ARA GRAPH WRITING

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PARAGRAPH WRITING
PARAGRAPH ORGANIZATION What is a paragraph?
1. A paragraph is a group of related sentences that develop one main idea. 2. It is made up of three kinds of sentences that develop the writer’s main idea, opinion, or feeling
about a subject. These sentences are: a. Topic sentence b. Supporting sentences c. Concluding sentence Topic Sentence ...................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... Supporting sentences.........................................................................................................................

Supporting sentences......................................................................................................................... Supporting sentences.........................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... Concluding sentences........................................................................................................................

3. The number of sentences is unimportant in a paragraph; however, the paragraph should be long enough to develop the main idea clearly. 4. A paragraph may also be one part of a longer piece of writing such as a chapter of a book or an essay. A.. TOPIC SENTENCE

main idea

e sent

nce ence

e sent

nce

ence sent A topic sentence has several important functions:

sent

A.

A topic sentence should always be a complete sentence. The following are not complete sentences.

Driving on freeways. The importance of money. How to register for college classes.

B. C.

A topic sentence supports the idea of the paragraph subject.

There are several advantages to growing up in a small town. Idea of the paragraph subject
It directs the order of the sentences and it briefly indicates what the paragraph is going to discuss

Most US universities require a 550 point TOEFL score for a number of reasons. the paragraph is going to discuss

D.

It is a complete sentence and has three parts:

1. a subject

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2. a verb 3. a controlling idea

1-2: Subject - Verb
Samples: a. Telephones / intrude into / the privacy of our daily lives. Subject / verb / controlling idea b. Most adults / find / learning a foreign language difficult. Subject / verb / controlling idea c. My roommate, John, / helps / me to speak English correctly. Subject / verb / controlling idea NOTE: The topic sentence is to the paragraph what the thesis statement is to the essay.

3. Controlling Idea:
The controlling idea of a topic sentence is a word or phrase that controls the information in the rest of the paragraph. Usually, the topic comes first and the controlling idea comes second in the topic sentence. However, the controlling idea may come first. a. Violence in Turkey society has several causes. Topic controlling idea b. There are several causes of violence in Turkish society. controlling idea Topic c. A good architect is both an artist and a mathematician. Topic Controlling idea d. Artistic talent and mathematical ability are two qualities of a good architect. Controlling idea Topic

A sample Paragraph:
Parents can help their children be successful in school by encouraging them. Children usually enjoy playing games Topic Controlling idea

instead of studying. Therefore, parents should take the responsibility to monitor their studying. They should also remind their children to do their homework at home after school. Moreover, parents can encourage them to study by buying story books with pictures, or they can buy text books or tapes that help children learn to spell or read. The best way to encourage children to study efficiently is to reward them when they get an “A”. As a child, I experienced this. My parents gave me a gift when I got ‘A’ in my math lesson. I was very excited. As result, if parents really want their children to succeed in school, they need to pay attention to their children’s studies and encourage them.

In the paragraph above, the topic sentence is the following: Parents can help their children be successful in school by encouraging them. The topic of the sentence is how parents can help children succeed in school; the controlling idea is encouraging. The reader might ask the following questions and expect the paragraph to answer them: How can parents encourage their children? What specific things should parents do to encourage their children? How will this encouragement lead to success? The topic sentence gives the writer’s attitude, opinion or idea about the topic. In the topic sentence, the writer makes a judgment. PRACTICE: Choose the best topic sentence. a. Too general: My neighborhood is a nice place to live. A good topic sentence: My neighborhood is fascinating because people from many countries live in it. b. Too general: Sports are exciting. Still too general: Watching a soccer game keeps me involved. Much better: Watching 2002 the Istanbul derby between Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray kept me on the edge of the chair. 1. Topic: “My room” a. ……… My room is a perfect place for one person to live.

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mathematics. vacations.University-dormitory living-roommates. there is one teacher for all subjects for each grade (except in Scandinavia). and the campus. such as university. too vague or too specific. teenagers. ………. ölümcül G. Topic: a. When you start to write about a very general topic.? When………? Where……. The subject is "Cancer affects everybody": CANCER AFFECTS EVERYBODY My grandfather contracted* lung cancer a few months ago. the subjects which are taught at the elementary level are basically the same everywhere: reading and writing. but most American children do not. and children. Topic Sentence: "Many television cartoons contain an unhealthy amount of violence. ……… psychology. Also. or nuclear power." Notice that this sentence clearly identifies that the key topic of the paragraph is violence in television cartoons. and how/why this violence is unhealthy for viewers. introductions to the sciences.. ……… “Watching a Movie” The most important influence of watching a movie is that it destroys human’s Watching movie influence adults. Here is an example of a paragraph with the topic sentence found at the end. and the classes are coeducational *. NOTE: Ask yourself questions as you narrow down/restrict the ideas: Why……….? F. elementary school classes look the same everywhere: There are about twenty to twenty-two pupils per class.Many people live in single rooms. The only major difference in the elementary curriculum* is that most Europeans study a foreign language in elementary school. you must narrow down it down to a limited topic that can be discussed in one paragraph. music. You may narrow down the subject of college to the more specific subject of her roommate.? How………. 2. At least three members of every extended family will contract terminal* disease before the age of sixty. sports.. such as classes. b. UNIVERSITY-F.. (As a beginning writer. that you can discuss. The topic sentence is most general statement and the main idea of the paragraph. It also indicates that the remainder of the paragraph will discuss how much violence cartoons typically contain. Murat. The topic sentence can come at the beginning or at the end of a paragraph. Here is an example of a paragraph with a topic sentence stated at the beginning. The subject is " The educational systems of Europe and the United States ": THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS OF EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES The educational systems of Europe and the United States are similar in a number of ways.? What………? Which……. You should narrow down your subject. Coeducational: attended by members of both sexes. students. you should write your topic sentence as the first sentence of your paragraph: It will tell the reader what you are going to say and you can look back at the topic sentence often as you write the supporting sentences. For example. My family's situation is not unique. The doctors now say that he only has a few weeks to live.my roommates .Murat Samples: 1. In addition.. there are many specific things about university.b.. 4 . From these statistics and from personal experience it is obvious that no one is unaffected by cancer. To begin with. teachers. and art. and the majority of elementary school teachers are women. 2. It should not be too general.) 1. Millions of Americans are going through a similar experience. Contract: hastalık kapmak terminal: fatal. At least one out of every three nuclear families will have a member who will die of cancer before the age of fifty.

