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Aptitude

# Aptitude

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# Aptitude :: Problems on Trains

@ : Home > Aptitude > Problems on Trains > Important Formulas 1. km/hr to m/s conversion: a km/hr = a x 2. a m/s = a x 5 m/s. 18

m/s to km/hr conversion: 18 km/hr. 5

3. Formulas for finding Speed, Time and Distance 4. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a pole or standing man or a signal post is equal to the time taken by the train to cover l metres. 5. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a stationery object of length b metres is the time taken by the train to cover (l + b) metres. 6. Suppose two trains or two objects bodies are moving in the same direction at u m/s and v m/s, where u > v, then their relative speed is = (u - v) m/s. 7. Suppose two trains or two objects bodies are moving in opposite directions at u m/s and v m/s, then their relative speed is = (u + v) m/s. 8. If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in opposite directions at u m/s and v m/s, then: The time taken by the trains to cross each other = (a + b) sec. (u + v)

9. If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in the same direction at u m/s and v m/s, then: The time taken by the faster train to cross the slower train = (a + b) sec. (u - v)

10. If two trains (or bodies) start at the same time from points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b sec in reaching B and A respectively, then: (A's speed) : (B's speed) = (b : a

Aptitude :: Time and Work
1. Work from Days: If A can do a piece of work in n days, then A's 1 day's work = 2. Days from Work: 1 If A's 1 day's work , then A can finish the work in n 1 . n

= 3. Ratio:

n

days.

If A is thrice as good a workman as B, then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. Ratio of times taken by A and B to finish a work = 1 : 3.

Aptitude :: Profit and Loss
@ : Home > Aptitude > Profit and Loss > Important Formulas IMPORTANT FACTS Cost Price: The price, at which an article is purchased, is called its cost price, abbreviated as C.P. Selling Price: The price, at which an article is sold, is called its selling prices, abbreviated as S.P. Profit or Gain: If S.P. is greater than C.P., the seller is said to have a profit or gain. Loss: If S.P. is less than C.P., the seller is said to have incurred a loss. IMPORTANT FORMULAE 1. 2. 3. 4. Gain = (S.P.) - (C.P.) Loss = (C.P.) - (S.P.) Loss or gain is always reckoned on C.P. Gain Percentage: (Gain %) Gain % Gain x 100 = C.P. 5. Loss Percentage: (Loss %) Loss % Loss x 100 = C.P. 6. Selling Price: (S.P.) SP (100 + Gain %) x C.P 100 =

P.) SP (100 . 12. but uses false weights. one at a gain of say x%. Note: A leap year has 366 days. 10 10 = 13.) 100 C. if it is not a century. Cost Price: (C. If a trader professes to sell his goods at cost price. 2.P.P. and the other at a loss of x%. If an article is sold at a loss of say. = (100 .7. Every year divisible by 4 is a leap year. . Examples: i. then S. If an article is sold at a gain of say 35%. 35% then S. then Error Gain % x 100 = (True Value) . = 65% of C. 1676 etc. = 135% of S. x S. = (100 + Gain %) 9.P. x S. Each of the years 1948.(Error) Aptitude :: Problems on Ages @ : Home > Aptitude > Problems on Ages > Important Formulas 1. the number of days more than the complete weeks are called odd days. 11.P. 2004.Loss %) 10. (ii).P. In a given period. = 100 8. For this.P. When a person sells two similar items. Odd Days: We are supposed to find the day of the week on a given date.P.Loss %) x C. Leap Year: (i). is a leap year. we use the concept of 'odd days'.P.P. Every 4th century is a leap year and no other century is a leap year. then the seller always incurs a loss given by: x Loss % Common Loss and Gain % 2= 2.P.P. Selling Price: (S. Cost Price: (C.) 100 C.

