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Unit 1(chapters 1 to 4) Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam ,usually known as Dr A P J Abdul Kalam was the eleventh president of India.He was popularly known as people‘s President. He was a nuclear scientist by profession and was regarded the father of Indian missile development. His name is associated with the development of India‘s first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 and Agni missile. He is a voracious reader, writes poetry and plays rudra veena. He has received many honorary doctorates and was awarded Padma Bhushan in 1981, Padma Vibhushan in 1990 and Bharat Ratna in 1997.Wings of Fire, Ignited Minds, India2020, A vision for the millennium were some of his works. Wings of Fire is his autobiography .He gives his triumphs and tribulations and pays glowing tribute to his colleagues, friends and everyone who helped in realizing the collective dreams .He says that everyone is born with a divine fire in oneself and one should give wings to this fire. CHILDHOOD Kalam was born on 15 october 1931 into a middle class Tamil family,in the island town of Rameswaram. His was a very secured childhood both materially and emotionally. His father Jainulabdeen and mother Ashiamma were an ideal couple. They were very generous and Kalam learnt from them- honesty, kindness, discipline and a deep rooted faith in God. Jainulabdeen was neither highly educated nor very rich. He was a man of principles and avoided comforts and luxuries but essential needs were well provided for. They lived in their ancestral house situated in the Rameswaram‘s mosque street. The famous Shiva temple was about a ten minute walk from their house. It being a place of two shrines being side by side, people of both religions lived amicably as neighbours. The stories from Ramayana and Mohammad Prophet‘s life formed Kalam‘s bedtime stories. He was brought up imbibing both the cultures. EARLY INFLUENCES:JAINULABDEEN:Jainulabdeen observed daily namaaz and would help the people by giving them the sacred water. But he was so humble and said that he was only a channel or a helper. He asked people to thank Allah for his mercy and generosity.He was able to explain complicated spiritual concepts in simple Tamil. He used to say that one moves beyond his body when he prays and that troubles and adversity come to teach people. He said that fear prevents one‘s hopes from being fulfilled. He also said that people in distress need consolation. Praying to solve problems is a wrong approach, he says. One should pray for self reliance and happiness comes from within and not from external sources. Kalam was greatly influenced by his father‘s philosophy. He saw his father put his philosophy into practice. Jainulabdeen started a brisk business of ferrying pilgrims from Rameswaram to Dhanushkodi and back. A severe cyclone struck the Rameswaram coast and the boat was wrecked in the strong winds. Jainulabdeen bore the loss in calmness. He was more concerned about a greater tragedy –a train full of passengers had flushed away when the Pamban Bridge had collapsed. Kalam says that he learnt both from his father‘s attitude and the actual disaster, how to cope up with difficulties in life. When Kalam seeked his father‘s permission to go for higher studies, Jainulabdeen permitted him telling that neither their love nor their needs would bind him. AHMED JALLALUDDIN: Jallaluddin was Kalam‘s relative. He helped Jainulabdeen in building the boat. He was 15 years older than Kalam and used to call him Azad. He later married Kalam‘s sister Zohara.He had not much schooling as his family couldn‘t afford it.He always encouraged Kalam to excel and seemed to get a great deal of satisfaction from Kalam‘s academic success. Jallaluddin was the only person on the island who could write in English.He wrote letters for everyone who needed and no other person could match him in his knowledge and awareness of the outside world. Jallaluddin was a major influence on Kalam‘s life at www.UandiStar.blogspot.com

Kalam says that he was benifitted from his interaction with Jallaluddin and Samsuddin.He was an orthodox brahmin in his upbringing but was a rebel at heart.The two people used to discuss spiritual matters .He spoke to Kalam about the power of positive thinking when Kalam didn‘t take to the new setting.Ramanatha Sastry. IYADURAI SOLOMON He was author‘s teacher at Schwartz High School.He has been Kalam‘s mentor and raised his self-esteem. STR MANICKAM He was a militant nationalist who had a huge personal library.whose wisdom was based on intuition rather than instruction. THE SECOND WORLD WAR Kalam was 8 years old at the time of second world war. SIVASUBRAMANIA IYER He was Kalam‘s science teacher at Rameswaram.the son of Lakshmana Sastry was a good friend of Kalam.He was an ideal guide and a great teacher who instilled in children a sense of their own worth.He encouraged Kalam to develop his skills so that he could compete with the highly educated people in big cities. Sivasubramanya Iyer was able to break some social barriers that prevailed in their small town.contemporary writing and literature.mode of worship and dressing.When Lakshmana Sastry came to know this.onto the road between Rameswaram and Dhanushkodi.He was also a close friend of his father‘s.Jallaluddin used to communicate with God as if God were listening to him.He says that the war influenced him indirectly by providing him with his earnings.Samsuddin needed a helping hand and he chose Kalam for it.At the time of second World War.Kalam remembers Lakshmana Sastry‘s words in many situations.He said to the author to strive to control his thoughts and through these to influence his destiny.The optimism affected Kalam and he seeked his father‘s permission to go Ramanathapuram to study.He asked Kalam to go back and sit there.When Kalam was in 5th standard.he was able to convince his wife that there is nothing wrong in it.com .blogspot.blogspot.The war came to an end and the whole country was filled with an optimism.www.strides made by medical science etc.He was warm and open minded and made his students feel comfortable in class. He also invited Kalam home for a meal.Kalam used to look at the pictures in the papers before Samsuddin delivered them.com Page 2 of 18 that stage.He admits that whatever creativity he has displayed in his later life was inspired by their presence in his childhood.he used to tell Kalam the incidents in World War 2 and Kalam would try to trace them in the news paper.He was the only distributor for the news paper Dinamani.He www.scientific discoveries.UandiStar.He served Kalam himself.They had similar thoughts regarding spirituality despite of the differences in their traditions.Kalam acquired a growing love for reading and this habit has continued all through his life.he summoned the teacher and asked him not to spread the poison of social inequality and communal intolerance in the minds of innocent children. He also says that he had acquired a practical bent of mind because of these two friends.He encouraged Kalam to read more and more.Later.He travelled with Kalam to enrol him in Schwartz High School and to arrange for his boarding there.Kalam used to collect and sell them which would fetch him the then princely amount of one anna. PAKSHI LAKSHMANA SASTRY He was the high priest of the Shiva temple in Rameswaram.UandiStar.there was a great demand for tamarind seeds then.a new teacher had come and he was unable to tolerate a muslim boy sitting beside a brahmin.It was he who helped Kalam look beyond the limited horizons of his life. as his wife refused to do so and by the next time.He talked to Kalam on many things –spiritual concepts.the train halt at Rameswaram was suspended and the bundles of news paper were tossed out of the moving train. He rooted the idea of higher studies in Kalam‘s mind.Thus Samsuddin gave the opportunity to earn and Kalam says that he could feel the thrill and pride of his first earnings even after many years. SAMSUDDIN Samsuddin was Kalam‘s cousin who helped in shaping his boyhood.

