[;L[;CTRICAL [;NGIN[;[;RING

DROBL!;MS & SOLUTIONS

Ninth ~diLion

Lincoln D. Jones, MS, PI::: I::lec. I::ng.

llii.s. pub-1iC'alioo h, oiks,.igned to pro'o'~~e .aceurm-e ;md ;nu!l,rnitalj'l'c infrnmMioo ~11 rc:iW'd .0 '!be ;5.\L'bject monee covered. II is Klld .... ilh lbe 1.lI'lde~'iI!Il'IdlI'l8 Ul;,l,1 the l'U'blif.het i~,:M!; 'f!AI!Pl~ ill ro~f1:S: iA!:S3!. ii.CC()I.II1.til'l£, Of OIIll.E:r 'J'I'Of-e:~K_i.QD;;J;l ;S4!1'\'~c(:_ If Legal :J.G'Ii'LCII: or other 1t:tpc11 usststcrcc ls required, IIx:

S(1\,jl!~S gf,;), ~~.el:!i p:roft=~~oo.nI p=1SO!l ~lIld be :scu,gbl.

P'fesIdent: Ro)'tipl'ef

Vk:erPn!!IIiMnt of ProdRd lh!niopml:n1 :l11d Publ6hing:; Bvan M, Bun.c:rfh:W Ed...itorQlil ~I M8IL8f!:e1': Lauric ~cGbire

birHlo.- of Prududioo; Daniel Frry

Cmilh'1: Dfrec;:lon Lm:y Jenkins

COpyOjOI 2005 b}' K...3pl~flill AE-C gducetton • a d~~-i"ti('m of D.::1IJ'bom, F·in:il1dil.i; Pub!i~i"i.::.ln.t,"

'Pubiisbe-tJ by Kapl .. ti'" AEC 1:::1.3!.!c.<U..I,(ln.

c dh .. ts! on of Denmorn fj I'!~i;;lll f'lJbliS.ning., [I"JI.":'~. it 1\l!1l1:tJl Pmr~~it,Jniilll t:Dm~I1)i'·8

30 S(lLlti'l Wad:!;!;' Dtlv~ C.himgo .• IL 60606-7.u!: I

(3 Il) 8)64400 WI'I","',kapr~t-Ct'jlgll1f:ern~a:.CQm

All rtgbrs reserved. The '~,I or thiS i'"J'bUC-dlion. or iiI:!.>' !'Join Ib~~f, mJ~' t:IiJ11 be ~JK'I:xI~~"i.! it'! a1~~' IJI;:LrU',ef Wh;)L~r wW'OOl "",i"U~1'I permi:gs;i.on ill 1,1 .... i1·jll,g jmm I~ ~'hli'§;RI:f".

05 06 07 10

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

CONTENTS~

CHAp'TER

CH.A,pTEA

Introd! lotion v

Fundamental Concepts and Techniques 1

SC'JlmONS J,2

SLCWMtrNDSiJ REFERENCES 41

Machines 43

PEIQBf EMS 4(j

power Distrib! !tioD 73

Electmnics 93

E'toRLj=MS 93 SO'J'l7t)M; 99

AE{X)MMENJ}EQ RfFEBENCF~ ,1'1

Control Systems 113

pRC'JR1 HA5i 1'3 50! ! mONS ~19

Computing 135

Ii

U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes Materia

LCHA.F?TEB D

LC H A-PIES D

Digital System 145

sa I: moNS 1 Ed]

Communicatit'>n Systems 159

,!3fO)MMENn~D REEF8ENCFS '174

Biomedical Instrumentation and Safety 175

:PAM EMS 17·5

Engineering EC!3Inomics 179

U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes Materia

Introduction

Donald G. Newnan

OUTLINE

HOW TO USE 11"<15 BOOK v

BECOMING. A PROFESSIONAl. ENG.INEER VI E.""'-"">tiOn • Fundamen_ 01 Eng""",,"ng (FElan Exam • Esperlerce _ Profess""," Eng ........ Exam

ELECTRJCAL ENGINEEAlNG PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER EXAM VI &:_atnlr'\Gl'uon Oev-elopllent '.; e.x.a_mh:"~UiOn Sti'"l.JC't1"l'"e • Exam

Dates. B:.arnProcedur€' _ P,repaRlg for EV1d Taking tile :E:o::arn .. E~ Clay Preparations !!!i \'\Itlat to Taka to tue Exam

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

£'eclric(lll3.n$ilU!f..ri~g.' Proble,m .. s ,& So/!.,fons :ond its companion texts form a three'Iep'ppn,,,,,h I<> p"'pariog fanh. Principles "nd Pt""ticeoi' Engiueeriug (PE) exum:

• ElCClric.ailill,g,illcerirlfJ: Ucen.$t R(nli~w cocteius [he conceptual review 'Of electrical engineering topics for the exam, in,eluding key terms, equations, analytical methods Lind reference til.II. .a. Because it docs not contain problems and sclurjons, the book cnn be brought into the open-book PE exam as one of )'ClU r references.

• FJecln'C.QJ Engilleenrlf;" Problem..s & Sotmions provides problems for you to 'solve in order 10 test your understanding of concepts and rechniques. Ideally, you should sol v Co these problems after completing your conceptual review, Then, compare your solution to lbe detailed solutions provided! to g,Cl a sense of bow well you have masmrcd the content and whallopi"cs you may want [0 review further.

• Ele't:lrifal &: Compmer Hugbtet.rin,g: Sampl" £;tom provides complete morni.ng uttd efternoon exam sections :!1Q that you can simulate the experience of taking the 'FE lesl, within its actual time consnamts and with (IU-estiQUS Ihal mooch tho test fonnal. Toke the sample ";001 .flcr you're sntlsfied with your review of concepts: and problem .... :mlving techniques, to test your readloess [or the real exam.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

VI I~

BECOMING A PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER

To achieve registration as a professional eugiacer there arc four distinc; steps: (I) educntion. (2j the Fundamentals of F.ngine.ringJF.ngioeer.ln-T",inillg (FlY!':IT) exam, (3) professional cxpencnce und (4) the, prof ess ional engineer (PI!) ... m, more lorrnally known as the pnncip.le" .JlO Pro",i ce of Engineering E".m. These steps are described in lbe following sectl ons,

Education

The obvious appropriate educnlon is: a B.s. degree In electrical engineering from nn uccreditcdcullege or university, This is not an absolute rcquircment.Altcmntive, but less acceptable, education is a B.S. degree in $(Hllf!thin,g other than electrical cn,gl.n~ringi or a degree from D non-accredited Institution, or four years of educanon but no degree.

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE/Ern Exam

M~t people are required to take and pass this eight-hour mulnple-choice examiaution, Oi ffereu I ,Iale, call it· by different no",", (Fundamentals of Engineering. B.LT .. or larem Engi.nee.). but the exam is I"" same ln .J! states. It is prepared and graded by [he National Ctluncil of Examiners for EtIgineenng, and Surveying (NCEES). Review materials for this C.'\aIIl iII'C found in other Engineering Press ~)Qh such as Fundamt:lIlals of £ngjneeriIJg: FE Exam Prepamlrmr.

Experience

Typically on. muS! have four yea" of accep .. ble experience before boing permitled to take the Professional Engineer ex om (Cnlifcmia requires only two years). Both the length and churucrer of the experience will be examined. ]I may, of COUI"SC. lake- mote than four year.; to acquire r cur years of acceptable experience.

ProfessIonal EngIneer Exam

The second national exam i~ called Principles nnd Practice of Engir'tt::cring: by NCEES. but just about e\:l~l')'{)ne else calls it the Professional Engineer or P,E. exam. All St.ah~S. ph1'S Guam. the Di:suicl 'Of Cofumbla, and Puerto Rico. use the same NCEES exam.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER EXAM

The reason for passing law, reg"'aling the pracnce of civil."gin~ring is to protect the publi-c {rom incompetent p,raclitioners. M,~t suues require engineers working on project, involving public .,(ety to be reglstered. Of to workunder the sepervision of'; registered professioeal engineer. In addition, many pri, .. te companies encourage or require engiaeers in ltieir employ 1,0 pU.fS"1J1! regiseauonas a l.1l:Jtterofprores._~iollal OO\retOpmenL Engineers In" pri ~.ol.e prectice, who wish to consult or sc.=vc as eapert w.itne< ses, typically "'0 must be registered, There is no nalional registration law; registration is based on individual stnteIaws and is odntioi'te!'<d by board, of regjSU;ati~)n in each of lhe snnes. A ItSling of she slate bo;l.t'(_1s is in T'_.Jbl~ LL

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

AK AI. AR ~Z CA CO cr OC Ut: 1'1. OA GU HI fA !O n, m KS KY LA MA MO fl,fi!

"'I

NC NO N5 NH Nl No.1 NV NY

oH OK oR FA PR RI SC

WI,!,-'U·,4ccd.~~i"lI.:,:ak"'Llsloeclpae,I.l1lm WWW.l:ICb.,~"'I.c..a.l.m

""""",,,,·.'~1AI~ ... r.U1lpeB. WW'\l.'..sI.:!Ili!.3[".~J:;. OC:l.';;:L~;m:Jpt=lslooJlt:KI~!m do~<L.<-;tu.I~.l::o.1Isltngi~1'!I ~~I"'\'~yi.1r.;. ~~ilI~,1,:ot"Ll:sl""r

.......... '"w.~~.Li~ WVIW.fbp:.oqj.

.......... 'w.~os,.i'!!U!~e,~.1!~l'lbl~~w v.''fi1JII.!;Uiiilm·p:=;;I;~~,(!I'g w",w_hlrWnJi_I!:IJ-\"dc--t'alpbl ~~"'w_Ja.Ll~I!:llml"fimt'lltfr..':Otn wW\\'_~~.jd:.lIs1ipc=i~~,hAm w,*'W,ltpr~.Blc.iJ.U~ w~'_iIl.go~·!pl~.;k/~_Clgill.~ W\,1,o~'.~~~.or;.I\!ib1p 'Www_~)'~I~.f!.e,ky.u1 wIlo"W_bpMC(!I,M

WW'IA·_~~1(!.:rn..a..I,!~rc:~ w';lo.".".dllr.~~ti!.md_lIi www_!lm_f~~S~1Il~ls.m .. teeusueam w'l.\c..".._michi~:m'!:l0"l-/d~.1601."j'~ ~ 548 105:S1 ~ ~ 299::L I "Ol6-_OO .. 'htrnm

w ..... 'W,a.;:I~I~kI.:-.1';lIt~_.mlt.Ll:-;. w""'W_flr.,rnc.go v ,I.J.PI=l~ln.ll!ip

W'l.\c ',peJll~ .. 1-t:lt~nu_1J1

"' ".._djS~mll~Jn(I01;ana.lo":om'"dJUbibJ]j,,~

bs.d~,b0.3n1.1pc_LOOar~rd=I1:11£'C:·h.m "-"'IIt""_'~nC"bi:ol:i.utj

w'W"W.I:li."lpclibmrd·orw

W\l.~'.I;;;!'.J.[;I.e.!IIe.I,JS w~w_~t:I."I(!.:nh.u!Jj1'bC1:lfd/hOTn(!_htm

..,_,' ......... '_~tlIl-=-.lIj.ll.,~

W"!;"W_5t,,"~~nm.u~ ww·w·.but::.bl.a~.IW,IJS

w'P, ........ Op,I1}'~,~

'W'I,I.w.oojOf.'Cf'S.oq: w~\'p¢I~c'!'lilI!c:".Ok..iJ!I W\I.'\Ii,()oSOeeiS.(III'g w"",',Ll~~liIo~p;:i.,lJ3len~ P.O.lio.;;; .ll7L SitlJ JUW1 (X»)4

w "\It\.bdp.:5U~_n_lJ~

""'· W.I~t1,J;I:iI.~~.i;C,'1riO.1iP()I,Jf~LIRt"Ji;

(9(17146)·1 ,,~ ~J34) l4-2.,:5~68 {~I.)!'J::-;"2-:2:SJol. {W'I )tI<-49J<) f9'16l2Cl.'J-~2~W {JO..lJ 1l:94-77&i!: (806,113-61"5 fro2·l 442 ..... ."l;W nOll J6lI ·6)0, (~(lll~ HllOll ("8121)'·1')0 \61110-16·1IJK (BOIII186·l1Gl {IL\ll81-411~ (2'08) j,J~-]~60 {:211) ls.5--llSJi·i (311) lJ:i!-ZW!.O {'j'!l~l 296·3H!il {:iO.lIl7l-'@l (:n511;l15.b49L (61"7) n7-W.~.7 (~10ll:H"..fJ]n (207)2:8]-J~ {511J::!:41·'LJ2:H

[65l12%-l3&' (5731111.(10.17

[I)J 1)-{tJ.70) ~.H-:5;!1.91 (WlllSiHll(,O)

[4()6) ~41~2J67

(919) I! 1-4000 flOl) 25:1!1·-07&fJ NO.2} 4J 1 ~;w.i t (00.1)'"271-22'1"9 19"1"""""'" t:S18}S27-i:S6t (77S)6lIs·m, (l·18) "'-311%

{CjI.4}~.36j! (4()')ll'I·lS" Im:l)l6l·lOM (717) 18J·1(1.19 (787)n:l:·:2.1,l2 140)1)21.2-2501 11101) 8%4422

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

SO 'WWW_It.ak,:sd.ll:!ldol.ibo:m:iskfl.S!irlt.."Cl"

TN "'Ww_~tI!IIc.'!rty.Y'OIJltlmcroe.rbl),t_nW.t!e

'IX W'rh"'W_tbpc.~al~.t..,;"ul

LIT """"",_dnpLl.ltah,iQ\I

V'~" "WWW".$!:.!!II=. ~.l.Wdop-

Vt "'\IfW.4b . .j:O\'.'L'iJ'rIro--K1i,.hl!1J1

\;'T W'iVW."tpror~~i-ol:llh,~

\VA '''\vw.401.w;!i.!lQv~:s:il'e1:rsf~r...I!l.fml11.him

WI 'W'IlIW_dd!;t:B.U-_ ..... <i..w:

WV ""IiV'W_~.DrB

WY W1Iow .... -rdl.uwyu.cdIllWTd~..btml

(""') '""-1>10 (~lll14I-lT.!1 (>I2j_Tlli (Wlj,,-,'l-@1 (gQ4)30HSI4 (WI) 77>-lm (Wl)"2In!~ (lO(l)OO4-'l'!) (600) ze •. 7006 (3t><)).'II-J~~ (300) m·6'SS

Examinatien Develepment

Inltlalfy the states wrote lheirown e:\ami!1alion~h tnn beginnio.g in J966lhe NCEES took 0'.' the, .. sk for some of tho 511110'. Now the NCEES exams are used by all states. This gready eases the .ability of an engjneer 10 move from aile state I.Q Molh<r and achieve registralion in (he ."""'. state,

The dey.lop""",' or !be ""glneeting exam, is !he responsibility of the NCEES Corruniu« 00 Elcomirnl~ons for Profe>Si<mal ElIgi1le= Tbe conunteee ts com.,.,..,.. of people from industry. consulting. Wld oduc:llion, plus consultants Wld ,ubject mailer experu. The, swting. point for !he .. am is • task M.ly';" """"'Y. whlch NeEFS does nt roughly S- tc I Q-ye.or intervals, People in indw.try.oonwlting" and education are surveyed to determine what cl v ll eng~ do and what knowledge is noeded. From 'hi' NCIiliS do,elops WN' ; I cans • "malrix of knowledge" INt form, the basis for lhc exam suucnire described in lhc· nex.t secuoa.

The actual exam question ore prepared by ,he, NCIlES comminee mem bers, subject mauer experts, and 0"' er Yolunl .. rs, Ali people participating must hold professional "'Bi'tralion. Using workshop meeting. ond correspondence by m.il. the questions are wriUen and cjrcujated for review, The problems relilte ro current professional .s:It"ml1ion:s, Tbey are structured to quictly orient one EO the require. meets, so UtIlt lbe examinee: can judg.e whether he or she can suct;-es..~fully solve it, AI"'ough based on an undemanding of eng; ueering fundamentals, the prublcrns require the: application of practical profesS-iunal j udgment and i nsigln.

Examination Strueture

Th.e morning breadth exam conststs of 40 mulliple-choice que.stiQns covering the fcl 100lJiog areas of electrical engineering (relarlve exam weight for each topic is shown in parentheses):

• 1lllSic .electriclIlengineerin8 (45%). This "rea encompasses economics, ethics. professional practic e, ...rely, electric circ-uit'. electric .od rncgreuc Ihoo!}, "nd "PI'.lkaiions. and <Ii gil.1 logic.

• Elccucnics, clectmnic c.lmuits end components (20%).

• Controls end coaenenlcntlon systems (15".i\1)

• Power (2()\lf,)

You will have four hours to complete the breadth exam.

U rheberrcc htlich gesc h utztes M ate,i a

The nftcmoon deplh exam ls .ctually three exams:. you choose jhc depth exam you ",-ish to rake. The depth exams are:

• Compu!ers

• Electronics. Controls, and Communications

• Power

Clearly. you should choose the exam t.h.i:J:r best matches your training and professional practice. You will have four hours 1.0 answer the 40 muhlplc-chuicc qUI?S~ lions tha1 make up me depth exam.

Both the brcedrh and depth qUICSltOTlS Include four pesslble an:!;wcn; (A. B, C! D) and are objectively scored by computer.

For more tnformatlon 011 [he topics. and subtopics and their relative weights on the 'breadth and depth pcnions, visft the ~CE.ES web.she at www.nc~:s.mg_

Exam Dates

TIl< Natit>Nll Council of Exumtners for Engineering and SUI"e)'ing fNCEES) prepore. Profoss;on.l Engineer exams for use on al'rid.y in April and Ociober or e ach year. Somestate beards oominister Ihe esam twice il j'r:ar in tlleir Mme. whereas others offer the el.1lm once a year_ The scheduled exnm dates are:

Ap~1 OfIobfr
lim Il' 28
WOO lJ 27
2001 20 26
WJlj II 24. People seeking [0 take a particular exam musr apply to the state board several months in advance.

Exam Procedure

Before the: morning four-hour session begins. the proctors pass nul an exam booklet and solutions pamphlet to each cxamlnee.

The solution pamphlet conlaim. grid sheets on rlghr-hund (XIge:'ii_ Only the "ark on the se grid sheets will be gmdcd, The len-hnnd rag,,-' are blan' and arc to he used for scratch paper. The scnnchwork wlll not he considered in the !'icming_ lf yO" finish more 110m 30 minetes ea rly. you may nrrn in the bookle ts and I ea ve, In the lasl 30 minutes. however, yOII must remain (,0 'he end 10 ensure a quiet en v iroruuent ({ir aU i..hi)Se still "-"Q_rking and the ord~tly cullectiun ofmateri!lhi_ The afternoon session will begin fotlowing a one-hour lunch break. 'The

afternoon exam booklet will be dlstriboted along, with an answer sheer.

Preparing for and Taking the Exam

Give yourself I_LmC: 1.0 prepare for the: exam in a calm and "Inhumed, Wily. Many cillldid:ncs like 10 begin several months before the :lema] escm. Target 3. number OfOO1HSo per day Of week !h3( you will study, and reserve blocks of urnc for doing so. Qe.alillg a re v icw schedule on a topic-by-topic baslsis u good idea. Remember [0 allow time for both re v lewing concepts and SoI:lh:ing practice problems,

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ate,i a

x Imroo~

In nddltlon to review work that you do on your' own, you l1tJy want to join a study group or take- a review COUI1ie., A group study environment might help you ,my cornmiued 1.0" "udy plan ond schedule, Group members can create addilioool practice problem. for on" ""other .nd .1>0", lips ond lriok s.

Yn'U may want to prioritize the time you spend reviewlng specific topics occording to Iheir relarive ""eight on the e xa m, as i""ntified by NCEES, or by your areas of relative sttt:nglh and weakness,

People familiar with the: psychology of exam laking have several suggestions; for people as they prepare to take an exam.

1. Exam (aking involves malty, two .... kllfs. OI1~ is tbe sklll or lllustrutlng knowledge that you knew, The other is the skill of exam t~ldTL_g. The firs.l may be enhanced by. systematic review of the technical material, EI<.",·taking skills, on I:he other hand, may be Improved by practice with similar problems presemed in the exam form.'.