2005. 1800. Tues. 1 ordinary year = 365 days = (52 weeks + 1 day. of days: 0 Day: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sun. An ordinary year has 365 days. Then. iii. 100 years = 76 ordinary years + 24 leap years = (76 x 1 + 24 x 2) odd days = 124 odd days. Ordinary Year: The year which is not a leap year is called an ordinary years. Thurs. 1600. Sat. each one of 800 years. 1 leap year = 366 days = (52 weeks + 2 days) 1 leap year has 2 odd days. 1200. 1 odd day. 2. 1600 years. has 0 odd days. Number of odd days in 400 years = (5 x 4 + 1) Similarly. 1200 years. x+y . Average: Sum of observations Average Number of observations = 2. 2000 years etc. None of the years 2001. 2003.) 1 ordinary year has 1 odd day. 2000 etc. 800. Counting of Odd Days: 1. Average Speed: Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x kmph and an equal distance at y kmph. 2100 is a leap year. Aptitude :: Average @ : Home > Aptitude > Average > Important Formulas 1. 0 odd day. 3. 4. 3. Day of the Week Related to Odd Days: No. = (17 weeks + days) 5 odd days. is a leap year. Fri. Number of odd days in 200 years = (5 x 2) Number of odd days in 300 years = (5 x 3) 3 odd days.ii. 2002. Each of the years 400. Mon. the average speed druing the whole journey 2xy kmph is . Wed. Number of odd days in 100 years = 5. 5.

4. Then. bca. n! Then. b. i. cba) 3. iii. p2 are alike of another kind. c by taking two at a time are (ab. 5! = (5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 120. factorial n. ii.1)(n . c taking all at a time are: ( abc.. 7P3 = (7 x 6 x 5) = 210. Combinations: Each of the different groups or selections which can be formed by taking some or all of a number of objects .Aptitude :: Permutation and Combination 1.. Number of Permutations: Number of all permutations of n things. Examples: All permutations (or arrangements) made with the letters a.r + 1) = n! (n r)! Examples: i. ac. (n .2. ba. such that (p1 + p2 + .1)(n . is given by: n i. 3. All permutations made with the letters a... cb). cab. taken all at a time = n!. number of all permutations of n things..(p2)!. b. Cor. ii.1 Examples: We define 0! = 1... An Important Result: If there are n subjects of which p1 are alike of one kind.(pr! = ) 5. 4! = (4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 24. are called permutations.2) . Permutations: The different arrangements of a given number of things by taking some or all at a time. denoted n! is defined as: n! = n(n . Factorial Notation: Let n be a positive integer. p3 are alike of third kind and so on and pr are alike of rth kind. ca. Pr = n(n ..2) . taken r at a time. 2. bc.. acb.. number of permutations of these n objects is (p1!). bac. ii. 6P2 = (6 x 5) = 30. pr) = n.

D are: AB.is called a combination. C. 2. ii. The last divisor is required .F. AD. 2. = (r!)(n .C.C.. of two or more than two numbers is the greatest number that divided each of them exactly. The product of least powers of common prime factors gives H. Number of Combinations: The number of all combinations of n things. The only combination that can be formed of three letters a. of two given numbers. Note: AB and BA represent the same selection. II.F. BD. we say that a is a factor of b. Repeat the process of dividing the preceding number by the remainder last obtained till zero is obtained as remainder. divide the larger by the smaller one.. Factors and Multiples: If number a divided another number b exactly. c taking ab. 6. In this case. n Cn = 1 and nC0 = 1.F. Examples: 1. BC and CA. Various groups of 2 out of four persons A.F and L.1)(n .M. B. 5.) or Greatest Common Measure (G.C.C.C. C.F. i.D.C.C.C. b. 16C13 = 16C(16 . Suppose we want to select two out of three boys A.M @ : Home > Aptitude > Problems on H. to r factors = . Factorization Method: Express the each one of the given numbers as the product of prime factors.): The H. Division Method: Suppose we have to find the H. B. of a given set of numbers: I. ca. c taken all at a time is abc.C. Now.2) . 3. BC.C. Highest Common Factor (H.C. There are two methods of finding the H. n Cr = nC(n . Note that ab ba are two different permutations but they represent the same combination. Then.r) Examples:i C4 (11 x 10 x 9 x 8) = = (4 x 3 x 2 x 1) 330.F and L. 11 Aptitude :: Problems on H. 4. All the combinations formed by a. b. bc. . b is called a multiple of a.F.M > Important Formulas 1. divide the divisor by the remainder. AC.13) = 16C3 16 x 15 x 14 16 x 15 x 14 = = = 3! 3 x 2 x 1 560. CD.) or Greatest Common Divisor (G. taken r at a time is: n Cr n! n(n .r!) r! Note: . possible selections are AB.

