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Report on Oil Industry

Report on Oil Industry

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

In the Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful. Read: In the Name of your Lord Who Created, Created Man from a Clot. Read: And your Lord is the most Bounteous, Who taught by the pen, The man that which he did not Know

AlQuran

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

“ALLAH DOES NOT LOOK AT YOUR FORMS AND POSSESSIONS BUT HE LOOKS AT YOUR HEART AND DEEDS” (MUSLIM)

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

DEDICATED TO ALLAH The Almighty The Omniscient The Omnipotent The Omnipresent The creator of creative mind.

PREFACE
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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
Department Of COMMERCE has always tried to make its students be familiar with the different techniques in the field of Project Appraisal in order that they can understand & present the concepts of Project Appraisal in the light of present-day progress & development. The importance of principal work almost exists in every professional field. Practical knowledge makes man a technical person who enables to do every work promptly regarding his profession. The very distinctive feature of the degree of MASTER OF COMMERCE is that it stresses more on the practical aspects of study. Our teachers have extremely realized this importance & they use all the tact’s to expose us to the real field circumstances. Project Appraisal has become a common phenomenon now-a-days. We have also endeavored to consolidate in this assignment all the important features of the topic. Every effort has been made to incorporate all the available means of information to make this assignment exhaustive & comprehensive. We tried our best to accomplish our work with honesty and diligence.

Mr. Ali Gulzar Mr. Fahad Mehmood Mr. Zubair Khan

Acknowledgement
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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

 Special thanks to Almighty Allah, creator of the creative minds. We pay abundant thanks to our encouraging teacher & instructor Mr. JAWAD DILAWAR for enlightens our minds with the rich information about the topic.

SPECIAL THANKS
• MR. RAO EHSAN, Admin. Manager, HAFEEZ GHEE & OIL INDUSTRIES (pvt ltd.) MULTAN • MR. AMJAD HUSSAIN, C.F.O MEHMOOD AGRO GROUP OF INDUSTRIES (pvt ltd.)

Mr. Nadeem, PRODUCTION MANAGER MEHMOOD AGRO GROUP OF INDUSTRIES (pvt ltd.)

• Mr. kashif Accountant Hoor Banaspati and cooking oil

OIL PLANT
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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

Table OF Contents
Sr. No Particulars

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Executive Summery Introduction & Estimated Cost of the Project Name of Machinery Supplier Implementation Schedule Introduction to Industry Market Analysis Raw Material Technical Analysis SWOT Analysis & Financial Ratios Manufacturing Process Economic Analysis

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

EXECUTIVE SUMMERY
1. The project
The proposed project site enjoys the benefits of easy availability of raw material, quick access to the markets of Pakistan as it is located on the main road, source of power and electricity & transportation. The project will be equipped with most locally manufactured plant and machinery and rest of equipment will be imported from China. .

2. Product’s Range
A. Cooking OIL B. Vegetable Ghee C. Laundry Soap D. Meal Cooking will be in the packaging of 1 kg, 2.5 kg and 5 kg and Vegetable Ghee will be in the packaging of ½ kg, 1 kg, 2.5 kg, 5 kg, 10 kg and 16 kg.

3. Market
Our site is centrally located in Pakistan from where we can easily get access to the markets of the country. We have some competitors but its success and profitability is very much related to its low cost and high quality. Oil and Ghee is basic ingredient of every meal so it has high demand locally and nationally. Oil and ghee are also exported to Afghanistan and Central Asian countries.

4. Plant capacity
The 100% capacity of plant is 150 Tons per day, of which 50 Tons would be the production of cooking oil and 100 Tons of Vegetable Ghee. The actual production will be 110 tons per day, in which 80 tons will be for Ghee & 30 tons for Oil.

