Computers

:
Tools for an Information Age
Chapter 6 Storage and Multimedia: The Facts and More

Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall

Objectives
List the benefits of secondary storage Identify and describe storage media that are available for personal computers Differentiate among the principal types of secondary storage Describe how data is stored on a disk Discuss the benefits of multimedia Explain how data is organized, accessed, and processed
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Secondary Storage
Separate from the computer itself Software and data stored on a semipermanent basis 

Unlike memory, not lost when power is lost

Benefits

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Benefits of Secondary Storage
Space Reliability Convenience Economy

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Space
Store a roomful of data on disks smaller than the size of a breadbox  

Diskette contains equivalent of 500 printed pages Optical disk can hold equivalent of 500 books

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Reliability
Data in secondary storage is relatively safe 


Secondary storage is highly reliable More difficult for untrained people to tamper with data stored on disk

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Convenience
Authorized users can easily and quickly locate data stored on the computer

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Economy
Several factors create significant savings in storage costs   

Less expensive to store data on disks than to buy and house filing cabinets Reliable and safe data is less expensive to maintain Greater speed and convenience in filing and retrieving data
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Magnetic Disk Storage
Data represented as magnetized spots on surface of spinning disk 

Spots on disk converted to electrical impulses Diskettes Hard Disks

Primary types 


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Diskettes
Made of flexible Mylar and coated with iron oxide Has protection of rigid plastic jacket 3 ½´ diskette holds 1.44 MB of data HighHigh-capacity variations 
 

Sony¶s HiFD holds 200 MB Imation¶s SuperDisk available in 120 and 240 MB versions Iomega¶s Zip drive available in 100, 250, and 750 MB versions Return
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Hard Disks
Rigid platter coated with magnetic oxide 

Several can be combined into a disk pack

Disk drive - a device that allows data to be read from or written to a disk  

Disk drive for personal computers contained within computer housing Large computer systems may have several external disk drives
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Reading/Writing Data
Access arm moves read/write head over particular location Read/write head hovers a few millionths of an inch above platter  

If head touches platter, a head crash occurs and data is destroyed Data can be destroyed if head touches miniscule foreign matter on surface of disk

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Disk Packs
Each platter has its own access arm with read/write head Most disk packs combine platters, access arms, and read/write head

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Hard Disks for Personal Computers
Sealed modules that mount in a 3 ½´ bay Capacity in gigabytes Accessing files much faster than accessing files on diskettes Some contain removable cartridges 

Iomega¶s Jaz drive is very popular

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Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
A group of disks that work together as one 

Raid level 0 spreads data from a single file over several drives
Called data striping Increases performance 

Raid level 1 duplicates data on several drives
Called disk mirroring Increases fault tolerance

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How Data Is Organized
Track Sector Cluster Cylinder

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Track
The circular portion of the disk surface that passes under the read/write head  

Floppy diskette has 80 tracks on each surface Hard disk may have 1,000 or more tracks on each surface of each platter

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Sector
Each track is divided into sectors that hold a fixed number of bytes 

Typically 512 bytes per sector

Zone recording assigns more sectors to tracks in outer zones than those in inner zones 

Uses storage space more fully
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Cluster
A fixed number of adjacent sectors that are treated as a unit of storage 

Typically two to eight sectors, depending on the operating system

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Cylinder
The track on each surface that is beneath the read/write head at a given position of the read/write heads 

When file is larger than the capacity of a single track, operating system will store it in tracks within the same cylinder

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Disk Access Speed
Access time - the time needed to access data on disk Three factors 
 

Seek time Head switching Rotational delay

Once data found, next step is data transfer

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Seek Time
The time it takes the access arm to get into position over a particular track 


All access arms move as a unit All simultaneously in position over a set of tracks that make up a cylinder

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Head Switching
The activation of a particular read/write head over a particular track 

All access arms move together, but only one read/write head can operate at any one time

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Rotational Delay
The time it takes for the desired data on the track to rotate underneath the read/write head 

On average, half the time for a complete revolution of the disk

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Data Transfer
The process of transferring data between its location on the disk track and memory Measures of performance 

Average access time
About 10 milliseconds (10 thousands of a second) Can be improved by disk caching 

Data transfer rate - how fast data can be transferred once it has been found
Stated in terms of megabytes per second
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Disk Caching
Disk cache - a special area of memory  

