'hopital?

Qui, et Haman est partie avec Madame Laurent.

C'est serieux alors?

J'ai peur que oui.

La pauvre Madame Laurent.

Sa mere est morte en janvier. Son bebe est ne en fevrier.

Et maintenant Suzanne est tombee maladel

Elle est deja assez deprimee.

Hi, Jean-Paul. Mom isn't home?

No, she has gone out.

Where is she then?

She has gone to the hospital.

What?1 She's sick?

Of course not.

It's little Suzanne.

What? What is the matter with her?

Appendicitis, apparently.

Mrs. Laurent called Mom.

And Mom phoned the doctor, probab ly.

Yes, he came immediately •••

••• in his big new car.

And she had to go to the hospital?

Ye8, and Mom left with Mr8. Laurent.

It'8 serious then?

I'm afraid so.

Poor Mrs. Laurent.

Her mother died in January.

Her baby Was born in February.

And now Suzanne has gotten e i ck I

She is aLready depressed enough.

salut

Now we will go back through the dialog phrase by phrase.

hi

salut, Jean-Paul la

hi, Jean-Paul

there

17

• est la

Maman est la

Maman n'est pas la

Salute Jean-Paul. Maman n'est pas la,?

sorti

elle est sortie

Non, elle est sortie.

alors

est-elle

,

ou est-elle

O~ est-elle alors? hbpital

~ l'hopital aIle'

elle est allee

Elle est allee a l'hopital.

malade

elle est malade

quoi

Quoi?1 Elle est malade?

non

bien str

Bien snr que non·

petite

la petite Suzanne

C'est la petite Suzanne.

elle a

qu'est-ce que

qu'est-ce qu'elle a

comment

Comment? Qu'est-ce qu'elle a?

A parait-il

l'appendicite

1\ L'appendicite, parait-il.

is there

Mom i8 home

Mom isn't home

Hi, Jean-PauZ. Mom isn't home?

gone out

she has gone out

No, she has gone out.

then

is 8he

where is she

Where is she then?

hospitaL

to the h o ep i t-a L

gone

she has gone

She has gone to the hospitaL.

sick

8he's sick

what

What?! She's sick?

no

of course

Of course not.

LittLe

l i t t: l e Suzanne

It's LittLe Suzanne.

she has

what

what is the matt~r with her

what

What? What is the matter with her?

apparentLy

appendicitis

Appendicitis, apparentLy.

18

a appele

Madame Laurent a appele Maman.

sans doute

docteur

a tlhephone

Maman a telephone au docteur Et Maman a telephone au docteur, sans doute.

immediatement

venu

il est venu

Qui, il est venu immediatement •••

neuve

voiture neuve

grosse voiture neuve

sa grosse voiture neuve

••• dans sa grosse voiture neuve.

a l'hopital

aller

aller a l'h$pital

du

elle a du

Et elle a du aller a l'h8pital?

avec

avec Madame Laurent

parti

Maman est partie

Qui, et Maman est partie avec Madame Laurent.

alors

, . ser1eux

C'est serieux alors?

peur

aa L l e d

Mrs. Laurent called Mom.

probably

doctor

phoned

Mom phoned the doctor

And Mom phoned the doctor, probably.

immediateLy

came

he came

Yes, he came immediateLy •••

ne'"

ne1J car

big ne", car

his big ne", aar

... in his big new cap .

to the hospitaL

110

go to the hospitaL

had to

she had to

And she had to go to the hospital?

with

with Mrs. Laurent

left

Mom left

Yes, and Mom left "'ith Mrs. Laurent.

then

serious

It's seriou8 the~?

fear

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j' ai

j' ai peur

J'ai peur que oui.

pauvre

La pauvre Madame Laurent.

janvier

en janvier

morte

est morte

sa mere
sa mere est morte
Sa , est morte en janvier.
mere
fevrier en fevrier

I ne

, est ne

bebe
son bebrf
bebe est ,
son ne
Son bebe est r fevrier.
ne en est tombe

est tombe malade

main tenant

Et main tenant Suzanne est tombee maladel

deprime

elle est deprimee

elle est assez deprimee

deja

Elle est deja assez deprimee.

I have

I'm afraid

I'm afraid 80.

poor

Poor Mr8. Laurent.

January

in January

dead

died

her mother

her mother died

Her mother died in January.

February

in February

born

hlas born

baby

her baby

her baby was born

Her baby waB born in Feb x u ar ij ,

fanen

has f a l l en

ha8 gotten 8ick

now

And now Suzanne has gotten e i ek: I

depre88ed

8he i8 depre88ed

8he i8 depres8ed enough

aLready

She i8 aLready depre8sed enough.

Now we will go back over the dialog with just the French. Salut, Jean-Paul. Maman n'est pas la?

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Non, elle est sortie. Qu est-elle alors?

Elle est al16e a l'hopital.

Quoi?1 Elle est malade?

Bien sur que non.

C'est la petite Suzanne.

Comment? Qu'est-ce qu'elle a? L'appendicite, para!t-il. Madame Laurent a appele Maman.

Et Haman a telephone au docteur, sans doute. Qui, il est venu immediatement •••

••• dans sa grosse voiture neuve. Et elle a du aller a l'h$pital?

Qui, et Maman est partie avec Madame Laurent. C'est serieux alors?

J'ai peur que oui.

La pauvre Madame Laurent.

Sa mere est morte en janvier. Son bebe est ne en fevrier.

Et maintenant Suzanne est tombee maladel

In the last lesson we saw that most verbs form the past tense with a form of the verb ~, 'to have'. In this lesson you encountered some that form the past tense with the verb ~, 'to be'. They are few in number, but several of them are quite important. Compare and repeat these pairs of sentences. The first will be in the present--the second in the past.

Je vais a l'hopital.

Je suis all~ a l'hopital.

I'm going to the hospital. I went to the hospital.

Vous allez avec Madame Laurent?

You are going with Mrs. Laurent?

Vous ~tes aIle avec Madame Laurent?

You went with Mrs. Laurent?

Elle vient avec Suzanne.

She is corning with Suzanne.

Elle est venue avec Suzanne.

She carne with Suzanne.

Nous venons immediatement.

We are coming immediately.

Nous sommes venus immediatement.

We carne immediately.

21

Suzanne tombe malade.
Suzanne est tomb~e malade.
Sa mere meurt.
Sa mere est morte.
Le b~be natt.
Le bebe est ,
ne. Suzanne is getting sick.

Suzanne got sick.

Her mother is dying.

Her mother died.

The baby is being born. The baby was born.

Ils par tent dans sa grosse voiture.

They are leaving in his big car.

lIs sont partis dans sa grosse voiture.

They left in his big car.

You may have noticed that some adjectives precede the noun they modify, while others follow it. There is no hard and fast rule to help you know which one goes where, but in general, it is the short common adjectives that precede. Repeat these sentences that have the adjective before the noun.

J'ai une petite voiture.

Le docteur a une grosse voiture. La pauvre Suzanne est a l'hopital.

Now repeat these sentences in which the adjective follows the noun.

Le docteur a une voiture neuve.

C'est un bebe malade.

II a une fievre s~rieuse.

Suzanne a une temperature elevle.

Now we will give you sentences and an adjective. Repeat the sentence, putting the adjective in the proper place.

~lev~e--Le bebl a une temp~rature.

neuve--Madame Laurent a une voiture.

Madame Laurent a une voiture neuve.

s~rieuse--Suzanne a une colique.

Suzanne a une colique serieuse.

petite-Nous avons une voiture.

Nous avons une petite voiture. malade--Elle a un bebe.

Elle a un b~be malade.

pauvre--Suzanne est a l'h8pital.

La pauvre Suzanne est a l'hopital.

22

To finish this lesson, let's go over the months of the year. Repeat these sentences in which they will appear in order.

Sa mere est morte en janvier.

Son bebe est ne en fevrier.

Suzanne est tombee malade en mars.

Jean-Paul est venu en avril.

Yvette est partie en maio

Le docteur est venu en juin.

Madame Cordier a eu un bebe en jUillet. Maman a telephone en aout.

Le bebe a eu une fievre en septembre. J'ai aChete une voiture en octobre. Jean-Paul est arrive en novembre. Papa est tombe malade en decembre.

CULTURE KEY

Though doctors in France may be well off, they do not seem to enjoy the obvious wealth of their American counterparts. In part, this is because Europeans do not go so frequently to the doctor, in spite of social security. Many doctors drive around in battered Citroens or VW's, so the doctor in the dialog is not typical. Many French hospitals seem antiquated to the American visitor, since they may be old buildings with large high ceilinged rooms with pipes everywhere. Parts of some of the hospitals (the HOtel-Dieu near Notre Dame in Paris for example) date from the Middle Ages. A greater degree of comfort is available in the 2500 private hospitals, but there are 2 1/2 times as many beds available in the goo public hospitals. Often these are in multi-bed wards rather that semi-private rooms. Hospitals--where stays are comparatively brief--are supplemented by an abundance of private and public clinics, some rather like small American hospitals, others with special functions (preventive, diagnostic, surgical, maternity, VD, etc). The greatest problem in French hospitals is a lack of nursing staff. In the past, much nursing was done by religious sisters from Catholic orders. But the waning influence of Catholicism and a steep decline in vocations have had their effect in this area.

23

Dialog 3

Tu as termine les devoirs, Jean-Paul?

Mrs. Cordier is late returning from the hospital. So Yvette starts the evening meal for Jean-Paul and her father.

You have finished the home~ork. Jean-PauL?

Pas encore. Je dois m'arreter?

Je pense que oui.

Nous devons pr~parer Ie d!ner.

Tu sais, je n'ai pas faim.

Mais nous devons manger. Et Papa va arriver tout a l'heure.

Qu'est-ce que tu prepares alors?

Une omelette et une sa lade verte.

Tiensl Tu fais bien la cuisine.

Tu vas faire une bonne petite femme a Philippe I

C;;a suffitl

Tu vas aller chercher Ie pain?

Qui, si tu as de l'argent. Je suis fauche, comme toujours.

Tu peux regarder dans mon sac a main.

Qu as-tu laisse ton sac?

Regarde. La, sur Ie refrigerateur.

Tu ne trouves pas l'argent? Qu'est-ce que tu regardes la, Jean-Paul?

Tiens, tiensl Tu as une lettre de Philippe.

Ce n'est pas ton affaire, ~al

Petit curieuxl

Not yet. I have to stop?

I think so.

We have to fix dinner.

You kno~. I'm not hungry.

But ~e must eat.

And Dad ~iLL be arriving soon.

What are you fixing then?

An omeLette and a tossed saLad.

Hey! You make a good cook.

You wiLL make a nice LittLe wife for PhiLip!

That's enough!

You are going to go get the bread?

Yes. if you have some money.

I'm broke. as usuaL.

You can Look in my handbag.

Where did you Leave your bag?

Look. There. on the refrigerator.

Don't you find the money? What are you Looking at there. Jean-PauL?

WelL. weLL! You have a Letter from Philip.

Xd«1~~ not your business!

Inquisitive chiLd!

devoirs

Now let's go back over the dialog phrase by phrase.

homework

25

les devoirs

termine

as termine

tu as termine

Tu as termine les devoirs, Jean-Paul?

encore

pas encore

arreter

dois

je dois

je dois m'arreter

Pas encore. Je dois m1arreter?

oui

je pense
Je pense que oui.
dtner
Ie diner
,
preparer
devons
nous devons
Nous devons preparer Ie
diner. faim

j'ai

j'ai faim

je n'ai pas faim

sais

tu sais

Tu sais, je n'ai pas faim.

manger

devons

nous devons

Mais nous devons manger.

tout a l'heure

the homework

finished

have finished

you have finished

You have finished the homework, Jean-PauL?

yet

not yet

atop

have to

I have to

I have to stop

Not yet. I have to stop?

yea

I think

I think so.

dinner

the dinner

prepare

have to

We have to

We have to fix dinner.

hunger

I have

I'm hungry

I'm not hungry

know

you know

You know, I'm not hungry.

to eat

must

We must

But we must eat.

Boon

26

arriver

va arriver

Papa

Et Papa va arriver tout a l'heure.

alors

tu pr6pares

qu'est-ce que

Qu'est-ce que tu prepares alors?

verte

une salade

une salade verte

une omelette

Une omelette et une salade verte.

la cuisine

bien

tu fais

tu fais bien

tu fais bien la cuisine

Tiensl Tu fais bien la cuisine.

Philippe

a Philippe

femme

petite femme

bonne

une bonne petite femme

faire

tu vas

tu vas faire

Tu vas faire une bonne petite femme a Philippel

suffit

Ga suffitl

le pain

to arrive

will be arriving

Dad

And Dad will be arriving Boon.

then

you are preparing

what

What are you fixing then?

green

a Balad

a tOB8ed Balad

an omelette

An omelette and a t088ed 8alad.

the cooking

you do

you do well

you make a good cook

Hey! You make a good cook.