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY 5. Material and input
The raw materials required for the production of GHEE & OIL are as follows,\ Cotton seed oil (ghee) Sunflower oil (ghee) Palm oil (ghee) Palm olien oil (ghee) Soya been oil (cooking oil) Canola oil (cooking oil) The raw material required for producing cooking oil will be imported from Canada, Australia and Palm Olean oil for ghee will be imported from Malaysia. Palm fatty will be imported from Malaysia. Other inputs like Caustic Soda, Bleaching Earth, Common Salt, Antioxidant, Citric Acid, and Nickel Catalyst are available in Pakistan.

6. Project Engineering
The plant and machinery used for production consist of Storage Section, Pre-Refining Section, Hydrogenation Section, Post-Refining Section, Ghee Filling Section, Refrigeration Section, Steam Generation, Soap Section, Water Pump Section, Hydrogen Gas Generation & Storage Section, Electric Section, Mechanical workshop.

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7. Implementation:
The total time period for the installation & execution of output is estimated to be 6 months from the date of approval of finance.

8. Estimated Cost:

Rs. (000)

Total fixed cost of project + Initial permanent working capital Total cost of Project

327,602

790,091.18
1,117,693

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

Machinery Suppliers
Universal engineering Faisalabad
Company Name: Street Address: City: Province/State: Country/Region: Telephone: Fax: Universal Engineering P.O. Nishatabad Sheikhupura Road Faislabad Punjab Pakistan 0092-41-754481/ 754469 0092-41-752135

THE PROJECT INTRODUCTION

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
The proposed project contemplates to set up a new Oil & Ghee Mill Unit at Multan. The annual rated production capacity of the plant is estimated about 150 ton of which 50 ton oil and 100 ton ghee working 350 days a year and tripled shift per day of 8 hours each. The project shall be equipped with latest locally manufacturing plant and Machinery.

Estimated Cost of the Project
Total Fixed Cost Initial Fixed Working Total

(Rs. 000)
327,602 790,091.18

1,117,693

Introduction to Industry
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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

The manufacture of Vegetable Ghee/ Cooking Oil in the organized sector contributing around Rs.30 billion annually to the government exchequer in the form of Custom Duty, Federal Excise Duty and Income Tax etc. Ghee & Oil Units are not only catering to the needs of Pakistan’s whole population, but also supplying this dietary item of daily use to the people of neighboring countries. The export of the Vegetable Ghee to Afghanistan and the Central Asian States via land route through Torkhum and Chamman borders is a good source to earn precious foreign exchange for our country. In addition of boosting trade relations with these countries that’s why the future of this industry is bright in Pakistan.

Industry Background and History
Ghee industry was introduced in the sub continent in mid thirties, and since then it has grown tremendously in face of all environmental hazards. It has been subjected to serious edible Oil shortages, government inconsistent policies and severe variations between demand and supply in the domestic market. There are about 150 units of edible oil and oil extraction in Pakistan, involved in extraction and production of various types of cooking oil and ghee. However, the number of ghee manufacturer's registered with PVMA at present are 95. The country which was self sufficient in edible Oil production (0.154 million MT), till 1960, and paying not a single dollar against the import bill, is today importing well over 1.160 million MT against an import bill of no less that Rs.33000 million per year, being the third largest edible Oil importing country of the world, after China and the European Union. All these imports originated from Malaysia.