……………………… 2.……………….my best/worst class …… ……………. CLASSES . G.……………. Television advertising is far more effective than advertising in magazines or newspapers.. SPORTS ... MUSIC………………………………..…………… 6.Madonna 1.. ENTERTAINMENT-singers . MUSIC Playing a musical instrument helps children to develop in discipline and self confidence. 4. 5.………… 3. Your Topic Sentence______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ PRACTICE b: Write specific topic sentences for possible paragraphs on the following topics.2.…………………………………………...” or “This paragraph is about. FRIENDS .……………. Your Topic Sentence______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Music can teach children to understand their own culture as well as other culture. 5 .” PRACTICE a.. DIVORCE – children ………………………………. PRACTICE: Narrowing Subjects from General to Specific Fill in the space in each funnel until you arrive at a specific subject. Example: Teenagers and drugs Topic sentence: Drug addiction has caused a huge increase in crimes of violence which is committed/done by teenagers..…. Computers are a necessary part of modern life. Topic Topic Topic Controlling idea Controlling idea Controlling idea Computers save us time and make our lives easier. TELEVISION Television gives free and interesting entertainment to people of all ages. Topic Sentence: "An increasing number of people in the world are enjoying the benefits of organically grown fruits and vegetables..individual sports ……………………………………………………………………. Read the following topic sentences and then write your own topic sentence. Television has enormous influence on politics.…………………………………... Try to add at least three or four ideas to each group.……………………………………. VACATIONS………………………………. COMPUTERS Computers are unnecessary and make our life complicated." This topic sentence indicates that the remainder of the paragraph will cover the trend in the world toward eating organic foods. Be sure to provide both the subject and the key word(s). Your Topic Sentence______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 1.……………………………………. The reader can also expect learning more in this paragraph about the specific benefits of organic foods.rock singer – superstar .. Don’t begin paragraphs with “ I’m going to write about.my best friend…………………………………………………………….…………………………………….

and perhaps make friends all over the world. position 3. Firstly. so you can save both time and money. By joining a newsgroup or chat group. people are more aggressive towards each other. Owning a car Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ PRACTICE 1: 1. think about stand: resist. Due to difficult life conditions. Credit cards Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 14. Benefits of watching TV Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 16. women think that life is always difficult unless they have their own economics independence. Movie Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Being a famous person Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 12. For example. Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Shopping by TV. Television Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. They hope to be free and stand without one’s help. As a result. in your home. For the firs few months. I felt great sadness and loneliness. Attending summer courses. Write a topic sentence for the following paragraphs. Couples do not tolerate a few mistakes. Using mobile phones Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 7. on-line shopping makes it possible to search through catalogues to find exactly what you want at the best price. I was afraid of losing someone else whom I loved. Topic: My Father’s Death ____________________________________________________________________________________________.1. In addition. Topic: Divorce ____________________________________________________________________________________________. A favorite teacher Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 5. Being wealthy Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 11. Being economically independent is the desire of many women. benefits of being young Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 15. at any hour of the day or night. First of all. my loneliness was so great that I often dreamed that my father would miraculously return. I was nervous until she returned. all of the latest information is available to you. Writing Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. some regard divorce as the best way to get this independence. They want to earn money and spend it as they wish. Using Internet ____________________________________________________________________________________________. e-mail is popular because it is faster than sending a letter and cheaper than a telephone conversation. Getting married Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 8. I believed 6 . 2. Conflict: struggle. argument regard: consider. Finally. Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 9. Whenever my mother was away from home. Learning a foreign language Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 10. Also. throughout the rest of my childhood. Topic: A. Finally. you can share your hobbies and special interests. technology Topic sentence: _______________________________________________________________________________ 13. the loss of my father caused me to develop a greater sense of responsibility. This leads some conflicts in family life. In addition. there are many women working outside their homes and are independent. Nowadays.

Furthermore. are many willow* trees which have long branches that can move gracefully in the wind. Do you see how they help guide the reader? For example. Second. frightened. and (3) a part about the Big Old Tree. There are no trees around this hill. they would have the second. which is very wide and beautiful. on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill. some special satellites register the earth’s resources and military information. sake: cause) 5. UNITY and COHERENCE in WRITING: A good paragraph and essay has the elements of unity and coherence COHERENCE Coherence means that your paragraph is easy to read and understand because (1) your supporting sentences are in some kind of logical order and (2) your ideas are connected by the use of appropriate transition signals. This paragraph has three main parts: (1) a part about the Wheaton River. 7. Another way of saying this is that this paragraph has three main points which are indicated by the major connectors. They smoke for the sake of knowing how it feels. climbing this hill is not dangerous. it is noted for the Wheaton River. Tourism employs twenty times as many people as the car industry. First. 4. Topic: Space Technology ____________________________________________________________________________________________. Nearly three million people depend. (mere: only. Consider the following paragraph: My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features. My father’s death. Meteorological satellites also provide advance information. büyülüyeci Analyzing the paragraph: Major Connectors Look at the words in bold font. and responsible – a young child with adult feelings. Scientists are working to develop space technology to use in different areas. and The third amazing feature. We need tourists’ money in fact they provide more jobs for all of us. consider the words.that with my father gone I was responsible for helping my mother with her chores. First. On either side of this river. upon tourism for their jobs. (3) Coherence in writing means that all the ideas in a paragraph flow smoothly from one sentence to the next sentence. (2) a part about Wheaton Hill. so it stands clearly against the sky and can be seen from many miles away. directly or indirectly. left me lonely. Topic: Teenagers Smoking ____________________________________________________________________________________________. Unfortunately. Willow: söğüt ağacı gracefully: charmingly. Firstly. because there are some firm rocks along the sides that can be used as stairs. the third. Teenagers tent to be curious about new things. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. therefore. and earns four as much money as agriculture. which is unusual because it is very steep. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. Major connectors help organize the main parts of your paragraph. the reader has an easy time understanding the ideas that you wish to express. telecommunication satellites have greatly improved global communications. In autumn the leaves of these trees fall and cover the riverbanks like golden snow. which is 175 feet wide. 7 . With coherence. Topic: Tourism ____________________________________________________________________________________________. Even though it is steep. once they started to smoke their first cigarette. Using such major connectors is an important way of providing coherence in a paragraph. We can call these words major connectors. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place. and then become accustomed to it eventually! Just like the addiction of taking drugs. Second.