Philip

for Philip

Wife

little wife

good

a nice little wife

to make

you are going

you are going to make

You will make a nice little wife for Philip!

iB 8ufficient

That'8 enough!

the bread

27

chercher

aller

tu vas aller

Tu vas aller chercher le pain?

l'argent

de l'argent

tu as

tu as de l'argent

Oui, si tu as de l'argent.

toujours

comme toujours fauche

je suis

je suis fauche

Je suis fauche comme toujours.

main

sac

sac

a main

mon sac a main

dans mon sac a main

regarder

tu peux

tu peux regarder

tU p~ux regarder dans mon sac a mal.n.

sac

ton sac laisse

tu as

tu as laisse as-tu laisse

ou as-tu laisse

Ou as-tu laisse ton sac? le refrigerateur

to Look for
to go
you are going to go
You are going to get the
bread 7 the money

Borne money

you have

you have Borne money

Ye8~ if you have Borne money.

aLways

as always

broke

I am

I'm broke

I'm broke3 as usual.

hand

bag

handbag

my handbag

in my handbag

to Look

you can

you can Look

You can Look in my handbag.

bag

your bag

Left

you have

you have Left

have you Left

where have you Left

Where did you Leave your bag?

the refrigerator

28

sur Ie refrig~rateur

la, sur Ie refrigerateur

regarde

Regarde. La, sur Ie r6frigerateur.

l'argent

tu trouves

tu ne trouves pas

Tu ne trouves pas l'argent?

tu regardes

tu regardes la

qu'est-ce que

Qu'est-ce que tu regardes la, Jean-Paul?

de Philippe

une lettre

une lettre de Philippe tu as

tu as une lettre de Philippe

tiens, tiens

Tiens, tiensl Tu as une lettre de Philippe.

affaire

ton affaire

c'est

ce n'est pas

ce n'est pas ton affaire

Ce n'est pas ton affaire, ~al

curieux

petit

Petit curieuxl

on the refrigerator

there. on the refrigerator

look

Look. There. on the
refrigerator.
the money
you find
you don't find
Don't you find the money?
you are looking at
you are looking at there
!Jhat What are you looking at there. Jean-Paul?

from Ph i l.i p

a letter

a letter from Philip

you have

you have a letter from Philip

Well. !Jell! You have a letter [ r o m Ph i L i p ,

that

business

your business

that is

that is not

that is not your business

That's not youP business!

inquisitive

little

Inquisitive child!

Now here is the dialog again just in French. Tu as termine les devoirs, Jean-Paul?

Pas encore. Je dois m'arreter?

29

Je pense que oui.

Nous devons preparer Ie d!ner.

Tu sais, je n'ai pas faim.

Mais nous devons manger.

Et Papa va arriver tout a l'heure. Qu'est-ce que tu pr~pares alors?

Une omelette et une sa lade verte.

Tiensl Tu fais bien la cuisine.

Tu vas faire une bonne petite femme a Philippel

Ga suffitl

Tu vas aller chercher le pain?

~ui, si tu as de l'argent.
Je suis fauche, comme toujours.
Tu peux regarder dans mon sac a main.
Ou as-tu laisse ton sac? Regarde. La, sur le refrigerateur.

Tu ne trouves pas l'argent?

Qu'est-ce que tu regardes la, Jean-Paul?

Tiens, tiensl Tu as une lettre de Philippe.

Ce n'est pas ton affaire, ~al

Petit curieuxl

In this lesson you have been using the informal 'you' form of the verb. This form is used among members of a family or between close friends. It is pronounced exactly the same as the 'he' form, though it is spelled differently. We will give you some sentences with the formal 'you'. Change them to the informal.

Vous cherchez Ie pain.

Tu cherches Ie pain.
Tu prepares Ie diner.
Tu termines les devoirs.
Tu as de I' ar.gent.
Tu vas preparer une omelette. Vous preparez Ie diner.

Vous terminez les devoirs.

Vous avez de l'argent.

Vous allez preparer une omelette.

Vous ne trouvez pas l'argent?

Ou avez-vous laiss~ Ie sac?

Tu ne trouves pas l'argent? Ou as-tu laisse Ie sac?

The informal command [orin is pronounced the same way as the regul~r informal form. We will give you the formal command, and you Give the informal.

Cherchez Ie pain.

Cherche Ie pain.

30

Laissez Ie sac sur Ie refrigerateur.

Telephonez au docteur. preparez une salade verte. Allez a l'nopital

Laisse Ie sac sur Ie refrigerateur.

Telephone au docteur. Prepare une salade verte. Va a l'hopital.

We have also introduced you to the verb we translated as 'must' or 'have to'. It does not follow the usual pattern. Here are some sentences in which all the forms will be presented.

Je dois preparer Ie diner.

Nous devons terminer les devoirs.

Tu dois preparer une omelette. Vous devez aller a l'hopital.

II doit chercher Ie pain. lIs doivent arriver tout a l'heure.

CULTURE KEY

I must prepare dinner.

We have to finish the homework.

You must prepare an omelette.

You must go to the hospital.

He has to get the bread.

They must arrive soon.

The French educational system is tough, and even small children have homework. Bright high-school students (those at the ~) have several hours of studies each evening. Often younger children are set down at the kitchen table and supervised by their mother (1b& disciplinarian in France), while she cooks or irons. The habit often lingers and the kitchen table is used by older students too. The evening meal is generally less substantial than the noon meal, for which schools and businesses have been obliged to leave ample time (1 1/2 to 2 hours), though this is changing. The traditional soup of the country folk is now often replaced by a variety of light meals--novel uses of leftovers, followed by tossed salad, cheese, and fruit. And of course there is bread: the baguette (French bread shape) is usually bought fresh for each meal, but there are many other breads--whole wheat and country style--anything except the plastic-wrapped cellulose familiar to Americans.

31

Dialog 4

A few minutes later, Mrs. Cordier returns home from the hospital and finds Yvette busy in the kitchen.

Tiens, Maman. Tu es de retourl

Qui, cherie. Je ne t'ai pas completement abandonnee.

Suzanne va mieux maintenant? Elle a subi une operation •••

••• et elle dort tranquillement.

Et comment va Madame Laurent?

Elle a l'air plus calme. Sa soeur a pris le bebe ••• ••• et son mari est aupr~s d'elle a l'hopital.

Mais toi, tu as l'air fatigue.

Assieds-toi, repose-toi un peu.

Mais je dois absolument preparer le repas.

Je te remplace pour le moment.

Moi, je fais la cuisine ce soir.

Tu vas me gater, Yvette.

Qu'est-ce que Papa va dire?

Il va certainement etre d'accord avec moi.

Tu dois te reposer. Jean-Paul n'est pas la? Il est alle a la

boulangerie ••• volontairementl

Il t'aime bien, ton petit frere •••

••• meme s'il te taquine parfois.

Hey, Mom. You're back!

Ye8, darLing. I haven't compLeteLy abandoned you.

Suzanne i8 doing better now?

She underwent an operation •••

••• and 8he'8 8Leeping quietly.

And how is Mrs. Laurent?

She 8eem8 more caLm.

Her sister took the baby •••

••. and her husband is with her at the hospitaL.

But YQK Look very tired.

Sit down, rest a Little.

But I ab80Lutely must fi$ the meal.

I am replacing you for the moment.

I am doing the cooking thi8 evening.

You are going to spoiL me, Yvette.

What is Dad going to 8ay?

He wilL certainly agree with me.

You have to rest.

Jean-PauL isn't here?

He went to the

bakery ••• voLuntariLyl

He Likes you, your littLe brother •••

••• even if he tea8e8 you 8ometimes.

retour

Now let's go back over the dialog phrase by phrase.

return

de retour

back

33

tu es

tu es de retour

Tiens, Maman. Tu es de retourl

completement abandonne

j'ai abandonne

je t'ai abandonnee

je ne t'ai pas abandonnee je ne t'ai pas completement abandonnee

cherie

Qui, cherie. Je ne t'ai pas completement abandonnee.

main tenant

mieux

va mieux

Suzanne va mieux maintenant?

une operation

subi

elle a subi

Elle a subi une operation •••

tranquillement

elle dort

••• et elle dort tranquillement.

Madame Laurent

va

comment

Et comment va Madame Laurent?

calme

plus calme

l'air

elle a

Elle a l'air plus calme. Ie bebe

you are

you are back

Hey, Mom. You're back!

completely

abandoned

I have abandoned

I have abandoned you

I have not abandoned you

I have not completely abandoned you

darling

YeB, darling. I haven't completely abandoned you

now

better

iB doing better

Suzanne iB doing better now?

an operation

undergone

Bhe haB undergone

She underwent an operation •••

quietly

Bhe is Bleeping

••• and she is sleeping quietly.

MrB. Laurent

iB going

how

And how is MrB. Laurent?

calm

more calm

the appearance

Bhe haB

She 8eemB more calm.

the baby

34

pris

a pIis

soeur

sa soeur

Sa soeur a pris le bebe ••• l'hopital

a l'hopital aupr~s d'elle

mari

son maIi

••• et son mari est aupr~s d'elle.

fatigue

tres fatigue

l'aiI

tu as

tu as l'air tI~S fatigue

toi

mais toi

Mais toi, tu as l'air tr~s fatigue.

un peu

toi

repose-toi

repose-toi un peu

toi

assieds

assieds-toi

Assieds-toi, repose-toi un peu.

le repas

, pIepaIeI

prepareI le Iepas

absolument

je dois

je dois absolument

taken

has taken

8istel'

her sister

Her sister took the baby •••

the hospitat

at the hospitaL

with her

husband

her husband

••• and her husband is with her at the hospitaL.

tired

very tired

the appearance

you have

you Look very tired

you

but you

But ~ took very tired.

a L i t t l:e

yourseLf

rest yourseLf

rest a L i t t l:e

you

sit down

sit yourseLf down

Sit down, rest a LittLe.

the meaL

prepare

fix the meal

absoLuteLy

I must

I absolutely must

35

Ma~s je dais absolument preparer Ie repas.

pour Ie moment

remplace

je remplace

je te remplace

Je te remplace pour Ie moment.

soir

ce soir

la cuisine

je fais

je fais la cuisine ce soie

moi
Moi, je fais la cuisine ce
soir.
gater
tu vas
tu vas gater
tu vas me gater
Tu vas me gater, Yvette. dire

va dire

Papa va dire

qu'est-ce que

Qu'est-ce que Papa va dire?

mol

avec moi

accord

t!tre d'accord

11 va

il va ~tre d'accord

il va ~tre d'accord avec moi

ceetainement

But I absolutely must fix the mea t .

for the moment

am replacing

I am replacing

I am replacing you

I am replacing you for the moment.

evening

th i 8 e v en i ng

the cooking

I am doing

I am doing the cooking this evening

me

I am doing the cooking this evening.

to spoil

you are going

you are going to spoiL

you are going to spoiL me

You are going to spoiL me, Yvette.

to say

is going to say

Dad is going to say

what

What is Dad going to say?

me

with me

agreement

to be in agreement

he is going

he wiLL agree

he wiLL agree with me

certainly

36

11 va certainement etre d'accord avec moi.

reposer

te reposer tu dois

Tu dois te reposer. l~

Jean-Paul est l~ Jean-Paul n'est pas l~?

volontairement

la boulangerie

a la boulangerie all~

il est all~

11 est all~ ~ la

boulangerie ••• volontairementl

frhe

petit frhe

ton petit frhe

bien

il aime

il aime bien

il t'aime bien

11 t'aime bien, ton petit frhe •••

parfois

il taquine

il te taquine

il te taquine parfois

s'il te taquine parfois

••• meme s'il te taquine parfois.

He will certainly agree with

me.

rest

rest yourself

you have to

You have to rest.

there

Jean-Paul is here

Jean-Paul isn't here?

voluntarily

the bakery

to the bakery

gone

he wen t

He went to the

bakery ••• vo l.un t a r i: ly!

brother

little brother

your little brother

well

he likes

he likes

he likes you

He likes you, your little brother •••

sometimes

he teases

he tease e you

he teases you sometimes

if he teases you sometimes

••• eVen if he teases you sometimeB.

Now we will go back through the dialog with just the French.

Tiens, Maman. Tu es de retourl

Dui, ch~rie. Je ne t'ai pas completement abandonnee.

37

Suzanne va mieux maintenant?

Elle a subi une operation •••

••• et elle dort tranquillement.

Et comment va Madame Laurent?

Elle a l'air plus calme. Sa soeur a pris le bebe •••

••• et son mari est aupres d'elle ~ l'hopital. Mais toi, tu as l'air fatigue.

Assieds-toi, repose-toi un peu.

Mais je dois absolument preparer le repas.

Je te remplace pour le moment.

Moi, je fais la cuisine ce soir. Tu vas me gater, Yvette.

Qu'est-ce que Papa va dire?

11 va certainement etre d'accord avec moi.

Tu dois te reposer. Jean-Paul n'est pas la?

11 est alle a la boulangerie ••• volontairementl II t'aime bien, ton petit frere •••

••• meme s'il te taquine parfois.

In this lesson you heard the forms ~ and ~, which mean 'me' and 'you' respectively. These forms·occur just before the verb. We will give you sentences with one of these forms. Replace it with the other one.

11 te taquine parfois.

11 me taquine parfois.

Yvette me remplace ce soir.

Yvette te remplace ce soir.

11 t'aime bien.

11 m'aime bien.

Suzanne va te remplacer.

Suzanne va me remplacer. Maman t'a abandonnee.

Maman m'a abandonnee.

You also heard the forms mQi and tQi, which also mean 'me' and 'you', but these occur in positions other than just before the verb. They may be used along with other pronouns for emphasis, as in Moi, je fais la cuisi~ 'I am doing the cooking'. Here are some sentences with plain pronouns. Emphasize them by adding the stress pronoun.

Tu as l'air fatigue.

Moi, je vais a la boulangerie.

Toi, tu as l'air fatigue.