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
During the past 21 years of interrupted and partially half hearted efforts of successive governments since 1979, the country has been able to procure only 0.5 million MT of edible Oil from indigenous resources while the rest of the 1.1 million MT is procured from imports. The share of ghee & cooking oil in large scale manufacturing is 7.4 percent. During the last seven years (FY01-07) the average annual growth for ghee/edible oil production is about seven percent The structure of Ghee/Oil industry is just like all the other developing industries of Pakistan. There are certain well-established companies working with good brand names, serving the nation as a whole. Along with them there are certain units, which are working in limited areas, meeting the requirements of these niche markets. Some of the vegetable Ghee mills are working under the control of government and other are held privately. The raw material required for the production of Ghee/Oil is imported from different countries and this is the biggest imported item in food category. The prices of Ghee/Oil are very much influenced by the duties on these imports and the international price fluctuations of these items. In early 1990’s there had been a serious crisis in the Ghee industry, and the main reason for this was that production of Ghee was greater than the demand. In this period due to the heavy looses on account of these units government privatize so many Ghee producing units. Vegetable Ghee is the commercial term for vegetable Oil hardened by the process of hydrogenation. Cottonseed, soybean Oil, Sun Flower Oil, corn Oil, is being mainly used in Pakistan for the manufacturing of Oil/Ghee. Pakistan is importing Palm Oil and Soya bean Oil from America, Indonesia and Malaysia. During 1999-2000 Pakistan imports of soya bean Oil and palm Oil has drastically decreased both in quantity and value. Pakistan imported soya bean Oil worth $75.8 million and Palm Oil $267.8 million in year 1999-2000.
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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

Market Analysis
Pakistan is the third largest importer of edible oil as only around 27.0 percent of its requirement is met through domestic production. Pakistan: Per Kg Consumption of Vegetable Ghee Per Annum Is Lower Than EU, USA and Russia But Is Above India and Bangladesh (18.86 Kg per Annum per Person) The remaining needs are met from imports of various edible oils. The ghee and cooking oil are the basic food items of human diet all over the world. With the passage of time the overall production as well as consumption of ghee & cooking oil has significantly increased in Pakistan.

Competitors

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
In Pakistan ghee industry is flourished over the years. Today there are many Locals and National companies as well as international companies engage in the production of ghee and oil working in Pakistan. Among multinational companies includes Lever Brothers (Pvt.) Ltd. They manufacture DALDA and PLANTA cooking oil and ghee. Some other companies are as follows. 1) Al Hilal Vegetable Ghee Mills engages in the production of Sultan Banaspati Ghee. It is situated in Multan. 2) Shahbaz Ghee Mills is engage in the production of Shahbaz Banaspati. It is situated in Rahim Yar Khan. 3) Wazeer Ali Industries Ltd. engages in the production of Tallo Banaspati ghee and cooking oil. It is situated in Hyderabad. 4) Fatima Enterprises Ltd. 5) Rafhan Maize Product Company involved in the production of Rafhan Corn Oil and it is situated in Faislabad. 6) Ahmad Food Industries manufactures Ahmad Soya bean Oil. 7) Ghee Corporation of Pakistan (G.C.P) under which 26 units engaged in the production of ghee is working all over the country. 8) Hafiz ghee & oil industries pvt ltd multan Apart from these combines there are many other firms manufacturing ghee. Now Brothers ghee and Oil Mill is entering in the market.

Raw material:

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
The basic raw material required for producing cooking oil and vegetable ghee is Canola oil, Palm oil and Palm alien. These raw materials are not locally available; they would be imported from Canada and Malaysia. There are some other input materials which are necessary for production but they are available in Pakistan. List of raw materials and their prices are listed below.

Cooking Oil Raw Material Quantity Canola Oil (Tons) Caustic Soda (Kg) Fuller Earth (Kg) Common Salt (Kg) Antioxidants (Kg)
17500 102000 204000 26000 3400

Price Rs (000) 86000/Ton 25/kg 30/kg 3/kg 160/kg

Vegetable Ghee
Raw Material Quantity RBD Palm Olein Oil (Tons) Caustic Soda (Kg) Fuller Earth (Kg) Common Salt (Kg) Citric Acid (Kg) Nickel Catalyst (Kg) 32,000 75,000 67,000 50,000 7000 5000 Price Rs (000) 75000/ton 25/kg 30/kg 3/kg 120/kg 1400/kg

Project demand, Products and product mix:
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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
The main products of the company are cooking oil and vegetable ghee and by-products will be laundry soap and carbon dioxide gas. At 100% capacity, annual production of cooking oil will be 17500 Tons, vegetable ghee 32000 Tons and Laundry soap 1050 Tons.