C.M as the denominator. H.M. 9 = 3. of more than three numbers may be obtained.C. L.F.C.M. of Fractions: H. Similarly.C.C.C.C.C.C.M. is the product of highest powers of all the factors. = 8. 4.F.M. of more than two numbers: Suppose we have to find the H.): The least number which is exactly divisible by each one of the given numbers is called their L. find H.C.C. The resultant fraction with the greatest numerator is the greatest. 3.M.M.C.M.M.M. or L. I. make the same number of decimal places by annexing zeros in some numbers. 196 = 14.F. Aptitude :: Square Root and Cube Root @ : Home > Aptitude > Square Root and Cube Root > Important Formulas 1.M. of Numerators L. of a given set of numbers: Factorization Method: Resolve each one of the given numbers into a product of prime factors.M.F. of [(H. Cube Root: . by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by the same number. is 1. of Denominators L.C.C.F. Divide by a number which divided exactly at least two of the given numbers and carry forward the numbers which are not divisible. we say that the square root of y is x and we write y = x.C. and L. II. 2. of three given number.C. Repeat the above process till no two of the numbers are divisible by the same number except 1. Then.C.C. of Decimal Fractions: In a given numbers.C. Now.C. of the denominators of the given fractions. as the case may be.F. then. Considering these numbers without decimal point.C. the H. 9.C.C. of Numerators 2.F.M. Product of two numbers = Product of their H.F.F.F. in the result. Square Root: If x2 = y.H. of any two) and (the third number)] gives the H. and L.C.C. H. if necessary. L. of the given numbers.C. mark off as many decimal places as are there in each of the given numbers. and L. 5.M. Co-primes: Two numbers are said to be co-primes if their H. Finding the H.C. Division Method (short-cut): Arrange the given numbers in a rwo in any order. The product of the divisors and the undivided numbers is the required L. of = Denominators 1.F. 4 = 2. Comparison of Fractions: Find the L.F.F.C. H. H. H. Convert each of the fractions into an equivalent fraction with L. Least Common Multiple (L. of three numbers. Thus. There are two methods of finding the L.C.F. 6.F.

For each investment. ii. 2. . showing the value of each share and the number of shares held by a person. At discount or Below par. Thus. iii. Shares or Stock: The whole capital is divided into small units. 343 = 7 x 7 x 7 = 7 etc. 116. if a Rs.The cube root of a given number x is the number whose cube is x. if its market value is the same as its face value. called shares or stock. Stock Capital: The total amount of money needed to run the company is called the stock capital. 4. if its market value is less than its face value. denote the cube root of x by x. the company issues a 'share-certificate'.y y y y y Aptitude :: Stocks and Shares @ : Home > Aptitude > Stocks and Shares > Important Formulas 1. Note: 1. . Face Value: The value of a share or stock printed on the share-certificate is called its Face Value or Nominal Value or Par Value. At par. A share or stock is said to be: i. xy = x x y 2 x x x y xy = = x = . Market Value: The stock of different companies are sold and bought in the open market through brokers at stockexchanges. 8 = 2 x 2 x 2 = 2. Dividend is paid annually as per share or as a percentage.(100 + 16) = Rs. At premium or Above par. We. The person who subscribes in shares or stock is called a share holder or stock holder. 3. if its market value is more than its face value. Thus. 5. then market value of the stock = Rs. Dividend: The annual profit distributed among share holders is called dividend. 100 stock is quoted at premium of 16.