Je vais a la boulangerie.

38

Je prepare le repas ce soir.

Moi, je prepare le repaS ce soir.

Tu vas mieux maintenant.

Toi, tu vas mieux maintenant.

These stress forms of the pronouns are also used ~ the verb in commands. We will give you statements with the usual form of the pronoun, and you change the statements into commands. Here is an example.

Tu me remplaces.

Remplace-moi.

Now you try.

Tu te reposes.

Repo s e+t.o i ,

Tu t'assieds.

Assieds-toi.

Tu me regardes. Vous me telephonez.

Regarde-moi.

T€lephonez-moi.

In thlS lesson you also heard adverbs, such as tranguill~~~ and compl~tement. Adverbs normally come right after the verb. Many of them end in ~, which corresponds to the English '-ly' as in 'quietly'. We will give you an adverb, and then a sentence in which to insert it.

compl~tement--Tu m'abandonnes.

Tu m'abandonnes compl~tement.

tranquillement--Madame Laurent dort.

Madame Laurent dort tranquillement. parfois--Philippe me telephone. Philippe me telephone parfois. toujours--Maman a l'air fatigue. Maman a toujours I'air fatigue.

absolument--Tu dois faire les devoirs.

Tu dois absolument faire les devoirs.

CULTURE KEY

More than 50% of married women in France work outside the home, and over 35~ of the French work force (la population active) is female. Beginning with World War I and accelerating after World War II, French women have taken on responsibilities outside the home, and have become financially and legally independent. President of the European parliament, president of the Paris Bar Association, cabinet minister, Supreme Court judge--these are roles filled by outstanding French women. But the concept of women's liberation has not been popular in France, particularly among the working class, that is 60~ of the French population. The MLF (Mouvement de Liberation des Femmes) has successfully pushed for equal wages for equal work, but French women generally desire to emphasize their femininity and refuse to compete for "male" jobs. There are no women in construction, for example, though as architects and civil engineers, women may direct such work. Still, there are relatively few women in high posts and many married women, particularly in the working class, prefer the traditional role of full-time homemaker and cook.

39

NOTES

Dialog 5

Jean-Paul, tu veux mettre la t~levision?

Jean-Paul and his father are in the living room. Mr. Cordier finishes the evening paper and decides to watch television.

Jean-PauL. ~ouLd you turn on the teLevi8ion?

Quelle chaine?

Antenne deux--il y ales actualit~s politiques.

Je ne m'interesse pas a la politique.

Tu ressembles a trop de jeunes d'aujourd'hui, Jean-Paul.

Oui, la politique nous ennuie.

Mais la politique QQit vous interesser.

C'est comme un match de football.

Pour les vieux peut-etre.

C'est le jeu qui nous passionne.

Les socialistes ont enfin pris le pouvoir.

lls vont a l'attaque du capitalisme.

Et les partis de droite cherchent une tactique de defense.

Les socialistes font des projets de loi •••

••• pour nationaliser les grandes entreprises.

Et les conservateurs vont resister jusqu'a la mort.

Jean-Paul, tu te moques de moil

Oh Papa, tu es tellement rigolo.

Peut-etre, rnais je vais me facher •••

••• si tu ne mets pas cette t~l~vision.

What ehanneL?

ChanneL t~o--there i8 the poLitieaL ne~s.

I'm not intere8ted in poLitias.

You're Like too many young peopLe today. Jean-PauL.

Yes, poLitics bores us.

But poLitia8 ~ to intere8t you.

It'8 Like a game of soaeer.

For oLd peopLe perhaps.

It'8 the game that excites

U8.

The soaiaLi8t8 have finaLLy taken po~er.

They are going on the attack again8t eapitaLiBm.

And the right~ing partie8 are Looking for a defensive taetie.

The 80eiaZist8 make

l e g i e l a t i:u e p i-o p o e a l:e ...

•• • to n a t i on a l i z e the big companies.

And the eonBervative8 are going to re8ist to the death.

Jean-PauL. you are making fun of mel

Oh Dad. you are 80 funny.

Perhaps. but I am going to get angry •••

••• if you don't turn on that teLevision.

CaLm your8eLf--I'm getting up aLready.

41

la t~lavision

Now here is the same dialog broken down into phrases.

the te~evision

mettre

mettre la talevision

tu veux

Jean-Paul, tu veux mettre la television?

chaine

Quelle chaine?

politiques

les actualites

les actualites politiques il y ales actualites politiques

deux

antenne deux

Antenne deux--il y ales actualites politiques.

la politique

a la poli tique je m'interesse

je ne m'interesse pas

Je ne m'interesse pas a la politique.

aujourd'hui jeunes

trop de jeunes

tu ressembles

Tu ressembles a trop de jeunes d'aujourd'hui, Jean-Paul.

ennuie

nous ennuie

la politique nous ennuie

Qui, la pOlitique nous ennuie.

interesser

VOllS interesser

to put

turn on the television

you ..,ant

Jean-Pau~, ..,ouLd you turn on the t.e l e v i e i on ?

channe~

What channe~7

p o l i t i c a l:

the ne..,s

the poLiticaL ne..,s

there is the po~iticaL ne..,s

channe L two

ChanneL two--there is the p o l i t i.c a L ne..,s.

poLitics

in po l-i t i e e

I am interested

I'm not interested

I'm not interested in pOLitics.

today

young peopLe

too many young peopLe

you're Like

You're Like too many young peopLe today, Jean-PauL.

bores

borea uS

poLitics bores us

Yes, poLitics bores us.

interest

intere8t you

42

doit vous int~resser

Mais la politique 42it vous int~fresser •

football

un match de football

comme un match de football

C'est comme un match de football.

peut-~tre

les vieux

pour les vieux

Pour les vieux peut-etre.

passionne

no us passionne

qui nous passionne

Ie jeu

C'est Ie jeu qui nous passionne.

Ie pouvoir

pris

ont pris

ont enfin pris

les socialistes

Les socialistes ont enfin pris Ie pouvoir.

Ie capitalisme

du capitalisme

l'attaque

a l'attaque

ils vont

ils vont a l'attaque 115 vont a l'attaque du capitalisme.

defense

une tactique de defense

cherchent

has to interest you

But politics has to interest you.

BOCCeI'

a soccer game

like a game of soccer

It's like a game of soccer.

perhaps
the old people
for old people
For old peopLe perhaps.
excites excites us

that excites us

the game

It's the game that excites us.

the po !Jer

taken

have taken

have finally taken

the socialists

The sociaLists have finally taken pOlJer.

capita lism

of capitalism

the attack

on the attack

they are going

they are going on the attack

They are going on the attack against capitaLism.

defense

a defensive tactic

are Looking for

43

dcoite

les pactis de dcoite

Et les partis de droite checchent une tactique de defense.

10i

pcojets

des projets de loi font

les socia1istes

Les socia1istes font des pcojets de loi •••

les entreprises

les grandes entreprises

nationaliser

pour nationaliser

••• pour nationaliser les grandes entreprises.

la mort

jusqu'a la mort resister

vont resister

les conservateurs

Et les conservateurs vont resister jusqu'a la mort.

de moi

tu te moques

tu te moques de moi

Jean-Paul, tu te moques de moi I

rigolo

tellement rigolo

tu es

tu es tellement rigolo

Dh Papa, tu es tellement [igolo.

fache[

je vais

right

the right wing parties

And the right wing parties are Looking for a defensive tactic.

Law

proposaLB

LegisLative propoBaLB

make

the e o o i a l i e t:e

The Bocialists make legisLative propoBaLs •••

the companies

the big companies

nationali2e

to nationaLize

••• to nationaLize the big companies.

the death

to the death

resist

are going to resist

the conservative8

And the conservatives are going to resiBt to the death.

of me

you are making fun

you are making fun of me

Jean-PauL. you are making fun of mel

funny

BO funny

you are

you are BO funny

Oh Dad, you are BO funny.

to anger

I am going

44

je vais me facher

mais je vais me facher peut-!ltre

peut-etre, mais je vais me facher •••

la television

tu mets

tu mets cette television

tu ne mets pas cette television

••• si tu ne mets pas cette
television.
deja
je leve
je me leve
je me leve deja
toi calme-toi

Calme-toi--je me leve deja.

I am going to get angry

but I am going to get angry

perhaps

Perhaps, but I am going to get angry •••

the teLevision

that teLevision

you put

you turn on that teLevision

you don't turn on that teLevision

••• if you don't turn on that te l.e o i e-i on ,

aLready

I am raising

I'm getting up

I'm getting up aLready

yourse Lf

caLm yourseLf

CaLm yourseLf--I'm getting up aLready.

Now here is the dialog one more time without the English. Jean-Paul, tu veux mettre la television?

Quelle chatne?

Antenne deux--il y ales actualites politiques. Je ne m'interesse pas a la politique.

Tu ressembles a trop de jeunes d'aujourd'hui, Jean-Paul.

Qui, la politique nous ennuie.

Mais la politique d2it vous interesser.

C'est comme un match de football.

Pour les vieux peut-etre.

C'est le jeu qui nous passionne.

Les socialistes ont enfin pris le pouvoir. 11s vont a l'attaque du capitalisme.

Et les partis de droite cherchent une tactique de defense.

45

Les socialistes font des projets de loi •••

••• pour nationaliser lea grandes entrepriaes.

Et les conservateurs vont r~sister jusqu'a la mort.

Jean-Paul, tu te moques de moil

Oh Papa, tu es tellement rigolo.

peut-etre, mais je vais me facher ••• ••• si tu ne mets pas cette television. Calme-toi--je me leve deja.

In this dialog you have encountered the object forms ~ and ~, which mean 'us' and 'you' respectively. Like ~ and ~ which you learned in the last lesson, they come just before the verb. We will give you sentences with ~, 'me'. Change them to the corresponding plural form, ~, 'us'.

La politique m'ennuie.

Le football me passionne.

La politique doit m'int~resser.

Suzanne me telephone parfois.

Madame Laurent me regarde.

La politique nous ennuie.

Le football nous passionne.

La Eolitique doit nous interesser.

Suzanne nous telephone parfois.

Madame Laurent nous regarde.

Now here are some sentences with ~, 'you'. Change them to the corresponding plural form~, 'you'.

C'est Ie jeu qui vous passionne.

C'est Ie jeu qui te passionne.

La politique doit t'interesser.

Suzanne t'a tel6phone ce soir?

Monsieur Cordier te regarde.

La t~levision vous ennuie?

La ~olitique doit vous interesser.

Suzanne vous a t~lephone ce soir?

Monsieur Cordier vous regarde.

In this dialog you encountered some verbs which regularly occur with an object pronoun that corresponds to the subject: ~ with ~, ~ with ~u, ~ with ~ and ~ with ~. Here are some examples.

Je me fSche.

Tu t'int6resses a la politique.

Nous nous moquons de Jean-Paul.

I am getting angry.

You are interested in politics.

We are making fun of Jean-Paul.

You are getting up already?

46

These are called reflexive verbs because the subject of the verb is also the object, even though this is not always evident in the English translation. We will give you some sentences with ~ ~. Change them to sentences with ~ ~.

Je m'int~resse au football.

Nous nous int~ressons au football.

Je me l~ve a six heures.

Nous nous levons a six heures.

Je me moque des socialistes.

Nous nous moquons des socialistes.

Je vais m'arr~ter?

Nous allons nous arreter?

Je vais me fgcher.

Nous allons nous fScher.

Now here are some sen~ences with ~ ~. Change them to YQUa YQUa.

Tu te moques de moi. Tu te leves d~ja?

Tu t'interesses a la thevision.

Vous vous moquez de moi.

Vous vous levez deja? Vous vous int~ressez a la television.

Vous vous arretez deja?

Pourquoi est-ce que tu te fSches?

Pourquoi est-ce que vous vous fSchez?

In the command form, the object pronouns come after the verb. !& and ~ are replaced by the stress forms mQi and tQi. Here is an example.

Tu te leves.

Leve-toi.

Now try turning statements into commands.

Tu me regardes.

Regarde-moi.

Vous vous moquez des socialistes.

Moquez-vous des socialistes.

Vous vous interessez a la politique.

Vous vous levez a sept heures.

IntereSSez-vouS a la poli tique.

Levez-vous a sept heures.

CULTURE KEY

Apart from small not-for-profit local radio stations, the media of radio and television in France, as in most European countries, are a state monopoly. Though there are commercial advertisements on two of the three stations, programming is financed by annual licenses paid by television set owners. The government appoints the major executives and though the media are technically neutral, it influences the content of news and other programs. Television hours are limited--basically 5 to 11 PH-- and a surprising amount of time is given to talk shows with serious interviews and political comment on one hand, and to

47

films on the other. Popular American shows appear--dubbed of course--with surprising frequency, with the result that the French seem to think of American life as a cross between Kojak and Dallas. The French are very politically involved. Even junior high aged children are politically aware, while high-school and university students are often devoted to a political philosophy--sometimes extremist, often leftist. Recently, there seems to be a change in that even intelligent young people seem less interested in political ideas than in personal fulfillment.

48

Dialog 6

Later that evening, Mrs. Cordier is doing some ironing to catch up on her housework, while Mr. Cordier is still watching television. There is a phone call from a very excited Yvette.

Maman, tu ne vas pas le croire.

Dis-moi quand-meme.

Je suis tellement emue •••

••• je ne sais pas si je peux le dire.

Calme-toi et dis-le, cherie.

C'est Philippe, n'est-ce pas?