`With faith. Kalam says that an amalgamation of information took place in his mind and he says that he acquired this composite knowledge because of these three lecturers.He was put in charge of drawing its www.He chose Aeronautical Engineering in his 2nd year. FINAL YEAR AT MIT It was a year of transition. THE THREE TEACHERS AT MIT Kalam‘s curiosity was aroused by two decommissioned aircrafts which were put on display to demonstrate the various subsystems of flying machines.They were distinct personalities.Kalam has decided to go for further studies.He applied for admission at the Madras Institute of Technology(MIT).Sponder taught technical aerodynamics. Kalam says that three teachers shaped his thinking and their instructions formed the foundation on which he later built his professional career.Kalam had the most cherished memory from college.It‘s because of the confidence he raised .to study for the intermediate examination.He joined the B.Kalam says that he unlocked the secrets of structural engineering to them.UandiStar.but it also does things happen. Prof.He also said that one should have a natural ability and passion for one‘s chosen field.though fascinating.www.Prof.His teaching made the author prefer mathematical physics to any other subject.He acquired a taste for English literature and developed a keen interest in physics.Joseph‘s College in1950.Kalam was assigned a project to design a low level attack aircraft along with four other students.Narasingha Rao was a mathematician .He was an Austrian who hated Germans but worked with them despite it.He was a friendly and enthusiastic teacher.He had a clear goal now that he‘s going to fly aircraft.Pandalai taught aero-structure design and analysis.you can change your destiny.He taught theoretical aerodynamics.JOSEPH’S COLLEGE Kalam arrived at St.His students were free to disagree with him in classroom discussions.He kept himself updated of the latest technologies and wanted his students to do the same.Not only that.He was a man of great intellectual integrity and learning with no signs of arrogance.KAVPandalai and Narasingha Rao.com Page 3 of 18 said.Kalam consulted him first when he thought of opting for Aeronautical Engineering.related to Prof.blogspot. was not his subject and that he should take up Engineering to realise his dreams and that he should have done that straight after the Intermediate exam. course as he had no knowledge of other courses.mortgaged her chain and bangles to help him out.com .Sponder observed that the real trouble with many students was not lack of educational opportunities.one being a brahmin and the other a christian. Prof.whose approach was fresh.He advised the author on how to prove equations in aerodynamics and thus helped him in acquiring the skill.Kalam‘s sister.Kalam came to know that this kind of firm belief is not only a strong motivating force.UandiStar. Prof. Kalam managed to get on the list but the fact was that he couldn‘t meet the expenditure.different in many ways but sharing a common quality-the capacity of feeding their students‘ intellectual hunger with brilliance and untiring zeal.He stayed on the campus for 4 years and had a wonderful time with his two room mates.He came to know that Physics.He asked Kalam to sit beside him for the class photograph telling that Kalam was his best student and he also said that he would heap honour on his teachers. He told the author that one should never worry about one‘s foundations.Sponder.Sc. EDUCATION AT ST.He felt a strange attraction towards them and used to spend a lot of time sitting there.` He taught Kalam that one should desire intensely in order to make anything happen.Zohara.Kalam promised himself that he would redeem them with his own earnings.Iyadurai Solomon has been Kalam‘s ideal guide and mentor.energetic and in control of himself.Iyadurai Solomon convinced Kalam that he too could aspire to become whatever he wished.one should be completely certain that it would happen. They were professors Sponder.He was always calm.blogspot.The trouble was in their failure to choose their field of study with sufficient care.

The work was appreciated by the professor.Prof.When he was about to complete the task. the then Defence minister of India.on the basis of their experience. THE NANDI PROJECT Kalam & his team were given three years to design and develop an indigenous hovercraft prototype. He won an essay writing competition.The theory he learnt in classroom was practically applied.He had to overcome his disappointment somehow.he was so nervous.He asked Kalam to forget the failure and think of it as a step that leads to his path.250 per month. He returned to Delhi and enquired about the outcome of his interview.He said that one‘s destiny is pre-determined .He went to Rishikesh which seemed to be an ideal place with its peaceful atmosphere. They moved to the actual model after spending a few months on the drawing board.He was disappointed as he was not selected.anxious and tense. He got two different job opportunities. Three years passed and Kalam was posted to the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE). Kalam and his team were called a group of odd inventors trying to www. Kalam was given a new target which was carried out successfully .It took some time for Kalam to understand that he missed the chance.at the Directorate of Technical Development and Production(DTD&P). He comforted Kalam with his powerful words to accept his destiny. Wings of fire UNIT 2 (Chapters 5 to 8) Kalam was posted at the Technical Centre . Kalam decided to go ahead with the limited information and resources available.No designs or standard parts were available. which was just born in Bangalore. He felt that it was a stepping stone to India producing defence equipment within the country. His confidence set the tone for their enthusiasm.He found the technicians working . Kalam also enjoyed extracurricular work.One was a career in the Indian Air Force(IAF).Kalam started his first long journey to Delhi and Dehradun to attend the interviews.Prof.of the Ministry of Defence.com Page 4 of 18 aerodynamic design.Kalam was dumbstruck at this situation as the scholarship was his lifeline.He was confident that he had done well. The article he wrote was.Then he proceeded to Dehradun for his interview at the Air Force selection Board.He carried out a design assignment on supersonic target aircraft and the work was praised by the director .UandiStar. Things started moving slowly and there seemed some progress.But at the same time. There was not much material available to read .UandiStar.The project was bigger than their capabilities . PREPARING TO START A CAREER Kalam went as a trainee to Hindustan Aeronautics Limited(HAL) at Bangalore.He later carried out the design and development of a vertical takeoff and landing system.There were no experienced people to consult. VK Krishna Menon.He strove hard putting all his efforts .There.He was sent to the Aircraft and Armament Testing Unit (A&ATU) at Kanpur .He also warned that his scholarship would be cancelled if he wouldn‘t submit it in time.physical fitness and ability to speak well.he was helping to make them airworthy.Srinivasan dropped in to see the progress.com . was keenly interested in the progress of their small project.He cosoled him telling that he might not be destined to become a pilot.Srinivasan.and the other.both close to his long-standing dream of flying.None of them were experienced .He decided to go on a journey to soothe his mind.Kalam was very much excited.blogspot. a Ground Equipment Machine (GEM). The questions at the DTD&P(Air) were routine and didn‘t challenge his knowledge of subject. But Kalam had a bitter experience from his senior colleagues.He ordered Kalam to complete it within three days.www.He also realized that although he was not flying the aeroplanes. Kalam no more did feel depressed or unhappy at his failure to enter the IAF.He was handed the appointment letter and he joined the next day at DTD&P(Air) as senior scientific assistant on the basic salary of Rs.blogspot. They were not satisfied with the experiments done with the limited parts.On his return to Delhi.`Let us make our own aircraft`.confident and determined. Kalam met Swami Sivananda in his Ashram and told him of his unsuccessful attempt to join the IAF and his long-cherished desire to fly. the emphasis was on personality.the then director of MIT declared the work disappointing. Kalam reminded his father‘s words that learning to cope with setbacks and failures is a part of life.