2. Since there is no deduction for guessing on the, multiple choice problems. answers should be gi v en for all of them. Even when one is. going to guess, 11 logical approac::h i ... to attempt to fir.-it climillale 000 or two of the four alternarlves. If'this can be done, the chance of selecting acorrect answerobviously improve, from I. in 4 to .1 in 3 or I in 2.

3. Plan ahead with a strategy, Whioh is your srrongcst area? Can you expect to see several problems in this area? What about your second strongest area·~ What w HI Yo" do if you sti II must find problems in other areas?

4. Plan ahead with a time allocation. Compute how much time yon will allow fur each of Ihe subject areas in Ihe breadth exam and the relevant IOpic',s in ~ depth eanm. You might allocate a little less thne per problem for those areas in which you are ITlOSr proficient, leaving a Ihtle more time in subjects thai are diffioult for )'QU. Your time plan sbouldiodnd, a reserve block far especially diffic:u1t problems, for checking your scoring sheet, and to make lasi-mimile SUCS5(!;S on problems )'ou did not work. Your ;SU;ltC!:,:,y miS!u also include! time auoureuts for tWO 1"'= through th. exam-s-the n"t 10 work oil problem, for which answers ere obvious to you, and the ,SCC'Ond to return to the more complex, time-consuming problems ami, Ihe ones at which yoe mighl need to guess. A Lime plan gives you the confidence of being in control and keeps: you from making. lhe serious mistake of' mlsallocathm of time In the exam.

S. Read an four multiple-choice answers before making. selection, An answer in • multiple-choice question is sometirnes a pi ... sible decoy-not the be" "",,"'.r.

6, Do not , .. bange an answer unless you are IlbSiohJl.ely certain you have made a mistake. Your first reaction is likely to 00 correct,

7, Do not si f next to a friend. a window, or other potenual distractions.

Exam Day Preparatlons

The O;'«UI1 day will be a ,ue,",ful and tiring OJ1~. 111i, wlll be no day to h ave unpl,ea:.5,ll1!.t surprises_ For this, reason we suggesr that an advance visit be made- to the examination site, Try to determtne 'such ltems as

L How much Lime should I allow for travel [0 the exam on tlwt day? Pian to amve :alllOlU 1:5 mi notes carly. That way you will havoC:! ample time. but flO'

U rheberrec htlich ge5c h utztes M ateri a

too much rime. Arriving too early. ami mingling wnh others who also L1fC, anxious, will increase your anxiety and nerYOL1SneSSi_

2. Where willi park?

3_ How does the exam sire look? Wi! I t have ample workspace? Where will J stock my reference materials? Will it be overly brighl (sungl""",,). cold (sweater), or noisy (earplugs)? Would a cushlon make the chair more comfortable?

4. where are the drinking fountain, 100"lOry r.ci.litie" P"Y phone?

5_ What about food'? Should [ tate something along for energy in the exam? A bag lUDell during II" bre"" probably m.ke, sense.

What to Take to the Exam

The NCEES guidelines 'soy you may bring only ,he following reference materials .

• md aids into the examination mom for your personal usc:

1. Handbooks anti. 'ell rbooks, iecl uding the applicable design standards.

2. Bound reference materials provided the materi .Is remain bound during the emireexami"alion, TIre NCEES deron" "bound- a, book' or materials fastened secure} y in lhcir co ... 'C.~ by fasteners that pcncuutc :itlJ papers, Baemples are ,ring binder.'). spiral binders and notebenks, plastic snap binders, brads, screw posts. ami so on.

3. B.attcry~optrnte.d. silenr, nonprinting, noncommunicating celcelators. Begin"ing. with (he April 2004 exam, NCEES has implemeuted a more 'Iring"" policy regarding pemuucd CIlIculatorS. FDr more details, sec the NCI?ES website (www.ncees.org). which includes the policy Lind a list of'permined cajcularors. You also need to determine whether or not yOU! state permits preprogrammed calculators. Bring extra batten" for your calculator iU'I. in ease ; many people fed lh1Il bringing a second calculaicr is, also a \·ery good ilk:...,

At 0,,"' time NCEES had a rule barring "review publications directed prj ncip"lIy toward sample q1)esrj~t5 and lhelr soleucns" in me exam room, This; ~1 the ~ta_ge for re.stricting some kinds, of publications. from rhe exam, Sl.ci/e board 5 11Wy &JOpl Ihe NC£F.S ElIl(lelifle,~. Or ,,(Iopr either more 01' tess restrkuve naes. TIlU~ an important step in preparing for the exam is 10 know what will-lind will not----be permitted. We suggest that if possible you obtain a written copy of your sture's policy for the speciflc ec'O!11 you will be talting. Qc"""i"!Ially there bas been eonfusion nt individual examination sires, so a cOP:!I,' of the exact applicable policy willnot only allow you 1.0 c are fully .lId correctly prepare you, materials bul will abo ensure that the exam proctors wi II allow all proper mnteriajs that you bring to the exam.

As a general rule We recommend (hot yo-u pion well in odvllnoc what books and materials you want to take to tbccxarn. Then they should be obtalned promptly so you U~ the same materials in your review that YOIl will have in the exnm.

Ltceoeo Rli>visw Books

The review book.'io you use to- prepare f Of !be exam are good chokes to bri ng to tho exen itself. After weeks or months of :s.tudying. you will be , .. cry familiar with their Qrganll .. auon and content, so you'll be able to quickly Jocate the material yO\:!

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ate,i a

XiI Intf"CI()UCtlol"l

want to reference during the eaam. Keep in mind the caveat jiL';t discusscd-e-somc stare boards will nor permit you lO bring in review books. that consist largely of sample questions and illtS.~l:,:;'.

Textbook!;

If you still hove your unlversity textbooks, !hey are the one, you should use in the ex .. n, un less thoy are 100 oul of d!lre, T~ a greal ex rent the boob w lll be I ike old friends. with fami liar notation.

Bound Ref6renoe MateriaJs

The NCElES guidelin es ,"UOM lhal you can l.ke ony reference materials you wish. 'so 1008 as you prepare ohcm properly, y"" could. for example, prepare several volumes of hound reference materials. wuh each volume irueaded to cover a particular category of problem. Maybe the most efficient way to use this book would be to cur u up and insert poruons of it in your individually prepared bound materials. Usc tabs '0 that specific !IllIlori.1 can be located quickly, If you do a careful and :!'iystemahc review or civil engineerjng, and prepare a lot of wellorganized materials, you ju st may find lhal you are so well prepared tha, Y"" wii.l no' h av e left .".)'thing of ".1 ue at home,

Other Items

ln ndditLOJl to me. reference materials just mentioned. )'OU should consider bringing the tollcwi ng 10 ,he exam:

• Clock-You must have a lime plan and a cloc};;, or wMstwatch.

• Exom a.~.~j·g"m.enl f'ij~,,..ork- Take !ilong the leiter aS50igni ng ycu tc the cxem at the specified location. To pro v e you are the correct person, also bring somelhing with your name and picture,

• Items suggesled by advance vi-sit-1f you visit the: CX.fIITI sire. you probably will discover an item Or two th:n you need to add 10 your HSI .

• ' Clmhe.~Pl8i'l. to WCi1t comtottable doCuhcs... You probably wilt do better if you are .1i8hlly cool.

• Box for eJ,lerythil1_g-You need to be' able to CaIT}' all your materials W the exam a.nd have the,". conveniently ~rgani""d 01 your side. Pro \>,hly • car<ib",rd box j!oj; the answer.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

CHA~TER r-

Fundamental Concepts and Techniques

Ol1T1...INE PROeI..EMS SOLUTIONS 12

REOOMMENOED RE~ERENCES 41

PROBLEMS

I.l Determine ~be node: Vt)H",ges v, v~. and Vj,.in E~hibi' Lla by setting up lhe- proper nodal eq lIiui ons in mmrix form. mo:sni pu tilti.ng the matrices to fCHln the matn)l; solation for .he velmges.

v,

10<1

v,

1.2 TIle 50 a load is 10 receive maximum power from the £1'fitern in E.:(hibil 1.-2a.

A ,mal.1 series reactanee, l,. is to be p!oCoo in series wi tit ihc I.",," to occom,pli£h Iho.. Rod the proper elemem for Z, aI1d calculate the power into the 50 Q I",d

",'ben this etemem is plooed in lbe circuit. -

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Mate,;"

{i\Mwne.ll: :1160"1' J"'&O., 12·:51} - j50.f~ ((1Hz) Exhtbit 1.~

13 Find the currem through Ihc:. 3 ohm resistor lor the circuli in E,hlbil 1-' with " dependem '''Itoge. source, Also find tbe power I.k"" from Ihc: source, Cheek ~'" powers bd1l8 diSl;ipaled in the resisrors: Do lhey equalthe power "",en from .be- source-?

v,

I A Delennille,he ,"Ioe of 1(1). as shown in F...<hibil 104o, in the ,,"a<ly "'., e,

15 Find [he phasor eurrern J and the phasor voltage drop acro5S CDC-h element in Exhibit J.5! in polar form, using the SOurce as the reference for angles.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ate,i j

protferr:t5 3

1.6 The frequency of each source is 1000 Hz with the phase reletlons shown in Exhibit 1.6a Replace thi' circuit by its Norton phasor equivalent,

E~1.f3a

1.7 A, 2.0 IJ.f capacitor is charged so thollt it has 100 volts across its terminals.

The ternlLna!s ate suddenly connected through a negligible resistance to me terminals of D 4,0 Ilf capacitor hn v ing 1,10 initial charge.

a, \Vhilt are the final steady state voltages 3Cr0:5:5- each capadror'~

b. What are the initial stored en •. rgies Qf each capacitor'!

c. What are the finn! steady sf .. e stored energies of each capac itor'l

1.8 A lOll ohm resistor is placed in sene, with the 4_0 uf capacitor in Pmble.m L7 so that the charging current will flew thruugh lhe resistor. The same 2.,0 I.1f capacitor charged 10 100 ""IU ls connected 10 the. combination of the 4.0 )1f capacitor and 100 ohm resjsror ill series with till! 4,0 1J_f cap.acitor having no initial charge.

a. What is the time constant of the ctrcui i~

b. What ere the final steady ,Slale voltages 3:CIo~~h capacitor?

c, What are the final steady state stored energies of each cepscitor?

d. Bow do you explain OJ ac CO""' for the resu It> of the energies calculated in (0) 01>0"" in light of the different resistorpower losses?

1.9 Tbe circuit shown in Exhibit 1.98 is in il steady state,

a. what current is, drawn from the power source in thi:5 initial 5Ileady state condition?

1;" Wbal.is the analytical expression fer rbe current dr~Wfl from the power

source after closing switch _S? ~

, 0.1n

5

R,

'00<1

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M aleri:

1..10 The, swhch in. Eihibit 1.10 was closed ,uffidenlly long ago such thatthe current; (Ihroug!! thesource) has reached s ae ody stare. The switch is then, "poned at. time I = r(O).

a, Find tho cum", i iuS! before, tho switch is opened, th.t is, at ,= 1(01 b, Find the current j jusr after Ihe ;!i.wilch is ope-ned .• hat is. at I = I (n~)

c. Find the current i as. D function of lime nfi.cr the switch [5 opened; thaI i" find ;(, - '0)' where '0 = 1(0).

rF,;_' --:-I. 11111-- -_

R, _ IQ

l~ .. 1H

~1,1D

"" I

EMlibit 1.10t!1.

I, II For .ho circuit sbown in hhibit 1.100, detcrmme i,(O'), ;,(0'). energy stored in i.'1 and L~.n t ~ O. ;t(l) and i~(I} for r > O.

1,12, For the circuit shown in Exhibit 1.12a. find and sketch it (I).

, .. 0

EJC_hI:Iit 1.1:2.,

Ll3 F,nd Ihe voltage, v, as shown in Exhibit l.f Ja, 'The circuit is inili.lI¥ uuenergjzcd,

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri a

EXhIbit 1.13a

1.14 In Exhibit 1.14. lis ts e 60 Hz SOlJ""" The 8001 i, '0 rnoximize ,he 1""'''' &eliverro to I.he 108 ,0 resistor. ~ 75 n. resistance i~ internal to the source .. .x, a"d .x" are reactive element' (ClIjIOcilo" or indue"",,) '0 be added. Find appropriate, va lues rOl"'ltese ele m entsso th" ,he JK>WCr to the load ls m .. lmum.

~1.14

1.]5 The current flO\!oriog in the 200 n load in Exhibit L IS-a is 16Sc out of phase whh the 2n '1;'011 Smut:'€;. Find the coupling coefficient t. and the current itt) .

• 000

1M

1,.16 Find the The'lie,nin equivalent circuit fer the cjreuir in Exhibil L 16<.1 at tcnnlnals a and b. All resistor values are in ohms.

,A

"'"

r-~~-+-JV\~-+------o.--,

~~

,

L- _. -+ --oo __ J

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri

1.17 Given the cirellil in fuhihil I. 1 7a. find

u, n for maximum power in the 2...ohm resistor. b. the J1QWer in the 2 ohm reslssor if n ;;;;:; 4.

E!d\itIIt 1.175

TnI:' Iolfowing data applies to problems 1.18 through 1.25. 1hc expression for 11 wave is given as:

f(fJ ~ 10.0 ,in"" .. 2..000,(3 0)1 + 90').

J.J ~ The de component of lho w ave, itr), is

a. 0.0 h. 1.0

c. 1.5 d. 2.0

I. 19 Th.II"lt~re'iod average of the w"'"',fi/). is

a. 2.0 . b. 3.28

c. 5.% <I. 6.l6

U rhcberrec htlich gesc h (jutes M ate,i"

~ 7

] ,20 TIw rms of effective value of the WI]. 'lie) fit}, is

a. 7.07 b. 7.21

c. 7 .63 d. 8-02

1,21 The maxuaum Or peak value or the wave, lW is

a. 10,0 b. 11..5

c. 12.0 d. 14.0

1.22 If the wave. j(1). repre se ms a, current in amperes Ihm is flo~'ing through a res;istor bavif'lg ~ :reS:iSI;(UlC~ of :3.0 ohms, .he- powe r loss in wail:t. is

a. 11,0 b. 156

c. 187 d. 221

l_23 1r the Waw.l..fr.')~ represents a current ln ampere.s that is flQ\\,',ing through an inductee h.a,,:ing an lnducumce of 0.1 henry, the rm:!ior effective vo1tag~ in volts across the Inductee is

•. 0 .. 13 I~ 0.67

c. 0.83 d. 1.00

1.24 If the ",avcJ{r)~ represents a current in amperes ha"jn~,::111 .a.ngular \'docil'Y of 6000 radians per second, passing through a capecaor having negligible losses. wlth no initial charge. and a capacitance 0[0.002 farads, the rms of effective voluge in "01(, across the capecitor is

•. 0.:;9 b. 0.14

c. 1.00 d. 5.90

l_lS, A~tl al1e,m.alif.lg current \'oJ tmeter consists of @ series connecuon of ;;1_11 ideal half-wa.ve diode and a 0' AJ'WPyal meter, The meter is c;dibmted to read tile rms value of an applied vohage. When the waveform ~Iched in Exhibit 1.2.5a ls opplied. the meier ,~"ds 80"011,. 1\Ib., is the peak ,.1,," of the upplfed waveform?

1-26 A SO m lcro-ampere meter movement wi til a 2_k ohtlt internal resluance is to be used with a shunt arrangement so as to have full-scale ranges of lOrnA, ! OOmA. 500mA and 100m P' (E'.:<hibi! 1.26.:). Tho maxi mum voltage drop across the input tcemlnats for a full-scale deflection shcuid not exceed 250 millivolts_

Determine the resistor :si:?.:es needed and state any fLs,,"j;umplious- made,

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M atel;

.0... II,

1.27 All arnplffier-of vol",~e gain equal to 7()dB is to be buiI, b~ ca.<ewg !fIm';,tor "ages ,ha, have. gain-handwidth produCI of 3 x 1.0' radio."...,: Fittd tho maximum l>a!tdwidth tho, canbe .chi<,'ed using th ese SIIIge" nnd tho !0Ut! "umber' of stagesrequlred.

[,28 Refer to the circuit in E:tblbit! .283. (il) If the tnduc! • moe L i:!o> 10.0 microheenes and tile frequency of til. "pvlicd voltage is 9,55 MHz, determine the value or iI_1e" reactance of C so tbat the circuit will be series resonant. (b) What i.s the impedance looklng into [he cjrcujr under these conditions?

1.29 For the circulr in Exhibit l.2.9a. find. H(s} ;- V:;I.s)lV! and all Its critical frequencies, Then find an expression for IH(ru)1 and determine IH(ru)I...,.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri"

1.30 Determine the trunsimpc nl nnce V,(S)/I,(S) for IOC network in Exhibit 1.30,

C, R,

v,

Exhibit 1.30

I ,J J The network shown in Exhi bit 1.31 a represents. an oscilloscope probe connected 10 an oscljloscope. TIle components C! and R~ represent the Input circwlrJ' of the oscilloscope, and C, and R, represent the probe.

a. Find the "",,,fer function V,/\I,C'),

h. Find il relationship among the componenu ... tbal make", the natural response equal 10 zero fur all time.

c. Suppose Ih e ex citaiion. Vcr!), ls a unit srep of "oluge" Skelch \',{') if

(1) -,--£_ - ___!L (2) -,--£_ ) .s.: (3) -,--£_ ( ----'!:,_ ~.~ ~.~ ~.~ ~+~ ~+~ ~.~

C,

v,

ExhlbIt 1.31 a

The following practice problems have rclmi'oIy sbon sctuuons.whcn comparing HilS.Wer.;:. choose the iltart,~1 v-alue to your calculated Onto If your ;$oltltiQn is a graphical one. remember that V01Uif,C and current do not have 10 be plotted to the sarue scale oIi\l'ld. of course. use a ,reasonably I;~u'iice plm.

When solving problems in Ih e a ctual exam, a number of lip' m.)" help you elimirlilte certain answer chotces and Improve ymu odds. For example • alwavs glance at the answer se,lectlons to see the term of the answer .... \_re t-be answers separased "",idel.)''? ] f so. tWO or three dig;Us may be S ufflclenr. ls only .he mugu i ru de wanted? If ;SO~ you Can carry along ilIl)' vector notation only as far as it is needed, Is jl easier to solve graphically?

