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20557391 Pressure Drop Calculation

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01/06/2011

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# Pressure drop calculation - theory

In this calculator well known equations have been used. Here you can find all of them for your review. First of all, pressure drop through the pipe due to friction and local losses can be calculated as follows:

where is:

      

Dp - pressure drop rho - fluid density view table Q - volumetric flow rate D - pipe diameter lambda - friction coefficient L - pipe length sum ksi - the sum of minor losses coefficient

To calculate mass flow rate following equation has been used: where is:

 G - mass flow rate

For pressure drop calculation because of friction, viscosity of fluid has to be known. Relation between dynamic and kinematic viscosity is as follows: where is:

 mi - dynamic viscosity view table  ni - kinematic viscosity view table

Velocity of flowing fluid is calculated based on the continuity equation:

where the cross section of round pipe is:

To find out if the flow is laminar or turbulent, Reynolds number must be calculated:

theory Pipe diameter can be calculated when volumetric flow rate and velocity is known as: where is:  D .pipe diameter  Q .volumetric flow rate  V .mass flow rate  rho . Pipe diameter calculation . temperature and gas constant is known as: where is:  p . than it can be considered as flow in hydraulically smooth pipe and Blasius equation is used.velocity If mass flow rate is known than diameter can be calculated as: where is:  G .Friction coefficient for laminar flow is: for flow in hydraulically smooth pipe (Blasius equation): for turbulent flow with Re<100 000 (Prandtl equation): for turbulent flow with Re>100 000 (Karman equation): The boundary layer thickness (delta) can be calculated based on the Prandtl equation as: and when the boundary layer thickness is bigger than pipe roughness and if the flow is turbulent.fluid density view table If the flowing fluid is gas than the density can be calculated if pressure.pressure .

When flow coefficient is calculated for required flow rate and known pressure drop. Read about used theory for control valve sizing calculation Control valve sizing calculation . than you should use pressure drop calculator.fluid flow rate . It is expressed as the flow rate of water in gpm u. Kv-metric) For correct control valve sizing it is important to calculate flow coefficient using this calculator. This calculator is for the calculation if you already know the flow rate. Also. (m3/h) for a pressure drop of 1 psi (1 bar) across a flow passage.pressure drop through control valve Q .flow coefficient in metric units Dp .temperature  R .flow coefficient in imperial units Kv . Flow coefficient is the proportional constant between pressure drop and flow rate and it is determined experimentally by valve manufactures. It means that for steam and gas control valve you will need to use other calculation methods.gas constant view table It is important to say that the flow rate is depending on the pressure difference between two points. This version of calculator can be used for turbulent flow of water or other incompressible fluid. Control valve sizing calculation It is well known that for the completely turbulent flow relationship between fluid flow rate and pressure drop follows the power low. If the flow rate is to be calculated also.theory Control valve sizing is based on the calculation of flow coefficient for given pressure drop and fluid flow rate. where is:     Cv . selection of proper control valve can be done by selecting control valve with first bigger flow coefficient. note: (flow coefficient: Cv-imperial. possible flashing and cavitation may reduce the control valve capacity. and: for metric units. as viscosity and expansion effect is not included. Main equation that gives relation between flow rate and pressure drop is: for imperial units.s. Also using this calculator you can calculate maximum flow rate through control valve for given pressure drop and known flow coefficient or valve size. T . as it is not treated in this version calculator.

relative density view table Flow coefficient is defined as the proportional constant between pressure drop and flow rate and it is determined experimentally by valve manufactures. Kv-metric) Relation between volumetric and mass flow rate is calculated using well known equation: Also. so density (rho) and temperature (T) are constant through tube. Venturi tube is one of the easiest to use. Also.density view table V . Fluid is considered as incompressible.velocity g .theory Calculation of flow through the Venturi tube is for incompressible flow. G . (m3/h) for a pressure drop of 1 psi (1 bar) across a flow passage. Read about used theory in flow through Venturi tube calculation Venturi tube flow calculation . It is expressed as the flow rate of water in gpm u. Measure pressure drop from the inlet to the throat and calculate flow rate using this free calculator. note: (flow coefficient: Cv-imperial.pressure rho . gas is considered as ideal.81 m/s2) z . based on the Bernoulli principle: where is: p . gas or any other fluid in pipe systems. Flow through Venturi tube calculator can be used for both liquids and gases. velocity or pipe diameter can be calculated using following equations: Venturi tube flow calculation Based on the energy conservation low. air.specific gravity view table  ro .gravitational constant (9.s. not expensive and very accurate instrument for flow rate measuring of water.geodetic height Assumption that pressure lost is negligible: .

volumetric flow rate D .diameter Pressure drop through the Venturi tube because of velocity increase can be calculated as follows: or: Expressing flow rate from the previous equation leads to: Substituting: flow rate can be determined as: where C is coefficient of discharge.and: and if velocities substituted with flow rate: where is: Q . The above equation is main one used for flow calculation in calculator. Other values are calculated using following equations: mass flow: .