blogspot. Chitnis as it was very close to the earth‘s magnetic equator. Mary Magdalene church housed the first office of the Thumba Space Centre. Soon. It was chosen to be the suitable location by Dr. Mediratta inquired Kalam about the state of the hovercraft and asked him to demonstrate it for an important guest. The Defence minister used to make some routine visits and find out the progress. by that time. He also felt that his dream would be fulfilled as it seemed to be a part of their bigger dream. Kalam says that he had sensed their warmth and friendliness as he entered the room. Thus. handsome. the St. Kalam was absorbed as a rocket engineer at INCOSPAR.com .INCOSPAR was formed out of TIFR to organize space research in India. a sleepy fishing village near Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram) in Kerala. this type of opinion on them fired the ever-optimistic minds of Kalam and his team. He felt that he could perform well if he were relaxed and free from doubt.Sarabhai. The setback in this Nandi project was a new experience for him.com Page 5 of 18 do something beyond the reality. A friendly atmosphere prevailed there. Kalam feels bad that we still import the hovercrafts. He decided to take things as they came. THUMBA EQUATORIAL ROCKET LAUNCHING STATION(TERLS) INCOSPAR took the decision of setting up its Equatorial Rocket Launching Station at Thumba.MGK Menon. He said to Kalam that the basic problems were now solved and that he should develop a more powerful prime mover in which he would take a second ride. Unfortunately. They didn‘t show any superiority feeling which many interviewers exhibit.No one bothered about their designations and cadres. Dr. director of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR).The director of ADE.UandiStar. the executive engineer of the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). This was the beginning of modern rocket-based research in India.Saraf. Kalam went to Bombay to attend the interview. He was disappointed and disillusioned. He put his heart and soul in it and so was not able to bear that it could not be used practically.Sarabhai along with Prof. WORK AND ATMOSPHERE AT INCOSPAR Kalam felt the atmosphere at INCOSPAR to be entirely different from that at DTD&P (Air). not many people shared his dream. Later. In this period of uncertainty and confusion. Krishna Menon was out of office and in the new government. The site selected measured about 600 acres and there stood a large church within the area. But. he recollected the words of Lakshmana Sastry. The visitor was a tall.Kalam was interviewed by Prof. depending on outside technology. the next day. INTERVIEW AT INCOSPAR Kalam received a call from the INdian COmmittee for SPAce Research (INCOSPAR). The entire encounter seemed to be a total moment of truth to Kalam. bearded man who asked Kalam several questions and asked him to give a ride in the machine. the Defence minister took a ride in it putting aside all the safety instructions.www. Dereria. Kalam was immediately struck by Prof. OP Mediratta was very much pleased with the achievement of creating a successful working hovercraft. ―Seek the truth and the truth shall set you free. He was none other than Prof. Kalam was asked to attend a six- www.blogspot. The hovercraft was named Nandi. The hovercraft. No one showed their authority or aggressive feelings. Kalam was confident enough that he would be able to fly the machine he had created and so disregarded the silent order of the group captain. Dr. RD John had transformed the entire area. He reminded himself that the best way to win was to not feel that desperate need to win.‖ One day Dr. He says that none of them were arrogant and proud. He questioned Kalam in such a manner that it was an exploration of the inner capabilities and possibilities of Kalam. It was a smooth ride and the minister was so pleased. They thought that it was an impossible dream.UandiStar. The then collector K Madhavan Nair had successfully carried on the task of acquiring the land with the co-operation of the bishop Right Rev. in its form and finish went beyond their expectations. The project was successfully completed .Menon and Mr. The prayer room was Kalam‘s first laboratory and the bishop‘s room was his design and drawing office. There was no need to give explanations. It was a turning point in Kalam‘s life. He was so depressed that he started to think that there is a limit to everything and one cannot go beyond it. The project had to face many controversies and unpleasant situations and it was finally shelved.

A few days later. The two persons that had played an active and crucial role in the NIKEAPACHE launch were D Eswaradas and R Arvamudan. He felt that it was an honour given to the foresight of an Indian ruler but felt unhappy that the fact was not known in our country. Under the RSR programme. It had been made at NASA and was assembled in the church building at Thumba. Eswaradas undertook the rocket assembly and arranged the launch. It helps us in distinguishing between success and failure and also makes us depend on our inborn courage and wisdom. Kalam examined the painting very closely and he came to know that it was the army of Tipu Sultan fighting the British East India Company. WORK AT NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Kalam joined work at NASA‘s research centre in Virginia. strong leadership and bullying. soon after Kalam had returned from NASA. The launch was smooth and problem-free and they obtained excellent flight idea. in active collaboration with France.com . Kalam was unable to control his tears. Indian rocketry came to a stand still with the death of Tipu and was revived 150 years later in an independent India. He suggests us not to put off things and asks us to learn to solve the problems. Kalam always thought that one can never be creative and give good results if he is disrespected and humiliated. Jainulabdeen was very pleased to hear the news and organized a special namaaz. discipline and vindictiveness. It depicted a battle scene. which we call ‗reverse engineering‘ today. THE ROHINI SOUNDING ROCKET (RSR) PROGRAMME The Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station was further developed. From there. He felt that it was a normal painting.www. THE SPECIAL PAINTING AT NASA CENTER Kalam went to the east coast of Virginia towards the end of his visit. This development of Indian rocketry in the 20th century can be seen as the revival of the 18th century vision of Tipu. The real journey of the Indian space programme began with the Rohini sounding rocket (RSR) programme. The sounding rocket programme undertaken by NASA was situated there. The only equipment available to transport the rocket to the launch pad was a truck and a manually operated hydraulic crane. Kalam says that a fine line is to be drawn between firmness and harshness. Jallaluddin and Samsuddin went to Bombay to bid good-bye to Kalam. Kalam says that false pride was a big barrier to effective growth in several Indian institutions. The British forces captured more than 700 rockets and the subsystems of 900 rockets when Tipu Sultan was killed. He took some time off to visit Rameswaram before his journey. They were experienced people and they were not suffering from false pride. he went to Maryland. a family of operational sounding rockets was developed.UandiStar. telemetry and ground support. to the Goddard Space Flight Centre. THE LAUNCH OF NIKE-APACHE India‘s first rocket launch took place on 21 November 1963. They felt a sense of pride and accomplishment. It stops managers from listening to their subordinates.blogspot.UandiStar. In the reception lobby. Arvamudan was in charge of radar. the USA and the USSR. The development of these rockets made India capable of producing fully indigenous sounding rockets as well as their high performance solid propellants. Several rockets have been launched for various scientific and technological studies. These rockets were taken to England and were subjected by the British. When Jallaluddin said that they had faith and confidence in him and his capabilities. with a few rockets flying in the background. www. He was impressed by the organizational structure of those institutions in the US.com Page 6 of 18 month training programme on sounding rocket launching techniques at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) work centres in the USA. Kalam was in charge of rocket integration and safety.It was a sounding rocket called NIKE-APACHE.blogspot. He says that this pride was widespread in many organizations. Tipu Sultan was the first Indian ruler who had used the rockets in the 18th century. The soldiers launching the rockets seemed to be south Indians. a painting was displayed which didn‘t drag Kalam‘s attention at first. Rocket technology had made great strides abroad. The launch of this rocket was with a few tense moments. There was a leak in the hydraulic system which was managed by the collective muscle power of Kalam and his team.