). if a Rs. Thus. called the bill of exchange. Brokerage: The broker's charge is called brokerage. known as legally due date. 9.000 from another merchant B at a credit of say 5 months. Suppose B wants to have the money before the legally due date. say Rs. Rs.) . (ii) When stock is sold. we mean that: i. paid by the banker) and the legally due date. This amount is know as Banker's Discount (B. Annual dividend on 1 share = 9% of face value = 9% of Rs. 120 gives an annual income of Rs. Market Value (M.D.a = Annual income from an investment of Rs. grace days are not to be added. (100 -7) = 93. 120. iv. brokerage is added to the cost price. 9% stock at 120. The date exactly after 5 months is called nominally due date. Face Value of stock = Rs.) for the unexpired time.D. 100 = 9 1% x 100 %= 7 120 2.(T. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS Banker's Discount: Suppose a merchant A buys goods worth.D. 6. on the face vale (i. B prepares a bill. 100 stock is quoted at a discount of 7.) = (B. B. ii.e. by a Rs.. 9.V) of stock = Rs.G. Three days (known as grace days) are added to it get a date.Likewise. ii. Thus. Number of shares held by a person Total Investment Total Income Total Face Value = = . 100. Rate of interest p. on the face value for the period from the date on which the bill was discounted and the legally due date.e. then market value of the stock = Rs. is the S.I. 100. 100 = Rs. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price. IMPORTANT FORMULAE . iv. Then he can have the money from the banker or a broker. v.I.. = Investment in 1 share Income from 1 share Face of 1 share 7. Note: When the date of the bill is not given. 10. who deducts S.D. Banker's Gain (B. The market value of a share changes from time to time.000 in this case) for the period from the date on which the bill was discounted (i. An investment of Rs. (i) When stock is purchased. The face value of a share always remains the same. iii. Dividend is always paid on the face value of a share. Then. 10. iii. Remember: i. A signs this bill and allows B to withdraw the amount from his bank account after exactly 5 months.

Amount B.D.D. Aptitude :: Height and Distance @ : Home > Aptitude > Height and Distance > Important Formulas 1. T. B.D. .D.D. Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x km/hr and an equal distance at y km/hr. T. x T.W.I. km/hr to m/sec conversion: 5 m/sec x km/hr xx = 18 . Amount x Rate x Time = 100 5.D.) = S. 3. Amount x Rate x Time = 100 + (Rate x Time) 6. x B.1. = 3. is Distance = (Speed x Time). . = B. m/sec to km/hr conversion: 18 km/hr x m/sec xx = 5 . Time and Distance: Distance Speed Distance . Speed. on T. P. = Time Speed 2.G. 7.(T.D. on bill for unexpired time. B.I. = (B.D.D. Then. where BOA = .D. 2.D.D.T. If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is a : b. Aptitude :: Time and Distance @ : Home > Aptitude > Time and Distance > Important Formulas 1.) . then the ratio of the the times taken by then to cover the same distance 1 1 or b : : is a b a. 4.) 2 P.D. 4.Time = . = S.G.W. Trigonometry: In a right angled OAB. the average speed during the whole journey 2xy km/hr x+y . B.G. B. T. 5. x 100 = Rate x Time (T.