U rhcberrec htlich gesc h (jutes M aleri,

1.32 I'm. paralle) plato ea pad lor se par. led by an al r gal} of 1 em "" ~ wiil., :11\ o_pplied de 'l;'olul,ge across the pl:::ues or 500 wits, dcternune the torce 011 en electron mass of I 8.2 x 10'" kg inserted in the space, The m as s of en .[«Iron is 9.\ x 10-" kg.

a. 3.2 x 10-" N b. 1,.6)( 10-" N

0. g.\'x 100lJ N d. 1.6)( 10-" N

1 .33 Assume u point charge of 0.3 X lO....l C at an origin. Wh;:u is the rrulgnirudc of the electric field intensity al a polnr located '2 meters in, the .r-direcrion, ] meters in the y-dircction, and 4 meters in the z-dirccticn away from tho origjn?

a. 500 kVlm b. 5 kV/m

c. 93 kvrm d. 9.3 MV/m

1:.34 An infinilC SMI2:[ orch.3rgc. with a pcsidve charge density. a, has an electric field of E. = 0'/{2tJu forr '> b. If a second sheet of charge with n charge density of -(j is. placed at a (see E:rd1ibit J .34), what is the electric field fer a < s c b?

a. o/t.~ b 0

c. -01",., d .. 012l;,~

1 . .35 Two equal r;;nllJ8,es of 10 miero-Columbs a,re·JOCi.HN one meterapsn on a herizontel liee, and another charge of 5 mtcro-Coulombs is pleeed one meter below tho fu;, charge (fanning' righl triangle). Who, is the "'ognit"". of .he force on lhc 5 micro-Coulomb charg,e"r

a. 0.09" 10' N b. 12.6" 10' N

c. 6.39)( 104 N d. 63" 10-' N

1..36 For.;,l colt of 100 turns wound arcu nd n toroldal eom of i ron wi III '" relatl 'lie permeabllky of 1 OOO~ lind the current necessary to produce it magnetic flll:t den:si!y of 0.:5 Testa in the core. The dlmenslom of rne core are given ln Exhibit .1.36 .

a, 390,0. b. 3911.

c. 1.2 A d. !2.2 A

U rhcbcrrec h II ich ges" hutz tes ~ I ~tcri"

Prot:Jerns 11

EdlIbtt 1.38

t.3'1 T WfJ long slrui~hl wireg, ~ndled togedl.ef. have a m.a,gneli(. Om. density around them, One wire carries :jJ, currem of S amperes and the other carrie ... a current of ]. wnpcre in the opposite direclion~ Deiermine (he ma,gnitudc of the flu.x_ ""rc,Hy measured at • point 0.2 met ers a way (i.e" """",,110 the wires) .

a, 211 x W"T b. 411X JO"'T

c. 4 x 10-" T d. 6>< J(J~ T

1.38 Given a cast stee 1.·C'Qi'e of toroid Wilh ,M air ,gap of I nun cut mro it. dererm Ine the cu mot necessary ina 600-ll.!m c-1,'}i I wound .aro.u1.d the core to produce a flu.J:: across lnc .... ir g.,p of 0_6 m Wb.. Assume it is known from II magnetl"I.Altion curve truu casr sieel :t:'e\luires..an H of 4{Xl A~tln1 for a llu:-;, denslty uf 0.6 Tcsla, Refer to Exhibit 1.38 on<! negloe, any fringing in the ai, gap.

a. 0.6 A h 1.4 A

c. 0.4 A d. 1.0 A

1,39 A circuit Iifung .magnet fora crane is to be deslgned 00 that wilh a Hu;i;, densiiy oDO,OOO lines p01 square inch in each air gap, ibc I""slb or e""h air l!"P is 0..5 inch., l...eak:ageand salutation effects are such lhat lbe ·ma~nel.omQth'e force for the nir gaps is 0_85 of the magnetomorivc force for the complete magnetic circuit_ TIle ;mean Ie.ng.ln per i.urn of windin.g. is 24 laches and jhe ma.gl1e1 is to operate with .on applied term.inal voltage of 70 volts whh (he winding at a temperanne or 6O"c..

a. What is the pun or tractive force in pounds per square inch for the magnet?

b. Whil! si_l:~ wire should be used for the winding"'

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri

SOLUTIONS

1.1 To si mpl;fy tho CQUOl;oo> we may fi1'>l replace the voltage source wi Ib ii' series resl.slaJ:\C'C with a Nn._I,on equ: valenf. circuit as shown in ,12-:~,_hibjt 1.1 b.

"""
v, 200 v, I" v,
"1 Iz-
'''' I 5<l 4n ~ Exnibft.1.1b

NOIe that the Ion re ,iSI.o<'from the source i, ,"<JW ln paroll.1 whh !he JOO resistor of the network, making it effectively 0 SO parnllel branch, The nodal equations are

10 ~ t: (_,I + 2.+ ...!...)- V (...!...)_ V (...!....)

'52030 '20 '30

O~-V (...!...)+V (...!... .. .!.+.!.)-v (.!.,)

'20 '2045 '5

(I) (I,) (I I 1)

5~-V - -v -, +11 - .. -+- .

'30'~ '20~}O

One would nomm.lly solve these equations by use of Cramer's Rule; however, the problem specifes the use of matrices. The: matrix form is

II] = IYJlVJ

Whe",

[101 [0.2833

o = ~l05

_ 5 _ -{I.03]}

-{I.OS +O.~ -0.2

-{I.O:133][ ~ 1

-0.2 v,,

02833 V,

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

SoIIJtlcrns 13

The matrtx solution is

where

whh ;I". ~ Signed minor of Yq (cofactorj and IYI the determinant of the YJ1l:il.lIl.'t_

11'1 ~ 0.Q269

So

1~~ ,~J. 1-"" ~.03J1 . -." -""1
-,~ . :::$lJ; __,
1-'" ~-~~] '1=' ~i t" -.J)j3.j
-J~.:U -mn '" -,I
I ~'" '~ 1"'" :(~ 1-~] -{I~
y~:1 = j.,f}M3 ~. -.IjJJJ, '"
0.0269 .1732 2.9442 2,)6"13

.9926 ] 2.1673

5.1747

Multiplying row by commn,

I'" ~ 10(3.7807) + 0(0.7732) + 5(0.9926) = 42,77 ,'oil' \I, ~ 10(0,7732) + 0(2.9442) + 5(2.1673) ~ 18,51 "oilS 1', ~ 10(09926) + 0(2.1673) + 5(5.1747)" 35.80 \'01["

Check node no. l

! 42.8 8 ~6A / - 428-18.57 -IliA . ,= 5=' . m"" ,'- -------w--- - , . mps

I ~ 42,8- 35.8 ~ 0.23Ant""

, 30

(Referenc-e: Lipshutz, rha.ory and Problems of l.irJ~arAlgebrQ! Shaum's OuUi ne Series, MeG ra w-Hill, Chapter 8,)

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri a

1.2 Thi' problem may be simplified by fi"'t finding. Thevenin equi,.lem circuit for the ,",'0 sources (E.>:bibil 1,2b).

1_ J 10":0'-75,(30' _! 10+ jO -(64_95+ 137_5)

- 60+ j80+30 - j50 90+ j30

[_ S8.61L- 39,78' _ 0,62": -58,2' Am - RIllS

94.87":18.4}' ps

Then

Voc - 1,10",0'-(062": - SS_2'){60 +jSO) - 110":O'-(0_6U-S8_2°)(lOOL5.3I') .. llO":O'-62L -5.1"

- 48.8L-6_40V.", _ V,,,,, - V,e

To find the The> .. uinimpedaace, we look into lem>jnob -« with all .011«0', di<abled.

z "z,..." Z,Z" ,,(60+ j80)(30- ]50)

--., - Z, + Z, 90+ j30

(I OO":S 1.1 O)(5R.3L - 59°) 94,9":18.4°

- 6146L -24,,}" - 56- j2S.J

The circuit now looks like E:thibil 1.2c:.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ale,i"

~ 115

Tho phase onglo of the ,OU"", Is only a ",f=n.o to the phose of the original source and may be ignored while tind.i:ngjX_ To maximize power. ZL ::::;;;2" ~ that is. the !Q3d Impedance ~ld be the oomple,x_ c·onjl,lgate of the sourc e, Since we "",nnot m:lke the reel pans equal, 56 " 50, we must recognize that the maximum current through Nt will deliver 'CJl1Lli;~ lmum power.

I~~~Z~+ZL

2., -l- Z," 56 - j2~D + 50 + jX

Th. denominator will be minim UIn when l-j25 , 31 ~ I + jXl.

loon

x .. wI_ ~ 1.~";

L ~ 25',) b(1I '" ~ 211(60) ~ 377 '"

. 15.3i .

L- 377 -6 ,2ntilIoOenry,

III~ 4S.8 ~ 48.S ~ 0 46Ampo rms

50+56 106 '

SoP()~:=I:Rt.

P = (0,46)'(50) = 1,0,6 wans

I :3 Slim the ell rrenu .at V1:)Ha_ge n'-:Ide L

-5 + V,12 + v,n '" (V, -V",,)/I .. 0 ,,6; -5" 6 + 3V, + 2V, + 6V, -6(4V,I3) 30 .. 3V,: V, = 10 V, 1.= 1013 = 3.33 A

Power loi:c" from current source,

P",= V/= 10 x S = 50 waus

Power dissipated in resistors:

P'I ~/iRI~

I, = (V, -V.."lI1 = 00 - 4 x 3.33)11 = -3,33 A P, '- (-3,33)'" I ~ 11.09 waus

P, = V~ 18, = 1,0'12 = 50 watis

P, - 1','/8:," uJ'n - 33_l wa'('

pT~ ~ 11.09 + 50 + 33.3 " 94.4 walt.'

Therefore 'lie JXl""'" ""Pl'lie<l by tbe dependen, source Is 94.4 - 50 ~ 44.4 warts.

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri a

1.4 Cbeck:

p .. , ~ V"",~ I, ~ (4 ~ 1,)/, "(4.~ 33}) x 333 '" 44A w.IIS

".!.[-, 1+ i]".!.

2 I+j 2

Z,,!,,2a

y

I"_B_"E.,,,SA

7.+2 4

iell" 8 "",lOOt A

15

Z.",400 0

ZL ~j(20,000,,}(.03) "jI885.0 0

z:» -j --'1591.50

" (20,000")(0.01 x 10"') J

KVL: -10 + 4001 + jI88,1- j1591,5/" 0

I ,,~~OLO" "O,0202L-36YA

400 .. ]293.5 '

V. = 4001" 8.08L -:J.6YV

V, =j181l5 I

V" ~ 37.';9L53.7'

Vo" jl59!.5 I " 32.08 L -126,YV V_" IOLOV

U rheberrec htl lch gC5C h utztes Iv! ateri a

SoIu't:t)fl:S 17

1.6

~1bft1_6b

)'"",'~ j(2000If)(0.4 x 1 0") ~ j{l.00251 ~J

I I

KCL Node x: - 2 + jO.0025133V", + 200 V" + J(~)(V" + IO'<::OA)~O

V" ~ 1.%934'<:: - 0.00659]) _ 226.2,U _ 0,29951 0.008704'<::0.29292

Sbort elrcult.

1

1M" 300 [(216.184 - }66,7576) -I O.<::O.4J

1,,-, - 0.77991'<:: -0.2.7197 A

Replacing each SO""'" by iI' internal impedance,

z" - I + 300 _ 459.66- j80,254

. 0,005 + }0.0025 133

lAo' - 466.61£ - 0.172850

Y" - __!_. - 00021431£0.17285 - 0.0021093+ jO.0003686 Z.."

R '" __ I~" 474.Kl; C _ O,003~!6_ '" O.058~ IIF

0,002193 '. 2000 n

l.1 a, Q - CE ~ 2 x 10'" x 100 '" 200 x 10" coulomb

Capacuors Ilte suddenly connected together, nss.umin_g no c ircu it resistance and the 411Fd capocitor 11 as Q •. ~ 0, The capacitors are in 1l",,11.1 across V·SQ e leetrons ,,-.j tl flow I.mti i eql,libbrium~ is re.uched Tht- rot4_) charge Q =- 2-00 x I 0--6 c""(~ulumb remel ns in U1e system.

50

V= Q

CI+C~

200x 10"

""(Z=-+::":4"')'-'X"'I":"O"'" 33.3 Vails.

The VOltage ill:"IOSS each cnpacitur is 33_3 volts.

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

.0 -CI

&hibtt .... 7&

lV_j!<tq_!9"':' and inilially 0

C 2 C

Q, _ 200 x IO~ coulomb. so

IV _ I (200 x 10")' (2 X lOd) '.

, 2 2x10-' 4x IW'

IV, _ 1>< HY' _ I x 10-' .i<>ul,,-, 10"

b.

energy initially in CJ•

Q, WlIS ze ro initially. "Q lV, - O.

c. Final Cll'l:rgy

Q, _ 2 x 10"" x 33.3 - 66.6 x 10" coulomb IV _ I. (66.6 x 10")' 4.45xI0·"

, 2 2>< 10" 4><10"

- 1.11, x 10-' joule, in C,

Q, _ 4 x 10"' x 33,3 - 133.3 x 10" IV _.!. (133.3>< 10"), _ 1.76 x 10-'

'-2 4xI0·· 8><10-<

.:;;; 2.22}( J 0'" joules in C~

+ + c,

- -"" ..

Time constant I ;;;;;; RC

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ater;"

i SI ea dy ,111", " O. so i transient ;. the solution of

_!_,,-'--l. RC IOOx~

1.8 a, 'Hmo constant I = RC - I 00 x I 0-<

" 133 x. lW' seconds

ii", = ii", " 33,3 Volts. seme as part (n).

c.

II' ,,1. (66.6 x 10'°)' "til x 10" joules

I '2 2:::.;:10--6 '-

1\1 ,,1. (13.1,3>< 10" )' _ 2,12 X 10-)' ules

, 2 4x IO~ jO

d. The circuli resistance determines Ihe peak dj_scharg.c or charge current, so there i, I' Rio" in parts (a), (b), and (c) even if the resistance of <h. copper bar seems negJigible_ This accounts ft)r [he lOS:5 in ~~Jg)l.

1.9 11. With the switch open, ilnd with the SIOl!.erncnl llul llli:: oi.'in.'1.lil is in s[eady :ijtm (to a de source). One rility make me a.."\,'Sumption lIaal [he currem thteugh the inductor is 00 longer changing. The ¥oltagc across; this clement will tllell be zero. 'The ""11"<,,,, across !be o.pacil<lr has buill "PIO ns "eady s.tnc ;..-1lIuc und lhc:i"r!fol1! no rrurn:nt win be O{i\ving in this branch.

ElI:hibIt 1.9b

b_ After the switch i!ll closed, the equivalent cjrcait will be as follows (whh <IT! initial inductor current .a5 found in pan (a):

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes /vi aleri"

R,
\,+~-
~I i'l
12DV R,
"1 R, E>chiblt 1.""

Loop (differential) equation, ere

(I) E ~ H,li, + i,) + L<!!. + R.i,

d, •

(2) E~ H,(i, + '0) + Hi,

with an initial couduion of i~(O) ~ l~ Using Laplace transforms to solve.

(1) f,," R,a, + 1,)+ [[,'1', - ;,(0)] + R,l, s

R earra nginS terms.

1.20 +0.1- (l20+ O.l!)I, + 20.1, s

(2) .120 ~ (20)1, + (1 00)1, s

96+0.u .l\116"O.I~)

kll20+0.1s) (!j'! .. O.11

20 ('''')

I _ -;-. _ 120+0 .. ls

,- (120+0.1,)100- 20' ,(116+ O. L< •

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M aleti"

Bot

where

t, '" 0.000927 t, - 0.0008625

:. i,(1) - C-' - If,1 -1.86[ 1-( 1-7,-].-* ]

~d ,S6( I +0,072.--1; )-

- l x l _ 5

R,~ '""'''i'+i'];;; O. ohm

E I ,i=--=-=2amp R... 0.5

h. Ai' ~ t(04)~ b...'C:lUSC lhe current tn an Inductance ""ill not ch3n~ lnstanutrICous.ly.lhc cetrem in L, will remain III O. Only R.~ will determioc the magnimdc of i.

E I i",-=-=Iamp ii, I

c. At (1 ~ lo) the R~ and ~ branch of the circuit is in .sready state and is not considered. Therefore for the L~I R1: and RJ, branch.

i;;;; irbmsiml + i~:

, _ E(" -~)

Itrm~t~R I-f!'

i., _, I amp (See above (bn

II -ii, + II, ~ I + J '" 2 ohms,

U rhcberrec htl lch gcsc h (jutes M ateri"

i ~ t-±e-' +1 ~ 1.5-0,5<-',

Proof, .t , ~ 0, ~~ ~ 1.0 and j ~ I.S - O.S x 1.0 = I amp

NO/~, Pan (e) can be also worked by using the clas,;c ,00"'i,,", of

1., ~~, +(R, +R,Ji, ~ 1 J, !!!J'+Ri>~1

.., 01 ,.

; ;;;;;: I! +; (~;;;;: 1.5 - O.5e-· by applying the pro,PCJ' boundary conditions.

1.,11 The (de steady suae) circuit for' -c 0 i, ,1>01<'",

So

~1.,\1.

By the current divider ruje.

1(I-)-2><L.±"

, ' 9 3

;,(O-)~ 2,x~ "'~"

9 ~

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

Energy stored j n L.< ill I !:. 0 l,';;'

.!_ L 1'(0'") =.!_ X6X(±)' ,. _Iii.

2 -I' 2 3 3

Similarly. energy stored in ~ at , ~ 0 is

At' =Q tne swi«h i, closed. The stored ene'llie" illl.,"nd I~ flow th",u8h the closed switch and get dissipated in lhc 3 n and 6 n rcsistsnces.

For

and

l.12 One may replace the circuit to the left ofthe inductor with irs Thcvcnin equivalent for t ;;: 0 by

v ,. I';'. = 4()x20 _ 5 x~ ~ 15 V (open circuit voltage).

.fK' .n:~ 20+20 20+20 .

'Tb lind Rot "k:ill"' the 40 V sourc e a 1Id replace the ind uctor with a .I A OOIJI'Ce,

exhibit 1.1~b

Tho"

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri a

The d!\:uit then becomes B~ shown in Exhibit L 12b.

, ,

N~tuti.l! 'I, ~i'lI ~ At'-lji =A"'-~

j"I,::;;; At" ~ +2,

;,,(0) ~ 0 ~A + 2; ,\ ~-2

,·.i, _2(I_e-i: J amp' '" 0 - 01<0

,.2

U3

I di

(3+ 10),', +2't-10;, -13

-lOi, +(3+ 1O)i, +.IJi,d,., -2fj Wi, - Di, + .I J i,dl + 26

i, - 1.30, + 5 J i,dl+ 2.6

13i, = 16-9;, + 6.5 J i,dl+ 33.8

~~1.J~+O"5j2

d, dl

.!~- 0.655. + O.2.5i. 2 dl dl n

J di

1.69,', + (;.5 1",<11 + 33.8+ 0.65 -t,+ 0_25i, -lOi, "' n

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri"

Solutions 2:5

Exhibft 1.1::Jb

:5, " f d 08

0.65 d,+7,15.,+6,5 1,1--2,

TI,e Laplace transform equivalom i"

iLV);;;;] ,_3Al"·,I(i~ + 1_3Be~1 +.:5A J e-lDJ'dl + ,.58 f e~J{" + 2,6 1.25 M-ID + 0.8 Be"' + C ... 2.6

~;,(r)"l .'. C,,-1.6

; ,(r)" 1.35 Ao-'~ ... 0.8 Be" + I ',(0)" 0" 1.25.11 +O,g B .. I ;,(0)" -2" A" II

A.;. 8" -21.25.11 + 0.8 8,,-1 I ,25A + 1,258 = -2.5

- . _ . . . 10

-1.2~ -ll,~ B = ';'1,0 .'. B"-3'

i (O~~e~l~ _~e'-r + l

" 3 3

i (I)" !.-"" +!.Qc-'

! 3 3

v(r)" 10(; -i.)" 'IO(~. ,-'~ -~'-'" l-!,·'" +!.Qe.')

,. . 3 3 3 3

-100.-'''+ ~.-, +1)

:;;;; .!Qe~tDJ + ~ «: + to

3 3

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ale,i a

1.14 Assume that X, is pon of the '"U"'" impedance "nd X, will be pan of the lo.d i mpedance, T~e,n' m,",imum power will be delivered to the I""d when 2, ~ Z; (11101011<1 i, lhecomplox conj"!\"IOoftlle source impedance). Assume X. to be inductive 50

Z,= 75 +jX"

Then .he paraljel load impedance is. capactuve,

I08(-jX,) _ (lo8{&l( I08-i=) 108- jX, - 10g+~ 108- .,~

108 jO)(I08)'C

1+ w'(108)'C'" i~ w'(I(I8)'C'

For the ronjugate match. the rea] part of the load must he equal 10 the

imaginary pan, dIu, .

7:; = (IO~)

1 + w' (I 08)' c' ro = 2,,60 = 377 75(1 + 1,66' 10'C') = 108

C' = 0.440 = 265')0'" 1,66' 10'

C= 16.3~1

'Then for complete matching. the reacuve parts must cancel each other, For th" load we no",

Then

!iX, 1 " 1-)49.81

mL = 49.82 = Z;, = (75" j49.&)0

L = 49.8 = 0,132 b."I)'''

377

An equally va lid solution can be found by assuming the load 10 be ir,,;h.lcti\o'e and the source capactuve.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

1.15

M " k.JL.t, -.J!X4-2/I. (100 + jlOO)I, +.;1001</," 20 j2ookl, + (200 + }4(0)/, ~ 0

(I + })l, + j2/l.1,,, 0.2 jkl, + (I + 12)1, - 0

1'1+ j 0.21

1 "L_f!_" - jO.2k

, 11+1 j2/l.!I+j+J'-2+2k'

jt l+ j2

jO.2k O.2l L9j)O

"]::2>' -j' - J(I-2k'l' + 9LIaIl-' ( ....o!... )

. I·~l;?

90' - "'" -. (--=1,) " ,165' 1-2/1.

t:ln-'(~J"-7~' 1-2."

