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**15.2 Maximum Principle Stress Theory
**

Theories of yielding are generally expressed in terms of principle stress, since those completely determine a general states of stress. The elements of material shown in Fig. 15.1(a) is subjected to three principle stresses, and the convection to be used is that a material under complex stress when

σ 1 > σ 2 > σ 3.

σ Yt , in a simple tension test on the same material. Yielding could also occur if the minimum stress σ 3 ,were compressive and reached the value of yield stress

in a simple compression test. Those statements may be written as

The maximum principle stress theory, often attributed to Rankine, states that yielding will occur in

σ 1 = σ Yt

or

σ 3 = σ Yt

(15.1)

for yielding stress to occur.

(a)

(b) Fig. 15.1

(c)

**15.3 Maximum Principle Strain Theory.
**

St.Venant postulated that yielding commences when the maximum principle strain (tensile), compression the minimum principle strain,

ε 1 , was

equivalent to the strain corresponding to the yield stress in simple tension. For yielding in If the strains are expressed in termes of stress, then

ε 3 , would equal the yield strain in simple compression.

1

always being half the difference between the maximum and minimum.The maximum shear stress in the complex stress 2 system will depend on the relative values and sign of the three principle stresses.σ1 ν − (σ 2 + σ 3 ) Ε Ε σ and yielding occurs when compression equals Yt : E σ 1 − ν (σ 2 + σ 3 ) = σ Yt ε1 = or for compression. For general three-dimesional stress system.4 Maximum Shear Stress Theory. or in the two-dimesional case with one of the stresses compressive and the other tensile. This latter value is taken as the maximum shear stress in asimple tensile test. the maximum difference τ$ = σ1 − 0 σ1 = 2 2 And yielding occurs if σ 1 σ Yt = 2 2 or σ 1 = σ Yt (15. ie for σ 1 and σ 2 tensile.4) In a two-dimensional stress system when σ 3 between the principle stress is = 0 . which is half the yield stress.5 Total Strain energy Theory The theories put forward so far have postulated a criterion for yielding in terms of a limit value of 2 . 15. or 1 σ Yt .2) σ 3 − ν (σ 1 + σ 2 ) = σ Yc (15. τ$ = σ1 −σ 3 2 And for yielding σ 1 − σ 3 σ Yt = 2 2 or σ 1 − σ 3 = σ Yt (15. (15. the maximum shear stress is.5) This theory is usually coupled with the names of Guest and Tresca. The assumption in this theory is that yielding is dependent on the maximum shear stress in the material reaching a critical value.3) 15.

1 ν UT = (σ 12 + σ 22 + σ 32 ) − (σ 1σ 2 + σ 2σ 3 + σ 3σ 1 ) 2E 2Ε σ2 =σ3 = 0 and Yielding is said to occur when the above is equal to the total strain energy at yield in simple tension. ε 3 and rearranging. 2 σ 12 + σ 22 + σ 32 − 2ν (σ 1σ 2 + σ 2 σ 3 + σ 3σ 1 ) = σ Yt (15.6) 3 . the total strain energy is UT = 1 1 1 σ 1ε 1 + σ 2 ε 2 + σ 3 ε 3 2 2 2 Now using a stress-strain relationship. The present theory.stress or strain. and also attributed to Haigh. ε 2 . the principle strains may be written as σ1 v − (σ 2 + σ 3 ) Ε Ε σ v ε 2 = 2 − (σ 3 + σ 1 ) Ε Ε σ v ε 3 = 3 − (σ 2 + σ 1 ) Ε Ε ε1 = substituting for ε 1 . ie. It has been shown earlier that the work done in deformation or the stored elastic strain energy may be written as 1 Wδ x or 2 1 Wδ x 1 2 = σε Ax 2 per unit volume In a three-dimensional stress system. as proposed by Beltrami. By putting Therefore σ 1 = σ Yt . and this is a product of stress and strain. is based on a critical value of the total strain energy stored in the material.