Trigonometrical Identities: i. 3. tan Perpendicular AB = . = tan AB 2. sin2 + cos2 = 1. 1 + cot2 = cosec2 . Angle of Elevation: . ii. cot 1 OA = . Values of T-ratios: ( /6) 0° 30° sin 0 3 2 1 3 45° 1 2 1 2 1 3 60° 3 2 90° 1 ( /4) ( /3) ( /2) cos 1 0 tan 0 not defined 4. = Hypotenuse OB ii. sin Perpendicular AB = .i. cos Base OA = . = sin AB v. sec 1 OB = . = Hypotenuse OB iii. cosec 1 OB = . = cos OA vi. 1 + tan2 = sec2 . iii. = Base OA iv.

When interest is compound Annually: Amount = R 1+ n P 100 . Interest: Extra money paid for using other's money is called interest. Aptitude :: Simple Interest @ : Home > Aptitude > Simple Interest > Important Formulas 1. Rate = R% per annum (p. is called the angle of depression of P as seen from O. is called the anlge of elevation of P as seen from O. . Suppose a man from a point O looks down at an object P. 2. Time = n years. Let Principal = P.I. Then (i). Simple Intereest P x R x T 100 = (ii). placed below the level of his eye. then it is called simple interest.Suppose a man from a point O looks up at an object P. the angle which the line of sight makes with the horizontal through O.) and Time = T years.a.R= and T = .I.I. Simple Interest (S. Rate = R% per annum. placed above the level of his eye. then the angle which the line of sight makes with the horizontal through O. 100 x S. = RxT PxT PxT Aptitude :: Compound Interest @ : Home > Aptitude > Compound Interest > Important Formulas 1. 3. Angle of Depression: AOP. 2. Angle of elevation of P from O = 5.): If the interest on a sum borrowed for certain period is reckoned uniformly.I. Let Principal = P. P 100 x S. Principal: The money borrowed or lent out for a certain period is called the principal or the sum. 100 x S. Then.

Suppose A and B invest Rs. then at the end of the year: (A's share of profit) : (B's share of profit) = x : y. Ratio of Divisions of Gains: I. 2nd and 3rd year respectively. x for p months and B invests Rs. R Amount = 1+ 3x 1 + R P 100 100 6. the gain or loss is distributed among the partners in the ratio of their investments. II. When investments of all the partners are for the same time. When interest is compounded Half-yearly: (R/2) 2 Amount = 1+ P 100 n 4. Present worth of Rs. R Then. x and Rs. say 3 years. y for q months then. R2%. R3% for 1st. (A's share of profit) : (B's share of profit)= xp : yq. y respectively for a year in a business. x due n years hence is given by: x Present Worth R . Now gain or loss is divided in the ratio of these capitals. = 1+ 100 Aptitude :: Partnership 1. say R1%. Suppose A invests Rs. When investments are for different time periods. When interest is compounded Quarterly: (R/4) 4 Amount = 1+ 100 n P 5. they are called partners and the deal is known as partnership. Partnership: When two or more than two persons run a business jointly. Amount = 1+ 1 P 100 1+ R2 100 1+ R3 . .3. 2. When Rates are different for different years. then equivalent capitals are calculated for a unit of time by taking (capital x number of units of time). 100 7. When interest is compounded Annually but time is in fraction.

3. 4 4 % 25%. x percent means x hundredths. Percentage Increase/Decrease: If the price of a commodity increases by R%. ptitude :: Percentage @ : Home > Aptitude > Percentage > Important Formulas 1. Results on Population: Let the population of a town be P now and suppose it increases at the rate of R% per annum. then the increase in consumption so as not to decrease the expenditure is: R x 100 (100 . Thus. = x 100 express b b b %. 2.R) 3. x% x . we mean that many hundredths. Working and Sleeping Partners: A partner who manages the the business is known as a working partner and the one who simply invests the money is a sleeping partner. written as x%. To express x% as a fraction: We have. Population n years ago R 1+ n = 100 4. = 100 Thus. 20% 20 1 = . then the reduction in consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is: R (100 + R) x 100 % If the price of a commodity decreases by R%. = 100 5 a a a To as a percent: We have. Results on Depreciation: % . then: R 1. Population after n years = 1+ n P 100 P 2. 1 1 = = x 100 Thus. Concept of Percentage: By a certain percent.