Oui, Maman. Tu sais que je l'aime.

Bien, apr~s le film nous nous sommes promenes •••

••• au bord de la Seine.

Alors, Philippe m'a dit qu'il m'aime •••

•• ~et il m'a demande de l'epouser.

J'espere que tu l'as accepte.

Oui, Maman. Nous sommes fiances.

Felicitations, cherie. Je sUis tres contente.

Philippe est un gar~on sympathique.

Papa l'approuve, n'est-ce pas?

Certainement. Quand comptez-vous vous marier?

Penses-tu que nous pouvons nous marier fin septembre?

11 n'y a pas beaucoup de temps.

Mais no us allons faire de notre mieux.

Et les parents de Philippe peuvent nous aider.

Oui, nous nous sommes deja parle a ce sujet.

Mom, you ~on't beLieve this.

Te U me any~ay.

I am so e$aited •••

••• I don't kno~ if I aan say it.

CaLm yourseLf and say it, darLing.

It's PhiLip, isn't it?

Yes, Mom. You kno~ that I Love him.

WeLL, after the movie ~e took a iaa L]: •••

• •• aLong the Seine.

Then, PhiLip toLd me that he L o v e e me •..

••• and he asked me to marry him.

I hope you aaaepted him.

Yes, Mom. We are engaged.

CongratuLations, darLing. I am very happy.

PhiLip is a niae boy.

Dad approves of him, doesn't he?

CertainLy. When do you pLan to get married?

Do you think ~e aan get married the end of September?

There iBn't much time.

But ~e'LL do our best.

And PhiLip's parents aan heLp us.

Yes, ~e have aLready taLked to eaah other about this subjeat.

49

croire

Now let's go back through the dialog phrase by phrase.

believe

Ie croire

tu vas

tu vas Ie croire

tu ne vas pas Ie croire

Maman, tu ne vas pas Ie croire.

quand-meme

dis

dis-moi

Dis-moi quand-meme.

emue

je suis ~mue

Je suis tellement ~mue •••

dire

Ie dire

je peux

je peux Ie dire

si je peux Ie dire

je sais

je ne sais pas

••• je ne sais pas si je peux Ie dire.

ch~rie

dis

dis-Ie

calme

calme-toi

Calme-toi et dis-Ie, ch6rie.

n'est-ce pas

C'est Philippe, n'est-ce pas?

j'aime

je l'aime

believe it

you are going

you are going to believe it

you are not going to believe it

Mom, you won't believe thiB.

a"yway

ten

t e l l: me

Ten me anyway.

excited

1 am excit;ed

I am 80 excited .••

Bay

Bay it

1 can

1 can Bay it

if 1 can say it

1 know

1 don't know

..• 1 don't know if 1 can say it.

darling

sail

say it

caLm

ca Lm yourse If

Calm yourBelf and Bay it, darling.

isn't i.t:

It's Philip, iBn't it?

1 love

1 Love him

50

que je l'aime

tu sais

Qui, Maman. Tu sais que je l'aime.

promenes

, nous no us sommes promenes

Le film

apr ea Le film

apr~s le film,nous nous sommes promenes

Bien, apres Ie film nous nous sommes promenes •••

la Seine

bord

••• au bord de la Seine.

il aime

il m'aime

qu'il JU'aime

dit

Philippe a dit

Philippe JUla dit Philippe m'a dit qu'il m'aime ..•

Alors, Philippe m'a dit qu'il m'aime •••

,

epouser

l'epouser

de l'epouser

demande

il a demande il m I a demande

••• et il m'a demande de l'epouser.

accepte

tu as accepte tu lias accepte

que tu lias accepte

that I Love him

you know

Ye8. Mom. You know that I Love him.

walked

We took a walk

the movie

after the movie

after the movie We took a walk

Well. after the movie We took a wa l-Ie •••

the Seine

edge

• •• along the Seine.

he love8

he ZoveB me

that he love8 me

told

Philip told
Philip told me
Phi tip told me that he loves
me
Then, Philip told me that he
Loves me ••• marry

maI'I'y him

to maI'I'Y him

asked

he a8ked

he asked me

••• and he asked me to maI'I'y him.

aC!C!epted

you aC!C!epted

you aC!C!epted him

that you acC!epted him

51

j 'esphe

J'esp~re que tu l'as accept~. fiance's

nous s~mmes fiance's

Qui, Maman. Nous sommes fiance's.

contente

tr~s contente

je suis tr~s contente felicitations Felicitations, cherie. Je suis tres contente.

sympathique

un gar(fon

un garQon sympathique

Philippe est un gar~on sympathique.

n'est-ce pas

approuve

l'approuve

Papa l'approuve, n'est-ce pas?

marier

vous marier

vous comptez

comptez-vous

quand comptez-vous

quand comptez-vous vous marier

certainement

Certainement. Quand comptez-vous vous marier?

septembre

fin septembre

marier

nous marier

I hope

I hope you accepted him.

engaged

are engaged

"'e are engaged

Yes, Mom. We are engaged.

happy

very happy

I am very happy

congratuLations

Congratulations, darling. I am very happy.

nice

a boy

a nice boy

Philip is a nice boy.

doesn't he

approves

approves of him

Dad approves of him, doesn't he?

ge"t married

to get married

you plan

do you plan

when do you pLan

when to you plan to get married

aertainly

Certainly. When do you pLan to get married?

September

the end of September

marry

get married

52

nous pouvons

nous pouvons nous marier

que nous pouvons nous marier

tu penses

penses-tu

Penses-tu que nous pouvons nous marier fin septembre?

temps

beaucoup de temps il y a

il n'y a pas

11 n'y a pas beaucoup de temps.

mieux

notre mieux

faire de notre mieux

nous allons

nous allons faire de notre mieux

Mais no us allons faire de notre mieux.

aider

nous aider

peuvent

les parents

les parents de Philippe

Et les parents de Philippe peuvent no us aider.

sujet

ce sujet

a ce sujet parle

nous avons parle

nous nous sommes parle

nous no us sommes dej~ parle

Qui, nous nous sommes deja parle ~ ce sujet.

tUe can

We can get married

that We can get married

you think

do you think

Do you think we can get married the end of September?

time

much time

there ie

there isn't

There ien't much time.

better

our beet

do our beet

lJe are going

We wiLL do our beet

But we'LL do our beet.

heLp

heLp ue

can

the parents

PhiLip'B parents

And PhiLip's parent8 can heLp

U8.

8ubject

thi8 8ubject

about thiB 8ubject

t-a l.k e d

We have taLked

we have taLked to each other

We have aLready taLked to each other

Yes, We have aLready taLked to each other about this subject.

53

Now here is the dialog again with just the French.

Maman, tu ne vas pas le croire. Dis-moi quand-meme.

Je suis tellement ~mue •••

••• je ne sais pas si je peux le dire. Calme-toi et dis-le, cherie.

C'est Philippe, n'est-ce pas?

Qui, Maman. Tu sais que je l'aime.

Bien, apres le film nous no us sommes promenes •••

••• au bord de la Seine.

Aloes, Philippe m'a dit qu'il m'aime ••• ••• et il m'a demande de l,epouser. J'eSpere que tu l'as accept~.

Qui, Maman. Nous nous sommes fianc:s. Felicitations, cherie. Je suis tres contente.

Philippe est un garqon sympathique.

Papa l'approuve, n'est-ce pas?

Certainement. Quand comptez-vous vous marier?

Penses-tu que nous pouvons nous marier fin septembre?

11 n'y a pas beaucoup de temps.

Mais nous allons faire de notre mieux.

Et les parents de Philippe peuvent nous aider. Qui, nous nous sommes dejA parle ~ ce sujet.

In this dialog you encountered the past tense of some reflexive verbs. You may have noticed that they are formed using the verb 'to be' rather than 'to have' as do most verbs. Listen to these examples of present and past sentences.

Nous nous marions.

Nous nous sammes maries.

Tu te leves ~ sept heures.

Tu t'es leve a sept heures.

Now try changing these sentences to the past.

Nous nous parlons.

Nous nous sommes parIes.

Vous vous promenez.

Vous vous ~tes promenes. Je me suis moque des socialistes.

Je me moque des socialistes.

Tu t'interesses a Ia politique.

Tu t'es interesse a Ia poli t i que ,

54

Papa se fache.

Nous nous levons a six heures.

Papa s'est fache.

Nous nous sommes leves ~ six heures.

In this dialog you also encountered the object pronoun ~, meaning 'him' or 'it'. Like the other object pronouns you have learned, it comes right before the verb. The form for 'her' or 'it' is lAo Now we will give you sentences with the noun objects. Restate the sentences using the appropriate object pronoun.

Je cherche le pain.

Papa regarde la television.

Philippe aime Yvette.

Yvette va epouser Philippe. Jean-Paul a regarde la television.

Je le cherche.

Papa la regarde.

Philippe l'aime.

Yvette va l,epouser. Jean-Paul l'a regardee.

In commands these object pronouns also come after the verb. We will give you statements with object pronouns. Change them to commands.

Tu la regardes.

Tu Ie cherches.

Vous la mettez.

Tu Le dis.

Vous Ie faites.

Regarde-la.

Cherche-Ie.

Mettez-la.

Dis-Ie.

Faites-le.

This dialog also introduced forms of the verb 'to be able to'. Repeat these sentences.

I can he Lp you.

Je peux vous aider.

Nous pouvons telephoner a Papa.

Tu peux chercher Ie pain.

Vous pouvez aller a l'hSpital. 11 peut regarder la television.

lIs peuvent aider Madame Cordier.

CUl.TURE KEY

We can phone Dad.

You can get the bread.

You can go to the hospital.

He can watch television.

They can help Mrs. Cordier.

French young people mature physically later than their American counterparts, but they seem to be more mature mentally and emotionally. In part, this is because there has not been the same social pressure to date at an early age. Even nowadays, when the American youth culture has invaded Europe, French teenagers still tend to go out in groups rather than on "dates".

55

A group or ~ is formed by a very loose association of eight or ten or a dozen young people--not necessarily with equal numbers of both sexes--with similar interests. They may be in classes together and will probably have the same social background or political affiliation. They will get together as their heavy school assignments permit in 'their' cafe, to discuss ideas and plans, philosophy and politics. On the weekend they will go to the movies or a disco together. They may plan skiing or summer vacations together. The group is always changing, adding and losing members, but often exists for several years. Frequently, as the adolescent group gets older, a love relationship develops between two members of the ~. Then they simply drop out of the group, and begin serious dating.

56

Oialog 7

One morning--as happens to all of us at some time--the Cordier family gets up late. Mrs. Cordier hurries to wake Jean-Paul, who has to go to school.

Reveille-toi, Jean-Paul. L~ve-toi.

Hein? Qu'est-ce qu'il y a? Le reveil n'a pas march~.

Nous sornmes une demi-heure en retard.

Je dois me depecher alors.

Je n'ai pas besoin de me laver.

Je peux m'habiller tout de suite.

O'abord un slip propre.

Ensuite ma chemise favorite. Maman, o~ se trouve rna chemise bleu clair?

Je l'ai laissee sur rna chaise.

Elle est sale. Tu la portes toujours.

Mais je la pref~re, tu sais.

Tu peux porter ta chemise bleu fonce.

Je l'ai pendue dans la garde-robe.

O'accord. Mais ou sont mes chaussettes?

Je les ai enlevees aussi.

Elles ont besoin d'etre lavees.

Au moins elle n'a pas pris mon pantalon.

Jean-Paul, si tu cherches tes chaussures •••

••• tu peux les trouver en bas.

Tu les as laissees au salon.

Wake UP. Jean-Paut. Get up.

Huh? What's the matter? The atarm didn't work.

We are a hatf hour tate.

I have to hurry then.

I don't need to wash.

I ean get dressed right away.

First a etean pair of under~ear.

Then my favorite shirt.

Mom. where is my tight bLue shirt?

I Left it on my ehair.

It is dirty. You are aLways wearing it.

But I prefer it. you know.

You ean wear your dark bLue shirt.

I hung it in the wardrobe.

Okay. But where are my soeke?

I took them away too.

They need to be washed.

At teast she didn't take my trousers.

Jean-PauL. if you are Looking for your shoes ••.

• .• you can find them do~n8tair8.

You teft them in the Living room.

57

Now let's go back though the dialog phrase by phrase.

l~ve-toi

reveille reveille-toi

Reveille-toi, Jean-Paul. Leve-toi.

qu'est-ce que

Rein? Qu'est-ce qu'il y a? a marche

n'a pas marche Ie reveil

Le reveil n' a pas marche.

en retard

une heure

une demi-heure

une demi-heure en retard

nous s~mmes

Nous s~mmes une demi-heure en retard.

alors dep~cher

me dep~cher

je dois

Je dois me dep~cher alors.

laver

me laver

besoin

j 'ai

j'ai besoin

je n'ai pas besoin

Je n'ai pas besoin de me laver.

tout de suite

habiller

m'habiller

raise

get your8eLf up

blake up

blake your8eLf up

Wake uP. Jean-PauL. Get up.

blhat

Huh? What's the matter?

blorked

did not iao r k:

the aLarm

The aLarm didn't blork.