_' _3_"2+Ji 1-2k'= 3

1-21' 2+Jj

1 !

k="2- 2;'Jl ,,0.313

1_1,_ (O,2)x(0.313)~ .,. J(I-2(313)' +9L-?5"

" 0.0202,L I M' II,

1(,) = 20,2 <0,,1001 + 1M") mil,

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M aleli"

L 16 Conven the current source in "",.IJe.l with the "7.s Q resistor 10 " voltage source in series to set the d«uit in E':<hibit J.I6n

50 7'"",, 1.'5""
+~ on 1:'\ 11m .~
1(:1'.1 10;" - 5i", ~ 10 -Oi" + 22.5i", - -7.5

-75+50 -25

- 225-25 - 200

Short the terminal, a and b to get the circuit, in ExlIibit l.ttc.

"" 7ffi 1.S\l'
e
+~ ~ I'"
toV 5{l lOij1 - 5i:2'J ~ 10 -5 i~~ + t 2.si~ ;;;;;; -75

10 ; ~-5 lJ 10

1°1

-7.5 = -75+50 =-.!.A-;

-5 125-25 4 ~

)2,5

-5

\1. -:514

R -R _.2i_ 5n

fiI tk>- if£" -.1/4

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M aleri"

S,,""ions 2tI

.'. The Thevenl n equivalent 1$ 3.'5 shown in E)!.h[hil I.] 6d.

etnIbit 1.160

l.l7 a. Find the Tbevenin equi v njent of the clrcuit to the ,Ier. of the transformer (E.hibi' i.rn».

16<"1

E

E)d'Wbft 1.17b

To obtain the maximum power from this circuit the load across it should be J 8 Q. The impedance seen locking into the n turn side of the transformer is 4!(2) ~ 32 n_ The lmpendence seen locking into tile 'l tum aide of' tho transformer is ,,' (2).

"'(2)~ 1.8 (J"!!!!!3

For n ~ 3, Power in 2n ~ 50 Vi

b. If 11 ~ 4~ the impedance seen looking into the transformer in, 2Q is 1i1l:; same a. s. power lnto transformer.

Using current chvi:siofl.

J~!O~~~A 6+44 5'

P = I'(J2) = 46.08 w,

or calculating power in secondary,

p = (~X4 r (2) = 46.08 IV,

U rhcberrec htlich gesc h (jutes M ateri"

J II< J J"

~ - lO.inOlld(rut) +- 200;(3rul+ ')(]") d(wr)

2x, D 2.l't n

~O+O~O

LJ9 c. "Tho holt.period average of ,he ""O'i" .• Jlr)" is

d.c haff-period --age" ~' ~ ;;- 1: f(r)d(",rl

~ M 1: IOSinrmd(rm)+} 1: 2oos(Jrur + ')(]ojd(rutl] ". ![+JO ... -20- 213) = !IUl-4/31= 1 S.67

n' ~ n

_S.9S,

Not. thaI there i. one more !legali,'. than posltive third harmonic loop per half"'l"'I e.

1.20 b. 'The rms or effective value of the wave; ft.t); is.

effectiv value of fundamental" f; - * effective value of Jrd harmonic == f; ::::; "*

. r.:;-:-::; fi(ii)4 7 2

Fi(fn~~I- \jFj,- +1;- ;;;;;; V--""2+"2;;;;;; ,-I.

:1,2.1 c. NOle from the slo:lOh the l'u""""","",1 ond <II. 3rd hnrmonk peak. occur

in phase, lbu, !(tl .... ls ~Iy: f(t>,... - 1.0 + 2" 12 .

1.22 b. From Problem LUI .

. ~

l,.=,,', "1"', =1.210.",peres.

p ~ 1'",R ~ (1.21)'(3,00) = 156 w_,

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

soteo-e 31

1.23 c. The effective vOltage across the inductor is

and

~ WC-=

:.E. ~ ,I:::"+~ ~7""1 +.36 ~O.83w.

, .. , " 2 2 ,,2

1.24.. For W ~ 6000 radions/sc<ond .

. _ X I _ ( 1 )( 10) _ 10 .' _ 10

E,- .. ,- we J2'. - (6xlO'X2)(IO-'hf2-I2E'

E _ X I _ (_!:_)( 2 ) _ 2 _ 2

l - "'" -. 3wC 12 - 3(6 x IO'X2 x 10"') - 36J2

1_25 ThL1 vokcgc as seen by the D'Arsorwal meter (assuming a lossless diode rectifier) frum a pure sine wave: t!:;: Emu. ~inll)t

&-'~

&hlbit'1.25b

l, , r

E~. ~ ..!.J' E_'inWld(Wll+.!.J, Od(w,),

T Iii T -:7

Actual v oltage read would be ffAj,~ If, but the meter is c,alibralcd to read

E

Jf (for an rms value).

Fot I.he 'W:lVC shupe given.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ate,i"

J! ~

But the meter reads (for 3 pure sine wave) EfI1*f ~ ~EL'>j.' Tben, for

the saw-tooth wave, lIS given ,,2

so, vons =*E~, =i( ~E~)

s .. , = ( ~}4)(80) = 143.7 "01".

X,s.:.;' 80 voltlo i~ not the true rms voltD,g,e of the given wave form.

'1.26 R" CIIIl be determined from lIle voltage limi!~ AI O~2jO volts, the current through the, mete, must be SOli'! when ""jng Ill. JOn", ""'ting.

Then

R~-;;k = 50" IO_'. R, = 3U1. ~

Now the current through the shunt "ring of R, + R, + R, + R, must be IOm~ ~ 50IJA when the vcftagc Js 0.2';0 ".·olls_

10" HJ' - 50 x ]0-<> = 9.9SmA

This is. only 0 . .5% less than lOrnA.

The accuracy of our compuwtions wHl n,» be seriously aITecled by ignoring this mudl .mount when colcul.ting the value of

R. +R!+RJ +R~.

Then

0.25 Q

R" + R, + R, +R,= lO~ =25 ,

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ate,i a

Now with theswitch in 1lI0 100100 position. the equivalent circuit looks I ike E.ni bit 1.261>.

100:l11li--

R.

A:s."iume R. - R~ + 2,1;: since Rl -I- R~ + R] +- R, ~ 2-5 and R. + 2Ji. ~ :5i:. This js at worst u 0.5% error if Rz + R], + ~ ~ o.

Then R~ +RJ + R.; ~ ~ ;:;"Z.5fl,

•. 100,,10-

So R" ~ 25 - 2.5", 22.5[)..

Now with the. switch in the 500 m_A poshlon. the dH:I.I!t looks like Exh lbi [ 1.26<.

0.25

R, + R," SOO" 10-' ~ 0.50.

R, ~ 2.S -0.5 ~ 20..

Pinillly. !he switch at IIw position 1'0' 10 amp, is ~OWl) in E:<Itibit. 1.26<1.

U rheberrcc htl ich gesc h utztes M ateri"

As before,

/1.,+ 11., ,11.,,+211..

S<> II" 0.25 - a 025'1

,- 10 - -

II, - 0.5 - 0.025 ~ 0.475 Q.

The absolute value. of ,these; resistors could be calculated wilhotu tbese s_irnpJifyiog assumptions by 'Writing s_imuhnD.Cous equations for both parallel branches or the circuli in each case. Because re_!j:i!itoni are seldom .vailabl,e in better than 1% 101=0,." or at best 112%, tho added lobor for this additional IlCcuracy is not warranted,

1,27 A yol"'go g!lin or 70<18.

for optimum bandwidth, the individual ,"'ge gain should be 1.65 (see Mod.m EI.ctmnlc Clre"it /Je";8" hy David Comer, Addi",""W es ley, 1976)

11Jen

1.65" - .3162 IIlog 1.65 - log 3162 0,221,,, 3.5

n' - 16.09.

8ccau.s:e an ini.C,8ru1 number (If stages is required. We select 17. This leads 10 .un individual sUlI!::e Nodwidlh of

Bandwidth ~rlr!ku.ge due to cascading i~ BIY_" (Bnndwidrll of'singl .... g.{JJ -I)

"IS2x 10' ( 12;\- - I)

BW"37,1~ 10'lIoJI= g 37,lx 10' -5.91~ 10'l-k 2011:

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ale,i a

1.28.. Sol". the circuit by the edrninance method.

y. =t = 12~ -!- jY~ =0.8)3xlO-'+ jY~

Z = 1 _ 0.833 X 10-' _ ./1'" "R _ jX

• O.833x 10-' + jY" D D'"

where denominator ~ D afler rnHonalll.lng the fraction wi Ih the

rnnjuga", D " 0.693 x 10" + Y ~ u"ng (n - b)(a + b) "n' - b'.

The new eqaivalem circnit ls shown in Exhibit 1.2gb.

n

R"

C

t Tx."

EJchtit 1.2Gb

At rcsouaace,

X .. =X,

XL" 2/ffL = (6.28)(955 x 10')(10" 10-<') = 599.7 ohms, y

Thu. 1)=599.7= X" basec on Ihe P'incipiesofresooonce.

If %-" 599.7.1lIeo y~ = ~997{0.69)X ur" +Y~) 599.7Y~ -Y~ +4.156><10"' =0.

Solvi.ng the second-degree equation by using the' standard formula we

cbiain .

Y = I±Jl-4{4.156XlO"'X599.7)

" 2x599.7

1 ± JI- 0.9979 I

1199.4 = 0.S3J X 10"

2><599.7

U rheberrec htlich ge5c h utztes M ateri a

where the radical was approximated to be zero. Therefore tbe rcOC1anCC requested is

x,_~.!. ~ 1,I\I9"4olm,,, - Y",

b. z'n :=. Ra;l as in resonance the only effective part of impedance is lht real pan of the cornplt~ expression.

z_ ~ R ~ O.S" ~ 10" ~ 0,83, ~ HI"

-n 0 D 0.6')3 ><,10-<; + f,;

0,833><10-'

0.693>< 10" + (0_833" ]0-')' z.. ~ R6 x 10' ~ 600 ohms.

1.29

'0

tn

r:r:3~' . 1,"\.

v. ,.. f V;t

_ - ,

;;

~1IXt1.29b

V,(,,)~~ s

(,< + 1)1, - .1, = v,

-d, "(HI +; )" = 0

- "I, + (i + .r + 1)1, = 0

I~-=~

- 2.'+2.+1

sV V,(s)= 2.'+;"+1

H . .j

(s)~ 2.' +2.+1

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jules M ateri a

S6h . .rtlOns 37

The en tical frequencies are

2'..eroJi: G=O.,$.0.40·oo

Poles, 1>' + 1, + ! = 0

£= -H~ = ,-Hj2

- 4 4

s = -0.5 ± jO.5

H(ru) ~ j'ru ~ jru

-"2ru:~ -t j2ru+ 1 1- '2ru~ -t j2m

IH(ru~ .. , occurs when H(ru} is real. H(o.» is real when 1 - 2ar = 0"

1.30 Node Bquatlcn .1 X:

Y"'l _ R,(sCR+1)

I I s~ClC~R,:R" ·+.:r(C,R, + C~R't +(l- K)CIR~)+ I

V,(s) = KV.(,<)

1.31 a. Usc a "'"01 till:gc divider.

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri"

b. To make 1110 1181\)11111 response zero, cll.m inare the pole in ~ by ceustng

it to CfiJlcel with the zero. I

V,III

CIRI R,R1(C, +C2)

Th"S C,+C~.~~, + R:J, or 1.+ S~I+~ or s.~~

C, R, C, R, C,~R,'

If V,(/)_ UoitStep, ~(.) ~ ~

s

c.

H. .[ C R J' ~

vlJ(tJ~~+ . ......:::J....._.......:.:L- [e t • t>O

- R,+R,C,+C, R,+R,.

~" R,R,(C, +C,)

R,+R,

where

(2)..,d (3)

Y (I"O')=_£_ o CI+C~

Y,(I -? .,)~ ____R,_

R,+R,

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

1.32 b. The "mas," of2 electrons h as a chorg. Q ~ 3.2 x 10"" C. Thus the electric fie Id ls

The fOfL::C is then

F ~ QF. ~ (3.2 x 11J"")x(5[)x W') ~ 1.6x 10'" N,

1,33 c. The maguitude of the length ol'the res • Jtaru vector. R. in tbe r, y. z plane is

The magnitude of the electric field, E. is

£=_Q_ = (O.3~ 10-')

, 41!1;R' 4,,(8_85 x 10"")29

= 93, 000 Vim,

1.34 c. 0" the b pi .. "" (for th'" plane alone). c - (-012.).,. and for the negatively c~ plane artne '. plane (08,in for Ih.1 plane alone. bUl "cliog to Ihe right of ill. is the same as before.

Therefore,

1.3:5 d. From a sketch of lh~ vectors in Bxhlbh 1,35. the value of E~ is 12,.6 x 10' Vim,

E,.t·12.6:1(1f1'1Wm EXhIbit 1.35

U rheberrec htlich ge5c h utztes M ateri"

F is, then found to be

E» lO~"IO"

4"(8.85~ 10-"),'

F"C?,E", -5>< 10-< x 12.6><10' "O>:>><JO-' N

1.36 c.

the c1'OSS..scctionai area, or Ihe iron core is m-"J. = 1l x 1 O~4 In:t.

The pa!h !eng'" L;; t" 2", R - 2,,(5 x 10"') " 0" 11ntI.

The permeability i. ,/1" 11,11. ,,41«)0-') x 10' - 4" >< 10".

Hence, !l ,,! __ _O.5 ,,390 A·!IID and because 11" mmfJlel!gtIJ,

Ii- 4",,10'

mmf" II x long!h" 390~ 0.1"" 122.5 A - t. Thu'.I- mmf/wm' -IZ2.5/100 -1.225 A.

U7 C. A .. ume tbe 'WO .. i_"", ore bIl!>dled dose together (with respect to the 0_2, meier position). Then lhe !'let current to lhe rigf\! i.s.~ ,_ :;;;;; 5 ~ l- 4 A. The flux, density is given by.

B _ (111) _ (4 .. >< 10"")(4) ,,4>< 10" Tesla.

. 2Jr, (2" x 0.,2)

l.3M d. The flu>; lhrough the air g.p and the core must. be the same. Because there is no fringing,. the erreceve cross-seenoeat gap area is ire S;;m-le as the core, Thus !he If, are the sa me.

For B_1" 0.6 Tesla, H _ 400 A • tim" (mmI){kngth~ SO

",mr_ -400"O.3~= 14() A.."

13ecau se H .... , =!!.. =~ =OA8x 10'

_. JIa (4,,"10-)

end mmr • ...,,, H ~knglh" O.4s.~ 10", The total mmf ~ mmf~l + mmfli~

,,140+480,,620 A. U" rmnfil" 620" I.m A. 600

1.39 3_ Assume a de magnet

B'A

Force in dynes: F = ~ Maxwell's equation

Foree in Ib<lsq" in" ~ ____!f__" 00.0(0), 72,,10' 72,,10'

(I) F""", = 12.5 Ibslsq.in pull

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

(2) B .. 30,000 lino<l"l" in., L ~ 0.5 in air ~"P" mOll ..... - 0.85 Ulla( NI

l.:~ of '--oil- 24 lnches

V - 10 ""]IS on ceil

HII~,~ = 0.313 R Nl per inch for air gap

/'11., ... , .. -O.]l3x30.DOOxO.5x2-9.4OQ amp-tum f<X"irg,'Il 9400

.. 0.85 -11.050 '''''pete nnns for all gap

I'll, .. " = 90~ = Il,Ose ampere I""" for air gap ",<I rna .. "elle ""I.

Because the coli dimensiens are not gi. ... en, assume 400 square lnches of radiating surface and allow 0.7 wntl& per square inch dissipation at 60°C.

wuns ~ 400 x,0.7 ::::r UD watts dl_.ssi~l~ and {~~&Owatts ~ 4 Ampees ceil current 70volts

1'1_ 0_ _1050 -2:763 turn on mil

I 4

Wire length _ 2763 x 24 incO" _ S~26 fi:el

12 inches/fool -

H. "" 70 "oll, '" i,7.5 ohm' . ,., 4aJJljlC1<' ..

fl.. - plcnglh where P '" 12 nl60'C

1ft' area

12)(5526 ..

Aru,~::;; -1'1.5- ~38:Rn em mills

No. 14 AWe Magnet win'. has 4,,101 cir. mill, and. 2.525 "0",;/1000'.

No. IS .AWC Mag"" wire hils 3,257 cir mill .. and ;1.184 o!tmS/IUCIO'.

Choose No. 14 AWe Magne! wire.

RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

Bobrow, EIt!mf!maIjJ linear CircuitS' Ana/ysi.s.. 29J; edition. Holt. Rlnehart and WI nsrcn, 1987.

Jones. Lincoln and Howard Smcljeck. Electrjca' Enginrering: FE Emm P"'I'",,,,,,on, 3'" Edition. Kapl,n AEC.

Nilsson. e'tCl'ric CircuilS. Prentice-Hall, any edhlon.

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

Machines

OUTLINE PAOSLEMS 43 SOLUTIONS 51

RECOMM5NOED REFERENCES 71

PROBLEMS

Not<: Although several of the following problem" are much longer than might be expected on !he examination, it is suggested thai tile reader follow them Illrough where apprupriata

2.1 ,A n older do sh unl motor (E.hibil 2.1 a) is imended to be" se d 10 drive J load whose output power n:quireme.nl varies be tween 5 ond 15 hp bul will only tolerate a s.ota.!! speed. vananon. The nlime plate ItIlit1_g of the machine is given D.5 15 hp, '230 volts, .57.1 A.. ]400 rpm. The field circuit resistance is 115 n, and its armature' reslstnnce is; 0, 13:Q. No dam Or test resu hs are' ",.ilable on its no-load characteristics.

'The m,chi"" need' 10 he anJlYl.ed 0<10 its '"itab.ility forllle speed requirements (Ill.t ; s, speed regulation) WId its dficiency over Ille various 100<1 requirements, It has """illy been docidod ihnl the occuracy of Ille :lIlllIysis doe, not require Ea'ki!'lg Into eccoem <my effect that armamre ~tioo might produce. 'The data needed for milking a judgment on using this machine are

a, No-load and 5 hp Ii ne currents.

b. No-load and 5 hi> speeds,

c. Efflcienc}' a, both 5 and 1.5 hp.

The following dOl" should he used for Problem, 2.2 'hrollgh. 2.1 L A SO kYA transformer rated III 23W230 ... ·l;I'h::s. Llt 60 Hz. i:s to' IJe teared j n .Q, laboratory :50 th;[u ;U, characteristics con be determined. 11", <I"ndan! le>t requires bOlh an open and 'hon cireui t test; the results of jhc tests ore shown in Exhibi, 2.2,

'The open circuit tos! mea,,,re, core I"" wi th neg,ligible copper loss, The short circuit te5t m.cL'l.SUItS the copper loss wi.th ncglig.iblc core Joss,

For fl.uure and present reqeiremeou, lhe parameters of an equivalent circuit need to be: found. in addition. seveml values of cHk:iency and voltage regulation are to

43

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Mate,;"

r

+

~ibit2.1

(e) _ fIowdiogram "'.do .... no"""'"

be determined (the "",umpl;"n is th.1 the coil. art designed such th., tl~R,::::;; liR!).