It is rather more simple to determine the former quantity then the latter. and distortion or shear strain energy. in 1904.10) Now. this hydrostatic stress will produce a change in volume.15.In the two-dimensional system. σ ′ component of stress.1(b) is subjected to in all directions. when an element as in Fig.9) gives. Those may be written in terms of the “average” stress in the element as follows: σ 1 = σ + σ 1′ σ 2 = σ + σ 2′ σ 3 = σ + σ 3′ Where } (15.15. σ 3 2 σ Yt UT = 2Ε =0 and (15.8) In order to show that the deformation of a material can be seperated into change in volume and change in shape. These will be termed volumetric stain energy U v . and since the total strain energy has already been determined.9) σ is the average or mean stress defined as σ = σ1 + σ 2 + σ 3 3 σ (15. consider the element in fig. Consider the effect of the Adding together equations. that due to change in volume and that due to change in shape. but no distortion. the shear or distortion component can be determined as Us = UT − Uv (15. σ 2 and σ3. proposed that the total strain energy of an element of material could be divided into two parts.1 subjected to the principle stress σ 1 . σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 = 3σ + σ 1′ + σ 2′ + σ 3′ 4 .7) 2 σ 12 + σ 22 − 2ν σ 1σ 2 = σ Yt 15. U s .(15.6 Shear or Distortion Strain Energy Theory Huber.

σ .(15.11) But from the stress-strain relationship σ 1′ ν − (σ 2′ + σ 3′) Ε Ε σ′ ν ε 2′ = 2 − (σ 3′ + σ 1′) Ε Ε σ′ ν ε 3′ = 3 − (σ 1′ + σ 2′) Ε Ε ε 1′ = Hence } (15. hence (15. (15.11) ε 1′ + ε 2′ + ε 3′ = ε ϖ = 0 ′ Thus the stress components can cause no change in volume but only change in shape. The volumetric strain can now be determined from hydrostatic component of stress.14) Uv = 1 σε 2 1 3σ = σ (1 − 2ν ) 2 E 1 σ + σ 2 + σ 3 3(1 − 2ν ) σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 = [ 1 ][ ][ ] 2 3 Ε 3 5 (15.but 1 σ = (σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) 3 σ 1′ + σ 2′ + σ 3′ = 0 .12) ε 1′ + ε 2′ + ε 3′ = ε v′ = (1 − 2ν ) (σ 1′ + σ 2′ + σ 3′) E (15. eqn.15) .13) and since the sum of the three stresses is zero.

20) 6 2 2 σ 12 + σ 21 − σ 1σ 2 = σ Ψτ .17) Now. per unit volume (15. In the latter case σ 2 and σ 3 = 0 and σ 1 = σ Yt therefore 15.6 Shear or Distortion Strain Energy Theory σ Y2τ Us = 6G energy per unit volume (15. the shear or distortion strain energy theory proposes that yielding commences when the quantity U s reaches the equivelent value at yielding in simple tension. Us = 1 − 2ν 1 (σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) 2 [σ 12 + σ 22 + σ 32 − 2ν (σ 1σ 2 + σ 2 σ 3 + σ 3σ 1 )] − 6Ε 2E which reduces to Us = 1 + 2ν [(σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 ] 6Ε ν . G and Us = 1 [(σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 ] 12G (15. using the relationship between E .16) or alternatively.18) 2 σ Yt 1 2 2 2 [(σ 1 − σ 2 ) + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) + (σ 31 − σ 1 ) ] = 12G 6G or (15.= But 1 − 2ν (σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) 2 6E U s = U T − U v .19) (σ 1 − σ 2 ) + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) + (σ 31 − σ 1 ) = 2 σ 2 2 2 2 Yt In the two-dimensional system σ 3 =0 and (15. therefore.

and is generally referred to as the Mises criterion. Now any complex stress system can be regarded as a combination of hydrostatic stress and a function of the differences of principle stress.19) Summary Many experiments have been concluded under complex stress conditions to study the behaviour of metals and test the validity of the foregoing theories.This theory was also independently established by Maxwell.7 Yield Loci The expression of the five theories that have been discussed can be potted graphically for the simplified conditions of σ 3 = 0 and equal yiel stress in simple tension and compression. von Mises and Hencky. 2 (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 = 2σ Ψ τ which is the same as eqn. and by inference hydrostatic tension. 15.(15.19) is also obtained by considering the root mean square of the principle stress difference in the complex stress system in relation to simple tension.15. It has been shown that hydrostatic pressure. although not quit so consistent as the former.(15. exhibiting yielding and subsequent plastic deformation.21). The other theories are no longer used for ductile metals.2 co-ordinate axes of the principle stresses σ 1 and σ 2 are drawn and the curves shown represents the five theories plotted on this basis. the shear strain energy theory correlates best with material behaviour. The maximum principal stress theory is represented by the square 7 . gives fairly reasonable prediction and is some times used in design by virtue of its simpler mathematical form.(15. some being positively unsafe. Squaring both sides of eqn.. However. does not cause yielding. The maximum shear stress theory. Thus. 1 1 2 [ {(α 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (α 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (α 3 − σ 1 ) 2 }] = [ (2σ Ψτ )] 3 3 The right-hand side of the equation is obtained for simple tension by putting (15. In Fig. On this hypothesis it is evident that eqn.21) σ 1 = σ Ψτ and σ2 =σ3 = 0 . The above analysis has been directly aimed at establishing a yield criterion on an energy basis. It is now well established that for ductile metals. and therefore a yield criterion such as that of Tresca or von Mises which is based on principle stress difference would seem to be the most logical. one might equally well propose that yielding occurred as a function of difference between principle stresses.

and accordance to this theory condition inside the boundaries of the square will be elastic. where are of like sign σ 3 boundary coincides with the maximum principle stress theory at QAR and SCT. The locus itself represents the onset of yielding . 8 . = 0 has to be used to give the maximum shear stress. the maximum shear stress theory has yield lines in the second and fourth quadrants denoted by RS and QT. Yc ) 1+ν Respectively For principle stress of opposite sign. Yc ) 1−ν ( σ Yc 1+ν σ ( Yt 1+ν . except for the small areas cut off at the corners A and C. It is seen that. in the first and third quadrants. σ Yt ) 1+ν σ . the co-ordinates of these points being. and outside the locus the material is in the plastic range. The two energy criteria plot as ellipses. and the ellipse due to the shear strain energy criterion circumstances the maximum shear stress hexagon. inside the locus elastic conditions prevail. and as stated previously.ABCD. while outside the area. σ Yt ) 1−ν σ . yield will have occurred. the maximum shear stress criterion is most conservative of the five loci. However. and the yield Each of those diagrams is termed a yield locus. The principle strain theory gives the rhombus EFGH. σ Yt 1−ν σ ( Yc 1−ν ( σ 1 and σ 2 .

15.c.15.(b).(e). σ2 For the case of three principle stresses. The latter can readily be assessed σ1 =1 σ2 . 9 . all non-zero.2 A diagram such as Fig. and ratios of σ 1 to σ 2 to cause yielding can be quickly determined.e) and (b).(d). a = Maximum principle stress theory b = Maximum principle strain theory c = Maximum shear stress theory d = Total strain energy theory e = Shear strain energy theory Fig 15.2 serves several useful purposes.(a). and processing along this line from the origem the loci are reached in order of theories (d). Experimental points can be plotted on it and compared with each of the theoretical curves as in Fig. whereas for pure torsion.3. The maximum shear stress and shear strain energy theories are represented by hexagonal and circumscribing circular cylinders respectively as illustrated in Fig. σ 2 . σ1 = −1 .against each other.16.19. (a. in case of equal biaxial tension (or compression). σ 3 . For example. the yield locus becomes a yield envelope centred on co-ordinate axis σ 1 . and other order of yield boundaries become (c).

The axis of the cylinders is equally inclined to each of the three co-ordinate axis. Inside the cylinders an elastic conditions exist. concrete and ceramics when subjected to tensile stress will generally fracture at the elastic limit or only a very small strain beyond this point. Materials such as a flake cast-iron. to allow for this in the application of maximum shear stress theory. 15. This means that the term yield criterion used for ductile materials may often also imply a fracture criterion for brittle material Experiment has shown that the maximum principle stress theory is most satisfactory for predicting failure.8 Brittle Materials Brittleness in a material may be defined as absence of the ability to deform plastically. Some Brittle materials are considerable stronger in compression then tension. and Mohr forward a construction circle. 10 . while outside the material is in the plastic range.

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