TECHNICAL ANALYSIS

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY Location of the Project
The project is proposed to set up at MULTAN. The site enjoys the following advantages:- Easy availability of raw material - Access to the main road, Sources of Power, water, fuel etc.
-

Availability of transport & communication like telephone, Internet etc.

- Availability of skilled and Un-Skilled manpower - Free from other environmental hazards like water logging, floods, salinity etc.

Utilities
Main utilities required for project are gas, electricity, water, and transportation and disposal arrangement.

Gas
Gas is very important for our project because our production process needs steam. And hydrogen gas. So you will have to get commercial connection of gas from Sui northern gas pipelines limited, main line of gas is 1.5 km away from the proposed site

Electricity
Machinery can not work without power, so power is like blood for project; you will have to get connection of power from MEPCO.

Water
Water is needed during the process we will get water through water pumps.

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

SWOT ANALYSIS
Strength:
 Raw material is easily available  Access to customers  Well technology is used  Demand is very high  Profit earning is high

Weakness:
 Recourses are going to be end  Security problem  Government restriction  Load shedding of sui gas & electricity

Opportunities
 High demand  Payback period can be minimum.

Threat
The proposed project will be facing the following threat:  Market saturation over a longer period of time due to a large number of entrants  Threat of increase in the import duty by the government

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY Gross Profit Ratio Operating Profit Ratio Net Profit Ratio Ratios
Current Ratio Quick Ratio Debt Ratio Total Assets Turnover Return on Equity Return on Assets

39% 39% 17%

34% 34% 15%

33% 33% 15%

1
1.43 1.24 84% 0

2
2.23 1.95 58% 25% 52% 4%

3
2.79 2.50 44% 25% 37% 4%

4
3.34 3.03 35% 20% 30% 3%

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

Manufacturing Process

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

In our proposed project we will produce three elements 1. Cooking Oil 2. Vegetable Ghee 3. Laundry Soap Process has following stages:

A) Decantation
Decantation is a process of unloading of unprocessed oil from carriage into decanting tanks. You will have to get a 50 ton decanting tank.

B)

Oil Storage

The next step is storage. Oil from decanting tanks is transformed from decanting to storage tanks with the help of powerful pumps. Two storage tanks of 500 tons capacity are needed.

C) Refining
The oil in refined to remove free from acids and phosphatides and the gaining material and to improve its color. The oil is refined with strong Caustic Soda. This result in two products one

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
is the refined oil and the other is it’s by product namely mud which is being used for manufacturing soap but the firm sells the mud it does not manufacture soap. We will produce soap. After Refining Process is divided in to three independent processes

OIL REFINING PLANT

MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF COOKING OIL
0.Neutralizing
The Crude Oil temporarily stored in Crude Oil Tank is pumped into neutralizing tank by Oil Pump. The oil is mixed with alkali lye in Mixer and neutralized in Neutralizing Tank, free fatty acid has been neutralized or saponified to be Soap stock.

1. Bleaching
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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
In this step we decolorize the oil by using Fuller Earth, Caustic Soda and Activated Carbon at high temperature.

2. Filtration
In this step we remove impurities (Fuller Earth) from oil through filtration medium. All impurities that become part of oil in Bleaching process are removed in this step.

3. Deodorization
It is a process of purify the oil. Its odor is removed by using vacuum vessels. All those impurities that are reason of odor in oil are removed in this section. The temperature of oil is very much increase in this process.

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY 4. Cooling
In the Deodorization Process temperature of oil much rises so it needs to cool again. In Cooling Section oil is cooled to normal temperature by using coolers.

5. Filtration
To remove the impurities, oil is re filter through filtration process.

6. DE-Waxing
It is a complex process that is used to remove Wax from oil. It is necessary to remove wax for further processing. For this purpose some organic compounds are used in chemical reaction. These reaction are much complex in nature. Samples are taken and laboratory tests are applied.