First. In order to improve the paragraph. with three cosmonauts. This paragraph is generally good. which is unusual because it is very steep. One Voshkhod cosmonaut experimented with weightlessness by taking a "spacewalk. and (sometimes) the concluding sentence -. Similarly. Note how the top bun and the bottom bun are very similar.UNITY Unity is a very important characteristic of good paragraph writing. the Soyuz project." or that the sentence is "off-topic. and a bottom bun. in a way. astronaut Ed White. For example. Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U. THE CONCLUDING SENTENCE In formal paragraphs you will sometimes see a sentence at the end of the paragraph which summarizes the information that has been presented. Several weeks later. even though it is historically accurate. and other elements in the middle of the hamburger. The cosmonaut to do this was Alexei Leonov. onions. Let's see how a concluding sentence (in bold font) might look in our sample paragraph about Wheaton: My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features. 8 . had goals of testing spacecraft and space flight skills so that people could fly long missions in Earth orbit. astronaut Ed White. the Voshkhod project was intended to find out whether people could work in the weightless environment of space. Also. does not have anything to do with the major goals of the various Russian space projects. it is noted for the Wheaton River. The top bun. You can understand concluding sentences with this example. then we say that the paragraph "lacks unity. Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U. connected to it by a tether. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. is like a TOPIC SENTENCE. meat. If your paragraph contains a sentence or some sentences that are NOT related to the main topic. so we can say that the paragraph somewhat lacks unity. but the sentence. which is very wide and beautiful. on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill.the topic. which is similar to the paragraph that we have studied above. Both buns "hold" the meat. That is. and so on. Consider a hamburger that you can buy at a fast-food restaurant." Look at the following paragraph. cheese. A hamburger has a top bun (a kind of bread). That is. the topic sentence and concluding sentence "hold" the supporting sentences in the paragraph. he floated in a spacesuit outside his Voshkhod spacecraft. supporting sentences. Unity means that you discuss only one main idea in a paragraph. the detail sentences." That is. Several weeks later. Finally. it is an "off-topic" sentence. This is the concluding sentence.S. and the bottom bun is like the CONCLUDING SENTENCE. You can think of a concluding sentence as a sort of topic sentence in reverse. we should omit this sentence.S. lettuce. Does it have perfect unity? Try to find the sentence that is off-topic: Each of the Russian carried out space exploration projects had specific major goals.are all telling the reader about ONE main topic. For another example. the Vostok project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. all the sentences -.

though. Collect facts related to your paragraph or essay topic. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place. Look for and write down facts that will help you to answer your question. Not all academic paragraphs contain concluding sentences. the topic sentence. Decide which facts and ideas will best support the main idea of your paragraph. the use of titles will become more necessary TIPS FOR WRITING A PARAGRAPH What is the prewriting stage? The prewriting stage is when you think carefully and organize your ideas for your paragraph before you begin writing. especially if the paragraph is very short. Write out your answers to the above questions. Once you have chosen the most important point of your paragraph or essay. Open your notebook. Ask yourself: What else do I want to say about this topic? Why should people be interested in this topic? Why is this topic important? 5. if your paragraph is very long. it is a good idea to use a concluding sentence. PARAGRAPH TITLE Single paragraphs do not usually have titles. Look at the facts you have written. 6.Notice how the concluding sentence. Ask yourself: What question am I going to answer in this paragraph or essay? How can I best answer this question? What is the most important part of my answer? How can I make a topic sentence (or thesis statement) from the most important part of my answer? What facts or ideas can I use to support my introductory sentence? How can I make this paragraph or essay interesting? Do I need more facts on this topic? Where can I find more facts on this topic? 2. Think carefully about what you are going to write. Six Prewriting Steps: 1. however. Write down your own note set that you can use to guide yourself as you write your paragraph or essay. Timesaving hint: make sure the facts you are writing are related to the exact question you are going to answer in your paragraph or essay. Notice also how the concluding sentence is similar to. summarizes the information in the paragraph. 4. ask yourself which order to put them in the paragraph. Find the main idea of your paragraph or essay. Organize your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea. Look at your own ideas on the topic. but not exactly the same as. just choose one point and stick to it throughout your paragraph or essay. Once you have chosen the facts and ideas you plan to use. Choose the most important point you are going to present. However. For longer essays or reports. 9 . 3. Write down your own ideas. Giving your practice paragraphs titles. just write enough to help you remember why and how you are going to write your paragraph or essay. If you cannot decide which point is the most important. you must find the best way to tell your reader about it. You do not need to spend a lot of time doing this. may help you to organize and limit your thoughts.

Open your notebook and word processor. which includes the topic and a controlling idea. Show your work to your teacher. except for the topic sentence. • Unity. Brainstorm supporting ideas. Make sure each sentence has a subject. Focus on the main idea of your paragraph. or parents. Make sure your paragraph has a topic sentence. o Coherenence. Supporting ideas (usually 3 . Compose your topic sentence. Check the verb tenses of each sentence. and closing sentence. 3. 2. 4. 7. Use the dictionary to help you find additional words to express your ideas. Don't actually write sentences in the outline. 3. Think of a topic and a controlling idea that will narrow the topic enough to support it well in one paragraph. 5. 3.6). which means that all sentences in the paragraph directly support the topic sentence. Check that all your sentences focus on the main idea. Write your paragraph in topic outline form as follows. Five Writing Steps: 1. and senses give details for and further explain the supporting ideas. Style and Organization 1. supporting sentences. 2. tutor. Publishing Paragraphs What is the publishing stage? The publishing stage is when you produce a final copy of your paragraph to hand in. Process of Writing a Paragraph: 1. 2. See if your subjects and verbs agree with each other. Ask them for hints on how to improve your writing. 10 . Make sure your supporting sentences focus on the main idea. See if your paragraph is interesting. 3. 6. which means that all the information of the paragraph is well-organized. 5.WRITING PARAGRAPHS What is the writing stage? The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into sentences. Three Publishing Steps: 1. 2. 5. Grammar and Spelling 1. which support the topic sentence Reasons. 4. names. Choose 2 . Make a paper copy of your paragraph. Make sure that each sentence makes sense. 3. Make sure you have a closing sentence. Read your essay again. Write the topic sentence. Check your grammar. Supporting idea 1. Check your spelling. numbers. 2. logically ordered and easy to follow. which leaves the reading with something to think about and may summarize the supporting ideas if the paragraph is long. EDITING PARAGRAPHS What is the editing stage? The editing stage is when you check your paragraph for mistakes and correct them. 4. Topic sentence: A. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD PARAGRAPH • • • • Topic sentence. Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning.6 supporting ideas that do a good job supporting your topic sentence. Optional concluding sentence. examples.