VIKRAM SARABHAI Vikram Srabhai was born into an affluent family of industrialists in Ahmedabad. He knew that the goal should be clear to the team members also. He wanted to create new frontiers in the field of science and technology in India. Rocketry was reborn in India as a result of the technological vision of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Prof. 3.com . workshops and design offices would be on continuous work. A MAN OF OPTIMISM Prof. 2. India had neither the infrastructure nor the money to use sophisticated technology in space research.Sarabhai‘s was very optimistic and he spreads this optimism to all. PROF. 1.com Page 7 of 18 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in Russia (1903). AN INNOVATOR Kalam says that prof. KALAM’S FIRST MEET WITH PROF. Sarabhai‘s faith in their capabilities. Their biggest qualifications at INCOSPAR were not their degrees and training but Prof. He felt that effective leadership was impossible without collective understanding of a problem. Wernher von Braun‘s team in Nazi Germany produced the effective v-2 short-range ballistic missile. when he attended the interview at INCOSPAR. So. A GOOD DECISION-MAKER Prof. Their vision was very clear…. Vikram Sarabhai took on the challenge of giving physical dimensions to Nehru‘s dream. After the war. He was the main person in setting up the Physical Research Laboratory in Ahmedabad. Kalam decided to follow the foot-steps of Sarabhai in his future endeavors. His decision to make our own SLVs and our own satellites –that too simultaneously. in 1947. He believed that young scientists would bring novel ideas with them which are important for new development in scientific research. Sarabhai took a series of decisions that have given life to many scientists in India. He initiated India‘s space programme when he undertook the launch of an indigenously built Indian satellite. TERLS was renamed the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre after his death.UandiStar. Sarabhai. He believed in the practical application of science and its benefits for the common man. he worked under Sir C V Raman at the Indian Institute of Science. He set up India‘s first rocket launching station (TERLS) at Thumba. The particular task was to shape the Indian spirit of space research. People would work round the clock to show something new to Prof.India must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies.blogspot. He was very much impressed by Sarabhai‘s friendly behavior and attitude. They were a group of young and inexperienced persons who were very active energetic and enthusiastic. At that time it was not all that easy to provide latest research facilities to the scientists.www. They were given the task of shaping the Indian spirit of self-reliance in the field of science and technology. but also when it was time to stop. 4. both the USA and the USSR captured their share of German rocket engineers which lead to the deadly Arms Race that lasted for decades. The news of his coming to Thumba would electrify the people and all the laboratories. Sarabhai wanted to compensate this by recruiting young people to develop space programme. At that moment.SARABHAI Kalam first met Prof. Robert Goddard in USA(1914) and Herman Oberth in Germany(1923) gave new dimensions to rocketry. Sarabhai. AN EFFECTIVE LEADER He believed in an open and free exchange of views. Prof.He was keen on trying new ideas and he liked the young people to do the same. As a research scholar. in a multi-dimensional fashion was www. Sarabhai posed the questions to know the capabilities of Kalam and his ability to work for a longer time goals. He has the wisdom and judgment to realize not only if something was well done. He shared his dream of an Indian Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) after the successful launch of Nike-Apache. THE SITUATION AT INCOSPAR IN THE EARLY SIXTIES Kalam shares with us the situation at INCOSPAR in the early sixties. He once told Kalam that his job was to make decisions but it was equally important to see that those decisions were accepted by his team members.UandiStar.blogspot. During World War 2. Sarabhai was an innovator.

PROF. He always found his words full of wisdom. He reposed faith in the capabilities of the staff.UandiStar. Sarabhai asked Kalam to meet him at 3. A SUCCESSFUL PERSON Prof. payloads to analyse the gas composition of the upper atmosphere. He was able to run the country‘s space research establishment…under-staffed and over-worked…but in a successful manner.‖ Those who cannot work with their hearts achieve a hollow. He always used to get unusual thoughts. he used to reduce the pressure on them. the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) and with the payload scientists from the USA.UandiStar. and ionospheric payloads to explore the different layers of the atmosphere. Prof.com . its direction and velocity.30 a. Kalam had to interact with scientists from TIFR. If he found any one of the members with excessive work. He discussed the matter with the scientists in different organizations at different locations. Oda was an x-ray payload scientist from the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Sciences (ISAS). sodium payloads to find out wind conditions. Two Indian rockets Rohini and Menaka were born at Thumba. The rocket took off elegantly but the telemetry signal reported mission failure on account of timer malfunction. Kalam describes him as a tiny man with towering personality and radiant eyes. 5. There are different types of pay loads – x-ray payloads to look at the stars. He used to make every member get involved in the work.blogspot. Oda‘s dedication towards work. He recognised that Kalam had the quality of getting the work done not by using the authority but by persuading people to do it.com Page 8 of 18 remarkable. 7. the USSR. He stuck on to his stand that the Indian timers must be replaced by the Japanese ones. 6. Kalam was stunned by the intensity of his response. The first Rohini75 rocket was launched from TERLS on 20 November 1967. If a scientist hates science. He also had a plan to develop a RATO system for military aircraft. he used to help them to perform better. Kalam happened to go through a book in which George Bernard shaw said that the world gets progress because of a few men who try to adapt the world to themselves. France. www. KHALIL GIBRAN Kalam often read Khalil Gibran. his written words will feed only half the hunger of his readers. He was a wonderful administrator who selected the right man at the right place in India‘s space programme.blogspot. Prof. At that time. A MAN OF BRILLIANCE Prof. The most significant achievement was to establish and maintain nationwide trust in the plan. It was also said that a project manager should learn to live with uncertainty and ambiguity. Sarabhai was an unorthodox person in his approach. half-hearted success that only breeds bitterness within. the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). West Germany and Japan. He insisted on using the timers he had brought from Japan. A WODERFUL ADMINISTRATOR Prof. He very well knows how to bring out the inner capabilities of his people. He utilized each person‘s knowledge and skills. Oda was so upset that tears welled up in his eyes.m. V S NARAYANAN Once. He gives here an incident that shows Prof. If any one was without required skill or capability.www. in Delhi. Prof. his performance will satisfy only half the needs of his mission. If a writer secretly prefers to be a lawyer or a doctor. Kalam was introduced to VS Narayanan by Prof. Kalam yielded to his suggestion and replaced the timers even though he felt them to be flimsy. If a teacher is interested in working a business. That‘s why he assigned Kalam the task of providing interface support to payload scientists. All his plans laid emphasis on self-reliance and indigenous technology.ODA Kalam had worked with several people who work dedicatedly. Japan. that feeds but half a man‘s hunger. It was a huge achievement that the Indian payloads no longer needed to be launched by French rockets. his teaching will meet only half the need for knowledge of his students. He also emitted sudden flashes of inspiration. ―Bread baked without love is a bitter bread. Sarabhai was a man of high intelligence. Sarabhai had the great ability of coordinating the work of various organizations for achieving a goal. ROHINI AND MENAKA Kalam was also involved with building subsystems like payload housing and jettisonable nose cones.

They went to the Tilpat range. JAYA CHANDRA BABU India was left with no choice in the matter of achieving self-reliance in military hardware and weapon system after the two wars with china and Pakistan. But Kalam was unhappy because a poor country like India couldnot afford it. It‘s based on early ideas born at INCOSPAR. which is testimony to the visionary qualities of Prof. Narayanan was group captain from the IAF. A missile is a more complex system. Thus.UandiStar. Narayanan and Kalam were inducted as members. Sarabhai after weighing all the pros and cons (all the arguments for and against). He also had tremendous enthusiasm for indigenous guided missiles.com Page 9 of 18 Sarabhai. To this was added  development and launch of Satellite Launch Vehicles for low earth orbit and The  upgrading and improvement of Indian satellites. THE TWO SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS Two significant developments occurred during the subsequent work on RATO motors. Then he happened to discuss this issue with his young colleague Jaya Chandra Babu. and meteorological observations and remote sensing for the management of natural resources.com . A long list of equipment to be imported was prepared. Sounding rockets are normally used to probe the near-earth environment. It was a theme meant for open discussions. It included the utilization of satellites for television and developmental education. The idea of making missiles in India was exciting to them and they spent hours studying the missiles made in various technologically advanced countries. Sarabhai. The IAF was in dire need of a large number of RATO motors for their S-22 and HF. Prof. A launch vehicle is designed to inject a technological payload. He approved the proposals without a second thought. Sarabhai unfolded his plan of developing a rocket-assisted takeoff system (RATO) for military aircraft.blogspot. into the orbit.UandiStar. He used to say that hewill provide whatever needed but not any extra time.24 aircraft. Nothing indigenous was available. Babu had highlighted the importance of clever business practices in developmental work.blogspot.www. That would help our fighter planes to take off from the short runways in the Himalaya. on the outskirts of New Delhi. This is a complex operation requiring on-board guidance and control systems. www. When its target is fast-moving and capable of changing its direction. a missile should also be able to carry out target-tracking functions. Narayanan was a great admirer of the strong approach of the Russian missile development programme. The Today. Kalam distinguishes a sounding rocket from a satellite launching vehicle and these from a missile. Babu suggested a few relaxations such as  financial approval by a single person  travel for all people on work air  lifting of goods by air-cargo  sub-contracting to the private sector  placement of orders on the basis of technical competence and  smooth and quick accounting procedure. or satellite. convinced of its merits. The final stage of a launch vehicle provides the necessary velocity for a satellite to enter its orbit. The second development was the formation of a Missile panel in the Ministry of Defence. it must have the capability to home onto its target. including the upper regions of the atmosphere. Sarabhai. They can carry a variety of scientific payloads to a range of altitudes but they cannot impart the final velocity needed to orbit the payload. prepared by Prof. In addition to the large terminal velocity and on-board guidance and control systems. The next day. we in India take most of these developments. The active international aid was stopped in the new plan and the emphasis (importance) was laid on self-reliance and indigenous technologies. A large number of surface-to-air missiles were obtained from the USSR. Those demands were presented to Prof. Narayanan obtained 75 lakhs as funding for the RATO task. Babu said that those would streamline their working and the RATO system can be made without importing equipment. The first was the release of a ten-year profile for space research in the country. Kalam says that he could never forget Babu‘s common sense in financial matters.