For the Venturi tubes with diameters in range of D = (200 .00024547 For casted tube are: a=0. and c depend on the type of Venturi tube.0. then gas is considered as incompressible and ideal. D2/D1 = (0.4 .49670179 b=0.velocities: If the calculator is used for gas flow. mostly because of inertia.00873339 c=-0. For welded tube. Coefficient of discharge C is used to include this effect. or flows out to the open air. b.00044367 Reynolds number on inlet ReD is calculated using well known equation: .2 ·106) the coefficient of discharge is C = 0.70304970 b=0. Equation for ideal gas: can be used for calculation of temperature T: as well as density rho: where R is gas constant (R=287 J/kgK for air) Coefficient of discharge C As fluid exits a reservoir through a small hole and enters another one.00659844 c=-0.60892370 b=0. stream lines tend to contract itself. In this calculator for coefficient off discharge C following equation has been used: where a.1200 mm).985.7) and ReD = (2 ·105 .00033123 And for machined are: a=0. these coefficients are: a=0.00490015 c=-0.

Also. so density (rho) and temperature (T) are constant through tube. Measure pressure drop from position 1 to position 2 and calculate flow rate and more with this easy to use calculator Orifice plate calculator can be used for both liquids and gases.density view table V . pressure drop is created. gas is considered as ideal.theory Calculation of flow rate using orifice plate calculator is for incompressible flow. With orifice plate. flow rate can be calculated.velocity g . Read about used theory for flow through orifice calculation.gravitational constant (9. Orifice plate flow calculation .pressure rho . This instrument is very practical for large tube diameters and for dirty fluid when turbines are not applicable.81 m/s2) z .geodetic height Assumption that pressure lost is negligible (pressure drop is obvious and included with coefficient of discharge which is introduced bellow): and: . based on the Bernoulli principle: where is: p . Fluid is considered as incompressible. Based on the value of pressure drop.Orifice plate flow calculation Orifice plate is used for flow rate measuring in pipe systems.

diameter Pressure drop through the orifice because of velocity increase can be calculated as follows: or: Expressing flow rate from the previous equation leads to: Substituting: flow rate can be determined as: where is: C .and if velocities substituted with flow rate: where is: Q .expansion coefficient Coefficient of discharge can be calculated using following equation (ISO): .volumetric flow rate D .coefficient of discharge e .

Reynolds number which can be calculated as follows: where is: ni .isentropic coefficient.kinematic viscosity view table mi .0254/D D[m] for 1" taps Expansion coefficient e can be calculated (for gases only): where is: kappa . kappa = 1. then it is considered as incompressible and ideal. Equation for ideal gas: .dynamic viscosity view table L1 and L2 are functions on tap type and it is: L1=L2=0 for corner taps L1=1 L2=0.diameter relation D2/D1 ReD .4 for air and other two atom gas molecules view table Other values are calculated using following equations: mass flow: velocities: If flowing fluid is gas.where is: beta .47 for D & D/2 taps L1=L2=0.

4 288.can be used for calculation of temperature T: as well as density rho: Tables of fluid physical propetries Here you can find the list of available fluid properties tables which can be used in calculators on this site: Dry air This table gives values of some dry air physical properties in relation to temperature and pressure.36 107.25 40.2 246.13 79.07 91.37 49.37 111.7 350. Physical properties of dry air Available tables: dry air gases flue gases water steam This table gives values of some dry air physical properties in relation to temperature and pressure. It gives values of some physical properties in relation to the temperature of gases.648 131.71 95.6072 0.4 29. it is for water boiling conditions.078 0.8 205.794 1. Water This table gives values of some water physical properties in realtion to temperature.41 137. Gases This table gives values of some physical properties of some gases Flue gases This table is for flue gases.8 160. Steam This table gives values of some saturated steam physical properties in realtion to temperature.18 70.4 Specific heat cp [kJ/kgK] .8226 0. For temperatures higher than 100 OC.3 25.563 83.6 193. t [OC] Density rho [kg/m3] 1 bar 50 bar 100 bar 200 bar 300 bar 1.4 -50 0 50 100 150 200 300 400 65.7 216.6 174.8 58.517 36.34 449.7356 0.932 0.57 175.3 152.3 253.198 53.92 135.66 340.964 46.275 1.