C. numbers. examples. 2. there should be possibilities near the school for part-time or summer jobs in your major. 7. The most difficult part is finding a university that prepares you well for your future career. B. examples. the professors must be highly qualified and respected in their fields. we wrote the paragraph using sentences and trying to make the paragraph coherent using different coherence strategies. the curriculum that is taught must be thorough and up-to-date. Supporting ideas: 1. names. Good Location. Put your supporting ideas in a logical order. 11 . For balance. Possibilities of part-time job in your major Concluding sentence: You should consider these points carefully so you can choose the most appropriate college or university for you. think of reasons. so you can get some practical work experience. Affordable. The environment should be safe and quiet to facilitate studying. Hard curriculum 2. A good location is also very important when choosing a school. You should consider all of these points carefully so you can choose the most appropriate college or university for you. names.1. Supporting idea 2. Supporting idea 3. CHOOSING A COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY Choosing a college or university can be difficult. Qualified professors B. Good Location 1. 3. Good preparation for your major 1. Good preparation for major We decided to order these supporting ideas according to importance as shown in the outline below. In addition. Topic sentence: Choosing a college or university can be difficult. and senses. numbers. Affordable 1. examples. Now we put this information into outline form and added some reasons. and senses that further explain the idea. 1. names. Study environment 2. Write your paragraph using sentences. 1. Here is an example: We came up with a good topic sentence and supporting ideas: Topic sentence: Choosing a college or university can be difficult. each supporting idea should have about the same amount of reasons. 3. Concluding sentence: 4. Moreover. 3. Use the coherence strategies to make your paragraph easy to follow. 5. You need to be able to pay the tuition fees and living expenses. For each supporting idea. In order to get a good job. Some institutions might be able to offer you scholarships if you cannot afford the fees. 3. Possibility of scholarships C. Another difficulty in choosing a university or college is affordability. be able to pay tuition and living expenses 2. Finally. Think of a concluding sentence. and senses for each supporting idea. numbers. 6. A.

Topic: The Value of a University Education Questioning whether you should go to university? Here are five ways that a college education will make you a better person: 1. It makes you a major contributor to the greatest nation on earth. 4. The Value of a University Education ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ B. coordination and self-discipline Basketball gives children valuable opportunities to learn about teamwork. and unpredictable Basketball team has few members. home driveways. 6. It provides you greater economic strength and security 7. and indoor gyms. Participation in athletic sports like basketball. Basketball is attractive. Basketball is a fast moving game that can be played on both indoor and outdoor courts. exciting. 5. 12 . 3. It will give you the power to change the world. Note: You don’t need to use all notes A. Basketball is an excellent conditioning sport that can be enjoyed by both boys and girls alike. It will give you more self-confidence 10. you can become familiar with each player's personality. It will give you a better quality of life. Basketball is fast. It will give you greater knowledge of the world events 9. TOPIC: BASKETBALL 1. It will likely make you more successful.PRACTICE 2: By using information. 3. 5. Basketball games can be played on school playgrounds. 4. 2. 2. 8. It will give you more money and greater quality of lifer. please write a well-organized paragraph. It will give you more prestigious employment and greater job satisfaction 8. It will be something you can pass on to your children. improves physical fitness. 6. 7.

10. 10. 13. Credit cards 17. Using mobile phones 4. Computers in the workplace 14. Being a famous person 15. Shopping by TV. 2. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ PRACTICE 3: Choose three of the following topics and write well organized paragraphs. Owning a car 1___________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3___________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 13 . Jumping rope at home is another great way to prepare to play basketball. Having a job while attending college 7. Technology 16. Being wealthy 12. Boys and girls should attend separate schools. Getting married 6. Many families purchase portable basketball nets for home use. Using nuclear energy. One major advantage about basketball is that the skills needed for the game can be practiced individually. PARAGRAPH TOPICS 1.9. Benefits of being young 18. 8. Attending summer courses. Learning a foreign language 9. Benefits of watching TV 19. Tourism 11. Being single 5. Custom union 3.

To sum up. As a result. children can gain basic computer skills by the help of programs which help them to learn. Primarily. this knowledge can only help them in the future. These are serious side effects. and play. In addition to this. ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES 1. paint. Advantages 7. many jobs have been lost because computers can do a lot to tasks more efficiently than humans. computers are useful for our fast-fast moving world of high technology. it is especially beneficial in the workplace. From a very young age. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. computers can be educational and fun. First of all. Advantages of Living in a Village 14 .____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ MORE PARAGRAPH SAMPLES Copy and write… Read and copy the following paragraphs exactly… A. As a result. computers can actually cause health problems. What is more. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. computers should be used carefully and they should not replace people. where employees can do their work far faster that they could in the past. This has led to high unemployment in many countries. in today’s technological world. Endless hours in front of a screen can cause eyestrain and headaches. draw. Advantages Advantages of Using Computers There are several advantages of using a computer . Disadvantages Disadvantages of Using Computers There are various negative aspects to using computers.