Late

an hour

a haLf hour

a haLf hour Late

We are

We are a haLf hour Late.

then

hurry

I have to

I have to hurry then.

blash

bla8h myseLf

need

I have

I need

I don't need

I don't need to bla8h.

right ablay

dres8

dre88 myseLf

58

je peux

Je peux m'habiller tout de suite.

propre

un slip

un slip pr opr e d'abord

D'abord un slip propre.

favorite

rna chemise

ma chemise favorite

ensuite

Ensuite ma chemise favorite.

clair

bleu clair

ma chemise bleu clair

trouve

se trouve

o~ se trouve

Maman, oh se trouve ma chemise bleu clair?

rna chaise

sur ma chaise

j'ai laisse

je l'ai laissEfe

Je l'ai laissee sur ma chaise.

toujours

tu portes

tu la portes toujours

sale

elle est sale

Elle est sale. Tu la portes toujours.

tu sais

je prefhe

I "an

I "an get dpessed pight away.

"lean

a paip of undepweap

a "lean paip of undepweap

Fipst a "lean paip of undeZ'zuear.

favopite

my shipt

my favopite shipt

then

Then my favopite shipt.

"leap

light blue

my light blue Bhipt

finds

finds itself

whepe is

Mom. whepe is my light blue .hipt?

my "haip
on my "haip
I left
I left it
I left it on my chai.r. always

you are wearing

you ape always weaping it

it is dipty

It is dirty. You are alway. wear-ing it.

you know

59

je la pref~re

Mais je la prefere, tu sais. fonce

bleu fonce

ta chemise bleu fonce

porter

tu peux

tu peux porter

Tu peux porter ta chemise bleu fonce.

la garde-robe

dans la garde-robe j'ai pendu

je l'ai pendue

Je l'ai pendue dans la garde-robe.

mes chaussettes

sont

OU sont

mais o~ sont mes chaussettes

d'accord

D'accord. Mais OU sont mes chaussettes?

aussi

j 'ai enleve

je les ai enlevees

Je les ai enlevees aussi. lave

etre lave

elles ont besoin de

Elles ont besoin d'etre lavees.

mon pan talon

pris

elle a pris

elle n'a pas pris

I prefer it

But I prefer it, you know.

dark

dark b~ue

your dark b~ue shirt

Wear

you can

you can Wear

You can weal' your dark b~ue shirt.

the wardrobe

in the wardrobe

I hung

I hung it

I hung it in the wardrobe.

my sock8

are

where are

but where are my 80cks

okay

Okay. But where are my Bocks?

a~so

I took away
I took them away
I took them away too.
washed
to be washed they need

They need to be washed.

my trousers

taken

she took

.he didn't take

60

au moins
Au moins elle n'a pas pris
mon pantalone
tes chaussures
tu cherches si tu cherches

Jean-Paul, si tu cherches tes chaussures •••

en bas

trouver

tu peux

tu peux trouver

tu peux les trouver

••• tu peux les trouver en bas.

Ie salon
au salon
tu as laiss~
tu les as laiss~es
Tu les as laissees au salon. at Least

At Least she didn't take my trouS6P8.

your shoes

you are Looking for

if you are Looking for

Jean-PauL, if you are Looking for your shoes •••

downstairs

find

you can

you can find

you can find them

••• you can find them downstairs.

the Living room

in the Living room

you Left

you Left them

You Left them in the Living Foam.

Here is the dialog again, but without the English.

Reveille-toi, Jean-Paul. Leve-toi.

Hein? Qu'est-ce qu'il y a? Le reveil n'a pas marche.

Je dois me dep~cher alors.

Nous sommes une demi-heure en retard.

Je n'ai pas besoin de me laver.

Je peux m'habiller tout de suite. D'abord un slip propre.

Ensuite ma chemise favorite.

Maman, ou se trouve ma chemise bleu clair? Je l'ai laissee sur ma chaise.

Elle est sale. Tu la portes toujours. Mais je la prefere, tu sais.

Tu peux porter ta chemise bleu fonce.

Je l'ai pendue dans la garde-robe.

61

Je les ai enlevees aussi.

D'accord. Mais o~ sont mes chaussettes?

Elles ont besoin d'etre lavees.

Au moins elle n'a pas pris mon pantalon. Jean-Paul, si tu cherches tes chaussures •••

••• tu peux les trouver en bas. Tu lea as laissees au salon.

In the previous lesson you learned the singular object pronouns ~ and 19. In this dialog we introduced the plural object pronoun ~ meaning 'them'. It too occurs just before the verb. Now we will give you sentences with singular object pronouns. Change them to plurals.

Je Ie cherche.

IlIa porte toujours.

II l'a laisse sur sa chaise.

Elle l'a enleve.

Nous l'avons laisse au salon.

Je les cherche.

Illes porte toujours. Illes a laisses sur sa chaise.

Elle les a enleves.

Nous les avons laisses au salon.

J'ai enleve ta chemise.

Now here are some sentences with noun objects, both singular and plural. Replace the nouns with pronouns.

Je l'ai enlevee.

Jean-Paul cherche Ie pain.

II porte toujours ses chemises. Nous avons laisse nos chaussures au salon.

Maman a pendu rna chemise dans la garde-robe.

Jean-Paul Ie cherche.

Illes porte toujours. Nous les avons laissees au salon.

Maman l'a pendue dans la garde-robe.

In the last lesson you encountered some forms of the verb ~, 'to say' or 'to tell'. Let's run through all the forms in sentences.

Je Ie dis , Maman.
a
Tu Ie dis , Yvette.
a
11 Ie dit , frere.
a son
Nous Ie disons a Madame Cordier.
Vous Ie dites a Jean-Paul. lIs Ie disent au docteur.

Le docteur l'a dit a Monsieur Cordier.

Nous l'avons dit a Yvette.

I tell it to Mom.

You tell it to Yvette.

He tells it to his brother.

We tell it to Mrs. Cordier.

You tell it to Jean-Paul.

They tell it to the doctor.

The doctor told it to Mr. Cordier.

We told it to Yvette.

62

Je vais Ie dire , Philippe. I'm
a going to tell it to
Philip.
Dis-Ie , Papa. Tell it Dad.
a to
Dites-Ie , votre Tell it
a soeur. to your sister. CULTURE KEY

Some Americans are horrified to learn that in other ~ultures, people do not shower, deodorize, or change clothes daily. In France, hot water is expensive, so bathing and hair-washing are certainly less frequent. Yet it is more than a question of cost. The American preoccupation with personal cleanliness is considered unhealthy and immature. Nobody would pretend that the ~ in rush hours is an olfactory paradise, but the French do not consider that the human body odor is necessarily unpleasant; indeed perfumes are intended to complement not eradicate the human smell. Body hair too is accepted as a fact of life, so women do not necessarily shave their legs or underarms. The French generally own far fewer clothes than Americans. Again, cost is a factor, but they would prefer to spend a sum of money on one stylish outfit than the same amount on several less wellmade items of clothing. A man will wear the same shirt and suit, a woman the same dress or skirt and blouse for several consecutive days. A variation in accessories is sufficient to change the look of an outfit, if that is desired. What is essential is that the clothes reflect who one is as a person, and that therefore they have 'style'.

63

NOTES

Dialog 8

That evening, when Yvette gets home from work, she discusses with her mother the bad beginning to the day, and some of the problems which might have contributed to the mistake over the alarm clock.

Alors, Yvette, as-tu pass~ une bonne journ~e?

Pas trop mal, apr~s les probl~mes de ce matin.

Heureusement, cela se passe rarement chez nous.

Avec Papa on se r~veille de bonne heure.

Heme Jean-Paul, qui n'aime pas se lever.

Papa aime commencer tranquillement sa journ~e.

Mai~ ce matin il s'en est alle •••

••• sans meme boire son caf~.

Est-ce qu'on a oubli~ le reveil?

Non, mais Papa s'est tromp~ d'heure •••

••• quand il l'a mis hier soir.

Le pauvrel 11 est si fatigu~ ces jours-ci.

Qui, et ce n'est pas seulement le boulot.

11 y a des probl~mes a l'usine, n'est-ce pas?

Qui, l~S ouvriers a la chatne sont mecontents.

Et,on parle de faire la greve.

Donc on demande a Papa de n~gocier?

Les autres ouvriers ont confiance en lui, tu sais.

Et les patrons le respectent •••

••• meme slil est syndicaliste.

Philippe t'a dit cela?

WeLL, Yvette, did you have a good day?

Not too bad, after the probLems of this morning.

FortunateLy, that rareLy happens at our house.

With Dad, you wake up earLy.

Even Jean-PauL, who doesn't Like to get up.

Dad Likes to start his day c a Lm l q ,

But this morning he went

off·· •

• •• without even drinking his coffee.

Did someone forget the aLarm cLock?

No. but Dad made a mistake on the time •••

••• when he set it Last night.

Poor guy! He is so tired these days.

Yes, and it is not just work.

There are probLems at the factory, aren't there?

Yes, the worker. on the assembLy Line are unhappy.

And they are taLking about going on strike.

So they are asking Dad to negotiate?

The other workers have faith in him~ you know.

And the bosses respect him •••

... even if he is a union man.

PhiLip toLd you that?

65

~ui, c'est l'avis g~n~ral des cadres.

Yes, it's the general opinion of the e~ecutivea.

Now we'll take you back through the dialog phrase by phrase.

. ,

une Journee

une bonne journ~e pass~

tu as passe as-tu passe

as-tu pass~ une bonne journ~e

Alors, Yvette, as-tu passe une bonne journee?

ce matin

les problemes

les problemes de ce matin apres les problemes de ce matin

mal

trop mal

pas trop mal

Pas trop mal, apres les problemes de ce matin.

chez nous

rarement

cela se passe

cela se passe rarement chez nous

heureusement

Heureusement, cela se passe
rarement chez nous.
de bonne heure
on se reveille
on se reveille de bonne heure avec Papa

Avec Papa, on se reveille de bonne heure.

se lever

qui aime

a day

a good day

8pent

you 8pen t

did you 8pend

did you 8pend a good day

Well, Yvette, did you have a good day?

thia morning

the problema

the problema of thi8 morning

after the problem8 of thi8 morning

bad

too bad

not too bad

Not too bad, after the problem8 of this morning.

at our house

rarely

that happen8

that rarely happen a at our house

fortunately

Fortunately, that rarely happen8 at our houae.

ear ly

one ",akeB up

one ",ake8 up early

With Dad, you ",ake up early.

get up

iah o L i k e e

66

qui n'aime pas

qui n'aime pas se lever

m@me Jean-Paul

M@me Jean-Paul qui n'aime pas se lever.

j our nee

sa journee

tranquillement

commencer

aime commencer

Papa ~ime commencer sa Journee

Papa aime commence~ ,

tranquillement sa Journee.

il est alle

il s'en est alle

ce matin

Mais se matin il s'en est alle •••

cafe

son cafe

boire

sans boire

sans meme boire

••• sans meme boire son cafe.

Ie reveil

on a oublie

on a oublie Ie reveil Est-ce qu'on a oublie le reveil?

heure

, trompe

s'est trompe

Papa s'est trompe d'heure

Non, mais Papa s'est trompe d'heure •.•

who does not Like

who doesn't Like to get up

ellen Jean-PauL

Ellen Jean-Paul. who doesn't like to get up.

day

his day

c c l m L y

start

l i k e e to start

Dad likes to start his day

Dad likes to start his day c a l m l q ,

he went

he went off

this morning

But this morning he went

off·· •

aoffee

his aoffee

drink

without drinking

without even drinking

• •• without eVen drinking his aoffee.

the alarm cloak

one has forgotten

someone forgot the alarm aLock

Did someone forget the alarm clock?

time

deaeived

made a mistake

Dad made a mistake on the time

No. but Dad made a mistake on the time •••

67

soir

hier

hier soir

mis

il a mis

il l'a mis

quand il l'a mis

••• quand il l'a mis hier soir.

jours

ces jours

ces jours-ci fatigue(

si fatigue'

il est si fatigue' ces jours-ci

pauvre

Ie pauvre

Le pauvrel II est si fatigue' ces jours-ci.

Ie boulot

seulement

seulement Ie boulot

c'est

ce n'est pas

Qui, et ce n'est pas seulement Ie boulot.

n'est-ce pas

l'usine

~ l'usine

des probl~mes

il y a

II y a des probl~mes ~ l'usine, n'est-ce pas?

les ouvriers

les ouvriers sont me'contents

la cha!ne

evening

yesterday

Last night

set

he set

he set it

when he set it

••• when he set it Last night •

days

these days

these days

tired

so tired

he is 80 tired these days

poor
poor guy
Poor guy! He is so tired
these days.
work
just
jU?t work
it is
it is not
YeB~ and it is not just work. isn't that so

the factory

at the factory

some p ro b t em e

there are

There are probLems at the factory. aren't there?

the workers

the workers are unhappy

the assembLy Zine

68

it. la chatne

Cui, 1~8 Quvriers a la chatne sont mecontents.

la greve

faire la greve

parle

on parle

Et on parle de faire la gr~ve.

n"gocier

on demande

on demande ~ Papa

done

Done on demande a Papa de n.rgocier?

tu saia

lui

en lui

confiance

ont confiance

les ouvriers

les autres ouvriers

Les autres ouvriers ont confiance en lui, tu sais.

les patrons respectent

le respectent

Et lea patrons le respectent •••

syndicaliste

il est syndicaliste

••• _'.e .'il eat syndicaliste.

eel.

a dit

Philippe a dit Philippe t'a dit

on the as.embty tine

Yes. the ~ork.rs on the assembty tine are unhappy.

the 8trike

go On .trike

taLk.

they are tatking
And th.y ar. taLking about
going on atrik ••
negotiate
they are a.kin9
thllY arll aaking Dad .0

So thay are asking Dad to nllgotiate?

you kno~

hi.m

in him

confidence

ha "8 C onfid ene: e

the IoIork8rs

Ths other ~orker8 have confidence in him, you know.

thll bo ••••

rll'p.ct

J".'p.ct him

And the bo •••• r •• p.ct hi. ••••

""ion Itan

h. i. a union man

that

toLd

PhiLip toLd Philip to Ld you

69

Philippe t'a dit cela?