229 1.026 1.5 30.4 23. Gas density GAS rho [kg/m3] Molar weight M*103 [kg/mol] Gas constant R [J/kg*K] Spec.061 1.38 1.212 1.673 2.1 bar 50 bar 100 bar 200 bar 300 bar 1.135 1.668 1.05 74.94 28.59 24.57 21.65 1.01 58.25 1.4 1.049 1.357 1.42 20.3 1683 2219 532 1047 975 1917 1632 1729 1528 2302 1340 5274 481 1352 1680 322 746 696 1733 1445 1222 3181 355 1.36 9.2 143.133 1.007 1.108 1.1 29.2 1.08 1.4 25.04 17.66 1.217 .06 28.782 1.34 2.12 Dynamic viscosity mi*106 [Pas] 1 bar 50 bar 100 bar 200 bar 300 bar 14.1 25.18 20.7 296.055 1.2 276.4 26.4 31.078 1.075 1.126 1.251 1.002 70.261 26.76 33.216 1.1 Physical propetries of gases Available tables: dry air gases flue gases water steam This table gives values of some physical properties of some gases.47 8.018 1.16 1.9 30.409 1.161 1.771 1.03 39.107 1.2 23.8 19.096 1.623 1.5 9.35 9.65 16.2 19.85 26.85 286 9.006 1.7 18.7 24.282 1.5 33.012 1. heat at 20OC and 1 bar Cp Cv Dynamic viscosity kapa=Cp/Cv mi*106 [Pa*s] .108 1.1 33.8 25.5 21.7 36.085 1.1 32.1 143.43 1.008 1.178 3.37 1.6 112.4 27.5 4.072 1.361 1.171 0.3 208.4 18.204 1.12 30.075 1.8 8.9 28.09 1.046 1.5 296.6 27.8 28.8 28.604 1.82 23.099 1.6 28.47 29.2 129 2079 117.69 1.5 34.7 17.12 64.1 26.3 22.92 22.12 58.7 277.25 1.9 17 17.112 1.117 1.1 7.91 319.61 20.6 488.02 30.0OC and 1 bar [J/kg*K] [J/kg*K] [-] Acethylene Ammonia Argon Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxide Butane i-Butane Ethane Ethylene Ethyl Ether Ethyl Chloride Helium Chlor C2H2 NH3 Ar N2 NO C4H10 C4H10 C2H6 C2H4 1.8 12 C4H10O C2H5Cl He Cl2 0.

2 0.2 189 297 287 4125 812 913 251 159 2225 741 1038 1717 1863 1635 633 1059 837 1047 1010 14266 583 653 151 96.6 1.3 8.82 0.89 0.382 24.67 36.8 129.2 1.5 31.737 12.03 51.66 13.067 11.89 29.787 23.216 lambda*103 [W/mK] 18 Ethylene C2H4 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*10 [Pas] 6 1.539 1.4 1.647 8.3 16.064 15.01 28.7 29.039 26.8 31.17 2.4 65.7 131.3 1.429 3.91 3.3 9.7 .8 164.7 11.521 41 33.406 9.3 1700 582 620 1575 1650 1437 503 804 653 754 720 10130 1.55 4.25 3.2 21 10.74 90.091 31.7 8.03 50.7 2.49 14.6 1.453 11.87 16.522 21.84 lambda*103 [W/mK] 13.3 23.8 1.22 37.87 2.7 39.95 2.214 19 1.68 1.181 39 64.06 34.7 1.08985 This table gives values of some physical properties in relation to the temperature of gases.7 1.639 1.022 4.31 1.18 48 72.4 1.43 3.3 67.127 16.8 244.914 2.9 55.591 6.052 24.407 20.89 2.308 0.069 28 44.35 11.521 36.813 14.717 2.01 28.4 115.47 32 83.039 16.26 23.4 1.7 16.115 33.6 38.6 17.521 32.026 9.927 1.3 1.95 8.52 0.521 27.4 1.7 1.45 0.09 44.851 0.06 42.161 1.403 18.96 3.38 29.29 1.293 36.1 47.17 1.3 63.71 0.05 64.02 1.Hydrogen Chloride Oxygen Krypton Xenon Methane Methyl Chloride Neon Ozone Pentane Propane Propene Sulphur Dioxide Sulphur Hydrogen Carbon Dioxide HCl O2 Kr Xe CH4 CH3Cl Ne O3 C5H12 C3H8 C3H6 SO2 H2S CO2 1.52 48.52 lambda*103 [W/mK] 24.8 411.78 3.48 20.26 Ethane C2H6 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 1.74 7.139 36.09 113 3.5 0.1 25.25 1.84 518.6 3.1 44.7 173.1 21.2 lambda*103 [W/mK] 16.42 Carbon Monoxide CO Air Hydrogen H2 0.09 1.976 1.394 18.709 4.6 2.8 28.9002 2.721 20.4 1.52 2.52 41.13 1.5 2.642 21.2 188.052 22.8 198.31 Argon Ar cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 0.042 20.9 3.25 1.6 60.59 2.708 5.67 1.8 3.51 Butane C4H10 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 1. GAS t [OC] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Nitrogen N2 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 1.36 0.1 50.28 1.52 45.519 21.9 100.22 2.9 2.016 228 259.