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi visited Thumba to dedicate Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) to the International Space Science Community. Each member of Kalam‘s team had a unique contribution to make. This would enable the launch vehicle to take full advantage of the earth‘s west to east rotation. MSR Dev and Sandlas drew up meticulous plans for mechanical and electrical integration of the vehicle.com . He had to attend to committee work. Then he would put the high priority papers before him and keep all papers out of sight. Sarabhai formed a team to give shape to his dream of an Indian SLV. Gradually hardware began to emerge from the drawing boards. It was estimated that seven to ten years were required to build SLV-3. THE DEVELOPMENTS THAT HAPPENED DURING THE YEAR 1968  Indian Rocket Society was formed. It was a complex programme. V. He was also given the additional responsibility of designing the fourth stage of SLV-3. SELECTION OF SRIHARIKOTA ISLAND In 1969 Prof. Then within the next ten minutes he would examine all the papers and divide them into different categories.blogspot.UandiStar. KALAM AS A PROJECT MANAGER Kalam faced urgent and conflicting demands on his time after taking up the leadership of executing the SLV-3 project. briefings and the need to be informed on a wide range of subjects.Gowarikar. Madhavan www.9 TO 16) THE EVENT THAT BROUGHT GREAT SATISFACTION TO KALAM AND HIS TEAM IN 1969 India was dreaming of making its own satellites. He was given the additional responsibility of designing the fourth stage of SLV-3. VR Gowarikar. MR Kurup and AE Muthunayagan were given the tasks of designing the other three stages. can be kept pending and reading material. The  INCOSPAR was reconstituted as an advisory body under the INSA(Indian National Science Academy)  ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) was created under the DAE (Department of Atomic Energy) to conduct space research in the country.blogspot. In February 1969.R. SARABHAI’S DREAM PROJECT During 1968. It needs a project implementation. Sriharikota is as big as Chennai in area. COMPONENTS REQUIRED TO BUILD SLV-3 To build SLV-3 as many as 250 sub-assemblies and 44 major subsystems were identified during the design. a hundred kilometres north of Chennai. PN Subramanian and MN Satyanarayana. correspondence. Thus he selected Sriharikota island. It lies alongside the coastline. Sarabhai hand-picked a team to give a form to his dream of an Indian SLV. The task of designing the other three stages of SLV-3 was given to Dr. On this occasion. namely. strategy. high priority. PROF. The actual list of materials went up to more than one million components. reviews. she commissioned the country‘s first filament winding machine initiating the work at the launch station. Dr. Once in the office. He called it SLV-3.www. Sarabhai decided to build and launch our own satellites. The island was crescent shaped with a width of 8 kilometres. MR Kurup and AE Muthunayagam. Namboodri and Pillai spent their days and nights developing four rocket motors simultaneously. Abdul Kalam was the project leader. Abdul Kalam was chosen to be a project leader.com Page 10 of 18 ENGLISH—UNIT 3&4 WINGS OF FIRE (CH. He made an aerial survey of the east coast to find a suitable site for the rocket launching station. He used to prepare a general schedule and emphasise two or three things he would like to complete on each day. he would clear the table first. PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF HARDWARE FOR SLV-3 Prof. UR Rao and G Madhvan Nair were given the responsibility for developing a telecommand system for SLV-3. Prof. material procurement. Sasi Kumar built a very effective network of fabrication work centers. He was particular about choosing a site on the east coast. known as SLV-3. The SHAR Rocket Launch Station was thus born. This event brought great satisfaction to Abdul Kalam and his team consisting of CR Satya.UandiStar. low priority.

He was a visionary who used errors to encourage new ideas. First.com Page 11 of 18 Nair and Murthy examined the electronic systems and engineered them into sub-systems wherever it was possible. PROF. appreciating the work of his team…. It was a mixture of self-trained engineers whose dedication and character suited SLV-3 the most. He used to get the team together to share the results. used to observe his colleagues carefully to see if they had the willingness to experiment constantly. Brahm Prakash took over as the first director of VSSC. The main mechanical structure is compared to the human body. to carry out their roles as they see fit. the failure of the timer circuit led to the birth of a rocket engineering laboratory. A project leader should adopt a delicate balance between hands-on and hands-off approach to manage the performance of such specialists. US Singh brought up the first launch ground system. Kalam later came to know that the best way to prevent errors is to anticipate them.com . the whole complex at Thumba merged together to form an integrated space Centre and christened the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC).blogspot. Kalam says that a leader should be sufficiently independent and powerful. SARABHAI’S APPROACH TO MISTAKES Prof.www. DESCRIPTION OF LAUNCH VEHICLE USING HUMAN BODY Kalam describes a launch vehicle using the human body in comparison. Dr. PROF. As a tribute to the man to whom it owed its existence. experiences and small successes. He also says that SLVs and missiles can be called first cousins as they come from same lineage. Sundararajan closely monitored mission objectives and updated the systems.blogspot. He used to adopt two techniques to strengthen personal freedom. Sarabhai believed that mistakes are inevitable but generally manageable. HANDS-ON. SARABHAI’S DEATH Prof. Getting too hands-off can be seen as irresponsibility or not being interested. whereas a communication is meant only for the exchange of information. identify the necessary action to solve it through genuine communication. He allowed mistakes asa part of the learning process. THE TRAGEDY THAT STRUCK KALAM’S PERSONAL LIFE IN 1976 www. he is seen as an anxious and interfering type. Dr. Beautiful hands are those that do Work that is earnest and brave and true Moment by moment the long day through. The propellants are compared to the muscles. The control and guidance system including their electronic circuit systems is compared to human brain. to develop a passion for personal responsibility. It depends on their self-motivation. HANDS-OFF APPROACH Kalam says that each member in the SLV-3 project team was expert in his or her own field. The hands-on approach means taking an active interest in the team‘s work. as a team leader. A conversation is full of pleasantries and need not have any useful information. Communication is a two-party affair which aims at passing on or receiving a specific piece of information. So they valued independence. on a very regular basis. He also learnt that leaders exist at every level. He also wrote a short poem. He generated leadership qualities in his team and inspired them through both idea and example. He preferred a dash of daring and persistence to perfection. But.UandiStar. The hands-off approach trusts team members and recognizes their need for autonomy. He says that a good leader receives commitment and participation from his team. Kalam used to define the problems. Kalam considered him the mahatma of Indian science-a towering figure whose vision defined the country‘s space programme. When a leader goes too far with the hands-on approach. He also chalked out a detailed work plan for the flight trials. He says that he was a terrible conversationalist but a good communicator. rocketry. Sarabhai‘s sudden and untimely demise on 30 December 1971 was a great blow to Abdul Kalam personally and a huge loss to Indian science as a whole. LEADERSHIP QUALITIES ACCORDING TO KALAM Kalam. little developments. COMMUNICATION AND CONVERSATION Kalam used communication as his password or mantra for managing the gigantic project. He says that the SLV-3 team was a unique blend of untutored talents. to build the educational skills and second.UandiStar.