PhiLip toLd you that?

les cadres

the executives

des cadres

of the executives

l'avis

the opinion

l'avis g~neral

Qui, c'est l'avis g~n~ral des cadres.

the generaL opinion

Yes. it's the generaL opinion of the executives.

Now here is the dialog again, without the English. Alors, Yvette, as-tu passe une bonne journ~e?

Pas trop mal, apr~s les probl~mes de ce matin.

Heureusement, cela se passe rarement chez nous. Avec Papa on se r~veille de bonne heure.

Meme Jean-Paul, qui n'aime pas se lever.

Papa aime commencer tranquillement sa journ~e. Mais ce matin il s'en est all~ •••

••• sans m3me boire son cafe. Est-ce qu'on a oubli~ le r~veil?

Non, mais Papa s'est tromp~ d'heure •••

••• quand il l'a mis hier soir.

Le pauvrel 11 est si fatigue ces jours-ci.

Qui, et ce n'est pas seulement le boulot.

11 y a des probl~mes a l'usine, n'est-ce pas? Qui, les ouvriers a la cha!ne sont m~contents. Et on parle de faire la gr~ve.

Donc on demande a Papa de negocier?

Les autres ouvriers ont confiance en lui, tu sais.

Et les patrons le respectent ••• ••• m$me s'il est syndicaliste.

Philippe t'a dit cela?

Qui, c'est l'avis general des cadres.

In this lesson you have encountered the reflexive pronoun ~, which is used with third person subjects illRl and elle(s). It is used both for singular and plural subjects. We will give you sentences which have a subject and reflexive pronoun in a different person. Change them to il.

Je me reveille de bonne heure.

II se reveille de bonne heure.

7Q

Je n'aime pas me lever.

Nous nous lavons avant de partir.

Tu dois te depecher.

Vous vous habillez tout de suite.

II n'aime pas se lever.

II se lave avant de partir.

II doit se depecher.

II s'habille tout de suite.

In this lesson you also encountered the pronoun QU, which may be translated by the English 'one', as in 'one should not beat his wife'. It may also be equivalent to the English non-specific 'they', as in 'they say that he is going to come'. It may even by used to mean 'we'. We will give you some sentences containing some other subject. Change them to sentences containing QU.

Jean-Paul doit se depecher. Papa a oublie Ie r~veil.

Nous no us reveillons de bonne heure.

Les o~vriers parlent de faire la greve.

Philippe m'a dit cela.

CULTURE KEY

On doit se dep~cher.

On a oublie Ie reveil. On se r~veille de bonne heure.

On parle de faire la gr~ve.

On m'a dit cela.

French society is hierarchical. There are still fairly distinct social classes based on a number of characteristics and values which help pigeon-hole a Frenchman for his compatriots. "Class· is something perceived, not defined. Certainly unlike America, possession of wealth is not the major factor--upbringing, family, speech, clothes, manners, education and living environment all contribute to perception of one's 'class', and so does work. The largest class in France is la classe ouvri~re, formed precisely by blue-collar workers: people who work ~anually and in factories, people with skills and trades which they hire out, people who punch a timecard. La boyrgeoisie is a sort of middle-class, but includes the relatively few members of the true liberal professions, various levels of business owners and executives, tradesmen and artisans, as well as some emDlov6s, office workers or clerks. Les pavsans are country people, rich farmers, or poor peasants. Nowadays the various categories and classes are harder to distinguish, since there is ~ore social mobility than in the past. Modern technology and the wider availability of higher education have caused a blurring of class dist1nctives. After all, is a computer programmer blue-collar or White-collar?

71

Dialog 9

The following weekend Philip is going to take Yvette to meet his parents. Yvette is a little apprehensive, but at least she has definite plans for the weekend. Jean-Paul has no such luck.

Dis, Yvette. Qu'est-ce que je peux faire ce weekend?

Que font tes camarades?

Ils par tent pour leur residence secondaire.

Et tu ne peux pas choisir d'aller avec eux?

Non, leurs parents ne veulent pas d'invites.

Ils disent qu'ils n'ont pas de place.

Tu as demande ~ Papa? Qui, et il a repondu •••

••• qu'il fait la p~che avec ses copains.

Tu sais que Philippe et moi •••

••• nous rendons visite a ses parents.

Je sais, vous ne pouvez pas •••

••• vous occuper de moi.

C'est normal.

Tu as l'air vraiment deprime, mon petit.

Qu'est-ce que tu attends?

Pour une fois j'ai fini mes devoirs •••

••• exceptionnellement je suis libre •••

••• et,tout le monde est occupe.

Ne t'en fais pas, Jean-Paul. Je vais telephoner ~ ma copine, Christine.

Elle donne une surprise-partie.

Say, Yvette. What can I do this weekend?

What are your paLs doing?

They are Leaving for their vaaat ion home.

And you can't choose to go aLong with them?

No, their parents don't want any guests.

They say that they don't have any room.

You've asked Dad?

Yes, and he rep Lied •••

••• that he is going fishing with his buddies.

You know that PhiLip and I •••

••• are visiting his parents.

I know, you can't ••.

• •• Look after me •

That's norma L •

You seem reaLLy depressed. Little one.

What do you expect?

For once I have finished my homework •••

• •• for a change I am free •••

••• and everybody is busy.

Don't get upset. Jean-PauL. I'm going to caLL my friend Christine.

She's giving a party.

Now here is the dialog again broken down into phrases.

this LJeekend

ce weekend

73

faire

je peux

je peux faire

qu'est-ce que

qu'est-ce que je peux faire

dis

Dis, Yvette. Qu'est-ce que je peux faire ce weekend?

camarades

tes camarades

font

que

Que font tes camarades?

secondaire residence

residence secondaire

leur residence secondaire pour leur residence secondaire

ils par tent

I~S partent pour leur residence secondaire.

avec eux

aller avec eux

choisir

tu peux

tu ne peux pas

tu ne peux pas choisir

Et tu ne peux pas choisir d'aller avec eux?

invites

veulent

ne veulent pas

ne veulent pas d'invites

leurs parents

Non, leurs earents ne veulent pas d'invites.

do

I can

I can do

what

what aan I do

eay

Say, Yvette. What can I do thie weekend?

pate

your paLe

ape doing

what

What are your paLe doing?

eeaondary

residence

vacation home

their vacation home

for their vaaation home

they are Leaving

They are Leaving for their vacation home.

with them

go with them

ahooee

you can

!;IOU can't

you can't aho08e

And you aan't ahooee to go aLong with them?

gue8t8

want

don't want

don't want any gueet8

thei,. parente

No, their parente don't want any guests.

74

place

ils ont

ils n'ont pas

ils n'ont pas de place

ils disent

lIs disent qu'ils n'ont pas de place.

demand~

tu as demand~

Tu as demand~ ~ Papa? repondu

il a r~pondu

Oui, et il a r~pondu •••

copains

ses copains

avec ses copains la peche

il fait la peche

••• qu'il fait la peche avec ses copains.

moi

Philippe et moi

tu sais

Tu sais que Philippe et

moi •••

ses parents

a ses parents

visite

nous rendons

nous rendons visite

••• nous rendons visite a ses parents.

vous pouvez

vous ne pouvez pas

je sais

Je sais, vous ne pouvez pas •••

room

they have
they don't have
they don't have any room
they say
They say that they don't have
any room. asked

you have asked

You've asked Dad?

repLied

he repLied

Yes, and he repLied •••

buddies

his buddies

with his buddies

fishing

he is going fishing

••• that he is going fishing with his buddies.

me

Phitip and I

you know

You know that PhiLip and I •••

his parents

to his parents

visit

We are giving

We are visiting

.•. are visiting his parents.

you can

you can't

I know

I k no u , you can't •.•

75

de moi

occuper

vous occuper

••• vous occuper de moi.

normal

C' est normal.

petit

mon petit deprime

vraiment deprime

tu as l'air

Tu as I'air vraiment deprime, mon petit.

tu attends

Qu'est-ce que tu attends?