They may say that the Camry runs as well as the Mercedes but the Camry’s price is much cheaper. how much they cost. Then they can decide if it is the car they want. they think about all this information about the Camry. Advantages Advantages of TV Commercials Ads on television give consumers a lot of information. particularly in the evening. and this can be extremely expensive. life in the country is much slower and people tend to be more open and friendly. because of its some bad effects people should choose movies carefully and they should never forget that they are not just watching a movie ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 15 . entertainment. In addition. the fact that there are fewer shops and services often means that there are fewer employment opportunities. Mostly. they think whatever they watched it could be in real life. and where they are available. Disadvantages Disadvantages of Watching Television w Watching movie can destroy human’s psychology and imagination in some ways. The dealer’s ads will show the new Camry over and over again and tell the consumer that the Camry has power windows. In addition. one is much closer to nature and can enjoy more peace and quiet. and as a result it is much safer place to bring up young children. As a result. Therefore. when you watch a horror movie your psychology is affected by this movie badly. First of all. When people watch this kind of movies.There are many advantages to living in a village. They let consumers know what products look like. Another example would be science fiction movies. For example. one has a smaller number of friends. Disadvantages 3. it can be seen that village life is suitable for retired and those who want to have more peace and less stress. six cylinders. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Disadvantages of Living in a Village There are certain drawbacks (disadvantage) to life outside the city. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. A further advantage is that there is much less traffic. As we know. and so on. When consumers see these ads. The ads may also tell where to buy the Camry. one may have to travel long distances to work elsewhere. In conclusion. the ads may compare the Camry with the Mercedes. you may want to be a monster or a murder. Furthermore. science fiction movies have full of imagination. For example. Firstly. a Toyota dealer wants to sell the Toyota Camry. because there are fewer people. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. As a result. is difficult to find.

water and noise pollution.____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Disadvantages Disadvantages of Watching Television w Watching movies especially American movies cause to change people’s life views and life styles for number of reasons. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. tourism often brings more air. When I was a high school student. sometimes people’s language can suffer. Moreover. They also have interesting characters that they tell stories and sing songs.. Therefore. television teaches us all kinds of things. Also. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. for example Sesame Street and Tarchın and his friends. how to fix things around the house and so on. Apart from this. What is more. Also. we should give enough importance to tourism. There are several programs for preschool children. In conclusion nowadays. how to make delicious dishes. They do not have any eating culture. Disadvantages Disadvantages of tourism There are some disadvantages to tourism. For that reason most countries life style can be changed by movies. tourism brings a lot of money into a country and it also creates a lot of employment for people of the area. To begin with. As a result. These are well-organized programs that teaches children to count and to say the alphabet. places sometimes lose their character and traditions. you see that people eat simple food. if tourism is not controlled properly. most American movies. Firstly. Lastly. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Advantages Advantages of Tourism There are several advantages to tourism. Advantages Advantages of Watching Television w TV is a good teacher for everyone for several reasons. They easily change an event which occurred in the past in the direction of their ideas. As a result. These programs help students with their studies. it can be bad for a country. In addition. television has programs for students. like foreign language and math education programs. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 16 . tourism helps people to learn about other cultures and ways of life. if there are a lot of tourists in the area. Almost in every American movie you can easily see a beautiful house which has a garden or it is constructed seashore. in many cases the natural beauty of a place can be spoilt. there were many kinds of learning programs. people use movies in order to change history. it makes the locals stay rather than leave to get jobs elsewhere. Furthermore. it causes people’s eating habits. thedre are some programs for adults about how to garden. Moreover.

Overall. It not only affects the alcoholic. others can feel proud that they are his/her classmates. Primarily. we should help the number of alcoholics in Turkey and all over the world. CAUSE and EFFECT PARAGRAPH SAMPLES 1. First of all. Students feel a sense of belonging when everyone has the same uniform. and co-workers strangers. Alcoholism Alcoholism is a disease that affects many people in the world today. there is usually a laundry room in the basement so you don’t have to go anywhere else to do laundry. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. if a student is a good musician. children may take alcohol later on. I prefer to live at a dormitory because I do not need to cook and wash my clothes for myself and there will be a lot of people around me. Effect 1. If a sports team does well. social and cultural factors play important roles in development of alcoholism. They may also feel more anxious. uniforms give students equality. Students can feel equal to one an other. For example. In addition to this. Therefore. It is often associated with a family history of manic-depressive illness. It can be related to emotional changeability. The second reason is alcoholism has psychological reasons. I think wearing uniforms is a good thing. They can fee[ a sense of identity and pride that they wouldn't be able to feel as well if they didn't wear uniforms. you don't have to cook for yourself. uniforms make it more equal among the rich and poor students. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Advantages Advantages of Wearing the Same Uniform Wearing uniforms give all students equality. sad. Alcoholics may become angry and argumentive. 17 . Cause Alcoholism There are some reasons of using alcohol. Advantages Advantages to Living at a Dorm I would prefer to live in an apartment for a number of reasons. Hence. Furthermore.____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Overall. Students can tell who is from their school and who is not according to the uniform. Moreover. identity and pride. Some of them also want to reduce strong negative feelings. student may want to wear designer clothes which some can afford but others can't. If parents are alcoholics. the effects alcoholism can have on the different aspects of a person's life. uniforms give identity. Moreover. friends. students can "advertise" their school just by wearing their uniforms and be proud of the school they attend. First of all. Others can tell which students are from which schools and if someone is not behaving well. tense. alcoholics often drink hoping to drown their depressed feelings. The most important one is that there are always a lot of people around so you won't feel lonely. Secondly. but also their family. uniforms give pride. students can feel proud together of that accomplishment. the cause of alcoholism can be biological. Therefore. As a result. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ B. Moreover. others will know which school that person is from. All students do not have the same financial resources and can't afford expensive clothes. and confused. For example. the dormitory is usually very safe since almost all dormitories have security guards. or quiet and withdrawn or depressed.