‖ made Kalam see something of Prof. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE V-2 MISSILE The V-2 missile was the greatest single achievement in the history of rockets and missiles. It toppled over on to its side and exploded. It was the result of the efforts of Von Braun and his team in VFR. Then why should the term be considered a ‗mental lapse‘ which implies illness? Kalam says that the common thing among all successful men and women is ‗total commitment‘. Later. He also said that one doesn‘t just build on successes but also on failures. Another pre-requisite for being in flow is the availability of a significant span of uninterrupted time.Everybody working in rocketry knows of Von Braun. says Kalam. but one that increases one‘s ability. The worker would flow into the work. He made Kalam feel comfortable throughout the flight. There is no hurry and no distractions to the worker‘s attention. Kalam says that it is difficult to switch into flow state in less than half an hour and it is almost www. He had been in ill health for quite sometime. his mother too passed away. Sarabhai in Von Braun. He created the Saturn rocket in the Apollo mission which put the first man on the moon. at something that presents a challenge. He said that one shouldn‘t build rock walls but create a terrace placing rock over rock. He could not think or feel anything. He produced the Jupiter missile. Kalam was shocked and became motionless on hearing the news.blogspot. The first V-2 missile was tested unsuccessfully in June1942. FLOW Flow is the joy that one would experience while working with total commitment and involvement. The first requirement to get into flow is to work as hard as one can. The challenge need not be an overwhelming one. There would be no more difference between the worker and the work. which destroyed London during the World War II. It is an overwhelming sensation.blogspot. Kalam never expected the father of modern rocketry to be so humble. he was given a top position in the rocketry programme at NASA. Kalam says that their team used to be very relaxed.com . He was Kalam‘s mentor and guide. when Kalam was about to leave for France. Kalam lost interest in many things for many days. His words ―Do not make rocketry your profession or your livelihood—make it your religion. WORKAHOLIC Kalam questions the term ‗workaholic‘. He made it clear that making a goal makes the difference. while working for the US army. The task that is performed should be better than the previous one. receptive and encouraging. One need not try to do anything consciously. Kalam followed the words of Wernher Von Braun. He says that he finds pleasure in working and works towards that which he desires. Von Braun asked Kalam about their work and listened to him just like another student of rocketry. Von Braun advised Kalam to do the rocketry work all by himself without depending upon outside help. Jallaluddin was the first tragedy. VON BRAUN’S PERSONALITY Kalam was filled with awe when he had to pick up Von Braun in Madras. it became the first missile to exceed the speed of sound. They also suffer from a NIH (Not Invented Here) complex.UandiStar. VON BRAUN’S OPINION ON AMERICA AND HIS ADVISE TO KALAM Von Braun told Kalam that America is a country of great possibilities but they suspect everything unAmerican and they have a low opinion on everything foreign. WERNHER VON BRAUN Wernher von Braun was one of the most important rocket scientists .com Page 12 of 18 The untimely death of Kalam‘s brother-in-law. Then came the news of his father‘s death. They travelled in the Avro aircraft which took 90 minutes from Madras to Trivandrum.www. He put all his being in the work without any other activities. One should be strong enough and in sound health to achieve something. He put a hold button on his life. He recollected the time he spent with Jallaluddin. It began as a civilian effort but soon became an official army programme. Von Braun worked with the USA in the development of ballistic missiles. The difficult targets that seemed achievable might have created the flow. He developed the V-2 missile for Nazis. As a tribute to his genius. the first IRBM with a 3000 km range.UandiStar. energetic and fresh even though they worked very hard. In the final stages of the war he was captured by the Allied forces. But on 16 August 1942. For 15 years after the War. During this joyous experience. your mission. He said that mere hard work can fetch him honour. He was the technical director of the German Missile Laboratory at Kummersdorf. action follows action.

Sarabhai. Brahm Prakash was the first Indian to head the Department of Metallurgy in the Indian Institute of Science. The success of SLV 3 was the culmination of a national dream and the beginning of a very important phase in the history of India. THE SUCCESS STORY OF SLV-3 In 1969. Kalam used communication as his pass word for managing this gigantic project. He waited for Kalam to take lunch with him. The second flight of SLV 3 was scheduled for 18 July 1980 at 0803 hours. The fourth stage apogee motor has given the required velocity to put Rohini satellite into orbit. they were hopeful of achieving them. Thus according to Kalam. After Prof. sub-orbital flights by 1976 and the final orbital flight in 1978. Dr. The confidence of the team increased. Sometimes. Integration and Flight Testing Group and Subsystems Development Group.UandiStar. BRAHM PRAKASH Dr. Disturbances break flow and it is difficult to regain flow within a short time.blogspot. He picked up a team to materialize his dream. SLV 3 lifted off from SHAR. He used to find the laboratory empty and then realize that it was way past his work hours. In 1974 the century sounding rocket was launched to test some critical systems. The SLV 3 project members set three important deadlines for themselves. within 317 seconds. The team members experienced a flow in their work. He became the first director of the VSSC. The entire team was sad and disappointed. The eyes of the whole nation were on the second flight. Kalam took the responsibility for this failure. The team members were self-trained engineers. This became a model and blueprint for all scientific projects in the country. 560 km off Sriharikota.UandiStar. character and dedication to make the SLV 3 project a success. Prof. he was appointed Project Manager for SLV-3. He was Kalam‘s sheet-anchor. His belief in team spirit had inspired and guided the management pattern for the SLV project. On the Republic Day of 1981. finally took off elegantly at 0758 hours and moved in the programmed trajectory. Though their targets were difficult. They were Programme Management Group. The first ever experimental flight of SLV 3 was scheduled for 10 August 1979 with the primary good of evaluating on-board systems and the ground system.com . development and operation of a standard SLV system capable of launching a 40 kg satellite into a 400 km circular orbit around the earth. The hardware required for SLV 3 started coming in. the project team members were exceptionally talented. A target of flight test within 64 months was set in March 1973.com Page 13 of 18 impossible to switch into the state if we are constantly disturbed. DR. Stage II went out of control and the vehicle crashed into the sea. He went to France. India‘s first Satellite Launch Vehicle. The test was a great success. he and his team members were so caught up in work that the lunch time slipped away without their conscious that they were hungry. He threw all his being into creating the SLV 3. removed the snags and successfully tested the apogee motor. However. He developed techniques for the extraction and fabrication of a variety of nuclear-grade metals. The primary objectives of the SLV-3 project were design. He consoled Kalam at the time of the unsuccessful launch of the SLV 3. Abdul Kalam asked for 275 engineers but got only 50. Sarabhai‘s demise.blogspot. weighing 17 tonnes. flow is the experience of joy in working with total commitment and involvement. He used to experience the flow state almost everyday of the SLV-3 mission. Abdul Kalam was in complete control over the SLV 3 project. They had the necessary talent. developed some trouble. It proved the scientific strength of India. Abdul Kalam was a project leader and designer of the fourth stage of SLV-3. They were.development and flight worthiness of all subsystems through sounding rockets by 1975. The self-sufficiency to produce SLV 3 came gradually. four-stage SLV 3 rocket. Sarabhai decided to build India‘s own satellites and Satellite Launch Vehicle. The list of the materials went up to over one million components. The 23-metre-long. Kalam‘ colleagues carried him on their shoulders. Three groups were constituted to carry out the project activities. Almost 250 sub-assemblies and 44 major subsystems were conceived during the design. He gave a new strength and dimension to the qualities that Kalam acquired from Prof. which oversaw the launch of SLV-3. Brahm Prakash always cautioned Kalam against haste saying that big scientific projects were like mountains that should be climbed without urgency.www. Kalam learned that the SLV 3 apogee rocket scheduled to be flight tested in France. It was one hundred percent indigenous effort. www. Abdul Kalam was honoured with Padma Bhushan award.