1676 etc. An ordinary year has 365 days. 2.R) Aptitude :: Calendar @ : Home > Aptitude > Calendar > Important Formulas 1. (ii). we use the concept of 'odd days'. Value of the machine n years ago R 1n = 100 3. the number of days more than the complete weeks are called odd days. 2. In a given period. None of the years 2001. Value of the machine after n years = 1n P 100 P 2. 1 leap year = 366 days = (52 weeks + 2 days) 1 leap year has 2 odd days. 2004. 1200.Let the present value of a machine be P. then B is less than A by 4. Note: A leap year has 366 days. 3. if it is not a century. Each of the years 1948. 2100 is a leap year. 1 ordinary year = 365 days = (52 weeks + 1 day. 4. R x 100 (100 . ii. 800. then B is more than A by R (100 + R) x 100 %. Odd Days: We are supposed to find the day of the week on a given date. If A is R% more than B.) 1 ordinary year has 1 odd day. is a leap year. iii. Each of the years 400. 2000 etc. If A is R% less than B. Ordinary Year: The year which is not a leap year is called an ordinary years. 1800. Suppose it depreciates at the rate of R% per annum. 100 years = 76 ordinary years + 24 leap years . is a leap year. 2002. Every 4th century is a leap year and no other century is a leap year. For this. Every year divisible by 4 is a leap year. Examples: i. 2003. Counting of Odd Days: 1. Leap Year: (i). 3. 1600. Then: R 1. 2005.

called minute spaces. it is said to be 15 minutes too slow. = 360°. the smaller one is called the hour hand or short hand while the larger one is called minute hand or long hand. 2000 years etc. Results on Triangles: i. of days: 0 Day: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sun. they are 15 minute spaces apart. Number of odd days in 200 years = (5 x 2) Number of odd days in 300 years = (5 x 3) 3 odd days. Tues. vii. Day of the Week Related to Odd Days: No. if it indicates 7. Minute Spaces: The face or dial of watch is a circle whose circumference is divided into 60 equal parts. iv. viii. 1600 years. vi. i. Hour Hand and Minute Hand: A clock has two hands. Sat. the minute hand gains 55 minutes on the hour on the hour hand. Wed. Fri. In 60 minutes. both the hands coincide once. they are 30 minute spaces apart. when the correct time is 8. ii. When the hands are in opposite directions. 2. Mon. 1 odd day. Aptitude :: Clock @ : Home > Aptitude > Clock > Important Formulas 1. Sum of the angles of a triangle is 180°.15. Aptitude :: Area @ : Home > Aptitude > Area > Important Formulas FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1. Number of odd days in 100 years = 5. ii. v.45. On the other hand. = (17 weeks + days) 5 odd days. If a watch or a clock indicates 8. 5. when the correct time is 8. 0 odd day. has 0 odd days. Number of odd days in 400 years = (5 x 4 + 1) Similarly. iii. . it is said to be 15 minutes too fast.= (76 x 1 + 24 x 2) odd days = 124 odd days. Angle traced by hour hand in 12 hrs = 360° Angle traced by minute hand in 60 min. The hands are in the same straight line when they are coincident or opposite to each other. each one of 800 years. In every hour. Thurs. 1200 years. When the two hands are at right angles. The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.

