Prologue

Terms: 1. Psychology a. The science of behavior and mental processes 2. Empiricism a. The view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment 3. Structuralism a. An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind (see Titchener) 4. Functionalism a. A school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish (see William James) 5. Natural Selection a. The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations 6. Biopsychosocial approach a. Involving the biological, social, and psychological approaches 7. Basic research a. Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base 8. Applied research a. Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems 9. Counseling Psychology a. The branch of psychology that focuses on personal problems not classified as serious mental disorders, such as academic, social, or vocational difficulties of students 10. Clinical Psychology a. A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders Perspectives 1. Neuroscience a. The focus is on how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences 2. Evolutionary a. The focus is how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes 3. Behavior Genetics a. The focus is on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences 4. Behavioral

The student of Plato 3. and helped form modern empiricism b. from its peculiar nature. Calkins a. Had the first psychology lab and they tested reflex times 8. and retrieve information 6. easily supposes a greater degree of order and equality in things than it really finds 5. Wundt a. Plato a. Descartes a.a. Socrates a. He was an Austrian personality theorist 13. The focus is on how we encode. Cognitive a. later known as nerves 6. b. Aristotle a. James a. She was a student of James’ b. Freud a. He believed that mind and body are distinct and that some ideas are inborn b. Agreed with Socrates and Plato b. their immediate feelings after they were given a stimulus 9. Pavlov . Titchener a. Bacon a. He wrote that the human understanding. Later on became the second female president of the APA 12. He introduced structuralism and encouraged people in introspection i. The focus is on how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures People 1. He believed that mind and body are distinct and that some ideas are inborn b. First woman to receive a psychology PhD from Harvard b. She became a distinguished researcher after Harvard denied her PhD and she became the first female president of the APA 11. store. Improved on Bacon’s theories. Social – Cultural a. The focus is on how we learn observable responses 5. He was the student of Socrates 2. Dissected animals and concluded that the fluid in the brains cavities were called “animal spirits”. Floy-Washburn a. Other words. He thought that the mind was a blank slate when one is born 7. He believed that the mind and body are connected and that the mind is a blank slate when born. He introduced functionalism i. process. Mainly focused on how mental and behavioral processes function 10. He was the teacher of Plato therefore hugely influencing Plato 4. Locke a.

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion 6. A graphed cluster of dots. each of which represents the values of two variables. Case study a. who rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior Chapter 1 Terms: 1. Skinner a. this does not refer to a country’s whole population) 5. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. Correlation a. He found psychology was the science of behavior and he demonstrated conditional responses on “Little Albert” 15. and thus of how well either factor predicts the other 8. Population a. Scatter plot a. Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situations 7.a. Watson a. It is a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together. Double-blind procedure . random sample of them 4. A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles 3. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation) 9. All the cases in a group. For example. A leading behaviorist. Experiment a. usually by questioning a representative. the experiment controls other relevant factors 10. from which samples may be drawn for a study. Naturalistic observation a. intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures 2. Operational definition a. (Note: Except for national studies. Random sample a. A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people. Survey a. By random assignment of participants. A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. He pioneered the study of learning and was a Russian physiologist 14.

The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution 20. The middle score in a distribution. Range a. An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo 11. The experimental factor – in psychology. thus minimizing preexisting difference between those assigned to the different groups 14. Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance. The experimental factor that is manipulated. Standard deviation a. the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable 16. A branch of psychology concerned with links between biology and behavior 2. Neuron . Control condition a. The most frequently occurring score in a distribution 17. Dependent variable a. A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score 21. Independent variable a. half the scores are above it and half are below it 19.a. NOT DONE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Chapter 2 Terms: 1. Biological Psychology a. any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition. The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment 13. obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores 18. Mode a. Experimental results caused by expectations alone. Statistical significance a. the variable whose effect is being studied 15. Mean a. Median a. Scientific Attitude a. which is assumed to be an active agent 12. the behavior or mental process – that is being measured. Random assignment a. Placebo effect a. A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance 22. The arithmetic average of a distribution.