7. Filtration & Vitamin Addition
De-waxed oil is passed through further filtration. Move over some essential Vitamins (A&D) are added in this section. Nickel catalyst (Ni) is used in this process.
8. Storage

After final filtration and Vitamins addition oil is stored in storage tanks. In these tanks oil is store at moderate temperature.

9. Packing
In packing section oil is packed in deferent weights plastic bags. These bags properly sealed and again weigh before forward to store rooms.
10. Godown

After packing oil bags are forward to Godown. Ammonia section is there to control temperature of Godown.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF VEGETABLE GHEE
0. Neutralizing
The Crude Oil temporarily stored in Crude Oil Tank is pumped into neutralizing tank by Oil Pump. The oil is mixed with alkali lye in Mixer and neutralized in Neutralizing Tank, free fatty acid has been

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
neutralized or saponified to be Soap stock.

1. Bleaching
In this step we decolorize the oil by using Fuller Earth, Caustic Soda and Activated Carbon at high temperature.

2. Filtration
In this step we remove impurities (Fuller Earth) from oil through filtration medium. All impurities that become part of oil in Bleaching process are removed in this step.

3. Hydrogenation
Hydrogenation is process of addition of hydrogen gas in oil. It is a complex organic process in which unsaturated hydrocarbon are convert into saturated hydrocarbons. It is main process of converting oil into ghee. At high temperature hydrogen gas is passed into the oil, chemical reaction occurs in presence of Nickel (Ni) catalysts.

4. Filtration
In this step we remove impurities (Fuller Earth) from ghee through filtration medium. All impurities that become part of oil in Bleaching process and Hydrogenation process are removed in this step.

5. post Refining
After hydrogenation oil is once again refined by using caustic soda in order to remove the entire harmful chemicals that become part of oil during process.

6. Post Bleaching
After refining, once again bleaching is done in order to decrease the color of oil.

7. Filtration
To remove the impurities, ghee is re filter through filtration medium.

8. Deodorization
It is a process of purify the ghee. Its odor is removed by using vacuum vessels. All those impurities that are reason of odor in ghee are removed in this section. The temperature of ghee is very much increase in this process.

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY 9. Cooling
In the Deodorization Process temperature of ghee much rises so it needs to cool again. In Cooling Section ghee is cool down by using coolers.

10. Filtration & Vitamin Addition
For further filtration ghee must re heated. Move over some essential Vitamins (A&D) and ghee flavors are added in this section.

11. Storage
After final filtration and Vitamins addition ghee is stored in storage tanks. In these tanks ghee is store at high temperature.

12. Packing
In packing section ghee is packed in deferent weights plastic bags. These bags properly sealed and again weigh before forward to store rooms. 0.5kg, 1kg, 2kg, 2.5kh, 5kg, 10kg, 16kg packing is available. Plastic bags and steel teens are used for packing.

13. Chilling
Packed ghee is in melted form and hot. It is passed through chiller to decrease its temperature.

14. Godown
After packing ghee bags and teen packs are forward to Godown. Ammonia section is there to control temperature of Godown.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF LAUNDRY SOAP
1. Soap Stock
In the process of refining, dirt is separated and sent to soap section for making laundry soap.

2. Saopnification Cooking
This is process of making soap from soap stock. Soap stock is heated and treated by using some techniques.
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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY 3. Setting
Liquid is treated and soap in liquid form is made

4. Filling in Frames
Liquid is filled in frames to makes blocks of soap

5. Cutting into Cakes
Solid soap blocks are divided in small cubes.

6. Packing
Soap is packed in packets and cartons

7. Godown
Finished soap is sent to Godown and from Godown it is delivered to market.

DECANTATION

OIL STORAGE

REFINING

GHEE

COOKING OIL

SOAP

Neutralization
Bleaching

Neutralization
Bleaching Soap Stock

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
Filtration Filtration Deodorization Hydrogenation Cooling Filtration Filling in Frames Filtration Setting Saopnification Cooking

Post Refining De- Waxing Post Bleaching
Filtration & Vitamin Add.