First of all. those who buy camping equipment. Effects Negative Effects of Televisions Television negatively influences people's behavior in a number of ways. So. My parents gave me a gift if I had studied well. Parents should also encourage their children to study by buying story books with pictures. They may not be able to understand right from wrong and think that violence is ok. there is conflict between refusing and accepting the use of alcohol to be a social person. or they can buy text books or tapes that help children learn to spell or read. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. if parents really want their children to succeed in school. The best way to encourage children to study efficiently is to reward them when they get an “A”. Effects Effects of Parents on Children Parents can help their children be successful in school by encouraging them. Someone who buys a new car but can't really afford it. As a child. I experienced this. advertisements force people to buy things they may not need. The most important negative effect is that television may lead to violence. people should consider those effects before they start to watch television programs. and then I was very excited. When children see terrible things on TV and sometimes act them out. they need to pay attention to their children’s studies and encourage them. it is extremely important that whatever the reasons are we should avoid drinking alcohol. Children usually enjoy playing games instead of studying their boring lessons. As a result. For example. so parents have to take the responsibility to monitor their studying and to remind them to do their homework at home after school. someone who buys a new computer even though his or her old computer works fine. To get a college degree from a university outside their home country may be 18 . television influences everybody’s behavior in negative ways. but they never go camping. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 5. Causes Studying Outside There are many reasons students choose to do this why students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries. Therefore.In some cultures. In conclusion. Also.

you can take exciting photographs. animals. rain forests also are habitat of many insects. students may get more money in their job if they have a degree from outside the country. First of all. some people go to the movies to see how others live. it is a way to escape that life for a few hours. they are fun to watch andlet you imagine what other people's lives are like. animals. or dean water. forests are beautiful to look at. If you are poor. There are thousands of species that live in forests and when the forests die. Because. students study abroad for a number of reasons. they may pay less to study abroad and the programs can be better abroad. birds. movies are available everywhere. Many people think that students may get a better education outside their home country. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved. Furthermore. Moreover. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Moreover. or clean water. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ C. Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. such as forests.prestigious for students. Furthermore. hike in the forest. all over the world. Next. walk through. Causes World is in Danger Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources. If there is no theater. In short. watching movie is one of the important activities of people. they die too. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Movies are popular all over the world. 7. Causes Watching Movies There are many reasons why people all over the world enjoy watching movies. they offer an escape. animals depend on it for survival. forests are natural resources that must be saved because they provide so much good for so many people and animals. 6. Similarity and Differences 19 . As a result. movies provide entertainment. In short. . COMPARE and CONTRAST PARAGRAPH SAMPLES 1. For that reason. and look at all the flowers. nature is a home for animals. Most students get a good education wherever they go if they are strong-minded to achieve something in their studies. Finally. To begin with. Therefore. such as forests. there is usually a video store with movies. Movie theaters can be found in almost every town. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources. Finally. Explain why movies are so popular. some students may get scholarships to study abroad.

my present teacher sends the troublesome student to a counselor. there is one teacher for all subjects for each grade (except in Scandinavia). and art. music. however. When a student is always troublesome in class. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. there is the student’s right to speak. the way my two teachers teaching method of English is different. Turkey. in my country students have the right to ask questions. As a result. They can even ask questions when the teacher is giving a lesson. elementary school classes look the same everywhere. In addition. We do not look into their eyes. there are both similarities and differences in the way students behave toward their teachers in the classroom. Compare Two Different Educational Systems The educational systems of Europe and the United States are similar in a number of ways. and the majority of elementary school teachers are women. sports. First. Both my English teachers control the class well. Both my teachers know their subject well. If a student makes trouble in the classroom. they also have differences on these same points. introductions to the sciences. mathematics. they can only ask questions at the end of the class. To begin with. but most American children do not. both my English teachers with their similarities and differences are excellent teachers. Although my teachers have these similarities. my old teacher would go to the parents because my school is small and everybody would know each other in the city. we are all responsible and had extra work. In contrast. The only major difference in the elementary curriculum is that most Europeans study a foreign language in elementary school. without friend) and nobody wants to be unpopular.Classroom Behavior Rules There are some similarities and differences in the classroom behavior rules between North America and my country. In North America students look up to teachers and respect them. Next. In North America. In conclusion. Also. In conclusion. students respect their teachers. in my country. American and European educational systems differ in some ways ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 20 . students can ask the teacher questions. the subjects which are taught at the elementary level are basically the same everywhere: reading and writing. Turkey. Likewise. my present if we need a rule we work it out from the examples. This makes the student unpopular (alone. students respect teachers. Then the counselor sends the students to the assistant principal and so on. teacher gives us examples first. Compare and Contrast Two English Teachers There are both some similarities and differences between my old English teacher in high school and my present English teacher. However. and the classes are coeducational. They both make sure we know the rules of the language very well. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. when a teacher asks us to speak we look down to show respect. Similarly. In contrast. For example. There are about twenty to twenty-two pupils per class. when the teacher asks them to speak they must look into the teacher’s eyes to show respect. My teacher back home would teach us a rule of grammar and then give examples. Also.

People spend less time with family and friends and more time with TV this is destructive. you want to ask your boss or a raise. it is more personal. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family.then you would wait for another time. and honest conversations when they meet face-to-face. face-to-face communication is usually more effective because you can easily see the other people’s expression and feelings about a topic. to attend for personal fulfillment and to make more money in the job market. In conclusion. People do not communicate in the same way as they did before television was invented. When you talk to a person face-to-face. some attend university in order to prepare for a career. some attend for personal achievement. Most people have more personal. e-mail. Furthermore. Secondly. Television often causes arguments. Moreover. such as letters. Argumentative Enemy of Communication Communication between friends and family has been destroyed due to television. That means you can change your conversation to fit the situation. Students also may feel a sense of success by learning new things. more effective and more honest. but you can see that he is in a bad mood or he is distracted. You can't get this with email. In short. Finally. but forget that communication is important. ARGUMENTATIVE PARAGRAPH SAMPLES 1. Seventy percent of communication is through gestures. Argumentative Face to Face Communication I believe that face-to-face communication is better than other forms of communication. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Question: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-face communication is better than other types of communication. For example. Moreover. 2. 3. some attend in order to make more money in the job market. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 21 .C. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. they give less time to family and friends. Not only family members argue about what to watch on TV but also friends do. If one has specialized skills. you do not get this same kind of experience. face-to-face communication is better than other forms of communication. one can make more money in the job market. when you write a letter or email. or telephone calls. In addition to this. Although many people watch television in order to relax. You see them. First of all. people attend college for many reasons some of which include desire to prepare for a career. their actions. television makes passive.. Because. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. body language is more effective than spoken language. employers want employees who have very specific knowledge. effective. personal fulfillment and financial rewards. Television is such a passive activity that family and friends often forget what meaningful communication is. When people watch television.. letters and telephone conversations. In addition to this. Besides. They learn about a particular subject in depth there. Adults may attend university just for the joy of learning. they do not talk with one another. It is more personal. Argumentative Importance of University Education People attend university to prepare for a career. In short. People also enjoy the relaxation of watching television. television has destroyed communication between family and friends. Therefore. and their feelings. children argue with their parents to buy them toys they see advertised on TV.