2.2 Determine the coil Te'SLSlance of the high winding...~ side.

a :154 n b. 0.605 n.

c, OJXJM n d, 5.29 n

E

w

«s«

2JOV

ll.lA

nsv

U rheberrcc htl ich gesc h utztes M ateri a

2.3 Determine the copper P<"''Ct loss.

a, 187 Vi b. 757 W

C'. 570 Vi d. 1.5 kW

2.4 Determine the: core joss.

a, 187 W h. 757 Vi

c. 570 Vi d. 1.5 kW

2-.3 Determine lflI: efficlency of lhe uausformer at Fulll,(lfi.d (.ossume unity P'L1:Wt,r f..,to,),

a. 0.985 D, 0.996

0, 0,990 d, 0.636

2.6 Determine me e fficieucy {'If.be transformer ,ut half load (assume unhy power [..,10,),

•. 0.985 b. 0.996

c. 0,990 d. 0,636

2.7 Find the percent vohage regulation of the transformer for unity power factor.

a. 98.22% b, 1.175%

c. 96.44% d. - 0.62%

2.8 find rhe percent vouage regu Imj{lrl of the: transformer for a. 0.8 lugging power f:ilC1or.

a. 98.29% b, 3.56%

c. 96.44% d, -2.62%

2..9 Find the percent v oll..1;s:c regularicu of lb: transformer for a 0.8 leading power faC!OT.

a. 98.29% b. 3.56%

c. 96_44% d. -:t62

2 .. 10 Dete.nnine the no-load stll1!.dby current whe.n lbe tran...sfonner is connected !Q its rared S'XU\."e on lhe high side,

a. 6.5 A b. 6S A

C. 0,65 A d, 31.6 A

2_11 perennree the high slde of the 5il.eadjl stale cerrem when the trsnsforruer is connected to ilS ... led voltage souree on ~'" high sid"..,d the low side is lnadvertenny connected to a load of O_{139A n pure resi stance .

a _ 6.4 A b. 65"

c. 31.6A d. 316A

2" l2 For a perfectly operating de generator, the input mechanical J1'O"'''et source rnay be considered !Q .ba ve constant -speed Q'I,.~.Ja range of torque requirements from no-lend to full~IODd. However, the field current D].JlY be ccnsjdered const ... fo, a I>"-nicul", .pplk,u;<>"_ The generetor ls rated al. 15 kW. 240 "oils, 62.5 amperes, at • rated speed of \200 rpm, The armature reslstance ls known 10 be O.HI,

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M aleri

T-

H

".

ExhIJiI: .2.12

For We staled condi lions determine

a. The no-lean terminal voltage (neglect any armature reaction effects),

b. The percent voltage regulation end the input torque taken from the mec-hanical power source (neglect the rotational IOSSie!1)_

c. The percenrveltage regulation and the input torque taken from the mechanical power source assuming the rotational torque loss. 1.5 5,0 N-m.

Now assume the speed control mechanism is fau tty Md while the speed at 00-10,<1 h still 1.200 rpm. the terminal ",I",ge d"'P' because the load restsranee is unchanged • ..,d We speed drops, to 1000 rpm. Determine

d. TIle terminal vollage and the new power (HJtPIU.

e, The new input torque taken from the mechanical power source (o,g.in. neglect the rotalional losses),

2.13 Two .ingle.ph asc, 120 volt, 60 Hz motors are being consid ere d for a particalar applicathm requiring one motor of ~~ hp and the other motor 'h hp. 'These two motors are located at some dlstnnce hom a power source so that It low line current is important such d\31the line 'Ir/Oltage drop js negltgtbre, The lower hp one will be a s ..... ruJll.rt.I spdt-phasc indecrion motor. BtC".3USC of Ihe 10\11.' current consiraint. Ihe other motors will be a special type Ihat has a s.lightly leading power facwr (,3. built-in capacitor In series with one or Ihc winding,.;), 111~ datil in Exhibit 2.138. have been obtained for these two motors.

Paw~rOut MiWar Mntor PM¥U
MaCl:lr (Ucrs.powu) EftIclmcy """ ...
"A- lIJ .... '" 0.71ags,il1g
"lr tl2 70\l;o 0.1)5 !.iJ.tgi:Ili!: To make on engineering judgment on Ille ,uitabilily of ",ing these two motors, it will be necessary to find the total power needed. the combined hoe current •• nd the combined power r.oto, of these two 01010." operating in """nel. In eddiuoa. it will be necessary to have. complete, carefully labeled phasor diagram indicating the lin. v'ol"ge (rd ere nee), and the individual and rotalline cumJIl_),

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

Exhlbtt 2.14

2.14 In an emergency. a de meter must be used as. a genenanr (Exhlblt 2, 14a), The. motor is n cumulative-compound motor, irsefficiency is 90%~ and its posi live and negative terminals are marked.

The cumelative-compound d'nmu;rcristic ITIusr be m .ti.nlilincd when h is used as It generator: lhe roreuon must be kePI in the s:nn'le c.!ire<:tion aild the rpm wiil be the same. The postu v e terminal must remain inc pcshive in the operation as a generaror, Tbe imerpoles mus! aid commutation LO both motor and generator mode. The mLlcrune is 10 de,li\'er the; same power to the line in the gener.nnt operation as it toot from the line in. the motor cperanon, nnd the losses in tile: machine nrc the same m both c a ses,

3_ Should the ~hunt-wi!,ding connections be changed?

b. Should. lite compound-winding connections 1>:. changed?

c. Should Ute interpole-windiug coanecuons be changed?

d. Should the field resistance be changed?

e. Has the load on the mechanical clutch. of the machine (fu_bibit 2, 1.4b) i ncreased or' decreased when the operation changed from motor 1,0 generator if it was: running ill full capacity as :l moror?

f_ How much does the electncal p;w;'CJ transferred at the line connection increase or decrease if the mechanic •. d torque JS maint:3i.ned on the shaft?

v,

v,

• .10", 101

G.ntJl.I~ (bl

2.15 A JO "VA, 240 ac voltage SOUIl.·! sends power through I~'(J Weill tr-ansformers, that arc separated by a short transmission lint to a sing,rerph~ mduction motor load whose impedance is 4 + j3 ohms (E,hibil 2.15). The f"," rrunafcnner is u 1;2 step-up cud the seccnu i_:io.u"2; I ~tr:,r-d{)wn; ~h~ equi ... ·alen,l series impedance of (he interoon_ne-cting Iransrrnssl0n line is 2+ fl ohms. The cperutor is cons.ideong PUi\':b.USltl,g, .un ac capacitor to connect across the motor load to. reduce SOJue of the line loss.

A.nalyz..e the ~1oj.y:'He!t\ !.!:sing ~r~u!lil values to determine the various voltages, currents, and power taken from the source both before and afl'l:( the capacitor i~ added. Abo. calculate the: kVAR rating for the capacitor (to correct the: load PU''''eT factor to uni ty).

U rheberrec htlich ge5c h utztes M ale,i

_., .....

-----1

I

I

I ....... ..,_

I I I I

Eknltltt2.1!5

2.16 An em~rpmcy ]201208·\'Oh~ 3rpha.sc. a-wire, 60 Hz generator :suppli.t:3 an exte:rnal circuit, The load on the external circuit ~Oi1SiSitS of 9000 waus of incandescent light connected between line and neutral and r;\"cnly di5Lribut.cd :rrnong tire 3 phases, and • I (). HP, 3.ph ase air conditioner motor of 83% efficiency and O. 7(J7 power factor.

a, Show tho phasor diagram of the currents and \XlII.S.' on the load side of tire generator,

b. Determine lb. microfarad, of tbe capacttor 10 be connected to Ihe gene""o, in unler 10 reduce the Il"""""or lood current 10 105% of IhOO which would flow' if Ibe 1"""" faClor = 1.

c. Oetermme the .• ize of !be conduit and. wire to be used as • f oedc, and tire required fuse size 10 protect !he feeder when il is run between tho generator and il"5 distribution board in Ihe next room. if the load is continuous, and tire, capac; lor calculated in (b) is connected,

2.17 Two v-connected induction motors are fed by ~l. 4160 Vj line-to .. line,. _l-ph.Me 60 fu motce-coetrol center 20 feel IlWily. Motor If J drives a 600 HP compressor. TIie efficiency of .be motor is 90%~ ami i IS po w er factor iii: 0.5. Instruments of molOr 112 indic.'" 1730 lW, 277 amps.

a, Show ibe phase diagram of the loads. kW .nd kVA.

b. De,ormitlC !he copacity in m;otOf arads of a, wye-connected capacilor' bank tI'''' j, required II, ec ....... .., the PO"~ r"'-Clor or the to .. I load to 0_%6_

c. If a s ~""hfonous motor is installed in place of motor 112 and used instead of tile capocile, bank, to acfueve (he same overall power ractor (0.966), ",h.l must it< power factor be'!

2.18 A 12,,500 kVA, 66t)O volt, 360{) r.p.rn., 60 Hz., 3·phase, Yccnnecred .1 .. rnatcr has magnetizntiun and short-circuit chamctcristics CUf"l!-S as shown in E<ltibi( 2 .. 1 Sa.

Determine the percentage voltage regulation for a O_7071a_.gging 'PQWe!' factor. Let the at: ennauce resistance be 0.5 ohms and make (and stone) any reasonable assumption necessary for your solution.

2.19 A 10 tVA, 480-120 V, slngle-ph as e tmnstorme- is 10 be connec te d "" an ,ul.Q".nsformc, 10 connect. 480 V source '0 " 600 V load. Determine the maximum .• VA toad !hollhe aurorransformer can supply ,,",hOllt e, xceeding Ille winding curren, ratings,

U rheberrcc htlich gesc h (jules Mater;"

10

_..J- I--
Er·,...t.od~1; /'
-r- --- rr
L ~~- 1
i, '" rated wrrent
--- ---
I
/ bY I
. I
V' I
':1 I'
• 100

,51)

2.20 A J.ph= 132.· 1}.2 sv 15 MYA tmnsfcrmer ls supplying a 12 MVA ~·ph ase load ;U 13 k V. Tbc primary wimHng:!i are connected in delta and the secondary in wyc, ,Deti!m1ioe the prj'mary and secondary winding and line currents.

2.21 A 3.,pIi'-lse-. 60 Hz, two pole. 4.16 kV, wye-connected synchronous generator is to be: applied us an emergency power source to supply.5oo lW at a power faClOt Qf 0.90 las£,ii'l,g. The MalOr resistance is 0.:;.0 uhmlphilSe, Rotarioanl losses in ebe machine are eaumatcd to be 15 k W_ Determine the required horsepower and torque of the prime mover.

2.22 II 3·phosc sYllch",nou, motor draws 250 II "' " tine-line vol'"ge of 4000 V and ).0 power faclorfrom a la'll. system, The machine is wyc connected and has ;0 synchronous reactance of 10 oItmslpha .. se, Stator resistance t"io negJigible. ,I r tbe hc-Id current I~ held constam and the TJl(.."<."hanic:al load is gr.adually increased, determtuc the maximum horsepower that can be delivered wi tholl' pulling out ofsynchronisrn,

2._23 A 3~pI1.as~, roo hp, 460 v, delta-connected iildu,"l.lUfl mm.c'f ha. ... ;j) !.ockC'd rotor' code letter F_ The motor is started with u wyc."delta controller, E.uimate the large.';~( . .'i.~an.ng current that the motor will draw from the supplY system

2.24 A J~philSC induction motor is. supplied from a 50 Hz system. h runs at 9.50 rpm ., f"lIlea<! .. Determine the number of poles, the 'I.ip"' full loed. and itcq"'''q of !he rotor current O! full load,

2 . .'25 T\A;o ~-pha..;;:e transformers are to be operated in pl'rallel, One rranstormer is ra ted 7500 kVA and bas "n impedance of 6.5%. 'The second transformer ts rated 5000 kYA .od bas an impedance of 5.5%. Both transformers how Ihe same 'I,-"O!tnge rating and 3.IC Set iJl the same \'oltagc tap, Estimate the maximum kVA load thut tM: transformers can supply without exceeding the mliQg of either transformer, The transformer impedances can be assumed 10 be p~'I1' inductive.

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri'

2.26 A single-phase. 25 kVA. 2400.240 Y transformer has an equivalent series impedance of :3.4:5 + jS. 75 ohms referred to the high voltage side. The transformer is supplying .. ned kVA at 240 V and 85% l;a,gging power factor. Determine the percent v ohage regulation.

2.27 The nansfoemer of Problem 2.26 has a no-load 10« of 500 w_ For the sa me loading condition gi'~ in Problem 2.26, delennin e the """,fomler emciency.

2.28 A 460 V, 100 hp, wyc-connccted induction motor has a locked rotor impcduace of 0.12 + )0..3.:5 ohm/phase. If the motor is. started wilh an uutotnmsformer se, at the 65% voltage '.1'. determine the current drawn [rom the .upply system ., start.

2,29 A wye-conneeied synchronous generator is supplying 4000 A at a line-line vohage of 12 IiV .. ,dunily power factor 10 a Jorg. system, The synchtonous reactance I, 2,0 ohms/phase and stator resistance is negligible. If the prime moyer set point is uncbaeged and the field current is increased by 15%. determine me new stator current and power factor.

2 . ._3() A 200 V series de motor has an iUTIl.UIlTe resistance of 0.2 ohm and a field resistance of 0.7 ohms. When operating nt rated voltage. the motor draws 50 A. The rotational los se , ,I this operating condition are ISOW. Determine the ,h,t! ""'put horsepower and th e e mdenc)'.

2,31 A 'sep,ro,c:iy exci led de gener at or I, operatitq; at its lull load rating 01 150 V, Jti A. ""u I.I!OIJ rpm .w 'hen the load is removed II,. <>Input voltage is no v. Determine the \'OIt.ag:e regulation, armature resistance. and the- fulJ load deve loped torque.

2.32 A .1-phase. 200 V~ four pole. wye-ccnnected, 50 Ha squirrel ",--:age indaetinn motor has: a 'per phase equivalent circuit shown in Bxhibit 2.32. The circuit parameters Ute

11, ... 0.15 ohm R,"' 0.10 ohm X,,,,X, "'050 ohm X~'" 20 ohm' Neglecl magne tic and mechanical losses. For a ali p of 0.035 determine the OOIPU' 10"10<.

~ ~
+ c ,+ w VJV f~'
R, 'X, + "'),
v Eilihlbit2.32

2.33 If tho motor of Problem 2,32 i, staned "' noted ",110£0, determine ,h. starung current and ~13tting torque.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M aleri a

SOLUTIONS

Soutlons '"

2.1 For lhe wooiLiQflS stated (disn:g~ armature reaction since data is una .... ailable on no-lcadcharacteristks) you can make a simplified equivatentcircuit or. dependent source type model ... shown in E.<hibit'2.1. Tbe (j gure also shows a power flow diagram to help orgnrUu, your solution process.

The follow j ng calcujations are obvious ft~r Iull load condiuons usiug tho equivalent circuit diagram. The shunt field 10" (thot will beconstnnt) will be

1 ~~r..,,2l0~2A / Rt 115

p .. " I;R, ",(2)' xI15.,460 wa n s,

The ormolu", current 10'" (Ib.t is 0 f"""lion of lite, load) will be

10 ~ I,. - If" 57.1- 2.0" 55,1 A P,~ ~ I,~R." (55.1), xO.13" 395 wans.

The power transfer across the ai, gap (E, I,,) will be

P~,,, P~ - (P" + P~) ~ 230 x 57.1 - (460 + 395) ~ 12.178 watts

The rotaucnal losses (F & W plus tron 11m) will be

P", = p., - Po = 12.278 - (IS x 746) = lOSS wans.

The speed and machine-flex-constant relationship IS

N" ~ -I,R,,, 1400 rpm e 230 - 55, I x 0.13. K9 = 222.8

K9 K8' 1400

= 0, 159 Vlq>m.

The following calculations OI!C needed for 1_1:O-1(l.1d conditions.

The no-load armature current equation ami solation is

/' _( 230 ')1 .r( 1088),,0' from I -!>.±.!.. Jb' -4ac

~ 0.13.;1 0.13' .. 2 2

(-1.169), I J"

I, ~- -2- :!:'2 (-1769t-4x8369

-1764 A Of 4.7 A <-Choose

.' P IOS8

(Altemative method-assumes p .. ,. P.." ~~= 230 =4,73 A)

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

N. ~ V, -I.R". _ 230-4.1·x 0. 13-_ 1443 rn .

.,. 1(0 0.159 rp

The following calculations are needed tor a five hI' output .. The armature

current C:QU.ot.iOD5 Il.OlI solutions will be ~-

P~, ~ p ... +P~, +P" 2:10/. ~ I~ xO.I3+J088+5x146 I' _( 230}1 +(4818)",0

• O.H' 0.13

I. __ ( -1;69 )i~J(l769)' -4x37.062;1.-1748 (I' 21.2 A. .... 0100""

The speed is

230-212xO.U = 1425

0.159 . rpm.

The em ciency ., 5 hp QUI is

Eff(0I5hp)-!'-- p.. _ 5x746

. p. Po + all losses sx 746 +460 +584+ 1088

_0.699.

The effidency !It 15 hp our is

Eff (ot 15hp)_ ~ _ ___fj,~_ _ 15 x 7'!6_. _

p. P, +011 ")~'I'" I" x 746+ 460 + 395 + IQ88 = 0.852.

~ 2.'1b ResI._Jt:s ot n-e preced1rtg ,~tions. assumlr:tg rQI;~ ceses eoe <>0'<'$1"'"

,Po'Wer QuI Spet<l 'lfS.pet<lR'!lIIoU.,. Arm cu..rnnl '1<EIlIde<!<y
15"" 1'00 rpm 3.2% l~.IA 8j,2(1
S"P "lSf1XJ' I.!% :l1:.2A 6').6%
On, 14:'irpm ;f.7A F(,Uowing is iln alternate method of solu ticn us-ing Iht dependent source model in Exhibit 2.1b ., full load (1400 <pm or 146.5 IlIdt_).

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

Soiullans 53

The speed and ml!(;.hino·fiux ccnaram at 15 hp using rae/see for 'peed i.'

for developed torque

T.,.. = K''l>/. = 1..521 x 55.1 = 83.8 N-m.

Torq ue needed for a 15 hp output is

1', ~hpx746~ J5x746~ 11.190, T, ~ Il~~7 ~ "16.38 N-m.

Torque. needed fer rotanonal losses is

T" = I;.... - 'r, = 83.81 - 76.38 = 7A3 N·m.

Torques required for a .5 hp output is

1: =5x 746 = 3730 N-on.

CI - w oW

, ....

I I

----,-------- ,

I I

I I

I I

I I

I I

is • .0 H-g.s

10 1S~

ExhIbit. 2.1[:

TIll.1 developed torque needed ;,

For .he,:;.peed.lll :5 hp, ass .. arne ill linear relationship- between no-lced ant! full-Io"" speed.

y = Ittl' + b; w!l>= '" x hi' x %" - 0_3 x S + 151", 149.5

:.T .. ="1_43+ 3730 =32.4 N-m

, 149.5

U rheberrec hit lch ge5c h utztes M ate,i"

Armature current needed for a :5 hp OUlput is

7' -K''''I' 1- T"" -~13A

.... - .' .-:K';P--' .

These resufu ... agree (within the approx.imal:ions. used) for both methods, From the lable of results, a judgm.nl.1 engineering decision may be made as 10 the suirability of "';."8 this parncul ar motor.

2.2 b. The coils arc designed '0 tim,

where 11 and R,I are the high ..... ohage coil current and ac resistance. I~ ar'ld R~ are 'he low-voltage coil current and resistance.

~=!!.,_~~

E, N, I,

!i;:;; a (mms ratio). N,

SirU:'e

1,!Rt ~ I:R.~ [or good tmnsfonrcr design 570 = 2'.' R, ~ 21 ;R,

I, ~ ~: ~ 21.7 ""'P' (Rated) , ~ 50,000 ~217 nmp.(Ratcd) , Btl

:. R ~ 570"" 0.605.0. (High Side) , 2(21.7)"

R, ~ ~~ 0.006050 (Low Side). • 2(217)"

2.3 c. Copper I"", ~ /,' R, .. I; 11,. ~ 570 wntt.,

2.4 a. Core 1.0" ~ [87 w.,IS negjecung the no 100<1 exciting current copper I"" whie!, would '010"'" '0 (65)' (0.00605) "0.255 "alt

2.5 a. Full load efficiency " . output

(OLltpul + I;.;U loss + cere toss)

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M aterl a

Assume power factor ~ 1

Etlie;.. = 50,000 _ 50.000 " 0 985

OJ 50,,000+570+ t87 50.151

2,6 c. Hatf load efflcieney Assume power faclor" 1

Efflciency e ,3.~,~ __ = 25,,000 = 0.9')

- - 25.000 +:: + 187 2S,n~J .. ~

2.7 b. Voltooo Rcguiolion = (No Load Vol",&" _ Full Load Vot~~~

-e -' (Fun Lced V"ltagc)

III~·'

E.xNbtt 2.,7

Conven the equivalent transformer circuit. referring it to the low-voltage eon, Assume lltc to"'~lI(lllas. coil has consram voltage H, = 230 '011',

R = Pewee "~,, 0,0121 oIun

. Ilq.;.,_ I; (217)'

Z1;,qW"jT.I¥ .. ~;.~;; 5.30

l " Z"",."", "g '" 0 0530

~:q~.,L..i-1 a~ 100'

Xf""~"," " ~I( l,:",,;,,_ _. R,'",;.,J" ,J(0.053)' _ (0.0121)' " O.0516~h[JL'

Assume ... ted c"rrenll, = 217 lIIlP' (at unity !'Ow" factor).