Cutting into cakes

Packing

Godown Filtration Storage

Deodorization

Packing

Dispatch

Cooling

Godown

Filtration & Vitamin Add.

Dispatch

Storage

Packing

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Economic evaluation is considered prominent yardstick to measure the viability of a project. This analysis is directed towards determining whether the project is likely to contribute significantly to the development of the economy as a whole and the contribution of the project would be great enough to justify the use of available resources. This aspect is reviewed under the following:-

INITIAL IMPACT
In order to pursue a theory of balanced growth of the economy the current government is putting an emphasis on industrialization of our inherently agrarian economy. Industrialization of substantial dynamic benefits is important for changing the traditional structure of our less developed economy, while providing employment for a rapidly increasing labor force, and saving scarce foreign exchange by import substitution and creating export potentials. A capital expenditure creates incomes for people engaged in the fabrication of capital goods, who in turns spend their incomes on consumer goods. An initial original capital investment creates a wave of income and spending which has multiplied effect on the national income, increasing it by several times, the original investment. The initial original capital investment of Rs. (000) 1,117,693.25 in local currencies would have a healthy impact on the GNP of the country, the extent of which depends on the degree of multiplied effect.

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
The project would create employment opportunities for the following staff: Detail Skilled Labor Semi-Skilled Labor Unskilled Labor Administrative Staff Total Nos. 40 60 35 20

OIL & GHEE MILLS
Estimated Cost of Plant & Machinery
S.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 STORAGE SECTION PRE-REFINING SECTION HYDROGENATION SECTION POST-REFINING SECTION GHEE FILLING SECTION REFRIGERATION SECTION STEAM GENERATION SOAP SECTION WATER PUMP SECTION HYDROGEN GAS GENERATION & STORAGE SECTION DESCRIPTION Rs. (000) 13,550 6,110 8,690 9,805 8,650 4,500 5,650 1,595 1,150 9,950

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY
11 12 13 CO2 GAS SECTION ELECTRIC SECTION MACHANICAL WORKSHOP COST OF MACHINERY 14 15 16 17 ERECTION & INSTALLATION:15 % of machinery TRANSPORTATION (10% of Machinery) INSURANCE (5% of Machinery) Contingencies 2% of Building & Machinery
TOTAL COST OF PLANT & MACHINERY

2,800 10,700 900 84,050 15% 10% 5% 2% 12,608 8,405 4,203 1,681 194,996

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

OIL AND GHEE MILLS
Estimated Cost of the Project Cost of the Project
Project Land and it's Development Building and Civil Works Plant & Machinery Furniture and Fixture Utilities & Office Equipment Vehicles Markup during Construction Pre Production Expenses Contigencies

Local
(Rs.000)

Foreign
(Rs.000)

Total
(Rs.000)

12,800 61,753.35 58,499 100 3,000 1,500 51,192 1,780 481
191,105

136,497 136,497.20

12,800 61,753.35 194,996 100 3,000 1,500 51,192 1,780 481
327,602

Total Fixed Cost
Initial Net Working Capital

790,091.18
981,196

136,497.20

790,091.18
1,117,693

Total Cost of the Project

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

OIL AND GHEE MILLS .
PRODUCTION AT 100% COOKING OIL
Output% Production of oil Wastage Soap Stock dirt Total Ghee Wastage Soap Stock dirt Total Soap Wastage Total 97%
16975

Quantiy (Tons)

1%
175

2%
350

100

17500

VEGETABLE GHEE
95% 5% 3%
960 30400 1600

100

32000

LAUNDY SOAP
75% 25%
350 1050

100
1400

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Report on GHEE & OIL INDUSTRY

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