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Drinking and Driving

Drinking and Driving

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Published by: aie4045 on Jan 06, 2011
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Before a comprehensive drinking and driving programme can be implemented, a
plan must be set up that lays out a clear strategy for how the objectives of the pro-
gramme will be met. Tis plan must be backed up by data, as described in Module
2. Te plan will identify the problem (based on the situation assessment), state the
objectives, select the dominant method for reaching the objectives, describe in detail
the components of the programme, assign responsibility for the development/imple-
mentation of these programme components to specifc individuals/agencies, and
specify the timing.

Figure 3.2 shows the general steps involved in developing an action plan (step 3)
and how these ft in with other processes described in this manual. A more in-depth
discussion on developing an action plan for a national policy is found in Developing
policies to prevent injuries and violence: guidelines for policy-makers and planners (2).

A plan of action can be prepared at a national, regional or even town level.

BOX 3.3: An effective campaign: Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), USA

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) works to prevent drinking and driving, to support the victims of

crashes involving drink-driving and to prevent underage drinking. MADD was founded in 1980 by a small

group of grieving mothers and has grown into a network of around 600 affliates with two million members

and supporters in the United States. MADD works through research-based programmes, policy initiatives,

victim services and public education.

As well as running public awareness campaigns and youth programmes, MADD has advocated for the pas-

sage of numerous drinking and driving, and underage drinking laws. At federal level, MADD lobbied for the

passage of the national 21 minimum drinking age law in 1984, and the 1995 ‘zero tolerance’ provision,

making it illegal for those under 21 years of age to drive after consuming alcohol. In 2000 MADD advocated

for a federal BAC limit of 0.08. MADD also advocates for sobriety checkpoints, primary seat-belt laws and

stricter penalties for repeat offenders and other high-risk offenders, as well as other key research-based

legislation in states across the country.

More information: www.madd.org

Drinking and Driving: a road safety manual

3 | How to design and implement a drinking and driving programme


Figure 3.2 General stages of a drinking and driving
programme: from assessment to evaluation


to identify/understand the problem (Module 2)



In an initial stage, the programme could be
tested in a pilot city or region



The results from the evaluation should be
used to improve the overall programme



Win necessary support, coordinate the
development and implementation of a
national/regional programme and action plan
to implement it


ACTION PLAN (Module 3)

3• Set objectives
• Set targets
• Set indicators
• Decide on activities

• Estimate resources
• Set up monitoring
and evaluation

Module 3: How to design and implement a drinking and driving programme


3.2.1 Identifying the problem

As described in Module 2, a critical element of any intervention programme is to
identify the main problem group (or groups). Information on this may already be
available from a variety of sources, in particular the assessment proposed in Mod-
ule 2. Critical data are likely to be:
breath tests conducted on crash-involved drivers;
blood tests on crash fatalities;
admission information from hospital accident and emergency departments;
random breath checks (conducted either for enforcement or research);
public/police anecdotal evidence (for example, about people leaving clubs).

Te types of information that should be obtained are:
the age, sex and social groupings of those involved;
the times when the behaviour is most prevalent;
the location(s) where the drinking and driving takes place.

Tis type of information helps to prioritise activities, and to plan and focus interven-
tions where they are most needed. Tere must also be a clear statement of problems
with respect to public knowledge, legislation, enforcement and penalties. While
these are not independent, some issues clearly depend on others. Enforcement, for
example, is very difcult if there is no clear, legal defnition of “drunk” driving – such
as illegal BAC levels.

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