When disk drive reads data from disk, it reads adjacent data and stores it in memory When next read instruction is issued, drive checks first to see if desired data is in disk cache

Similar to memory caching discussed in Chapter 4
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Optical Disk Storage
Provides inexpensive and compact storage with greater capacity Laser scans disk and picks up light reflections from disk surface Categorized by read/write capability   

ReadRead-only media - user can read from, but not write to disk WriteWrite-once, read-many (WORM) - user can write to readdisk once MagnetoMagneto-optical - combines magnetic and optical capabilities
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Compact Disks
CDCD-ROM - drive can only read data from CDs 


CDCD-ROM stores up to 700 MB per disk Primary medium for software distribution Disk can be read by CD-ROM or CD-R CDCDdrive

CDCD-R - drive can write to disk once 

CDCD-RW - drive can erase and record over data multiple times 

Some compatibility problems trying to read CD-RW disks on CD-ROM drives CDCD-

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Digital Versatile Disk (DVD)
Short wavelength laser can read densely packed spots 
  

DVD drive can read CD-ROMs CDCapacity up to 17GB Allows for full-length movies fullSound is better than on audio CDs

Several versions of writable and rewritable DVDs exist
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Multimedia
Presents information with text, illustrations, photos, narration, music, animation, and film clips Not practical until the advent of the optical disk Requirements Applications

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Requirements
CDCD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive DVDSound card or sound chip Speakers 

For high-quality sound, get good speakers highand powered subwoofer Standards for compressing video
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Equipped to handle MPEG 

Applications
Education 
 

Go on virtual tours Study musical scores Study a foreign language Prepare taxes with video clips from IRS experts Play games
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Other  

Magnetic Tape Storage
Tape similar to tape used in music cassettes Categorized in terms of density 

Number of bits per inch stored on tape

Used primarily for backup of data stored on disk systems

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Backup Systems
Imperative to have copies of important data stored away from the computer 
 

Disks occasionally fail Software installation can cause computer to crash Users make mistakes entering data Can copy entire hard disk to single tape in minutes Backup can be scheduled when you are not going to use the system

Tape is ideal backup medium 


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Organizing and Accessing Stored Data
Character Field Record File Database

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Character
A letter, digit, or special character

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Field
A set of related characters Describes one characteristic of a person, place, or thing 

For a university, a student¶s first name would be stored in a field

Key field - a unique identifier for a record

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Record
A collection of related fields 

For the university, all of the fields for one student constitute one record

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File
A collection of related records 

For university, all the student records compose a file

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Database
A collection of related files stored with minimum redundancy (duplication) 

For university, student file, alumni file, faculty/staff file, courses file, financial file, etc. would make up a database

Organized to make retrieving data easier

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File Plan Overview
Must devise a plan for placing data on a storage unit Key factors  



Whether users must access data directly (immediately) How data must be organized on disk Type of processing that will take place

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File Organization
Three major methods of organizing data files in secondary storage 
 

Sequential Direct Indexed

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Sequential File Organization
Records are stored in order according to a key field  

If a particular record is desired, all prior records must be read first To update a record, a new sequential file must be created, with changed and unchanged records

Tape storage uses sequential organization
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Direct File Organization
Also called random access Go directly to desired record by using a key  

Computer does not have to read all prior records Hashing algorithm used to determine address of given key

Requires disk storage
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Hashing Algorithm
Applies mathematical formula to key to determine disk address of given record 

Collision occurs when hashing algorithm produces same disk address for two different keys

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Indexed File Organization
Combines elements of sequential and direct methods  



Records stored sequentially, but file also contains an index Index stored sequentially, contains record key Data accessed by record key

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Processing Stored Data
Transactions processed to update a master file  

Transactions - a business event such as a sale Master file - data that is updated when a transaction occurs, such as a sales file or inventory file Batch processing Transaction processing
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Two main methods of processing data 


Batch Processing
Transactions collected into groups or batches 

Batch processed and master file updated when the computer has few users online

Very efficient use of computer resources Master file current only immediately after processing
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Transaction Processing
Processing transactions as they occur  

Also called real-time realprocessing and online processing Terminals must be connected directly to the computer

Offers immediate updating of master file
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