,,230 + 217(0,0121 + jO.053) '" 230 + 2.63+ jlLS

'" 232.63 .. jl 1.5 ~n2.U.2.84°

voltage Reg"wioll" 232,7 _ 2..10 = 2.70

230 230

= 0.01175 or 1.175 P ere "01

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M aleri"

56 Cheptet:2 ~nras.

2.8 b. Find ,'oltogc. regulation for p.r. ~ 0.8 1"8.

A_SSI.une rated current I~ ~ 217 amps. Draw the: phusur diagram,

Exhibit 2.0

"230(0,8 + )0.6)+ 217(0.0121+ )0,053) '" 184 + )138+ 2,63 + )11.5

~ 186.63 + )149.5

~ 238.2L3 &.70

Voltilgo regulation ~ 238.2- 2.1<!: = g" 0.0356 or 3.%%

no 2]0

Assume f~;::: 211 amperes, rated current.

I Ella

1i:~""!;"'~11M

.

I:tRIoQl!,",Io!I ..

~ ;:::: V~ (cosO' + j sin B) + 1 ~ R,r,'~i¥!,Uoo' + jf ~X E'..qU:;~~ ~ 230(0:8 - )0.6)+ 2,63 + )11.5

~ 184 = j138 + 2,63+ )11.5

= 186.6.1- )126.5

~224L342'

Vol"lll" regulation ~ 224 - 230 ~ -1),0262 or - 2.62% 23()

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ale,i a

2.10 c.

SolllllQII-ls 57

2.11 d.

20 __ <,,,,, =..!.£ = ~.2'Xl (lleglecting core loss)

~~.', . 2.1.7

R ~!!::.c 22£... = Pin

-. I,' (21.7)' ._.

=4>- ~~~~o.228. 4>~=-'{O.228): 76.80 VA II s x 21.7

X"'''''"'' ~ 2.i"76.8°" 5.2.9)( 0.974 ~ 5.15

R,,,,,,~.,,,,, - a'R, -10' )(0.0394 ~ 1.941l no", Z~.'" ~ 1.21+ jS.IH3.94~S.I5+ jS.IS ~,fi XS.ISkHS·

V 21l)(h . c

I".,,, ~ z.:~ Ji )(5.ISL+450 - 116AL-45

(neglecting core loss current)

2.12 a. 'TIle no-load termlnal 'I,."{)ltage (since Il~re ls no s;pet'!d , .. hnngc) is E~ (may be given as K"¢'w). It remains the same for a generator, and is given as

~t ~ VI" + 'tlR'l D 2-40 + 62.5 ')( ()_2;;;;;: 252.5 volts.

b, The percent vnll1lgc regu lution is

%V.R. !::: (V !!!l-.~ +' I/r.u.bIoi,!)x 1000:IO:;'I-II).aJ' = (1.12.5 - 240) x llXV.!40 ~ 51%.

The i"P'H torque ts foun" by TO) - F:i. = 252.2 x 62.5 ~ 15,781 waus thus,

T~ E,I,,1w~ 15.78111(1200 x 2n)161JJ ~ 12% N·m.

c. The VOltage regulation is the ~me (5.2%) but the new required torque is increased by rhe amount (If rotarional Joss torque,

T' ~r+ 5.0 ~ 12~.6 + 5 = 130.6 N-m.

and the new power inpin requirement is.

p~ ~ Tx w~ 130.6 x(l.200 x 2.,,160) = 17.9.3 ew

d. II! is directly proportional to speed for a constant field!

E; ~ E,{l.000I1.2oo) ~ 210.4 ",11,.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

The load current then becomes E/(R. + R,), when: the original load resistance was 24OJ62..5 ;;0 .J.84 !l.

I." 210.410,2 + 3,84)" ~2,S A,

V,,, E, -1)1." 210.4 - 52.8 x ,2 ~ 200 V. P ... " 200 X 52.R" 10.56 kW.

e, The new required input torque is. e.ilSily found as

T" Pt.!ru" (210A ex 5H)I(lOOO x 2jt/(\{))" 11.1091104.6 "JOld N·m.

2.13 U.ing d", data glven in Bxhiblt 2.130.

Output Mot<lf A " Vleo.S x Ell.

1 n this case

, 746",,,,",

HPOI''' Froctioa of Load x~

"O,25HPx 746 "1,86.5 w.n, HP

/,_. 1Ikos6 • 02.'ix746. _ 3.7 ""'P 'lio V x Elf. x Pf 120 x 0,7 x 0.6 .

Output 186.5

Input Moro, A - -Elf,'" O~6" 31 I watts

E"" "120,,,,11>

Output Motor B " VI '0.<8 x Elf,

_ O.5HJ>x ')46 ,,373IVatr, HP

I., ,,__Q~x746 ,,4.66amp ,... 120 x 0.95x 0,7

lnpur MOIoT B " Output" 373 " 534 warts

Elf, 0.7

"""''''k 2.13b
Mutor Ptno.'ef' FactQr VA e SIn6 Inpul Po'l!;f:r
II G_'7l.l1,i5 .... ~j~ 0_71:5 St t wens
B o.~!~l:I4 l@ 13.:2.-= Ll~1!2} ~~Mw!.u:o;, 'Ictal power " Input power A + Input power B " 311 + 534= 845 watts

Motor A VARS" 31S lag 6- ten " 142 =9.6'

Motor B VARS ,,-176 lond 845

Total VARS " 142 log "",6" eO$(9.6") "0.986 lag

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M aleri a

Exhiblt 2_13<:;

I,"", -1.(0",45.5'- j,in 45.5')+1.(00,18.2'+ ),i,,18.2·) - 3.7(0:7 - )0.71)+ 4.66(0.95 + jO.3123)

~ 2.~9- j2.62 +443+ )1 .42. = 702- jl.2

I .... ~7Jamp

P,=311 P.,,534

PTht_:.J = PA + P,t! = 845 warts

2.14 a, No, Lite .hunl winding should not be ehango<l. The prcb lem 0 tearty states that dlrecuon of rotaiicn and {X}lariIY (positive terminal) ."ta)' the same. There fore, regardless of",,·hclher we ba .... C' n motoror generator operance ~ the direction (,f the current stays unchanged. The only drawback is jhe subtractive MM.F of shunt and series. field winding. giving n difforcntinl ..... umpoundlng. This matter i:li brought up in the next point.

b. ves. rne oompou"d (""'; es ).wi"diug connections shoule be changed, because the aim.uture c:umnl during generator operJtions, isreversed and. n<>w oPP""'" (differentially compounds) the shunt field. To still aid (cum"la!ively compound) the shunt field. "'0 compound (,",ric,) winding should be ""'0,;00.

c. No, the interpole-winding connecuons should no!. be changedlnu .. -rpoles or Ci)illnlut8hng poles are narrow lam.inaltu ,;au;JtUiary poles placed midway between the main poles: lU1d (be plane of comm I.uruion .. These lnterpoles are in series wilh the armature i.\nd are wound to oPPO:'!.e and nuUify the armature reaction in the uommutartng plane. This prevents :s.parkipg lhal might cause flashover aud al'-iA:J 'reduces iron losses in 100 armaru re teeth. CIwIging fromt!l()!Q, to generaw action, !he pol"'ity uftbe commureuug poole automati.cally changes, With the. change t)r lhe armature reaction MM.f. Therefore. commutation in interpole machines is not afTec:t-ed by a change from motor 10 genetator operation or a change In the direction of rotation,

d. YC.5. the field (shunt) resistance should be ChilD,~OO. Because the: generator 'VOlw8:e tia...,. 10 be lru:ger than the terminal voltage due io the obrulc \,t)l rage drop in the am"",,",. winding. the flux hns to be increased (r", ~ K ¢ rpm). Increased ~ roeans incre-, .. ,sed field current. Therefore. dle shun. field resistance Should be decreased.

U rhcberrec htlich gcsc h (jutes M ateri"

e. The load on the mechanical clutch of the machine has increased.

E:KhI:IlI: 2.14b

Rated Power ... = Losses + Load on clutch (for motor) Rated PowctoNlpP1 + Losses. ~ Load on clutch (for generator)

Because losses remain the same in either mode -of operation, the load on the clutch Increases when the machine is operared as a. generator.

f. U.si~ Ihe line connections as oil reference poim, due to internal losses, the power delivered to the motor ,hoft is 90% of Ihe reference", inpul power.

Assuming ehar the same mechanical torque is. majntafeed • above shaf: power is DOW the: input (prime: mover) of the generator operation. Therefore, using the same 90% efficiency of the machine, the generutor ourpur referred to. the original electrical power Ir,""r.rred .1 the tineconnec-

tions bas deere ase d to .

0.90 x 0.90 = 0.81 or 81%.

2.15 First the per-unit value, need to be de~ned for each portion of the circuit (without the capacitor).

Generating Sot.II"Ce

Motor-load

v""'" '" 240 V _, I pu •••••. _ •••••••••••••• > same

kVA,~t:. ;;;;; 10 kVA~ I pu ~~-----~--~---~> same

I .... , = I 000CJUIZ4O ~ 41.67A 1 pu -c-> same

z".", ~ 240/41.67 ~ 5.760 Q I pu _._> "We

z".,.. '" (4 + j3)/5. 760 .~ 0.6944 + jO.5208 pu

V,,~, " 2 x 240 " 480 V --> I pu

kVA = 10 kVA _, 1 pu

I , '" 10000/480 ~ 20.83 --> I pu

2", = 480fl._j)_8J = 23.04 Q _, 1 pu

z..." (2 + j2)123.04 ,,0.0868 + jO.0868 pu.

TIle total pu impedance as seen at the source Is

z,~ ~ Z,_ + z.... '" 0.0868 + fiJ.0868 .. 0.6944 + jO.5208 = 0.7812 + jO.6076 = 0.9897 ell. 9° pu

I~ '" 1.0LO'/O.9891L31.9' = 1.010L-37.9' pu "1.0IOL-J7.9° pu x 41.67 Aipu" 42.10 A.

p~ - Vlcos<l> = 240 x 42. I Oco.J1.9" = 1974 watts.

U rheberrcc htlich gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri"

I~ ~ 1.010" 0,8680 ~ 0.8767 pu V,,_ = 0.8767 pu x 24D Vip" = 21D.4 V.

Cbec •.

p ""'" ~ I'R "' 42.10' x 4 "' 7089 waus

p.~", (1 .. ~2)' R,o."' (lLD,)'" 2"' S86 watt,

Choose c.""cila, such Ihat 7...., 117....-_ ... has only a , real ""n.

y ..... = IISL-36.9°", 0.16 - jO.12.

Y", = +}0.12. z,.", = IIY, .. = 11)0.12 = -jO] n Y",,"' 0.16 +)0,

z,~,_ = (/0.16 = 6.25 Q -> 6.2515.76 = (.09 P"

.7 -n , = 0.0868 ... jO.0868'" LU9 '= 1.1'77 + )0.0868 pu = 1.l80L4.24°

= 1.180 X 5.795 = 6.838L4.24°n I~ "' LOll.! 80L4.24· = O.847SL4.24· pu

~ O.8475L-4.24· x 41.67 Alp""' 34.41 A

P __ "' VI"", ¢> "' 240 x 35.4100;. 4.24· = 8475 waus

P,.. "' 1",/tR",. = (34.4112)'" 2 =·626.9 wall> PI~~ == 1~~:rR~!X ~ 44,3~ x 4 ~ 7850 watts

It is inttlt".stl.ng to compare Ih~ new load ,..oltagc with the original V" u lue (210.4 VI.

v •• ~~,"' 1(7"""",,117...,) = 34.4.1 x 6.2:; = 221.3 V.

Not OIl]Y is: motor \'ollllgc higher, for n greater motor output! but Ihe fine 10&."i power loss is less. AI~! the capacitor should have a kVAR vorlage raung ontO volts (wh,," wer.ting willt the motor ""loaded). so inseead or a current of 22 UI( -jS'>3) = 26.~6A. it should be 24t)1( -)8.33) = 28.8 A, gi"in£ • kV AR of 6.9 k V AR.

2.16.. Designating: I~ = Moeor cerrent: I"," ~ Real componenl ofl~: I"" ~Q.oOOrn. turecompoeem or I,.; li~ lrcardeecent tigbl'ii cuncm: I. ~'ThLa1 Joedcurrenu 1:' e: Corttcted lOtaJ currem; ( ~ C-apQCitOl" cUI1't'J1I;

w. obtain tho phuso diagram shown in Exhibit 2.16.

I, = i'OOO = 2~.LO· amps v3 X 208

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M ateri"

EXhIbit 2.18

1m ~ l()x746 - 35.3L'45· amps ~ 25+ j25

J3 X 20S X 0.S3~. 0.707

Thus I .. ~ 2SLO"

I"", ~2SL-90°

I, ~2S+25+ I25~50 .. j25~56L26,5' amp,

b. If the power taetor ~ I, .he]. reduces ro the real component of the above current. i.e. 50LOI:J. Therefore, V!'"C hn v e 10 reduce /1 ~ 56 L26.,S.D [0 105% of 50 amps "T~ ~ 52.50 amp, at an angle to be derermlned,

From vector diagram (E,hibit 2.16) I; ~ (52,50) end, in point D.

AC~25

AS ~ J52.5' - 50.0' ~ 16.5 DC~ 25-16 .. 5,,3.5 amps" T,.

E 208

Th"",Xo "~=~"'14.1ohm'

IpI";!ooI' '\13 X J~ "1/3 x8.j

If X ,,_l_

• 21rjC

",en C " __ I __ = Ig.7~Flph.se, 377xI4.1

C"'" -3x18.7-56.I~F

c.

I; " (25 + 25) + )16.S ,,52.SLI8° amps I~".,.. ,,25+ j155" JOL)4°' 0IIIp$

RntmS of wire size:

125% (/~_ + I,) = 1.25 "00 .. 25) = 68.8 "lOPS

Fron, copper wire IOble (Nation.1 Electric:tl Code (NEC). Arncte 310. Tobie 310· J 6) for 70 omps continuous carrent we obtllJ" Size NQ. 4.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M aleri"

Exhlbtt 2.178

From 0\""''',,"01 protection tabl<,at 30 .mp' <no 125% factor ls needed) + 25 = ~ 5 amps, Tb", we obtain n fuse size of 120 amps,

From conduit tabl for 4 wire, and S5 amps we obtain. condult sl ze of ,I 114'".

2.17 a,

Motor ~I m 600 x 0.746 • 497kW '" 500kW 0.90

pf = 0.5, thus 8 = 60°

kVA _ SOOkW = 500 ,,1000 "",61)' 0.5

kVAR" 1000x sin 60"" 1000 x 0.866= 866

MOlOr#2 'VA" ,J3x4160x277" 1994 ,,2000

P." = co e = 1730 = 0.866, 8 ,dO'

, 2000 '

WAR = 2000 x 'in 30" = 2000 x 0.5 = 1000

ElI;hIbit 2.17b

b. ToW 100<1 of motors #1 and #2

kW = 500 + 1730 = 2230 kVAR = 866 + 1000 + 1866

kVA = J2230' + 1866' = J8.4~X 10' = 2907 Actual oombinoopf " 00,6_ 2230,,0.767 lag: 8_40· 2907

Desired combmcc power f.olO' " 0.966 log; 0" J5·

kV A now ,"' 223~" 2308

0.%6

Be '" Rcqui re d leading k VAR '" 1866 - 2230 tan 15' " 1866 - 22,)0 ~ 0,268" 1866 - 598" 1.268

X> £ = ~~)' -13.6 ohm

!?VAI268 xl 000

C = __ 1_ = 1_._.,,, J9511F

2,,/x X, 6.28 x 60x .13,6

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ate,i a

T 'T

E.1Cnibit2.17c

c. Assuming tha: the synchronous; motor has tbe same efficiency LIS motor H2. which i! replaces.

kVAR syn. motor ~ kVAR motor "I - kVAR do.in:d ~AC-AB ~ 866 - 598 ~ 268.

exhIblt 2.17d

The synchronous motor alone is shown in E~hibil 2. lie.

tan<>~ 268 -0.155' <>_~

1730 •

kVA-~- 1130 -I7JO =9' 0.988

pI - "0<90 ~ 0.988

2,18

Rated J ,,!2.500.~ _ 1090 A 6(>00,,3

Field current necessary to give shnn-circuit line cerrent, from graph: lido)" 105 A.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

Terminal voltage (per ph as c) from S"'ph:

6300

-y;- ~ 3630 "oil'.

Terminal rated ,,,Ii"lle (per phase)

6600

=c: ~ 3800 volts. ~~j

(H.",. on. could find the synchronous reactance 0 r impedance by Inking the se operating vatues and d.efining

X a 36~.~. , I090A

Howe v er, because only one o:mdition is asl('ed rOT. the s:yn-chml\(J4JS: ""Imll" drop i. the 3630 ""Ie,.)

,'" I' O!IOI(o,O) ,.' "ov

t:"o ~ Vr + RAIl.. "'* lx'sll..

~ 3S00 + 545(cQS45° - join45°) + 363()(cos4$' + j,;"45°1 ~ 6752.4 + j2181.6 ~ 7096L~ vol"

., % V,R: E, - V, (100): 7096-3800 (100)

r 3800

~86,7%

Note that the calculated no-load voltage L,

whkl .. is well beyond the raege of available field current. Thus the Si.'Uur..ucd limit of no-load volt..1.gc would be between 9(K)O and W~OOO volts. The saturated value of synchronous reactance would be less than the value used here.

2.19 480 V winding rated current ~ IO.000I48{) - 20.8 A 120 V wino; ng rated current ~ I 0.0001120 ~ 83.3 A

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

To get the specified voltages connect the rmnsfonncr as in Exhibit 2. 19.

I~

The load is S = 600 x 83,311000 = 50 WA.

2.20 The secondary line current is I, ,,~ "l2,.000JJ3 x D " S33 A .

.. lV.

Because the secondary is wye connected, thls ls also ~he secondary windi:n g current.

The secondery rated vol'age is 13,2/ J3 " 7,62 k V.

The winding ratio h. 132n.-62 ~ ]7.)2.

The primary windjn~ current is 533117.32 " 30.8 ATIle primary line current is J3 x 30.8 '" 53.3 A-

2,21

P 500

lbe 'IllIOT current 1= .J3Voose = J3x4.'16X0:9 = 77J A,

51.10' copper 10"' =J/'R = J x 11.1' ,,0.3 =,5.150 w_ Primo mover power = 500 -I- 5.35 + 15 ,,520 kW.

For a two pole 60 Hz machine synchronous speed is 3600 rpm and ltl~ ~

3600 x 2"./60 '" 377 r3d/"""ond, .

Prj me mover torque == 5201)77 ~1.38 b'fm.

E" V - jXI" 2309.5 - /10 x 25D" 34035L--l7,3' V.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M ateri a

Maximum JXI","'cr is found from rhe power-sagle equation ud th the .angle set equal to 90".

P ~ 3t:v ~ 3x 34035 x 2309.5 ~ 2:>!i8 000 W.~ 2358 kW

"". X 10 " . ,

P.., ~ 23581O:146·~ 3160 hp,

2.23 From NEe Tobie 430,7(B) the <toning kVi\lhp is in tho range 5.0 - 5-59. Use 5.59 to 11;'~ the l"'lle" ,\altiog current.

S,.ning .<VA et rated ml,.go ~ 5.59.x 100 ~ 559 kVA.

Starling (.U rre nt ,,~.59,OOO ,,701.6 A. ~3 ,,460

U,ing • wye-deka staner tile 'lOO1ing c urre nt "701.613,, 234 A.

2.24 Synchronous speed is !?f- where t= 50 H, "nd p i, the number of poles, For p :;;;;: 6, J'I~; .. ] 000 rpm_ Because an in:dllClio:n motor runs at a 'speed "igl!"}' below syncnronous speed .1. full toad, cOl><IuOO that U", mol", has 6 ""I.,.

Slip - (n, - ,,)In, - (1000 - 950) 11000 - 0.05 Rotor current freq"enc)" = .if = 0.05 x 50 = 2.5 H,

2,:2j Con,vct1 impedances to. it common base, say 7,500 l::VA.