How do I write them? You should give supporting facts. making up the body of a paragraph. Second. Indicate to the reader what your paragraph will be about. First. What do they do? They give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. Canada has an excellent health care system. How do I write one? Summarize the main idea of your paragraph. Supporting Details What are supporting sentences? They come after the topic sentence. Canada is a desirable place to live. 22 . Canada has a high standard of education. Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. details. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. Canada has an excellent health care system. What does it do? It introduces the main idea of the paragraph. and examples. Finally. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second. Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. Canada has a high standard of education. Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Finally. Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. First.____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ SUMMARY PARAGRAPH WRITING QUESTION and ANSWER Topic Sentence What is the topic sentence? The topic sentence is the first sentence in a paragraph. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. As a result. Canada is a desirable place to live. As a result. Students are taught by welltrained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university.

you write about the similarities and differences between two or more people. What does it do? It restates the main idea of your paragraph. as well Example: As well. How do I write one? Restate the main idea of the paragraph using different words. Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. DIFFERENCES 23 . too. As a result. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. too Example: Artvin has a rainy spring season. places. The following words can help you to write a good compare and contrast paragraph: Helper Words: SIMILARITIES is similar to both also too as well DIFFERENCES On the other hand however but in contrast differs from while unlike SIMILARITIES is similar to Example: Spring weather in Trabzon is similar to spring weather in Rize. Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Finally. things. both Example: Both Trabzon and Rize have rain in the spring.Conclusion Sentence What is the closing sentence? The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. HELPER WORDS COMPARE AND CONTRAST PARAGRAPH In a compare and contrast paragraph. Canada is a desirable place to live. Canada has an excellent health care system. Sinop has rainy spring season. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Second. Canada has a high standard of education. or ideas. First. also Example: Samsun also has a rainy spring season. Example: Write a paragraph comparing the weather in some cities in Turkey.

differs from Example: Erzurum differs from Van by having a cold winter. is a type of Coal is a type of non-renewable resource. winter is much colder in Erzurum. belongs to Coal belongs to the category of non-renewable resources. Erzurum has a cold winter. in contrast to Example: In contrast to Ankara. however Example: However. 24 .on the other hand Example: On the other hand. The following words can help you to write a good classification paragraph: Helper Words: is a kind of can be divided into is a type of falls under belongs to is a part of fits into is grouped with is related to is associated with is a kind of Coal is a kind of non-renewable resource. can be divided into Energy resources can be divided into two types. while Example: While Ankara has a mild winter. you group things or ideas into specific categories. but Example: Ankara has a mild winter. falls under Coal falls under the category of non-renewable resources. Example: Write a paragraph discussing two types of energy resources. is a part of Coal is a part of the category of non-renewable resources. CLASSIFICATION PARAGRAPH When writing a classification paragraph. winter is much colder in Van. fits into Coal fits into the category of non-renewable resources. but Erzurum has a cold one. Erzurum has a cold winter.

I believe I believe basketball is more exciting than lacrosse. I think that I think that I would prefer to play basketball and not football. idea My idea is that basketball is more fun than football. understanding My understanding is that basketball is more fun than football. or action that you prefer. CHOICE / OPINION PARAGRAPH In a paragraph where you have to make a choice. it seems to me It seems to me that basketball is more exciting than football.is grouped with Coal is grouped with non-renewable resources. I consider I consider basketball to be more exciting than football. is associated with Coal is associated with other non-renewable resources. belief My belief is that basketball is more fun than football. The following words can help you to write a good choice paragraph: Helper Words: Point of View Personal Opinion in my opinion like/dislike belief hope idea feel understanding I think that I consider I believe it seems to me I prefer POINT OF VIEW in my opinion In my opinion. idea. you will need to give your opinion on a choice of actions or events. basketball is more fun than football. Often. 25 . you need to choose which object. is related to Coal is related to other non-renewable resources. Example: Write a paragraph stating whether you would prefer to play basketball or football.

after all these steps.I prefer I prefer basketball over football. Third. The following words can help you to write a good sequence paragraph. after After winning a seat in the House of Commons. PERSONAL OPINIONS like/dislike I like the sport of basketball because it is fast and exciting. 26 . you can call yourself the prime minister. in the beginning In the beginning. Second. feel I feel that basketball is my favorite sport. etc. second. etc. recently in the beginning previously before afterwards then when after after finally at last subsequently ORDER first. then Then. third. subsequently Subsequently. First. SEQUENCE PARAGRAPH In a sequencing paragraph. Usually. you need to become a leader of a political party. finally Finally. hope I hope that I can play basketball in the future. your party must have a majority of seats. Helper Words: ORDER TIME first. you are writing to describe a series of events or a process in some sort of order. you must make sure you have a majority of seats. at last Example: At last. third. before Before becoming the prime minister. this order is based on time. second. you must make sure you have a majority of seats in the House of Commons. you need to win a seat in the House of Commons. you need to become a leader of a political party. you need to become the leader of a political party. you must win a seat in the House of Commons. you can call yourself the prime minister. Example: Write a paragraph outlining how a person becomes the prime minister.

after Example: After winning a seat in the House of Commons. many people moved to Canada. Afterwards. Thus. then CAUSE because Example: People moved to Canada from Europe during the nineteenth century because they had poor living conditions in Europe. when Example: When she won the party leadership. as a result of People moved to Canada from Europe as a result of poor living conditions in Europe. afterwards Example: She won the party leadership last year. she won the election. The following words can help you to write a good explanation paragraph: Helper Words: Cause because since as a result of is due to Effect therefore thus consequently hence it follows that if . you will be asked to explore causes and effects of certain events. EFFECT therefore Example: Living conditions in Europe were terrible. Example: Write a paragraph explaining why so many Europeans moved to Canada during the nineteenth century. you need to explain how or why something happens. she was still working as a lawyer. previously She is the new prime minister. you must make sure you have a majority of seats. Very often in social studies class. EXPLANATION PARAGRAPH In an explanation paragraph. thus Example: Living conditions in Europe were terrible. since Example: Since living conditions in Europe were terrible. . many people moved to Canada for a better life. many people moved to Canada for a better life. . Previously. Therefore. 27 . she worked as a lawyer in Toronto. is due to / was due to Example: The large influx of people to Canada was due to economic pressures in Europe.TIME recently She was recently elected prime minister.