He described and explained their goals and the interplay between their work and themselves. Ramanna. Everyone was excited at the idea of India having her own missile systems. Later.com . He said that he feels as if his son has got the award.UandiStar. with his research in nuclear fission. Brahm Prakash who highlighted their goals clearly. a tactical core vehicle and a surface-to-surface missile. A few shared his happiness while others felt that he was being unduly singled out for recognition. the navy and the air force. He realized that the burial of the Devil was essential for the rise of hope and vision. Brahm Prakash chided Kalam for his formality when Kalam thanked him on being conferred with the Padma Bhushan Award. The bitterness was real. The next SLV-3 named SLV 3 D1 took off on 31 May 1981. Many excellent professionals had not recovered from the disappointment. He asked Kalam if he would like to join DRDL and shoulder the responsibility of shaping their Guided Missile Development Programme (GMDP). THE BITTER TRUTH SLV 3 was successfully launched from SHAR on 18 July 1980. But he accepted it as he could not change it. He made it out a point with his team. viability schedule and cost.www. He says that DRDL had not been so lucky. RAJA RAMANNA Prof. the scientific adviser. He extended invitations to people from various institutions. They were eager to go ahead despite of the premature winding up of their earlier projects.blogspot.blogspot. spread over a period of 12 years. He felt that the stuffy work centers of DRDL needed a breath of fresh air. Everyone seemed to have many doubts on their capabilities. INTEGRATED GUIDED MISSILE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME www. He mentions that ISRO was lucky to have had Prof.390 crore. He was astonished to see the determination of the DRDL workforce. the technological infrastructure. made their missions larger than their lives and could then inspire the entire work force. Kalam and his team wanted to get funds to develop and produce two missiles. It was called the Missile Technology Committee. He realized that the laboratory was still haunted by the winding up of the Devil missile. WINGS OF FIREUNIT-5(CH.UandiStar. It gave great emotional support to Kalam. He showed genuine pleasure at meeting Kalam. PROF. He became the focus of the media attention and thus aroused the envy of some of his senior colleagues. The middle-level scientists and engineers were made involved in the management activities of the laboratory. There was eagerness in his talk. Kalam viewed this flight from the visitor‘s gallery for the first time. Raja Ramanna pioneered nuclear physics in India. They drafted a paper for the cabinet after consulting the three defence services-the army. Dr. His sympathetic friendliness accompanied by graceful movements struck Kalam. Dr. Sarabhai when he met Prof. Sarabhai and Dr. The meeting was presided over by the Defence Minister. there were mixed reactions at VSSC. He demonstrated to Kalam that he was not alone and that his team was with him to share his grief. Kalam was hurt at this environment. Kalam had the memories of his first meet with Prof. He was a renowned nuclear scientist whom Kalam always admired. He was then the scientific adviser to the defence minister. LONG-TERM GUIDED MISSILE DEVELPOMENT PROGRAMME A committee was constituted under Kalam‘s chairmanship to draw up a well-defined missile development programme for the production of indigenous missiles. Some of his close associates turned envious. Kalam made a presentation to the Government. when the Padma Bhushan Award was conferred on him. All his colleagues were pleased with the proposal. Arunachalam. They also proposed to develop a third generation anti-tank guided missile. R Venkataraman and was attended by the three service chiefs and senior officials. stood by Kalam throughout the session. 17 TO 20) KALAM AT DRDL Kalam joined DRDL on 1 June 1982.com Page 14 of 18 Kalam was deeply touched by his affection and concern. The estimated expenditure was about Rs. His message was not to make anything that couldn‘t be sold and not to spend the life making only one thing. His first few months at DRDL were largely interactive. Kalam created a forum of senior scientists where important matters could be discussed collectively.

Nag was an anti-tank guided missile. They took into account all the variables like design. Dr. The Defence Minister was very much pleased with their new proposal. Kalam selected Commodore SR Mohan from the Indian Navy. They were filled with excitement. when SLV-3 had launched Rohini into Earth‘s orbit. It was developed by the post-graduate students of Indian Institute of Sciences (IISc). TRISHUL: The tactical core vehicle was called Trishul.blogspot. Sarma. The Defence Minister also arranged an air force helicopter to take Kalam from Chennai to Madurai to attend his niece‘s wedding. It was a short-range. It was competent and precise in core guidance and technologies. Arunachalam that they launch an integrated GMDP. Kalam chose RN Agarwal. Arunachalam told. He not only had sound knowledge of electronics and missile warfare. He had been managing the aeronautical test facilities at DRDL. quality. The project director of Prithvi would be the first to make decisions with production agencies and the armed forces and Kalam believed that Sundaram would be the ideal choice to see that sound decisions were taken.www. They felt that a very exciting challenge had been thrown to them. under the leadership of Prof. The Defence Minister put up the proposal before the cabinet and saw it through. They laboured all the night. He was an experimenter and innovator in team work. An unprecedented amount of Rs. He had a brilliant academic record. It was meant were delivering non-nuclear weapons. Arunachalam formally launched IGMDP on 27 July 1983. Akash was a medium range surface-to-air missile. Kalam chose Col. instead of making missiles in phases. an alumnus of MIT. He was found to be the right person who would tolerate Kalam‘s occasional meddling in the running of the project. Bangalore.UandiStar. fabrication. Prithvi was launched on 25 February 1988. experimental flights.It is the surface-to-surface missile in the world. AKASH AND NAG: Kalam selected relatively young Prahlada and NR Iyer for Akash and Nag as their activities were expected to peak about half a decade later. It can carry 1000kg of warhead to a distance of 250 km.com .388 crore was sanctioned. Thus was born India‘s prestigious Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). ―You have earned this for your hard work of the last six months‖. but could also communicate the complexities to the team in order to promote understanding and support. Kalam presented the government‘s sanction letter before the Missile Technology Committee at DRDL. reliability and financial viability. It is 100% indigenous in design. PRITHVI: The surface-to-surface weapon system was named Prithvi. For Trishul. VJ Sundaram to lead Prithvi. He immediately cleared the entire proposal.UandiStar. fire and action. which had turned overnight into the blueprint of an integrated programme with far reaching consequences.com Page 15 of 18 The Defence Minister suggested Kalam and Dr. He had an extraordinary capability for evaluating alternative ways of operating.blogspot. It took India into areas of competence where there was no competition. next to 18 July 1980. updating. They were asked to come the next morning with their plan.It was an intermediate-range ballistic missile. user trials. Kalam found in him a readiness to experiment with new ways. Prithvi represented the self-reliance of the country in the field of advanced technology. quick reaction surface-to-air missile.Dr. Kalam felt it to be the second-most significant day in his career. operation and deployment. Osmania University‘s www. He would suggest moving forward into new grounds . The most important task before Kalam was the selection of the project directors to lead individual missile projects. Trishul was successfully test fired in 1985 from Sriharikota. THE FIVE PROJECTS The proposed projects were christened in accordance with the spirit of India‘s self-reliance. Kalam observed the working styles of many scientists before making his decision. This missile had no equal in its field. evaluation. He experimented with team work.He could provide effective work directions. The launch of IGMDP was like a bright flash on the Indian scientific sky. system integration. AGNI: Kalam gave the name Agni to his long-cherished dream of the REX (Re-entry Experiment) . Kalam found in him a magical power of persuasion. He belonged to the EME corps of the Indian Army.