These bundled axons. Myelin Sheath a. A neural impulse. thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse 10. CNS a. Otherwise known as acetylcholine. branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body 4. Neurotransmitter a. ending in branching terminal fibers. triggers muscle contraction 11. Action potential a. which are part of the PNS. Endorphins a. consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems 13. Synapse a. A nerve cell. (Peripheral Nervous System). (Central Nervous System). The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse 8. the brain and spinal cord 14. PNS a. it is a neurotransmitter that. Neural “cables” containing many axons. Axon a. opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure 12. The body’s speedy. Nerves a. Neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS 17. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane 7. When released by the sending neuron. a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands 5. neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron. “morphine within” – natural. Sensory neurons a.a. Nervous System a. A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fivers of many neurons. Threshold a. Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. The extension of a neuron. the sensory and motor neurons that connect the (CNS) to the rest of the body 15. ACh a. enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next 6. the basic building block of the nervous system 3. Motor neurons . The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft 9. electrochemical communication system. The bushy. Dendrite a. connect the CNS with muscles. among its functions. and sense organs 16. glands.

Its sympathetic division arouses. its parasympathetic division calms 21. With experience. conserving its energy 23. 25. also called the skeletal nervous system 20. The endocrine system’s most influential gland. automatic. networks can learn. The division of the PNS that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body. The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body. Under the influence of the hypothalamus. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue 30. Reflex a. They are interconnected neural cells. such as the kneejerk response 24. Parasympathetic Nervous System a. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp 31. the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands 29. Neural Networks a. mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands. Autonomic Nervous System a. Interneurons a. The adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noadrenaline). Sympathetic Nervous System a. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning. PET . EEG a. A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. It is tissue destruction. Somatic Nervous System a. as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results.a. Adrenal glands a. Chemical messengers. which help to arouse the body in times of stress 28. Neurons that carry outgoing information from the CNS to the muscles and the glands 18. Pituitary gland a. Lesion a. mobilizying its energy in stressful situations 22. inborn response to a sensory stimulus. CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs 19. The part of the PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. that are produced in one tissue and affect another 27. Hormones a. An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface. A simple. The body’s “slow” chemical communication system. Endocrine system a. a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream 26.

MRI a. Frontal lobes . the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions 36. The brain’s sensory switchboard. A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal 38. Medulla a. it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance 40. nourish. Glial cells a. It detects blood rushing to the back of the brain. amygdala. it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla 39. A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task 32. CT Scan a. allows us to see structures within the brain 33. The base of the brainstem. fMRI a. drinking. it directs several maintenance activities (eating. A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres. Cells in the nervous system that support. located on top of the brainstem. helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. Includes the hippocampus. associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Amygdala a. controls heartbeat and breathing 37. The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. Reticular formation a. Two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion 42. and protect neurons 45. beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull. The “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem. the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center 44. The oldest part and central core of the brain. Brainstem a.a. Limbic System a. Cerebellum a. It is basically the lighting of the brain on the screen 34. Cerebral cortex a. A neural structure lying below the thalamus. body temperature). and is linked to emotion 43. Thalamus a. and hypothalamus 41. A series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body 35. A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computergenerated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue. Hypothalamus a. which processes visual information.

rather. Corpus callosum a. which receive visual information from the opposite visual field 48. it is the use of pointing and reading 1. usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) 53. The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear. Sensory cortex a. it is the use of speech c. The area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations 51. Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions. thinking. Association areas a. Temporal lobes a. The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them 57. includes the visual areas. The brain’s capacity for modification. Occipital lobes a. usually in the left hemisphere. Plasticity a. . each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear 49. as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development 56. Broca’s area a. they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning. Impairment of language. The right hemisphere uses the left eye to see. and speaking 52. involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments 46. A condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them b. The portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears.a. includes the sensory cortex 47. An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements 50. The left hemisphere uses the right eye to see. Split Brain a. The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead. remembering. that directs the muscle movements involved in speech 54. includes the auditory areas. Aphasia a. Parietal lobes a. Controls language reception – a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression. usually in the left temporal lobe 55. Controls language expression – an area of the frontal lobe. The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head. Wernicke’s area a. Motor cortex a.

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