Polar bears have a special shape. Examples: Write a paragraph describing what a polar bear looks like. The following words can help you to write a good description paragraph: Helper Words: PROPERTIES MEASUREMENT ANALOGY LOCATION size colour shape purpose length width mass/weight speed is like resembles in above below beside near north/east/south/west PROPERTIES size Example: colour Example: shape Example: purpose Example: Polar bears are big in size. ANALOGY 28 . Consequently. The purpose of the polar bear's fur is to keep it warm..consequently Example: Living conditions were terrible in Europe. you may describe where a place is located. place. Sometimes. MEASUREMENT length Example: The length of a polar bear's claws is 20 cm. width Example: The width of a polar bear's head is about 50 cm. if . it follows that Example: Living conditions were terrible in Europe. then Example: If living conditions were better in Europe. It follows that many people moved to Canada. many people moved to Canada. many people moved to Canada. or thing is like. Describe where Canada's industry is located. Hence. Polar bears are usually white in colour. mass / weight Example: Polar bears weigh up to 650 kg. hence Example: Living conditions were terrible in Europe.. then fewer people would have moved to Canada DESCRIPTION PARAGRAPH In a description paragraph. speed Example: Polar bears can swim at a speed of 40 km per hour. you are writing about what a person.

below Example: Most of Ontario is below Hudson Bay. RECOMMENDATION suggest Example: I suggest that pesticides should not be used to control pests. important / trivial Example: The issue of pesticides is an important one because it affects the environment. you will state your evaluation or recommendation and then support it by referring to your criteria. near Example: Many companies are located near Toronto. right / wrong Example: It is wrong to use pesticides because they harm the environment. resembles Example: A polar bear resembles other bears in shape. moral / immoral Example: The use of pesticides to control pests is immoral because it harms the environment. Example: Write a paragraph evaluating whether pesticides should be used on farms. beside Example: Quebec is located beside Ontario. 29 . above Example: The ceiling is above us. correct / incorrect Example: The belief that pesticides must be used is incorrect.is like Example: A polar bear is like other bears in shape. ideas. and possible actions. north / east / south / west Example: Ontario is west of Quebec. The following words can help you to write a good evaluation paragraph: Helper Words Criteria for Evaluation Recommendation good / bad correct / incorrect moral / immoral right / wrong important / trivial suggest recommend advise argue CRITERIA good / bad Example: The use of pesticides such as DDT is bad for the environment. In the paragraph. LOCATION in Example: Most of Canada's manufacturing is located in Ontario and Quebec. You need to make your evaluation based on certain criteria that you develop. you make judgments about people. EVALUATION PARAGRAPH In an evaluation paragraph. recommend Example: I recommend that pesticides should not be used because they are harmful to the environment.

directly or indirectly. so you can save both time and money. For example. women think that life is always difficult unless they have their own economics independence. In addition. Finally. My father’s death. upon tourism for their jobs. They smoke for the sake of knowing how it feels.uottawa. SOURCE: 1. some special satellites register the earth’s resources and military information.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/partopic. I felt great sadness and loneliness. They hope to be free and stand without one’s help. Teenagers tent to be curious about new things. Divorce Cost of living plays an important role on high divorce rate. some regard divorce as the best way to get this independence. e-mail is popular because it is faster than sending a letter and cheaper than a telephone conversation. all of the latest information is available to you. Also. people are more aggressive towards each other. We need tourists’ money in fact they provide more jobs for all of us. 1. Couples do not tolerate a few mistakes. and perhaps make friends all over the world. (mere: only. I was afraid of losing someone else whom I loved. entertainment. throughout the rest of my childhood. Using Internet Using internet offers you a world of information. had several important effects on me. TOURISM During the last two years. and then become accustomed to it eventually! Just like the addiction of taking drugs. and earns four as much money as agriculture. my loneliness was so great that I often dreamed that my father would miraculously return. sake: cause) 5. Write a topic sentence for the following paragraphs. the loss of my father caused me to develop a greater sense of responsibility. once they started to smoke their first cigarette. frightened. Furthermore. 4. argument regard: consider. on-line shopping and e-mail services. and responsible – a young child with adult feelings. This leads some conflicts in family life. Due to difficult life conditions.advise Example: I would advise farmers not to use pesticides if possible. which occurred when I was nine years old. on-line shopping makes it possible to search through catalogues to find exactly what you want at the best price. they would have the second. left me lonely. in your home. think about stand: resist. Unfortunately.html 30 . Firstly. the number of tourists coming to Turkey has created a large number of jobs. Nearly three million people depend. you can share your hobbies and special interests. http://www. 2. Firstly. Nowadays. at any hour of the day or night. As a result. the third. I was nervous until she returned. Being economically independent is the desire of many women. 7. Finally. Tourism employs twenty times as many people as the car industry. there are many women working outside their homes and are independent. position 3. ANSWER KEY: PRACTICE 1: A. TEENAGERS Smoking Dozens of teenagers smoke because of mere curiosity. For the firs few months. I believed that with my father gone I was responsible for helping my mother with her chores. argue Example: I would argue that pesticides should not be used because they harm the environment. Scientists are working to develop space technology to use in different areas. They want to earn money and spend it as they wish. Conflict: struggle. MY FATHER’S DEATH My father’s death. telecommunication satellites have greatly improved global communications. SPACE TECHNOLOGY Space technology has resulted in numerous applications. Meteorological satellites also provide advance information. In addition. therefore. Whenever my mother was away from home. By joining a newsgroup or chat group. First of all.

Ann Hogue. 1980. Alice Oshima. 31 .com/inner/about_us. First Steps in Academic Writing.paragraphorganizer.2. Ann Hogue. Writing Academic English.htm 3.ru/eng/1999/eng35-2. 1995. Longman.1september.htm 4. http://www. 5. Longman. http://archive.

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