INDIRA GANDHI’S VISIT TO DRDL Prime Minister Indira Gandhi expressed her desire to be personally informed of the progress of IGMDP. The work environment was lively with a good blend of the experience of the older scientists and the innovation of their younger colleagues.com Page 16 of 18 Navigational Electronics Research and Training Unit developed state-of-the-art signal processing algorithms for Nag. He visited Imarat Kancha area. It would help them visualise the whole system. every gesture and every movement of her hands reflected this. discussed with the Ministry of Defence and collaborated with an outside company to prepare the layout. modified and was fired with a make-shift launcher on 26 June 1984 to flight test the guidance system. He was very pleased with the progress made. An atmosphere of confidence grew. They didn‘t fully grasp the importance of their work. The things that were previously thought impractical began happening.blogspot. He chose MV Suryakantha Rao to carry on this gigantic task. It was a barren land dotted with large rocks. the Devil missile was put to use. A proposal was drawn up to establish a model high-technology research centre with very advanced technical facilities. The young engineers changed the dynamics of DRDL. She visited DRDL on 19 July 1984. The young scientific environment had changed the negative attitudes to positive. She enquired what was needed to speed up the flight schedule. RESEARCH CENTRE IMARAT (RCI) Kalam found the space available at DRDL inadequate to meet the requirements of IGMDP. He expressed his gratitude towards those who preferred to stay and work in India despite the odds rather than go abroad for comfortable careers.UandiStar. She gave high regard to the work in the field of guided missiles which gave a lot of encouragement to Kalam and others. Kalam felt the tremendous energy trapped in those rocks. Many older scientists were rejuvenated by being part of a young team. She spent an hour at DRDL and covered all the aspects of IGMDP. This had been the first significant step in the history of Indian missile development. Developing this centre of excellence of missile technology was compared to the joy of a potter shaping artefacts. MAKING USE OF THE DEVIL MISSILE An altitude control system and an on-board computer were developed and a missile was needed to test this important system. Kalam says that every step. An infrastructure to provide 40 MVA power and 5 million litres of water per day was planned. development and production from 12 academic institutions and 30 laboratories. He told the DRDL team that he understood the troubles faced by Indian scientists. Kalam says that the positive dependence between youth and experience had created a very productive work culture at DRDL. They approached the Military Engineering Service (MES) for construction. with a few members of the missile programme. Kalam insisted that the youngest scientists would present their team‘s work at the review meetings. Moving towards designing our own systems had begun. visited campuses andrequested the aspiring students to participate in the programme. After many discussions. It had become his mission for the next three years. She wanted the nation to be strong enough to meet any eventuality. She was the leader of 800 million people and she was very much conscious of it. AN INFUSION OF YOUNG BLOOD The missile programme had partners in design. Once they did. www. She asked Kalam to lay emphasis not only on the schedule but also on the excellence of the IGMDP. Kalam.blogspot. at first. The system met all the requirements. He decided to locate the integration and check-out facilities needed for the missile projects there. Her appreciation of the work done provided immense encouragement to the staff. She later addressed the DRDL community and asked for the schedules of the flight systems that they were working on. She also announced that a fast pace of work is the hope of the entire nation. they felt the burden of the tremendous faith placed in them. Kalam felt it to be an honour to receive her at DRDL. It was disassembled. It came to be known as Research Centre Imarat (RCI) retaining the original identity of the place.com . The young started questioning the senior colleagues on solid technical issues. She was a strong woman and a great leader.www. The young Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi laid the foundation stone of RCI on 3 August 1985.UandiStar.

People tend to get addicted to the endless pursuits of external rewards like wealth. It represents the urge to succeed and awareness that the world is never again to be directed by muscle or money power. They drew sustenance from within. These were a few examples of collaborative effort. We borrowed ideas that had been developed elsewhere. Whenever Kalam saw wealthy. rather than how far he had come.com . government institutions and private industries. Kalam says that Dr. Brahm Prakash.UandiStar. prestige. He desired to grow. learn more and express more. learned people struggling to be at peace with themselves. Kalam. Combining the approaches of Prof. improve and expand. Kalam says that the effort of these young teams made the country self-reliant in the area of protected technologies. The postgraduate students developed air defence software for multi-target acquisition by Akash. Life will be better without external pressures. approval of one‘s lifestyle by others. He desired to feel more. GREAT EMOTIONAL LOSS Dr. Brahm Prakash‘s humility mellowed him and helped www. Prof. His humility and compassion were exemplary. promotion. Our intellectual capacity was renewed through contact with enthusiastic young minds. They were happy without any money or possessions. LACK OF EMPOWERMENT In 1983 India did not have an adequate technology base. THE SUCCESS MANTRA OF KALAM Kalam says that one should judge one‘s actions. At the same time India recognized the restrictions that it had to work under. Madras. desired to be more than what he was at that moment. Kalam had had the privilege of working under him during the most challenging period of his career. A state-of-art signal processing algorithms for Nag was also developed by the Osmania University‘s Navigational Electronics Research and Training Unit. The entire nation will be benefited by having strong. Kalam says that it would have been very difficult to achieve the advanced technological goals without the active partnership of those academic institutions. unlike science. The culture of working for material possessions and rewards must be discarded. it does not grow on individual intelligence. The challenge involved in the Agni payload was met by the young scientists working in the field of fluid dynamics. All he had was the inner urge (strong desire) to seek more within himself.www. Another significant step was the successful test flight of the Pilotless Target Aircraft. he remembered people like Jallaluddin and Iyadurai Solomon. should give some insight into life of the youth of today. Technology. powerful.blogspot. He had been Kalam‘s sheet-anchor. Appropriate management helped to prove what talent and potential lay in our research laboratories. Brahm Prakash‘s death (3 January 1984) was a great emotional loss to Abdul Kalam. ceremonial honours and status symbols of all kinds. but adapted them in the light of what we knew were our strengths. Sarabhai. This is how the IGMDP has become a strong Indian family that makes missile systems.UandiStar. THE TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY The Technology Management Philosophy of the missile development programme is not limited to missile development only. This may equip at least a few young people to stand up in the society. Only nations with technological superiority will enjoy freedom and sovereignty. Kalam tried to create a completely indigenous variety of technology management. But the country lacked the empowerment(authority/facility) to utilise the expert technology that was available.com Page 17 of 18 Trishul successfully took off on 16 September 1985. inner-directed people as its citizens. but by intelligence interacting and ceaselessly influencing one another. The key to his motivation had always been to look at how far he had still to go. with DRDO scientists. India attempted to develop a model that was appropriate to our specific needs and capabilities. The youth of today must de-learn this self-defeating way of living. Brahm Prakash played a very important role in shaping Kalam‘s leadership skills. Dhawan and Dr. KALAM’S ADVICE TO THE YOUTH OF TODAY Abdul Kalam wished that the story of his struggle to become a person. It was a good example of the ‗renewal factor‘. They made it possible by developing the required software within six months. as a young scientist. is a group of activity. Dr. position.blogspot. The re-entry vehicle system design methodology for Agni was developed by a young team at IIT. They relied more on inner signals and on external markers. He never used anybody‘s influence to advance his career.

com Page 18 of 18 him control his aggressive approach.UandiStar. www.blogspot. and his sorrow deepened further.blogspot. Kalam remembered his healing touch on the day of the failed SLV flight.UandiStar.www.com .

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