devoirs

mes devoirs

j'ai fini

une fois

pour une fois

Pour une fois j'ai fini mes devoirs •••

libre

je suis libre

exceptionnellement

••• exceptionnellement je suis libre •••

~ occupe

le monde

tout

tout Ie monde

et tout le monde est

~~~up'.

ne t'en fais pas

Ne t'en fais pas, Jean-Paul.

copine

of me
occupy
occupy your8eLves
• .. Look after me.
normaZ
That's normal.
Little
l i t t l e one depres8ed

reaLly depressed

you seem

You 8eem really depressed, Little one.

you expect

What do you expect?

homework

my homework

I have fini8hed

one time

for once

For once I have finished my homework •••

free

I am free

e x e ep t i on a l l u

••• for a change I am free •••

busy

the wor l-d

aH

everybody

••• and everybody is busy.

don't get upset

Don't get up8et, Jean-Paul.

girlfriend

76

rna copine t,hephoner

my girlfriend

telephone

je vais
je vais tEhephoner
Je vais telephoner ,
a rna
copine, Christine. I am going

I am going to telephone

I'm going to call my girlfriend, Christine.

une surprise-partie

a party

elle donne

she is giving

Elle donne une surprise-partie.

She's giving a party.

Now here is the dialog one more time, without the English. Dis, Yvette. Qu'est-ce que je peux faire ce weekend?

Que font tes camarades?

lIs par tent pour leur residence secondaire.

Et tu ne peux pas choisir d'aller avec eux? Non, leurs parents ne veulent pas d'invites.

lIs disent qu'ils n'ont pas de place. Tu as demande a Papa?

Qui, et il a repondu •••

••• qu'il fait la peche avec ses copains.

Tu sais que Philippe et moi •••

••• nous rendons visite a ses parents.

Je sais, vous ne pouvez pas •••

••• vous occuper de moi.

C'est normal.

Tu as l'air vraiment deprime, mon petit.

Qu'est-ce que tu attends?

Pour une fois j'ai fini mes devoirs •••

••• exceptionnellement je suis libre ••• ••• et tout Ie monde est occupe.

Ne t'en fais pas, Jean-Paul.

Je vais telephoner a ma copine, Christine.

Elle donne une surprise-partie.

77

With the exception of some irregular verbs, the verbs you have used so far have had the same basic form to which you added endings for the 'we' and 'you' forms. In this lesson you have been introduced to a couple of verbs where the basic form differs from singular to plural. In verbs like repondre, 'to answer', the plural form has a consonant sound which disappears in the singular. Compare these sentences.

11s repondent. 11 repond.

They reply.

He replies.

The 'd' sound at the end is found in the plural forms, but not in the singular. Now we will give you some plurals. You try to give the corresponding singular. H~ becomes j~, and so on.

Nous r epondons. vous repondez. Elles repondent.

Je reponds. Tu reponds.

Elle r epo nd,

Now let's go the other way. We will give you the singular forms. You give the plural.

Tu reponds. Il repond. Je reponds.

Vous repondez. 11s repondent. Nous repondons.

The past tense of this verb is formed with the verb 'have' and the form repondu. We will give you sentences in the present. Change them to the past.

Je reponds a Papa. Papa me repond.

J'ai repondu a Papa.

Tu reponds a Christine?

Nous repondons a ses parents.

Papa m'a repondu.

Tu as repondu a Christine? Nous avons repondu a ses parents.

Vous repondez a Madame Cordier?

Vous avez repondu a Madame Cordier?

Ils repondent ~ leur patron.

lIs ont repondu a leur patron.

The verb finli, 'to finish', works quite similarly, except that it is an's' sound that is deleted from the plural to form the singular. Try changing these plurals to the corresponding singular.

Ils finissent les devoirs. Nous finissons Ie d!ner.

11 finit les devoirs.

Je finis le d!ner.

Vous finissez la lettre.

Tu finis la lettre.

Now try going the other way--from singular to plural.

Tu finis les devoirs?

Vous finissez les devoirs?

Je finis la lettre.

Nous finissons la lettre.

II finit Ie d1ner.

Ils finissent le diner.

78

The past tense of this verb is formed with the verb 'have' and the form fini. Try changing these present sentences to the past.

Je finis les devoirs.

J'ai fini les devoirs.

Nous finissons Ie dlner.

Nous avons fini Ie diner.

II finit la lettre.

11 a fini la lettre.

The verb 'to do' or 'to make' does not follow the typical pattern. All the singular forms are pronounced fait, but the three plural forms must be learned individually. Listen and repeat these sentences.

Je fais mes devoirs.

Tu fais Ie diner.

II fait la peche.

Nous faisons nos devoirs.

Qu'est-ce que vous faites?

lIS font une promenade.

The past tense is formed with the verb 'have' and the form fait. Try changing these present sentences to the past.

II fait ses devoirs.

II a fait ses devoirs.

Nous faisons Ie diner.

Nous avons fait Ie diner.

Ils font une promenade.

lIS ant fait une promenade.

Vous faites une omelette.

Vous avez fait une omelette.

CULTURE KEY

The weekend concept has been enthusiastically imported into France from the English-speaking countries, hence the popular ~ weekend rather than the official la fin de semaine. Schools are still in session on Saturday morning, and small stores selling the essentials--fresh bread, vegetables and meat, flowers--are even open Sunday morning. Large stores are open Saturday, but compensate by taking off another day, often Monday. Otherwise, the whole of the French working population looks forward to the weekend as a mini-vacation, as a time for leisure activity and evasion or getting away from it all. Yet Sunday is mostly a family day: visits to grandparents and other relatives culminate in the traditional Sunday-noon meal, when the family eats and drinks together for hours on end--a sort of weekly Thanksgiving! Even the new tradition of weekend cottages has a family emphasis. The family buys an old farmhouse off the beaten track, and spends years of weekends together modernizing it.

79

Dialog 10

Relationships between siblings are not always so happy. One Sunday afternoon Philip has come over, but instead of taking Yvette out, he has joined Jean-Paul in watching a soccer game on television. Yvette storms into the kitchen.

Haman, tu dois parler a Jean-Paul.

J'ai envie de lui donner une gifle.

Qu'est-ce qu'il y a maintenant?

Je lui ai dit vingt fois •••

••• que j'ai l'intention de sortir avec Philippe.

Et qu'est-ce qu'il r~pond? Rien. II continue a regarder la t~le.

Et Philippe ne fait pas attention.

Tu as tort de te facher.

Tu connais les hommesl C'est un match tr~s important.

Mais ils n'ont pas besoin ••• ••• de passe~ \·apr~s-midi devant la tele.

Si tu es sage, Yvette •••

••• tu vas les laisser tranquilles.

Ou tu peux leur apporter une boisson.

lIs ont certainement soif. lIs doivent avoir mal a la gorge.

lIs crient comme des fous.

Je vais leur dire •••

Yvette, calme-toi et ecoute. Ta m~re a toujours raison.

J~~~_p~~~~e got to speak to

I feel like giving him a slap.

What'8 the matter now?

I have told him twenty times •..

.•• that I intend to go out with Ph i l i p ;

And what doe8 he an8wer?

Nothing. He keeps on watching the TV.

And PhiLip doe8n't pay any attention.

You are wrong to get angry.

You know how men are!

It'8 a very important game.

But they don't need •••

••• to 8pend the afternoon in front of the TV!

If· you are wise. Yvette •••

• •• you are going to leave them a l on e ,

Or you can take them a drink.

They are certainly thir8ty.

They mU8t have a 80re throat.

They're yelling like madmen.

I'm going to tell them •••

Yvette, caLm down and li8ten.

Your mother i8 aLwaY8 right.

a Jean-Paul

Now here is the same dialog again broken down into phrases.

to Jean-PauL

parler

speak

81

parler ~ Jean-Paul

tu dois

Maman, tu dois parler ~ Jean-Paul.

une gifle

donner

donner une gifle

lui donner une gifle

envie

j'ai envie

J'ai envie de lui donner une gifle.

maintenant

il y a

qu'est-ce que

qu'est-ce qu'il y a Qu'est-ce qu'il y a maintenant?

fois

vingt fois

dit

j'ai dit

je lui ai dit

Je lui ai dit vingt fois •••

sortir

sortir avec Philippe l'intention

j'ai l'intention

••• que j'ai l'intention de sortir avec Philippe.

il r~pond

qu'est-ce que

Et qu'est-ce qu'il r~pond? la t~l~

regarder

i1 continue ~ regarder

speak to Jean-Pau~

you must

Mom. you've got to speak to Jean-PauL

a 8~ap

give

give a 8~ap

give him a slap

desire

I feel like

I feel like giving him a slap.

no",

there is

what

",hat'8 the matter

What'8 the matter now?

times
t"'enty times
toLd
I have told
I have told him
I have told him tnae n ty
times •.• go out

go out ",ith Philip

the intention

I intend

••• that I intend to go out with Philip.

he an8"'ers

"'hat

And "'hat does he ans"'er?

the TV

",atch

he keeps on "'atching

82

il continue a regardec la tele

rien

Rien. II continue a regarder la tlfle.

attention

fait attention

ne fait pas attention

Et Philippe ne fait pas attention.

facher

te fScher

tort

tu as tort

Tu as tort de te facher.

les hOlllll1es

tu connais

Tu connais les hommesl

important

tres important

un match

un match tres important C'est un match tres important.

ils ont besoin

ils n'ont pas besoin

Mais ils n'ont pas besoin ••• la tele

devant

devant la tele l'apres-midi

passer

••• de passer l'apres-midi devant la tele.

sage

tu es sage

5i tu es sage, Yvette •••

he keeps on wat~hing the TV

nothing

Nothing. He keeps on wat~hing the TV.

attention

pays attention

doesn't pay attention

And Philip doesn't pay attention.

to angel'

to get angl'y

Wl'ong

you ape wl'ong

You ape wl'ong to get angl'y.

the men

you know

You know how men ape!

impol'tant

vel'y impol'tant

a game

a vel'y impol'tant game

It's a vel'y impol'tant game.

they need

they don't need

But they don't need •••

the TV

in fl'ont of

in fl'ont of the TV

the aftel'noon

spend

••• to spend the aftel'noon in fl'ont of the TV.

wise

you ape wi s e

If you ape wise. Yvette •••

83

laisser

tu vas

tu vas laisser

tu vas les laisser

tranquilles

••• tu vas les laisser tranquUles.

une boisson

apporter

tu peux

tu peux apporter

leur

tu peux leur apporter

Ou tu peux leur apporter une boisson.

soH

Us ont so i f

certainement

11s ont certainement soif.

1a gorge

a la gorge

mal

avoir mal

avoil mal a 1a gorge

Us doivent

Ils doivent avoic mal ~ la gorge.

des tous

cOJllDle

cOlDIDe des tous

Us crient

11s ccient comme des fous.

dice

je vais

je vais dice

Je vais leur dire •••

to Leave

you are going
you are going to leave
you are going to leave them
quiet
••• you are going to Leave
them aLone. a drink

bring

you can

you can take

to them

you can take them

01' you can take them a drink.

thir8t

they are thirsty

certainLy

They are certainLy thir8ty.

the throat

in the throat

pain

to have pain

to have a 80re throat

they mu8t

They mU8t have a 80re throat.

madmen

Like

Like madmen

they are yeLLing

They're yeLLing Like madmen.

to te ZZ

I'm going

I'm going to tell

I'm going to t-e l L them ...

84

~coute calme calme-toi

Yvette, calme-toi et ~coute. raison

a raison toujours

a toujours raison ta m~re

Ta mere a toujours raison.

listen

caLm

calm yourself

Yvette, calm do~n and Listen.

reason

is right al~ays

is aL~ays right your mother

Your mother is aL~ays right.

NoW here is the dialog again, all in French. Maman, tu dois parler ~ Jean-Paul.

J'ai envie de lui donner une gifle. Qu'est-ce qu'il y a maintenant?

Je lui ai dit vingt fois •••

••• que j'ai l'intention de sortir avec Philippe. Et qu'est-ce qu'il r~pond?

Rien. 11 continue ~ regarder la tele. Et Philippe ne fait pas attention.

Tu as tort de te f&cher.

Tu connais les hommesl

C'est un match tres important. Mais i15 n'ont pas besoin •••

••• de passer l'apres-midi devant la tele. 8i tu es sage, Yvette •••

••• tu vas les laisser tranquilles.

Ou tu peux leur apporter une boisson. 11s ont certainement soif.

11s doivent avoir mal ~ la gorge. Ils crient comme des fous.

Je vais leur dire •••

Yvette, calme-toi et ecoute. Ta mere a toujours raison.

85

In previous lessons you were introduced to the direct object pronouns l~, la and ~, which were generally translated as 'him', 'her', 'it', and 'them'. In this lesson you encountered an indirect object pronoun lYi, which is translated as 'to him', ~to her'. It comes just before the verb, replacing phrases like a Jean-Paul, 'to Jean-Paul'. Compare these two sentences.

Papa parle ~ Jean-Paul.

Papa lui parle.

Dad is talking to Jean-Paul.

-Dad is talking to him.

Now we will give you some sentences with nouns as indirect objects. Replace them with pronouns.

Je t~l~phone a Christine. Yvette apporte une boisson a Philippe.

Je vais parler au patron. Tu as r~pondu a Christine?

Yvette lui apporte une boisson.

Je vais lui parler. Tu lui as repondu?

The corresponding plural form, 'to them', is ~. It comes before the verb and replaces phrases like a Yvette et a Philippe. Compare these two sentences.

Papa parle a Jean-Paul et a Yvette.

Papa leur parle.

Dad is talking to Jean-Paul and Yvette.

Dad is talking to them.

Je telephone ~ Christine et a sa m~re.

Now we will give you some sentences with nouns as indirect objects. Replace them with pronouns.

Je leur t~l~phone.

Yvette apporte une boisson a Jean-Paul et a Philippe.

Je vais parler aux patrons.

~~ ~~r~fpondu a Christine et a

Yvette leur apporte une boisson.

Je vais leur parler. Tu leur as repondu?

From time to time you have encountered expressions like ~ AQif, which means 'I am thirsty', though literally it might be translated as 'I have thirst'. There are a number of such expressions in French. They may strike you at first as rather odd, but they are perfectly normal in French. It is just that the normal French pattern is different from the normal English pattern. Listen to and repeat these sentences with examples of this type of construction.

J'ai faim.

Papa a soif.

As-tu envie de sortir?

Maman a toujours raison.

Jean-Paul a tort de se fScher.

Yvette a froid.

I am hungry.

Dad is thirsty.

Do you want to go out?

Morn is always right.

Jean-Paul is wrong to get angry.

Yvette is cold.

86

Philippe a chaud.

Philip is hot.

Papa a sommeil.

Dad is sleepy.

In this lesson you encountered the verb connattre, 'to know', in the sense of being acquainted. It has two basic forms in the present, like the verbs you learned in the last lesson. We will give you plural forms. Make them singular by dropping the last consonant sound of the base.

lIs connaissent Monsieur Cordier. II connaft Monsieur Cordier.

Nous connaissons son patron.

Je connais son patron.

Vous connaissez Philippe, n'est-ce pas? Tu connais Philippe, n'est-ce pas?

The past tense is formed with a form of 'have' plus ~. 'I became acquainted with Philip' would be J'ai connu Philippe. Here are some present sentences. Change them to the past.

II conna!t Monsieur Cordier.

II a connu Monsieur Cordier.

Nous connaissons son patron.

Nous avons connu son patron.

lIs connaissent Ie docteur.

lIs ont connu Ie docteur.

vous connaissez Philippe, n'est-ce pas?

Vous avez connu Philippe, n'est-ce pas?

CULTURE KEY