Z, ,,;0.065 p.u,

z, " jO.05~ x (75001~000) = /0.0&25 p.".

Equh':llenl, circuit is shown in Exhibit 2.25.

1"Z" .. 1;Z~

I, ~ ( O.065/O.0S25) x I" " O.7SS X I,

11, ____

-. -,_ .

.&hlblt 2.25

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Mater; a

If T, i, DI rated load (7500 kVA), I, "0,788 P," .• which is S,= 0 :788 x 7500 = 5910 k VA. It is overloaded.

If T, is at rated load 1,= 500017500 = 0,667 p.u,

I, " 1,ro.788 "0,667/0,788 "O.846p.u. S," 0.846 ~ 7500" 6345 k:VA

Total loat!" 5000 + 6345 = Il.J45 IiVA

2_26 Equivalent citcui1 i~ shown in Exhibil 2.26.

'---

a : ,

-_I,

D

Vp

El<hIbIt 2.26

a = 24001240 =10 V,=240LO"V

I, = 25.000(,140 L-31.79" = I04,'U-31.79" A V," aV, + 1/" (It + jX)" 2400 + 10.42 L-31.79" . ~ (345 + )5.73)

V, = 2462.3 LO.74' V

Secondary full-load vokege = 240 V

Secondary eo-lead voltage" 2462.3/10 " 246.2 V

% I I' 246.2- 240 IIlO 258%

"0 "~,e res" anon = ~ x .. = .

2.27 P,~ "5<0,8,, 25.000 x 0.85 = 21.250 W

Copper I",,, = I; R = IOA2' x JAS = 375 W Core lao. = 500 W

P~ = 21.250 + 375 + 500" 22,125 W

Effici.ncY = (P ""IP .. )( 100 = (21.250122,125»( 100 = 96%

EJd'llbit 2.20

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M ateri a

, 4&J/fj

St11Il1ng current ut full ,'OI!Ogc ~ -.·~·--C-·- ~ 7li,8L-71.J° A 0,1,2+ jO,35

AlJlflltMSfrmner ratio ~ llO.65 ::::: :1.538

Wl!h the autotransformer, starting current ~ 717.8Jl . .538~ ~ 303 . .5 A.

2,29 Soc Exhibil 2,29.

E

v

v ~ 12JlOOI J3 LO' ~ 6928,4LO° V I" 4000LO° A

E ~ I' + jXI '" 6928.4 + p . .x 4000 ~ 105M3. I L49, 11° V

Neglec~i!lg the rnm1inear elJec.~ls of smumtlcn, when the field current is increased by 15% tho milgnitudt of Ihc excitation volta,go will else

i ncre ase by 15%.

E: ~ 1.1$" 10.5831 " 12.1706

Because the prime mover docs not change. the POW~f output does IltM change.

p" 3E1' £in6" 3£"V.i•6,

X X

'in5' '" f, sin 6 " 0.65736 {j'''4LlO'

The new stator current is

r" E' - V '" 1,2, 170,6L4,1.~OO- 6928,4 _ 4!.jSL- !5.66''\.

jX j2.

The new power factor ls cos l!L66~:;;;; 0.%3 lagging.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M aleri"

2.30 See Exhibit 2_30_

E ~ 200 - 50 x (0.2 + 0,7) ~ 155 V P,_", = £1 ~ 155 x 50 = 7150 W

p, .. ~ P"" - rotnuonal loss « 7750 -180 ~ 7570 W P~, in hp e 757on46 ~ 10.15 hp

p;. " 200 x 50 = 10,000 W

Eflicie""-y =' 7570110.000 ~ 0.757 or 75.7%

2.31 See Exhibit 2.3 L

I:xniblt 2.31

VoI('ge regulation ~ (170 - 150)1150 = 0, 133 or n 3% 150= 170 - 30xR

Soil'< for II = 0,67 n

P,.,: 170 x 30 = 5100 W

ill" 1800 x (2lt60) '" 188.5 radrsec T"" = 5100/188.5 = 17.1 Nm

2.,]2

Rl' = 0, 1010.035 = 2.857

t. = 115.5 "36.45L-I8.4' A

- 0.15 +2_857 + j(050+ 050)

p, .... = 31; 11,/" = 3 x 36.45' x 2.857 " 11.387 W

For [-L four-pole machine synchronous speed is 1800 rpm. ~}II:;;;; 188..5- red/sec

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

t, _ . .115.5 " I 12. I L-76.0° A

• 0.15+ 0 . .10 + j(0.50 + 0.50)

f", ... "3IjR, "3 x 1.12.1' X 0.10 " 3770 W ·T..," r. .. /ro...," 37701188.5" 20 Nm

I. -115.:51)20 - 5.80L-90' A

I~" 1,+ I •. " I 12. I L-7H'· + HOL-9O" " 117.7L-76.7' A

RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

Chapm:.anl Electric Machi .. ",.}' Fjflrd(inu:maJ.~, 3ni edition. McGraw~HiU. 1999. EI"Sh.;uI<.w;. FU"J"",,",als of Etectri« Driv es. B.'o<,k:<iCole.2000.

FilZg.cruld. Ki_ngsl.ey, and Umans, Electric Machin~f)~ 6Li1. edition. M,,-Cr.lw-Hil.l. 2002 ..

Hambley, Electrical E~jRinurinr; l)rindpl~-'i and A.ppUC-.lujt)JtF~ 31~ edition, Prentice Hall. 200S (Chapters IS. 16. and 17).

Kno, Alllon&Q/j,' CQmro/ S}I~~t.f"m,~·~ Pr~ruiC"(!<·H~U . .aoy edition. [Por rnore information on the servo motor, l

Mi.ns.ch and Morgan. £lcClronulgnelfc 0'1(/ f{ecirorrrf:chunl'nil M~,;ljine.~, JrLl edition, Wiley, '1986.

N~~r. EJecuk M~lc:hj'ne:J tim' Electromect~nrcs, SdiUum's OwUne Series.

McGraw-Hili. 1931.

NilIi.mwl ElcClrjaal Code {Nf..CJ, Niltional Fire Protecrlon Assoclatlon. toe.

Wi ldl. £'l'cm'roi Mac/rines, Dri\'cs. and lb'I"£I'''' SJ'slems~ .5.j-~ edition, Prentice Hall. 2002.

Yamayee and Bala. EIt'C"tromt"chan.tro/ Ene-"8Y Det.4:ct's a1U~ Power S)'_HemSt Wiley. 1994.

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! aleri a

--------------------------------------L __ C __ H __ A __ ~~_,,_,-~;:~~E~R--~~

i&.. .:JI ~~!fJ'

,It: .. ~

···f

"-.~

Power Distribution

OU11.INE PROBLEMS 73 SOLLITIONS 77

RECOMMENDED REFERENCES 91

PROBLEMS

3.1 A 3,-phase, 60 Hz, 173 kV, SO-mjlc,..long tmnsmlssion po~-e,r line delivers compt ex power to known I, .. d, The line ha, been tested for i~, cna r aci e nMj" p .... meters. The se parameters (on" per-ph ase basis) ore found to be

Resistance = OJ ohm/mile

Inductance = 2.0 nlillihenrylmilc

Capacltunce = 1.0 '" 1O-'~F1mi!c

For u known load ill the: end of the line of 75 + j30 (three-phase, total ujegavoh-amperes) .. detennlne the input (scnding) current and the input power necessary [0 support the comptea load.

3.2 A 345 J,V power nansmlssion line has: two bundled conductors per phase. .paced 18 inches .'parl horizontally (Exhibil ),2). Thecenductor used in !he bundl. has • self GMD or O.04(n r"'l and 1110 phases are spac re -d horizontally I s 112 feel apart.

Determine the: following:

u. Tho self GMD of the bundled 0000"010';. b, The mutual GMD of the line,

C. TIle j lid Llcti ve reactance per phase pel.' mue,

-1t.'f- -1"'1- -41.'1-

•• I •• ' •• I .b· c. ! • o·

f-----+--,. ,S' --+-----1---+-,.;. ;.--+----l

Exhibit 3.2

73

U rhcberrec htlich gesc h utztes M ateri"

],.3 PoW(:T for ~ remote building on an imiu8ui'll she is supplied through all existing buried cable from n fixed ""I",SO 60 H, ,upply.

The lead ; 0 !Ile remote bu; Iding consists or I; ghting and induction motors. 'During periods of peak demand, when !he cable is carrying :a:pproxi~ malely itS rated C:UITeJ)t. the resulting sleady-Mal,e load voltage is: We,[f below the desired v aJuc because of' the chnmctcrisucs of the load. A .~U1all amount or aikliltanaI constant-speed motor load is anticipated in the near future.

whet equipment can be Installed at lht" buildi.ng ro improve the present situation and to permit the additional IO!ld? E.:q}l!"1in how the equipment you recommend wlll Improvc the situation: theuse of phasor dfagrr.l..ms is

suggested. .

.1-4 The power di.lf; butio" transmission system in Exhibu 3.4. develops a fault in one of its phases.

U'>I» :a~1i:18m

TrMSiOtmlflr

syr>::M>noo.

m"',,,

"""'A 12~V x; _, 0.200' pu

~1bft3.4a

Determine the faull currents at point .;F'. for the. following coaditlons;

a. Assume lhe fault is a tbree-phase one,

b. Assume the fault Is a s.'tr1g.le line to ground.

3.5 The vul"'ges of an unbalanced 3"ph1l5o ,upply ore Vo"" (200 + ),O)V. V,_ (-/.lOO)Vand V, _ (-100 + }2(0)V. Connected in star ucm s s Ihi, supply "'" three equal impedances or (20 + jl 0) 011 ms. There is "Q (CHU1~,tl'QJl between ihe star point, and the supply neutral. Evaluate the symmetrical components of the A phase current and jhc three line currents.

].6 The one-lint diagram if! Exhibit ]J5a is for it single-phase system involving a ,·ol!og. SOIIrce of 240 volt 10k VA genernror tha' supplie .. n load through a 1:2 Step-up transformer, a relatively 's:hort transmission line wllb an inipedance of I + j4 ohms, IU!d u 4: I step-down , ra nsformer, TI,e ,,,",,rorn:rers arc assumed I,Q be ideal.

1:2 4:1

~[ 1+JUl ~~

~ 15r------=_:----:-. '-'-''''---::-',-,--39 t:. ~

IDII:'Ii,A

~hibit 3.15a

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M aleri"

a. Assume the loud is known to be 1 + j I fl_ Whiltl).1ui'l,la.h:,!U lolld (in ohms) does the generator see?

b, Assume the ro.ad I!!. known 10 be I, + jl .n.. Determine the per unit v.,.h,lc.:s of the ,,'UrioU_'S system parameters along the system and detennine the per unit current through the load.

c. (Optional for practice) RC(J'L,':at purr. 2 except Z~!::: 2 '""" j2 fl.

3.' OriginallY it ls planned to tumtsh a plant load requhemcm or lOOO hp at 2200 " r olt, 3-phase'. by lnductlcn motors operating at 8(KiO power factor and ~~-mcient::j'.

a. Find 1M tine current nece:s!!arj 10 supply this load and generLu.(.rcapacity.

b. Assume thLu rather th::Ul s:IJPplylng the 1000 hp by Inducuon motors, il is; decided to produce 400 hp of thiii; It).au by a synchronous !nOlor operating in 1..00 ever-excited lending mode of 8~c;;o& (assume same efltclency as for an mdueuon motor). Flnd rbe new total line current requirement and the Qve.rall pt,Jwer factor.

c. II, ra tbcr than insmlling the 400 hp synchronous motor as in Pa,,(b).lt IS considered feasible to usc power fjlClOt correct] ng capaci tors for me 1000 hp motors in Part (a) to O:tt::hic\'c the: same power fllCtot correcung us otnalned in Purt (b)_ Detennlne the :'i:ize (kVAR) or the capecucrs needed.

3_8 Tho peak load supplied from a substation ! 3 _R k V bus is 20 MW at u power facH)r orO_8S ragging_ Determine the Mvar s-iz.e or a j-pbase capacitor bank to correct the power factor to 0.95 Jagging_

3.9 A )·pbas:c 480 V delta-connected capacitor DQJ1Jwly draws a ltne current of'200 A_ IT a fuse blows II"] one phase. determine the current Howin_g in lbe other two phases.

3.l0 An induction motor and a synchroaous motor are supplied from a common bus_, ·111e induction motor takes 100 kVA 011 0_75 po~'er factor Iagglng. The synchronous mon .. dmws 150 kW. The field current of the synchronous mracr I.'). :ildjl.lsted CintU ihc combined motor lend power factor IS tini')!, Determine the power factor of the synchronous motor.

3,1.1 A delta-ccenected 3.ph.sc load or 60 ... j30 ohms/phase is supplied by • reeder h.ving an impedance of 0.50 + jO.75 ohms/ph"",. Deiermjne me lire-line vollage at [he, sending of tile feedef to provide a li!1e~tiflC VQlttlge of 460 v at tne toan.

3.12 The avallnbje fauu carrcsu on the 480 V side 'Of the transformer su pp'lyi:ng a facility is 40,000 amps. rms symmetrical. The service entrance phase conductors are 410 copper insUllled i n nonmetalfie condu it. The distance between Ih. tran.fonne, and tbe m.in panelboard ts 2{1O fee" Detenulne Ill. :I-ph.." fo. II current "' the panelboard.

i I

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M aleri :

~_13 TIle ABeD constants of au overhead three-phase transmission !_inc. have been calculated '0 be

A" D" 0.90 + jO B ~ 15 + jl30 C" 0 +jO.002

'The li_nt: IS energized at one end at a line-line voltage of 500kV and open circuited 81: the other end .. Determine Ihe line-line voltage at lhe open end and the.homing Curren I "I the se "ding end.

3.14 A 100 hp squirrel cage inducl.i"" motor ls to be started fn,m" 4S0 V btl, supplied-by. 250 INA transformer wilh on impedance of 5%. Determine lhe percent vouage drop on Ih. 480 V "'a if !h. mow, is 'I.~ .. I" f"1I vcuege, Assume that the stnning current, ofrbe meter is 6 uraee !be motor ru II load curreat.

3.15 A. 3Cph""'" """rhead 12.47 kV, 60 Hldislribtlli01l feeder has Ihe ph ase conduclOIS configured as shown in Exhibil. 3.15. The conductors "'" 266.8 kl:mil ACSR. Determine (he induc(i,·. reactance or (he circuu in ohrns per mile,

A B C
0 0 0
I I I
,. ,.
Bxhlbtt 3.,15 3.16 Alan industrial plant it is planned to use4.16 kv switchgear with il smaderd short oircuil. inlenupling raung of250 MVA. The uulhy supply to lhe plant has been selected as a 12 MYA 3.ph.se transformer. The pl.n! will include on-sire generation and synchronous motors, which will contribute lO MVA to the "non circuit intcnupling duty'.

'TIl.inS into account the manufacturing tolerance of ±1..5'it for tran .. former impedance, determine the transformer impedance ilia. shcuhl be specified.

3J7 The service entrance conductors. for a three-phase supply 1.0 a fac-iLily have been selected as two 350 kemil copper (onductors per pha~e. Determine the minimum ,s.ize copper grounding conductor at the service entrance panel.

J.18 Derermine lhe required THW copper conductor and overcurrcnt protection device seuing to supply a 50 kW. 208 V. 0:90 power factor conunuuus load Ambient temperature is 30eoC..

3. 19 Determine the required THW copper conductor size to :supply a three-phase, 200 hp, 460 V SQuirrel cageindueuon motor, Ambient l"",peratUre is 30'C.

3,.20 A l:n kV .. 480 V 3·ph .. se transjormer i.' equipped wilh fixed tap. in. the primary 13.2 kV windings. The lap Is ..... 5% bela",' ncminal. The .cmol \'o,lIagc in the area where lbe transformer i:s insfalled does not \'iU')" appre-,i"bly from 12.9 lV. The vo1108e regulation of the transtormer is csumated to be S%. Determine tbe low ,ide voHo_ge at fuillood.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ale,i a

SoIlJtlo11S 77

3.21 The "'Iuivalent seqeencc impedances .t" 69 kV bus of. 3-ph..,e power system have beeucalcujmcd 10 be Z, = Z, = }0.OS5 per unir and Z. = jO" 20 per unit. The Impedances are en a 50 MVA 3-ph[L'iie base and a line-line 69 kv voltage base, Determine lhe fault current in amps for' 3-phose, a phase-

to-phase and a phase-to-ground r"ull. ' .

3.2-2 The equivalent system impedance of the supply 10 a 3-pha~ 200 kvar, 480 V capacitor is 0,005 + jO.030 ohms/ph.se. Determine the, percentvonage rise whet11he capacitor is S,Wllctled Oil.

3.23 Determine tbe muximnm trip sening of an inverse time circuit breaker 10 provide ,bon circuit protection of. circuit supplying. 40 hp, 200 V induction motor.

3.24 Determine the required trade size rigid steel conduit [0 carry four 2JOlHHN copper conductors and one #2, bare. stranded c-opper equlpmeru grounding conductor.

3,25 A 3-ph» e, 4!!O V feeder has one 500 kcmil TIlW copper "conductor 1>" phase installed in nonmetallic conduit. The feeder i:s 200 feel !on_g and carries aload of JOO A at 0.85 power facl.Orlagging. Determine Ill. percent ,o!log", drop In the f ee der,

SOLunONS

s.t

The equivalent circuit mOilY 00 represented as Exhibit 3.1 n,

I'~ ~i'

1 I II I 1

ed'Mbtt a.ia.

A simpler approximation (on a per phase basis) is Exhibit J.lb_

Exhlbfl: 3_tb

The comple.< power, S,.. (wbicb mayalso be expressed as the phasor voltage, limes rhe complex conjugate of the phasor current) on a per phase basis ,LS

$", - ~(75+ j30) - 25+ jlO m.g~ von-amps.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M aleri"

1 ~ (2S+ jlO)( 10' _ (0" ,'0 I) 10' N h

, .. (, 'J ._"+j. x pnase,

T, X 10'

The shut and series currents lire then f-ount!.

where

Y, ~ j ~ (50)(3?7)() X 10") - j94.25 x 10"

I .. , - (*,)X 10' (j94.2S) x 10" - i9.425 A/ph:!se

I",~l,", +1, ~j9A2S+2S0+jIOO ,,25(1+ jlO9.4 iVph...,

And !he ""It.ge drop ""ro,,, !he sen es branch moy be round by f rs , finding the seriesimpedaecc.

2~ R+ JXL ~ (50)(0.1)+ j(50)(377)(2 x 10-') ,,5 +j37.7 ohmcphase

V"" ~ 1",.2 ~(250+ iI09AX5+ )37.7) ,,-2$74+ II 0.07 kVlph:lSe

Therefore the. input \'Ollage is

V," v ..... + V, ~ -2.874 + /10.07 + Si~97.13+JI0.07kV

nnd me sending end shunt. current ls

I .. , - V,Y _ (97.13 + jl O.07KI94:lS x 10"') - 0.949+ j9.1S45 Alpba>c,

Therefore the :sending end current 15

I, ~/"". +1 ... ~0.949+ j9.154 + 250+ jlO9.4 " 250.9 + illS-55 Nphase.

"Olen one may find Ihe $ending end complex power (aga.in comple:x ,"Ilnge limos the complex eonj"gole of the. current) as

Compl •• Power ~ (rn .13 + il 0.07) x .1 O'{25(I. 9 - j 1 J 8.55) = 2S.~6 .. /1 .)8 meg. cott-ampsrphase.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

And, of course, the total complex power is three limes thi:s. value.

76.68 + j4.14 mega volt-amps.

3.2 u. Often self GMD of a bundled or composite conductor ls calle<l "goomen;'. mean radius." 01" GMR. Self GM.Dmay be denoted as D,. This term include, tho distance or. slrand or eonouctor from all otber strands wi Ih~n the same bundle plus the "distance of the. MraOO from himsel I," or the self GMR of Ihe strand.

In [he present line '~nt1g u ration W~ hase two strands. per bundle, rhus we Dave four distances; D~r" Dl';l' DR' and DI"~" The self GMR of a single. strand i~ less than the. actual physical radius (R X 0_7788). Thil§. reduced radius is the above give"s.elfG~iD of 0,0403 ft. and is available from tables. Converting all distances Into feet, W~ obtain for one bundle

Nou: We extract the founh root a~ we have hour distances under [he radical

D, ~ 1(0.0403)' x( * r ~ t/O.OO366 ,,0.246 n.

b_ 'The mutual CMD of the line. or D~. is the geometric 'mean of all mutua_!