963 29 40.08 0.426 7.179 1.048 40.504 14.815 13.69 5.448 14.5 0.1 lambda*103 [W/mK] 8.808 31.045 20.8 54.175 18.11 29.662 16.1 0.7 2.7 2.2 54.1 12.82 1.476 15.specific heat mi .153 24.13 14.5 509.192 36.7 0.6 30.825 35 35.22 1.3 41.06 27.712 20 16.204 18.8 49.1 258.01 3.03 3.132 33.7 41 lambda*103 [W/mK] 23.017 10.4 where is for flue gas: • • • • t .2 13.4 Helium He cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 5.204 lambda*103 [W/mK] 143 Oxygen O2 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 0.5 28.5 62.96 179.52 59.8 2.54 5.581 14.33 275.3 452.549 7.08 27.9 47.29 1.662 14.57 304.448 13.204 34.9 0.9 16.4 341.4 95.3 216.3 61.807 16.155 33.34 5.223 1.75 57.7 81.6 36.thermal conductivity .388 3.161 17.058 24.43 5.79 1.1 46.204 26.993 22.779 14.3 3.659 26.6 91.834 14.2 lambda*103 [W/mK] 30.421 4.999 38.65 Carbon monoxide CO cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 1.204 40.4 10.057 26.024 26.66 0.754 23.98 212.934 24.204 37.29 2.08 1.4 1.45 4.856 22.2 62.157 36.71 5.249 38.8 21.19 5.9 5.5 lambda*10 [W/mK] 15 Propene C3H6 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*10 [Pas] 6 1.temperature cp .837 0.26 Hydrogen H2 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 65.6 42.57 75.1 1.8 lambda*103 [W/mK] 14.8 244.52 3.3 77.916 4.069 43.195 14.4 32.449 19.dynamic viscosity lambda .1 15.85 38.9 383.66 Methane CH4 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*10 [Pas] 6 2.1 48.115 8.458 12.3 59.3 12.093 1.87 2.104 16.5 109.33 0.13 1.16 13.5 72.1 41.74 29.6 68.783 27.91 2.6 21 lambda*103 [W/mK] 174.73 25.533 14.32 332.106 39 48.2 0.4 39.5 67.607 12.39 123.6 0.8 1.37 Carbon dioxide CO2 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 0.22 3.4 38.34 2.8 18.086 1.92 53.05 46.12 44.84 3.63 0.8 10.85 75.7 19.7 1.6 1.9 30.8 0.697 21.17 1.204 22.995 33.6 1.89 1.5 25.3 3.48 41.3 134.8 42.914 18.529 20.94 1.1 51.9 55.204 5.753 92.9 300.lambda*103 [W/mK] 16.7 1.165 10.54 lambda*103 [W/mK] 14 Sulfur dioxide SO2 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 0.82 1.2 3.8 72.4 4.204 30.9 2.24 Propane C3H8 cp [kJ/kgK] mi*106 [Pas] 3 100.915 19.15 76 2.4 22.01 70.3 30.991 108.1 0.4 467.8 41.88 3.93 15.2 lambda*103 [W/mK] 24.

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