The French are certainly not such great sports fans (fanatics) as the Americans. Even in the lives of children, sports do not figure so prominently; studies are taken much more seriously. But every French boy--no girls, please--has his love affair with Ie foot (soccer) and every Frenchman is interested in the fortunes of the national team when World Cup competition is taking place. Soccer is the top spectator sport in all of France, though it fails to rouse quite the same passions as rugby in the small towns of the ~, Southern France. Cycling has numerous adepts who flood the roads on a Sunday morning, While the whole population takes an interest in the fortunes of the French champions such as Bernard Henault during the famous Tour de France. Two sports which have become popular because they have become more accessible, are skiing and swimming. But they are for the young and the sportifs. Older people prefer the staid pleasures of fishing and petanaue (the bowls game of the Mediterranean coast) or card games played in the local cafe.

87

Dialog 11

One afternoon, Yvette gets home to find Mrs. Cordier very excited. She has received a letter saying that her parents, who live on a farm several hours from Paris and never take vacations, are coming for a visit.

Nous avons une lettre de ta grand-mere.

Qu'est-ce qu'elle dit--Meme?

lIs arriveront la semaine prochaine •••

••• passer huit jours chez nous.

Ce n'est pas vrail

Meme ne voyagera pas seule.

Et pepe n'abandonnera pas la ferme •••

••• surtout au printemps.

Tu liras la lettre toi-m~me.

'Enfin nous visiterons Paris tous les deux.'

Mais comment qUitteront-ils la ferme?

C'est facile ~ expliquer. Ton grand-pere a et~ malade cet hiver.

Il a ete oblige d'embaucher •••

••• deux jeunes paysans pour l'aider.

Je pense qu'ils s'occuperont de la ferme •••

••• et pour la premiere fois de sa vie •••

••• P~p~ se sentira libre de partir.

Mais ou est-ce qu'ils dormiront?

Dans notre chambre, je suppose.

Et vous dormirez dans Ie salon?

Ou dans la chambre de Jean-Paul.

What does Grandma say?

They wiLL be coming ne~t week •••

••• to spend a week with us.

That's not true!

Grandma wiLL not traveL alone.

And Grandpa won't Leave the

farm •••

• •• e s p e c i a l l u in the spring.

You wilL read the Letter yourse If.

'At Last we wiLL both visit Paris. '

But how will they Leave the faI'm?

It's easy to e~pLain.

Your gI'andfather was siok this winteI'.

He was obliged to hiI'e •••

••• two young faI'm boys to help him.

I think that they will take oaI'e of the farm •••

and foI' the fiI'8t time in his life •••

••• GI'andpa will feeL fI'ee to Leave.

But where will they sleep?

In our bedI'oom. I suppose.

And you wilL sleep in the living I'oom?

Or in Jean-Paul's room.

89

grand-mhe

Now here is the dialog broken down into phrases.

grandmother

ta grand-mere

de ta grand-m~re

une 1ettre

nous avons

Nous avons une 1ettre de ta grand-mhe.

M~me

elle dit

qu'est-ce qu'el1e dit Qu'est-ce qu'e11e dit--M~m~?

prochaine

1a semaine

1a semaine prochaine

i1s arriveront

lIs arriveront la semaine prochaine •••

nous

chez nous

jours

huit

huit jours

passer

••• passer huit jours chez nous.

vrai

c'est vrai

Ce n'est pas vrai!

seu1e

voyagera

I ,

Meme voyagera

M~m' ne voyagera pas

M~m~ ne voyasera pas seu1e.

la ferme

your grandmother

from your grandmother

a letter

Ule have

We have a letter from your grandmother.

Grandma

she says

what does she say

What does Grandma say?

next

the week

next week

they wiLL arrive

They wiLL be coming next week •••

us

at our house

days

eight

a week

to spend

••• to spend a week with us •

true

that is true

That's not true!

alone

wiLL t.r a v e L

Grandma wiLl. travel

Grandma wilt not traveL

Grandma will not travel a Lone.

the farm

90

abandonnera

pepe

pepe abandonnera

pepe n'abandonnera pas

Et pepe n'abandonnera pas la ferme •••

le printemps au printemps

surtout

••• surtout au printemps.

toi

toi-meme

la lettre

tu liras

Tu liras la lettre toi-m~me.

deux

tous les deux

nous visiterons

nous visiterons Paris

enfin

'Enfin nous visiterons Paris tous les deux.'

la ferme

ils quitteront

quitteront-ils

cOlDDlent

cOlDDlent quitteront-ils la ferme

Mais cOlDDlent quitteront-ils la ferme?

expliquer

,

facile a expliquer

C'est facile a expliquer.

hiver

cet hiver

malade

will a.bandon

Grandpa

Grandpa will abandon

Grandpa will not abandon

And Grandpa won't leave the farm •..

the spring

in the spring

especiaLly

• •• especially in the spring.

you

yourself

the Letter

you wi L L read

You wiLL read the Letter yourse l.f",

two

both

we u-i l L visit

We wiLL visit Paris

at last

'At Last we wilL both visit Paris.'

the farm

they ia-i l l: Leave

wiLL they Leave

how

how wiLL they leave the farm

But how will they Leave the farm?

to explain

easy to explain

It's easy to explain.

UJinter

this L>inter

sick

91

a ete malade

ton grand-phe

Ton grand-p~re a et~ malade cet hiver.

embaucher oblige

il a ete oblig~

11 a ete Oblig~ d'embaucher ••

aider

l'aider

pour l'aider

pay sans

jeunes paysans

deux jeunes paysans

••• deux jeunes paysans pour l'aider.

la ferme

de la ferme

ils s'occuperont

je pense

Je pense qu'ils s'occuperont de la ferme •••

vie

sa vie

de sa vie

la fois

la premi~re fois

la premi~re fois de sa vie ••• et pour la premi~re fois de sa vie •••

partir

libre

libre de partir

se sentira

has been

Was sick

your grandfather

Your grandfather was sick this wintezo.

hire

obLiged

he has been

he was obLiged

He was o b l i q e d to hire •••

heLp

heLp him

to heLp him

farmers

young farmers

two young farm boys

.•• two young farm boys to help him.

the farm

of the farm

they wiLL take care

I think

I think that they wiLL take care of the farm •••

life

hiB Life

in his Life

the time

the firBt time
the firBt time in his life
and for the first time in
hiB life ••• to Leave

free

free to Leave

win feel

92

p~p~

••• P~p~ se sentira libre de partir.

Grandpa

••• Grandpa wiLL feeL free to teave.

ils dormiront

they wi l l: steep win they steep

est-ce qu'ils dormiront

oh est-ce qu'ils dormiront Mais OU est-ce qu'ils dormiront?

where wiLL they steep

But where wiLt they steep?

je suppose

I Buppose

chambre

bedroom

notre chambre

our bedroom

dans notre chambre

in our bedroom

Dans notre chambre, je suppose.

In our bedroom. I suppose.

Ie salon

the Living room

dans Ie salon

in the tiving room

vous dormirez

you wiLt e l e e p

Et vous dormirez dans Ie salon?

And you witt steep in the Living room?

de Jean-Paul

of Jean-PauL

la chambre de Jean-Paul

Jean-Paut's room

Ou dans la chambre de Jean-Paul.

01' in Jean-Paut's room.

Now here is the dialog one more time, but without the English. Nous avons une lettre de ta grand-m~re.

Qu'est-ce qu'elle dit--M~me?

Ils arriveront la semaine prochaine •••

••• passer huit jours chez nous. Ce n'est pas vrail

Meme ne voyager a pas seule.

Et pepe n'abandonnera pas la ferme •••

••• surtout au printemps.

Tu liras la lettre tOi-meme.

'Enfin nous visiterons Paris tous lea deux.'

Mais comment quitteront-ils la ferme? C"est facile a expliquer.

93

Ton grand-p~re a ~te malade cet hiver. II a ete oblige d'embaucher •••

••• deux jeunes paysans pour l'aider.

Je pense qu'ils s'occuperont de la ferme ••• ••• et pour la premi~re fois de sa vie •••

••• pep~ se sentira libre de partir.

Mais ou est-ce qu'ils dormiront?

Dans notre chambre, je suppose.

Et vous dormirez dans le salon?

Ou dans la chambre de Jean-Paul.

In this lesson you heard the words for a couple of the seasons. Listen and repeat all four.

le printemps l'~te

spring

summer

l'automne

autumn

l'hiver

winter

To say 'in a season', you add ~ to the names that begin with a vowel sound.

en automne

en hiver

You add gU to the word for spring that begins with a consonant.

au printemps

You have so far been using the future tense formed with ~, 'to go'. In this lesson you have encountered the simple future tense. This tense is formed by adding endings which are very similar to the present tense of 'to have' to the future stem. The future stem is identical to the infinitive, the 'to do' form when it ends in =iL as in~, 'to sleep' or ~, 'to leave'. Listen to and repeat these phrases.

je dormirai

I will sleep

tu dormiras

you will sleep

il dormira

he will sleep

nous dormirons

we will sleep

vous dormirez

you will sleep

ils dormiront

they will sleep

94

For verbs which end in~, such as repondre, 'to answer', you add the endings to the infinitive too, but the final ~ is dropped from the spelling. For example:

descendre

je descendrai

mettre

je mettrai

Finally, for the vast majority of verbs where the infinitive ends in ~, the endings are added to the infinitive. This causes no problem in the spelling, but entails a change in the pronunciation of ~. The ~ is silent or almost silent. Listen to these examples of infinitives and future forms.

visiter

je visiterai

abandonner

j'abandonnerai

voyager

je voyagerai

Now we will give you some present forms. Try making them future.

je visite

je visiterai

tu voyages

tu voyager as

il aide

il aidera

nous passons

nous passerons

vous abandonnez

vous abandonnerez

ils donnent

ils donneront

CU~TURE KEY

Since World War II, rural life has changed beyond recognition. Many farms, parcelled up by inheritance laws which provided for equal division of property among children, were too small to be viable economically. ~and has been regrouped; enterprises have been formed to exploit the land with modern machinery; European Common Market tariffs have encouraged specialization, especially in cereal production. The results of the changes have been mixed. While some have profited, many older farmers are deeply in debt and agricultural workers generally have the lowest standards of living in France. Above all, many younger people have left the countryside for good--seeking the comparative security and ease of city life, factory jobs, better schools, and easy access to leisure and pleasure. The "rural exodus· as it has bee~ called, has seen the rural population drop at a rate of 4S a year. Farmworkers decreased from 21S of the working population in 1954 to about 7.6S in 1975 and continue to diminish in number. For those who have left the countryside, there has been the possibility of greater wealth and better education for their children. Physical mobility is another factor in social change.

95

Dialog 12

With the grandparents coming from the country, the Cordiers have a lot of preparation to do. They clean the apartment, plan sightseeing trips, and--Mrs. Cordier's special concern--think about the meals that will have to be served.

Cheri, je devrai faire le marche demain.

C'est a dire, mon petit chou •••

••• que tu auras besoin d'argent.

Qui, mes parents viendront dans deux jours.

Si je ne vais pas aux magasins •••

••• je n'aurai rien a leur offrir.

Je n'ai plus de nourriture a la maison.

Sans blaguel Et ton garde-manger?

Et ton frigo? Et ton freezer?

Tu les videras avant demain?

Non, mais nous devrons faire un effort.

Tu sais que mon p~re aime bien manger.

Qui, et il pense que les citadins •••

••• n'ont jamais de bons repas.

J'irai donc demain a l'epicerie.

Et je ferai des commandes ••• •• ~che~ le boucher et ~ la cremerl.e.

Et moi, je serai oblige •••

••• d'aller voir Ie marchand de vin.

8i non, ton p~re mourra de soifl

II ne boira jamais Ie vin •••

••• qu'il apporte comme cadeau.

Dar~ing, I'~~ have to do the shopping tomorrow.

That is to say, my pet •••

••• that you wi~~ need money.

Yes, my parents wi~~ be coming in two days.

If I don't go to the

stores .... 4o

••• I won't have anything to give them.

I don't have any more food in the house.

You're kidding! What about your pantry?

And your fridge? And your freezer?

You wi~~ empty them by tomorrow?

No, but we wi~t have to make an effort.

You know that my father tikes to eat iae l l ;

Yes, and he thinks that t-o um e f o l.k: •••

••• never have good meats •

So tomorrow I'tt go to the grocery.

And I' L t p l.ac e orders •••

••• at the butcher's and at the dairy store.

And I witt be obtiged •••

••• to go see the wine merchant.

If not, your father witt die of thirst!

He wiLt neVer drink the wine ......

.•• that he brings as a gift •

97

Now we will break this dialog down into phrases for you.

demain

le marche

faire

faire le marche'

je devrai cheri

Cheri, je devrai faire Ie marchl demain.

chou

mon petit chou

dire

c'est ~ dire

C'est a dire, mon petit chou •••

argent

besoin

tu auras

tu auras besoin

••• que tu auras besoin d'argent.

jours

deux jours

dans deux jours

viendront

parents

mes parents

Qui, mes parents viendront dans deux jours.

les magasins

aux magasins

je vais

je ne vais pas

si je ne vais pas

Si je ne vais pas aux magasins •••

offrir

tornorI'OlP

the market

to do

do the 8hopping

I'LL have to

dar Ling

DarLing, I'LL have to do the 8hopping tomorrow.

cabbage

my pet

to 8ay

that ia to aay

That i8 to 8ay, my pet •••

money

need

you ia-i l L have

you wiLL need

••• that you wiLt need money •

days

two days

in two day8

witL be coming

parents

my parent8

Ye8, my parent8 witt be coming in two days.

the 8tores

to the 8tores

I go
I don't go
if I don't go
If I don't go to the
e t o r e e •••
offer 98

leur

leur offrir

j'aurai

rien

je n'aurai rien

••• je n'aurai rien ~ leur offrir.

la maison

a la maison

nourriture

j'ai
je n'ai plus
je n'ai plus de nourriture
Je n1ai plus de nourriture ,
a
la maison. garde-manger

ton garde-manger

et ton garde-manger

sans blague

Sans blaguel Et ton garde-manger?

Ie freezer

ton freezer

Ie frigo

ton frigo

Et ton frigo? Et ton freezer?

demain

avant

avant demain

tu videraa

tu lea videraa

Tu les videras avant demain?

un effort

faire

faire un effort

to them

offer them

1 «ci i have

nothing

1 won't have anything

••• 1 won't have anything to give them.

the hou8e

in the h ou e e

food
1 have
1 don't have any more
1 don't have any more food
1 don't have any more food in
the h ou e e , pantry

your pantry

what about your pantry

you're kidding

You're kidding! What about your pan try?

the freezer

your freezer

the refrigerator

your refrigerator

And your fridge? And your freezer?

tomorrOlJ

before

before tomorrow

you wiLL empty

you witt empty them

You witt empty them by tomorrow?

an effort

to make

make an effort

99

nous devrons

nous devrons faire un effort

Non, mais nous devrons faire un effort.

manger

bien

bien manger

aime

mon phe aime

mon p~re aime bien manger

tu sais

Tu sais que mon p~re aime bien manger.

les eitadins

que les eitadins

il pense

Oui, et il pense que les eitadins •••

repas

de bons repas

ont

jamais

n'ont jamais

••• n'ont jamais de bons repas.

l'~pieerie

demain

j'irai

done

j'irai done

J'irai done demain ~ l' ~pieer ie.

les eommandes

des eo;;unandes

je ferai

Et je ferai des eommandes •••

We wi LL have to

we wiLL have to make an effort

No, but we wiLL have to make an effort.

to eat

ue l l:

eat weLL

Likes

my father Likes

my father Likes to eat weLL

you know

You know that my father Likes to eat ue l l ,

townsfoLk

that t o wn e f o l-k

he think.

Yes, and he think. that t o un e f o l.k: •••

meals

good meaLs

have

neVer

neVer have

••• never have good meaLs •

the grocery

tomorrow

I'LL go

so

so I'LL go

So tomorrow I'LL go to the grocery.

the orders

80me orderB

I wiLL make

And I'LL pLace orders •••

100

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