G MD values out, ide the bundle,. i.e. bel,,' ee n the three ph ase s

Do. ~ D~." #(15.5)' x 17.0 x 14.0.

where ab ~ I~S and ,,'/I ~ ISS

18 I

"b'~ 15.5+2i2X2~ 17.0'

a'b ~ 15.5 ~ 2 0:x 4 ~ 14.0' "tI57.i8o.~ !S5 n.

D~ ~ ~(IS.5x2)' x32.5x295 ~ ~ -31 ft.

D .. ~ ~D .. x D", x D. "VIS.S x 155 x 31.0 ~ 19.5 ft.

C. The inductive reactance in ohm/mile. or X,." 21rjx 10" x 0.7411Iog%;, The 10-) factor is needed to concert the lnductencc L; obtained in mh/mile to Wmi!e to finally yield ,-lrhmlllli le.

X, -.O.l7hO:7411IQg.!21. -0.530 ~hmf1l\iI e. 0.246

U rheberrec htlich gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri a

3,3 'The ern. or u .. whole probtem "' the large portion ~fi"d"CliQn .",1",",

The 'power' factorof induction motors at tared load is; typk'nLly from 0.70 to 0,90 w ilh some grouping' of motors .... ",lIing in evenlower power fllOto rs, For a power tector of 0.8, a motor drawing 22.S ."VA of power wW utilize only I ~O xw,

It.W::JR~~'~1

ItVAH " 'Reac:tM" power kVA .' ApparBnt pow!!r

ExhIbft 3.38.

IIIhe kVA drawn in this 0 as 0 were equalto lite real power required fk'V). a 20% reduction i.n current would result. The reduction in current with present IODd would reduce lite voII>g. drop. thus improving lb. v011A1l' 01 the load,

Fluorescent lighting with capacucrs us.unU~: has. JK'IWI!I factors fmm 0.9:5 to 0.9-1, therefore 'il Is not practlcul 10 try 10 improve (he power f.ctm on)' higher.

To improve thepower factor with the existing I"""". capacitors sbould be npp,lied_ 'Jbey _hol"'I,'c '-h~ chnrnc:teri:stic of n Je-adi!'lg power (octoI'" whereas jeducuon motors ha v e a lagging power factor. By adding -capac-,ltnrs, their Ic:.ading kVAR cancels out the equivalent amount of lagging. kVAR. OS shown in Exhibit ].]b,

1SO"W

1J:i,kV.IUlIrHl.IlI:tr"l; Iromoll,grou:pol' ~~

_~3.3t>

The above power factorcorrectlon results in 180kVA ~ 180 kWor power faclor~ 1.0.

Ano.her method of implO'Iing power factor is 10 odd synchronous motors for the additional rnoeor requirements. The. ~ynchrooou:s motor acts Jike. il capacitor; producing D kadlng power factor and leading :kVAR

Normajly capacitors are the most effective in redut::illg syaem costa when located ncar the devices with low ~'cr factor, Here we are primarily concerned with the feeder to the building. but if there are any large induction motors or a grouping of motors. j t would min,imiz~ local branch circuit voltage drop as. well a~ the: feeder, lf the capacitors were located near the SOUIU of the power fbctor (pf).

An economic study of the situation should he made, Data from recording pf meters and kW meters ,shQuld be ga!l~red from as lL1.8nY places as: feasible on feeder and branch circuits. Then El comparison ,1m" ld lie done or bow nWlY and whe re , the capacitors should be

j nstnlled. The tnstauenon of Ute synchronous motors vs. induc[ion meters with capacitors should be evaluated.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ate,i"

$Qh .. mol"lS B1

Wi th the odd hicnal load, 100 voltage drop in lhe exi sting f eeder may b< 100 muoh even wilh unily pf, Then constderation should be given. to using a boost transformer. h may wen be thil\ acombinaticn of boosting and capacitor and synchronous motor will be the moM econonucal soluti on. BooSI transfonners ar« much less in cost than ~gular tr .... nsf o rmers as they ure just an auto-transformer. [mpm'l, .. jng the '(lO"Ner rae.or beyond a cenaln point iuereases the cost dfspropmlion!ltely to Ihe gai,n obrajeed, thus; atl altemenves should' be weighed in making the uttimate decision. U!'Irng a boost transformer ajoee may meil~ ImIt at light load an over voltage may result, which could be unoesirable.

'''''''P","IoO,~""3,3<:

3.4

w,; ~~" 150 MilA (Th ls vafue W,,", selected 10 be a pracrical base between !he ''''0 given MVA values.)

kV,- ,,69 and 12 respectively

Z " (kV)' x 1000 _ (69)' x WOO ~ ~l 8~h

-~~ kVA",-, 15().<XXJ· . - Ins

(I 2)' ~' 1000

Z,_ " " 150.000 " 0.% oh""

kVA 150,000

1_ .. = T3kV':: " 13 ~ 69 " 1.250 amp.

i,_. ,.,; ~ ~ I ~,OO() c 7.2.10 omps

. ~3kV.... ~3 x 12

7. Z_"... ,3.87 '0121

· ... '0. & Z .... - ,& 1 31.8 - 1· , . p,U.

kVA..... 150.000.

2"",,~ ~Z ... ,,,, 'VA:' = 10.075 15,000 - 10,750 p.u.

Z 0 kVA... '10 150,000. 100

urjlil~;;;:;; I .. kVAilU;~, ;;;;;Jx". 1.500.00);;; ;0 .. __ p.u_

2_. ,,' = jO,2oo 150.000 " J2.oo p.u,

15,000

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M aleri"

a. Three-phase fault (E.hibit 3.4b)

Z"'.

z, '" z,;", + z......, + z" "'jO, 121 +jO.7'S + jO, 100 '" jO.97 1 Z. '" Z.,." )2.00

Z ~ jO.97 I x j2.00 _ jO.6SS OJ jO. 971 + jO,200

I ,,£ "_____!_:Q_,, -)'1 525arnp,

'I~' Z", jO.655'" .

IfJu'IL:) pbase ~t ]2 kV ;;0; hllM.c~ p.u. x IbAr ,,2

" j 1.525 x 7,230 _, ~j J 1,000 omp'

b. Stngte-phase fanlr

The p(). .. ;;;j[i"'-e, sequence. impedance dia.gr-.am is s.bown in Exhibit 3.4c,

The negauve scqucncc impedance diagram is shown in Exhibit 3 .. 4d,

E>l>1b!t 3,4d

The zero sequence impedance diagram is shown in Exhibit 3.4c.

U rhcberrec htl lch qesoh utztes M aleri"

EJ<hIbit 3.41

5::>'utO<Y>s 83

69 kV system zero sequence f.ult current, s are isolated from f.ult "I''' by Il Y uansfcrmcr,

l,," ~ ;0.750

Z"."',.,. ~ ~Z_ •. ("'Umed).~ ;1.000

i;L'", ~ 3Z"·,,~~ M O ... di.-..:.tly connected neutral, Z _ jO.750 x jLOOO _0.428

'", jO.750 ... jLOOO J

Tho sequence network is shown in Exhibit 3.4r.

- /';

1,,1, =.f~.: = IQr) 21 +Z~ +2(1 :JZilo, +3Zuuh

thus:

f ~/ ~l ~ 1..0 ~-'0580

-" ., '" }(0.6S5+ 0.655+ 0.428) j.

lfd!. ;::; JillJ~ [1.'0. X 1~1II~:J! K\I

- - jL740>< 7.230 - - j 12.500 ""'1".

3.S

I ,

1\ - :ltV. + aV, +a'V,)

- ~12oo+ Hl.5+ jO.866X- j2oo)" (-0.5 - ;0.866)(-100 .. }ZOO)1

- :i(200" jlOO + m.2 +50- jloo + jR6.6+ 173.2)

~ :i(596.4 + 1'86.6) ~ 19&.8 + 1'28,86

I ,

V, ~ :i"(V. +~'V, +~V)

~ 1[200 + (-O.s - jO.866 X -/2(0) + (-0.5 + jO.866)( -100 + }2oo)J ~:i ~ (200+ jloo -173.2+50 - jlOO - j86.6 -173.2)

~ (-96.4 - j86.6) ~ -32.13- j28.S6

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M ateri a

V,,, ~(V; -I- V. -I-~.) ~ ~(200-I- jO- )200-100-1- )200) 1

~ l (100) ~ 33.33

Vo' ~ 198.8 -I- j2S.86 ~ (20 -I- )10)1., V.,,, -32.13 - )28.86" (20 + )10)/" V .. = 33.33=-.1".

since neutral is not connected. i.e. there· is. n-o conoecuen betwee" the ,lor poinl and !he supply tlWlr.1.

, ,,198.8 -I- j28.86

" 20-1-)10

1." -32.13- )28.86

o. W-I-jIO

I = 33.33 oo()

.. ~

l = ,'" -1-/, -1-/ .. , '" __ 1_. -1198.S -I- j2~.86 - 32.13 - j28.86)

• -, "- W-I-JIO

" _1- (166.67) '" 3!:l!2 x 166.67

20+ jlO 500

= I." 6.67 - j3.33 amps in lin e a,

Tb obtain lbe 0111., (b.o) line currents

Jk>,~a~/{;t +(j/~1 +'J~

= 1(-,S - jO,866)(198.8 + j28-86)

1

+ (-.5+ jO,866)(-32.13- j2ll.86)J 20-1- jlO

,,(-99.4- )172.16- )1,4,43+24.99-1-16.65- /27.82 -I- )14.43+ 24.99) 205~1O

= (-33- j2oo) 20- jlO ,,-5.33- )7.33 amps in lioc b. 500

J~ ~al"l +(J":!I!i1, +/~Q

~ [(~.5-1- jO,8fi6)(1 98.8 + }28.86)

-I- (-{).5 - }O,866X -32,13 - j28, 86)120 ~ jlO "(-99.4,, jl72.16+ iI4,43- 24.99-1-16,6:;

+ j27.'in _ jl4.43 _ 24.99) 20- )10

500

,,(-IJ3.:lh j200) 20S~1O "~1.33+ j!O,,67 amp' in !inc c .

as a cbed:;: 0 = ~JJ +J~ + l.t or

0= 6.67 - )3,33- 533- )7.33-1 ,)3 .. )10.67,

U rheberrec htl lch gC5C h utztes Iv! ale';"

],6 a, TIm load as Soon at the lefl of the last transformer is

Z = 4' x I + j4'>< I ~ 16 .. jl6 n.

The impedance of the lootl. and the iransmtssion II ne us' seen on the right side- of the first transformer is

Z"'II + 16) -l- j(4 + 16) ~ 17 +}10.

The ltr.lpedanceoflhe load and rransmtssion line as seen by the generator (on the I.r, side or the firs' transformer) is

Z" (112)' x 17 .. j( 112)'" 1"l ~ 4,25 .. )5.0'" (>-S6L49.b· f.l

(The magnuude of the current Ihrough the generator is I ~ VIZ ~ 240/6.56 ~ 36.6 A.)

h. Of the several solutions possible, one method is to define various b;15-e quanrlrles alQng !he system as Jollows:

a. A t the generator,

V._, ~ 240 V ~ I pu lVA .. ,~' 10 tVA" I pu

f,., '" 10.,0001240" 4l.M P"

Z •. , - 24014UI6 - 3,761 n ~ I pu.

b. For the, transmission Hne,

I' e- , = 24(1(2) = 480 V ~ 1 pu

kVA,,,, '" 10 kVA " I p"

I,.., es IO,ooot480 ~' 20.83 i\ = I P" Z"',' " 4!1OJ20.83 " 23,04 ,. I pu

IZ" ~ (I + j4)123.04) = 0.0434 .. jO, 17361'ul.

c. At the toac,

V._1,"' 48014 ~ 120V" 1 pu

,VA s- , - 10 kVA = 1 pu

I"", ~ 10,0001120 ~ 83.33 A ~ j P" Z .... = ]10t8B3 ~ 1.44 ~ 1 pu

rz, = (I .. j!Yl.44 = 0.6944 .. 1'0.6944 pu].

The total impedance (as seen U) the l'~fI of the first transformer) j:;,

7 -r ~ "7." + Zc = 0.(14:\4 +jO.17J6+0.6944 + jO.6944 = 0:73"7~ .. jO,861! ~ I, 1~9~49.6" pl'

which is equivalent to

" 1.139 x 5.76L49,6° " 6.56 n.

(The magnitude of Ihe pe,r unil current ls

r ~ l/l..l39 - 0,878 pu.

and the actual current i.~

I " 0.88 x 41.66 " 36.6 A.)

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

c. If the load is 2 'of:' j2 [hen, by using u values. 00.11' Zl, needs to be recomputed.

z,~ (2 + )2)11.44 ~ 1.389;1- j 1.389 1'"

Z", =2" +Z, =0_0434+ jO,1736+1389+ jL389 = 1.432+ jU63 pu

The actual IOlal impedance is

Z ~ 1.432 x 5.761 + )1.563 x 5.761 ~ 8.25 + )9.00 ~ 12.2L47.5°11.

3.7 a. Power input to motors

JOoo '" 1111 bp"S30 kW 0.9

Generator capacity

8.10 kW ,,1036 kVA O.S

Current requirement

''7'''::' 102A .......... ,

................ v,,_'" i22'OOI~

t ...

No:tIDscalo

EMbta.7a

b, Power req uirements Induct. motor input

600hp x 746 ,,497 k,W

0.9 1000

Induct. motor current

49hl000 b x22(1OxO_M

163A

S)Cr.ch. motor input

U rheberrcc htl lch gcsc h (jutes M ateri"

ScMlOns $:7

ExhIbit 3.7b

Synch. motor curreru

332>< 1000 -102 A

Jj x 2200 x RS5

/_ '" J(I,oo,<1>, + / ,cos <1>,)' + (1,,;"<1>, + .1,,;n<1>,)'

'" J(l63X 0.8 + I02x 0.85)' +(163xO.6-I02.x 0.53)' '" 22ILl'.5·A~gillg)

c.

I ",_2p_",21i.6",222_lI6

'rl;Ul. COSol ·1 ,;51i! 0.98

IT""', '" 222_lI6,,,, I J.5' - 44.3 A

:. Ie -I"" -IToo<, -163.2-44.3~ J 18.9 A .'. kVAR_118.9X2200 -15l kVARlpha_", loooJ3

3.8 Initial power factor angl. - c",-'O.8..~ = 31.190

Initial reactive power Q ~ p~)( [an 0 ~ 20 X tao 31.79to ~ 12.4 MViU New power factor engle rr" cos" 0 .. 95 '" 18.190

New reactive power a ~ P c"J( tao ff ~ 20 x Ian nU99 ~ 6,:57 Mvar Q<.~ '" )2.4 - 6_57 '" 5.83 Mvar

3.9

U rheberrec htlich ge5c h utztes Mater; a

The normal delta current ~ 200lfj ~ 115.5 A

The capacitive react .. ce per phase X " 480/115.5 '" 4.16 n

W'ith one phase' ope-n 480 V is across; :1 reactance of X in parallel with 2X

x .. '" X2X. ~ 213 X 4.16 ~ 2.17!1 X+2X

I" 48012.77 ~ 173 A

3.10

(I" - cos-'0.75 _ 41.410

Q'M - 100 x sin 41AI'm 66.14 kvar

To make rhe power factor uni Iy Q,,, - - Q~, - -66.14 kvar o,~ ~ lon-'(-66.141150) - -23.8'

Power faclur of the ')' nchronousmotor : c,,' 2.1.80 " 0.915 leading

3.1.1 am"n the dell. load to on "'lui.valent wye.

Z. m (60 +}30)13 - 20 + jl0n Equlvalen; circuil (Exhibi13.) n

Zyii.20 .. f1IJ1Q

0,.500

Exhiblt 3.11

1- 460/fj _ 11.9':-26.6° A 20+ jlO

V,. _ 460/J] + 11.9':-26.6" x (0.50 + jO.7.5) ~ 275':1. 11° V.

The Ilee-llne sending end voltage = J] x275" 476 V.

3.12

. 480/J] .

'The source Impedance " 40,000 "0.00693 n

Assume the source Impedance is. Ioductivc. From NEe Table 9 the conductor lmpedaecc is.

Z" (0.()(i2 + jO.f)4I) x 20011000 - 0.0)24 + jO.1Xlll'2 n

1 _ ~ 480/J] _ 14 167.:-50.1" A.

, au u jO.OO693+ 0.0124+ jO.OO82 '

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

3.13 V, '" AV, + Bl.

With I. '" 0 (open circuit)

V, '" V,fA = 50010.90 = 5:;6 kV i, = CV. + DI,

i, = CV, = 0.002" ~56/.f3 - 0(>42 kA or 642 A

3., l4 To lake into account the motor power factor and efficiency i1 Is reasonable to assume !lut tho motor . rated ~VA = motor nued horsepo we t.

U,ing a 250 ~VA base S .. a '" 1001250'" 0.40 p.u.

e&hibtt 3.14

At rated voltage Jm""'~ ;;;: 0.40 p.u.

1_ = 6 K 0.4(] '" 2.4 p.u, X"" ... _ '" 1/2.4 '" 0.417 p.u.

v = jO.417

~ j(O.4 I 7 + 0.05)

0.89 p.u.

Volt"SO drop = I - 0.89 = 0.11 p.o. Or II %

3. J 5 From a table of conductor characteristics the geometric mean radius = 0.02170.

D", = 1/4:<3.0 = 4.38 n

XL" 0.1213 In (4.3810.0217) '" 0.644 W",;Je

3.1.6 Tho maximum f.ult cootribnion from II ... transformer is 250 - 30 ~ 220 MVA.

UsirJ£ a 12 MVA base, the contribution ~ 220112 ~ 13.33 p.u. Ar nned voltage the rrunsformer impedance cannot be less thun 1/.18.33 - O.O54{; p.u.

To ac count fo,·tnanuf.,,"ring lol.ranceX"", = O.()546 +0.015· x X_

X"", ~ 0.059 p.u. or 5.9%

3.17 Cress-section artlt of the phase conductors is 2 x ISO ~ 700 kcmll.

From NEe Table 250.66 the minimum ,s.it£ grounding conductor is 21'0 copper.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M ateri"

3,\8 Loedcutrem "'SO.OOOIJ3 x 208 x 0,9'" 154 A

Beca.u.5;e the IODd is continuous, ampnclty is based on 12.5 % of this.

I": 1.25 X 154 " 193 A

From NEe Table 310-16 select 310 copper THW w ith an umpucity of 200 A.

St:',I~t a 200 A overcurrent protection device.

3.19 From NEe Table 430.150 motor fullload current is 240 A For coaducror ,j,tins NEe require, 125% of IlIi>,

1.25 x 240 ~ 300 A

From NEe Table 310.16. select a 350 kcmil rnw copper conductor IO.'ith on .mpacily of J 10 A-

32() PrimJIry tap sening '" 0.95 x 13,2 = 12",4 kV No load ratio '" 12Ji401480 ~ 26.12:;

For a primary v 'ouage of 1,2.9 kv the no-load secondary voltage is 12.900126.125 ~ 493.8 V.

At fulllood tho secondary voltage I, 49:1.8/1,0, = 470 V,

),21

1,_ '" Ell, _, \1O.(II!5 ~ 11.16 p. u, 1 ... ~50.000IJ3 x69 ~ 418A A I, ph_ ~ 418.4 ,x 11.16 = 4920 A

Because l, '" L; the phase-phase r"ull current i, 0.S7 limo. the three, phose value,

I""~.,,,~ ~ 0.87 x 4920 '" 4280 A

I ,..~,.. " 3 EI(l, + l, +Z{J " 31(0,085 + 0.1l35 + 0,20) = 8, II p, U. 1_ .. ",418.4" 8,11'" 3393A

3.22 Assume lhe cnpnc-ilQf is w~'e connected.

Equ_i v all!nt cireui t is shown in Exhibit 3.22.

0,0050

Vc'" 277x--. _-)1,!51 _ 284.4L--{)')o V

. 0,.005+ ](1.030- jl.151

""'h.~e change .. (284.4 - 277)1277 ~ 0,027 Or 2.7%

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri"

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful