You are on page 1of 10

UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR

MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL & BIOENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

EXPERIMENT 1
Level & Flow Process Control
PROCESS CONTROL
(DIPLOMA PROGRAM)

LECTURER NAME
____________________
SUBJECT CODE
____________________
SEMESTER
____________________

Experiment 1: Level & Flow Process Control 1|Page


OBJECTIVES
 To identify the important components of the level and flow control system.
 To carry out the start-up procedures systematically.
 To study Level-Flow cascade control.

1. I N T R O D U C T I O N

This model uses water to simulate liquid phase physical processes. Level and flow can
be controlled with PID controllers. When the system suffers from fluctuating inflow and
a more precise control of level is required, the single-loop PID controllers are not
sufficient. Cascade controller must be employed to smoothen the fluctuating
inflow by using a secondary or a slave loop. The level controller becomes the master
or primary controller and its control output remotely sets (cascades) the set point of the
slave or secondary controller. There is only one control valve and it is installed at the
inflow.

2. EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT

The equipment used here is the level flow process control training system, Model
WLF922 (Figure 15.1).

The process plant consists of two steel tanks (T31 and 112), three centrifugal pumps
(P31, P32, P33) and the associated piping, valves and fittings. Water is pumped by
P32 from tank T32 to tank T3 I.. as its inflow.

The outflow from T31 returns to T32 by either one of the following ways:
 By gravity flow, in which case the level process in T31 is a self-regulating
process.
 By pump P31 in which case the level process in T31 is a non-self
regulating process.
The Level-Flow cascade control loop is
LT3 1-LIC31-FIC3 1LCY3I/PP/LCV3 I (FE31 /FT31) *
Note that (FE3 I/FT3)* below FIC3 1 here signifies that it is an input
measurement signal into the secondary cascaded flow controller
FIC31.

Experiment 1: Level & Flow Process Control 2|Page


3. E X P E R I M E N T A L P R O C E D U R E

3.1 IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS IN THE PLANT

Go around the experimental set-up and identify the major components.


Start-up procedure

1. Tank T32 should be filled with ?Inter up to and just below the level of the
shortest level probe of the Level Switch LS32 which is slightly below the
tank (T32) overflow pipe outlet.

2. To operate Model WLF922 independently, open the by -pass manual valve


B33 of pump P33 to divert any flow back into T32. Shut the
interconnecting pipeline from WLF922 to model WT922 at the appropriate
manual valves MV-T. Also shut the manual valve MV-D at the discharge of
pump P33, leading to the drain.

The panel-mount selector switch for P33 must be in the Manual or "OVER-
RIDE P33" position.

3. Q u i c k l y c h e c k t h e v a r i o u s m a n u a l v a l v e s a s f o l l o w s :
 Locate the inflow pump P32. Check that its manual suction, discharge
and by-pass valves are fully opened.
For the outflow pump P31, open fully its manual suction valve but shut
fully its two manual parallel discharge valve
For pump P33, open fully its manual suction and by-pass valve but make sure its
manual discharge valves MV-T and MV-D are fully shut.
 Operate T31 as an open tank with the top vent (V) and overflow drain valves
fully opened.
 Operate T31 as a self regulating process. Open the manual GATE valve at the
gravity discharge pipe at the tank bottom. The second manual globe valve at
the second gravity discharge pipe must remain shut.
Shut the two manual discharge valves of outflow pump P31, one of which is at
the strainer inlet. Pump P31 must be OFF for a self regulating process.
 The manual by-pass valve around the control valve LCV31 should be always
shut, but its two adjacent manual valves should always be opened.
 The bottom manual drain valve of T32 is always shut.

Experiment 1: Level & Flow Process Control 3|Page


4. Compressed air is required to operate the control valve system LCY31/PP/LCV31.

 Adjust the pressure at the air pressure regulator (IAS) to the pressure
indicated.

5. Turn ON the main power supply switch at the front cubicle. The panel instruments
lit up.

 If any annunciator gets activated, press the Acknowledge button to


silence the buzzer.

 Note the following switches and pushbuttons but do not switch on any
pump yet.

PANEL, SCADA/DCS :Switch to "PANEL, SCADA" position for Selector switch


panel Operation

Pump P32 :Pumping inflow from T32 to T31. To be switched ON


during operation.

Pump P31 : Do not use. Check that the two manual discharge valves
of P31 are shut.

Pump P33 :Switch to "OVER-RIDE P33" position.

6. The 1-2 position selector switch of PID Controller LIC31/FIC31 must be set to Position
2, so that cascade operation is possible.

7. With the 1-2 Selector switch in Position 2, display FIC31. Note the A (Auto), M
(Manual) and C (Cascade) pushbuttons. Press C to select the Cascade (C) mode. Press M
and leave it in Manual (M) mode.

8. In Manual (M) model, manually stroke the control valve LCV3 I with MV = 50% from
FIC3 land watch the stem movement of the control valve.

Experiment 1: Level & Flow Process Control 4|Page


9. Practice adjusting the PID trial values and the SV's as follows while in the Manual
(M) Mode

LIC31, PID1, Loop 1 FIC31,PID2, Loop 2

First (I) Second (II) First (I) Second (II)


TrialPID trial PID TrialPID trial PID

Set Point SV1 200-600 mm 200 -600 mm Set Point SV2 0.9 – 2.4 0.9 – 2.4
m3/Hr m3/Hr

PB1 30% 10% PB1 250% 100%

TI1 25 sec 15 sec TI1 10 sec 6 sec

TD1 0 sec 0 sec TD1 0 sec 0 sec

PH1 640 mm PL2 0.5 m3/Hr

10. With LIC3 I in Manual (M) mode, adjust MV = 50%. Check that LCV31 is about 50%
opened.

11. Start the recorder LFR31 by pressing the RCD button ON, check the recorder chart
speed (500 mm/Hr) and switch OFF the recorder chart drive.

12. Start pump P32 and then shut its manual by-pass valve B32.

 Note the rising water level at its level sight glass.

 Make sure the overflow drain manual valve at the top.6f tank is fully opened
for water to overflow back into T32.

13. Observe the tank level eventually reach a steady-state. This is the indication that the
tank is a self-regulating process.

14. Switch the controller Selector switch to Position 1 and display LIC31.

 With LIC31 in the Manual (M) mode, set its set point (SV1) to 400 mm and
its MV to 50%.

 Switch the controller Selector switch to Position 2 and display FIC31. With
FIC31 in Auto (A) mode, switch it back to the Manual (M) mode. Then set its
set point (SV2) to 1.8 m3/Hr.

Experiment 1: Level & Flow Process Control 5|Page


15. Set the second (II) trial PID values given in Step 9, for both controllers LIC3 I (PID 1,
Loop 1) and FIC31 (PID2, Loop 2) while they are still in Manual (M) mode.

16. Start the recorder LFR3 1 chart drive by pressing the RCD pushbutton.

17. Tune the Secondary (i.e., Flow) loop first before cascading it.

FIC3 1 (PID2, Loop 2) is now controlling the inflow with the set point SV2 = 1.8 m-VIIr.

 Observe the level (RED pen) and flow (GREEN pen) responses until the flow is
almost steady or shows oscillatory response even after 3 cycles. Note down its set
point (SV) and PID values on the recorder chart paper beside its response.

 When the flow is controlled at its set point, watch the response for a few minutes to
assess whether the level is able to self regulate itself at this flow rate.

 Step decrease the set point of FIC31, i.e., SV2=L5 m3/Hr. and watch the flow control
response (Green pen) at the recorder LFR31.

- If the flow control response is too oscillatory, tune the PID (increase the
PB2 to say l50%) till it is satisfactorily damped without OFFSET. Otherwise
proceed to the next Procedure 18.

- When the flow is controlled at its set point SV2 = 1.5 ms/Hr, watch the
level response for a few minutes to assess whether the level is able to self
regulate itself at this flow rate.

- lf the flow (i.e., secondary ) loop is suitable tuned, proceed to the next
Procedure (18), to cascade the Flow loop with the level loop.

18. Level - Flow Cascade (C) Control


 Check that LIC31 is still at its Second (II) trial PID values.
 With the controller Selector switch still in Position 2, switch FIC31 to Cascade (C)
mode.
 Display LIC31 and make sure it is in Auto (A) mode. Its set point SVI = 400 mm.
 The Level - Flow Cascade control loop is now controlling the tank level of T31.The
Level loop is the primary or master loop, and the Flow loop is the secondary or slave
loop. MV at both LIC3 I and FIC31 display the control output to the control valve
LCV31.
 Step change the Level set point (SV 1) of LIC31 by 5% to 360 mm and watch the
Level control response (Red pen) at LFR31. This is a set point step test. If the Level
response is acceptable within ±1 mm, the Level loop is considered satisfactorily
tuned and hence the Cascade control is satisfactorily tuned.

Experiment 1: Level & Flow Process Control 6|Page


4. EXPERIMENT 1

PROCEDURES

THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURES ASSUME YOU HAVE ATTEMPTED THE EARLIER


SECTION ON "START-UP CHECK LIST AND PRELIMINARY EXERCISES", AND
HAVE STUDIED THE SECTION ON "EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION OF MODEL
WLF922".

1 to 9: P l ease refer to the S ect ion"STAR T -UP


C HEC KLIS T AND PRELIMINARY EXERCISES"
It is assumed that the you have already performed
Procedures from 1 to 9
In particular, repeat Procedure 2, depending on whether
Model WLF922 is to be operated independently OR
interconnected with other Models.
10. Tank T31 as a Self Regulating process, Open tank

a) Operate tank T31 as a Self Regulating Open tank process as follows:


 Self Regulating process: Outflow of T31 is by gravity flow
via one of the two manual discharge valves i.e. the GATE
valve at the bottom of T31.
 Open Tank: T31 is opened to atmosphere.
i) Open only the GATE manual valve at the gravity
discharge pipeline at the bottom of T31. Shut the second
manual globe valve. Shut the two manual discharge
valves of pump P31. Do not switch on pump P31.
ii) Open the manual valves at the vent (V) and at the overflow
drain pipeline, near the top of tank T3I.

b) With the controller Selector switch in Position 1, display


LIC31 faceplate at the controller. Note that Position 1, PV I, SV I
and MV I are displayed as PV, SV and MV in the main display page
(faceplate). Please refer to the 'TABLE; FOR PV, SV, MV AT
SELECTOR SWITCH POSITION 1 AND 2' for details.
 Set the setpoint (SV1) of LIC31 to 400 mm. Note that SV1
should be operated from 200 (25%) to 640mm (80%) only.
 With LIC31 in Manual (M) mode, set MV = 75%. Check
that the stem position of control valve LCV31 is about 75%.
The Positioner (PP) should be connected i.e. USE TIIE
POSITIONER.
 Set the first (1) trial PID values at the 'MU page or
panel as follows:-
LIC31 (PID1, Loopl): PB1 = 30%, TI1 = 25secs, TD1 = 0

Experiment 1: Level & Flow Process Control 7|Page


The first (I) and second (II) trial PID values are listed
below for quick reference, together with their expected
responses.
The procedures to try both the PID values are given below, (c) to (g).

TABLE : PID trial values for LIC31, Loop 1


First (I) trial PID values Second (II) trial PID
for LIC31 values for LIC31
PB1 30% 10%
TI1 25 secs 15 secs
TD1 0 sec 0 sec
More damped, slower Faster recovery to its
and more gradual setpoint. Less damped,
recovery to its setpoint. maybe slightly oscillatory
but O.K.

 Check that the recorder (LFR31) chart drive is running i.e. "RCD'
is displayed at the recorder. Otherwise, press the RCD
pushbutton with the front swing cover opened.
c) Start pump P32 and watch the level (PV1) increases. Shut the
pump bypass valve B32.
d) When the level is near to the setpoint SV1, switch LIC31 to Auto
(A) mode and observe the Level (red pen) response at the recorder
1.171231. Throughout the following test and observation, LIC31
is to remain in Auto (A) mode and the control valve Positioner
(PP) must be used and connected unless instructed otherwise.
e) The recorder LER31 chart drive should be at fast speed (500 mm/11r)
with RCD ON. Check the chart speed which is regularly printed
out on the chart.
OBSERVE THE LEVEL RESPONSE AT THE RED PEN UNTIL
THE RESPONSE IS ALMOST STEADY TO WITH ±1.0
MM OR IT
DISPLAYS OSCILLATORY RESPONSE EVEN AFTER 3
CYCLES. WRITE DOWN THE SETPOINT (SV1) AND PID
VALUES ON THE RECORDER CHART PAPER BESIDE ITS
RESPONSE. THESE
CHART RECORDINGS CONSTITUTE THE RESULTS OF YOUR
EXPERIMENT AND SHOULD BE KEPT FOR YOUR
REPORTS.

Experiment 1: Level & Flow Process Control 8|Page


f) Test Disturbance

Repeat the Level (Red pen) observation by using the following TEST
DISTURBANCE, one test at a time. Start and end each test when the level
response is reasonably steady or remains oscillating even after 3 cycles.
i) Step increase or decrease the setpoint (SVI) by about
10%. This simulates the setpoint step test. Observe the
level (red pen) response at the recorder LER31.
Work within an SV1 of 200 to 640 mm.
ii) Switch LIC31 to Manual (M) mode and quickly step
change MV (inflow) by about 10% to 20% . Then quickly
switch LIC31 back to Auto (A) mode. This simulates a
load step test at the inflow. Observe the level (red pen)
response similarly.
iii) Open 11/2-turn, Hold for 5 seconds - Shut fully, the pump
by-pass manual valve B32. This simulates a load pulse
disturbance test at the inflow. Observe similarly.
iv) Note that the second gravity discharge globe manual valve
at the bottom of tank T31 is always shut. Open fully -
Hold for 5 secs -Shut fully, the second bottom gravity
discharge manual globe valve. This simulates a load
pulse disturbance test at the outflow. Observe
similarly. Make sure this globe valve is fully shut.

g) Repeat the test with any of the above disturbances such as


f(ii) above, using the second (II) trial PID values as follows:-
LIC31 (PIDT, Loopl): PBI = 10%, TIl = 15 secs, TD1 =- 0 secs
LIC31 must be in Auto (A) mode.
 Note from the recorder chart response that even though the
inflow(Green pen) is fluctuating, the level is held almost
steady. Level is a capacity process with a larger Time constant
than flow to absorb the inflow fluctuation. This will be better
demonstrated later, for example in Procedure (i), but the chart
record will show that flow (Green pen) changes much more
than level (Red pen), for any disturbance applied.
 Compare the level responses, caused by the first (I) and
second (II) trial PID values.
See the previous TABLE, for the expected responses.
If the more aggressive PID values with a smaller PB% x TI
secs is able to control the level satisfactorily, choose this
PlD ie PB1=10%, TH=15 secs, TD1=0 sec instead of
PB1=30%, TI1=25 secs, TD1=0 secs.

Experiment 1: Level & Flow Process Control 9|Page


P & I Diagram Level & Flow Process Control

Experiment 1: Level & Flow Process Control 10 | P a g e