Area of a triangle = s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) where a. A parallelogram and a rectangle on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. Area of a rectangle = (Length x Breadth). vi. 3. Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (Length + Breadth) x Height. Area of a triangle = x Base x Height. III. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a a . v. Of all the parallelogram of given sides. (Hypotenuse)2 = (Base)2 + (Height)2. is called centroid. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2(Length + Breadth). The median of a triangle divides it into two triangles of the same area. Pythagoras Theorem: In a right-angled triangle. vi. . c are the sides of the triangle and s = (a + b + c). The area of the triangle formed by joining the mid-points of the sides of a given triangle is onefourth of the area of the given triangle. The line joining the mid-point of a side of a triangle to the positive vertex is called the median. Results on Quadrilaterals: i. v. In an isosceles triangle. The diagonals of a rhombus are unequal and bisect each other at right angles. b. iii. = 4. Each diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into triangles of the same area. the parallelogram which is a rectangle has the greatest area. 2. 2. The diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right angles. Area Area Length and Breadth = . = 3 6. Area of an equilateral triangle 3 x 4 (side)2. Area of a square = (side)2 = (diagonal)2. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. ii. 1. V. 1. The centroid divided each of the medians in the ratio 2 : 1. = Breadth Length II. Area of parallelogram = (Base x Height). viii. IMPORTANT FORMULAE I. Radius of incircle of a triangle of area and semi-perimeter s = s VI. Area of a rhombus = x (Product of diagonals).iii. The point where the three medians of a triangle meet. vii. Area of a trapezium = x (sum of parallel sides) x distance between them. 3. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a a . The diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other. 2. vii. iv. iv. 1. 2. IV. the altitude from the vertex bisects the base. = 23 5.

l = h2 + r2 units. 4. Circumference of a circle = 2 R. Area of semi-circle R2 . SPHERE Let the radius of the sphere be r. iii. ii. 5. units. i. 2. Total surface area = 2 r(h + r) sq. Area of a circle = R2. breadth = b and height = h units. Diagonal = l2 + b2 + h2 units. 3. i. iv. Then. units. Area of a sector 1 R2 (arc x R)= . i. 2. iii. 3. CYLINDER Let radius of base = r and Height (or length) = h. CUBOID Let length = l. 1. units. CONE Let radius of base = r and Height = h. ii. units. Then. ii. i. ii. 4. Volume = r3 cubic units. Length of an arc 2 R . = 2 Aptitude :: Volume and Surface Area @ : Home > Aptitude > Volume and Surface Area > Important Formulas 1. CUBE Let each edge of a cube be of length a. Volume = r2h cubic units. where is the central = 360 angle. Then i. Slant height. Surface area = 6a2 sq. units. 2. Total surface area = ( rl + r2) sq. iii. Diagonal = 3a units. iii. Volume = ( r2h) cubic units. 1. Then.VII. Volume = (l x b x h) cubic units. Surface area = 2(lb + bh + lh) sq. Volume = a3 cubic units. Curved surface area = (2 rh) sq. = 2 360 VIII. Curved surface area = ( rl) sq. Circumference of a semi-circle = R. Then. units. . where R is the radius.

Annexing Zeros and Removing Decimal Signs: Annexing zeros to the extreme right of a decimal fraction does not change its value.25 25 1 = . i. units. Volume = r3 cubic units. etc.b)(a2 + ab + b2) vii. Then. (a3 . Thus. Conversion of a Decimal into Vulgar Fraction: Put 1 in the denominator under the decimal point and annex with it as many zeros as is the number of digits after the decimal point. Thus. When a + b + c = 0. then we remove the . iii. If numerator and denominator of a fraction contain the same number of decimal places. Some Basic Formulae: i. units. then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.b2) ii. units.008 = 2008 251 = .800. Now. 99 7 = 7 thousandths = .3abc) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 . 10 = 99 hundredths = . 1000 125 3. .01. Surface area = (4 r2) sq.b3) = (a . (a + b)2 = (a2 + b2 + 2ab) iii.2ab) iv.b)2 = (a2 + b2 . = 100 4 2. Note: 1 litre = 1000 cm3. 0.80 = 0.8 = 0.007.ab .99. (a . HEMISPHERE Let the radius of a hemisphere be r.b) = (a2 . (a3 + b3 + c3 .ii. 0. remove the decimal point and reduce the fraction to its lowest terms.ac) viii. (a + b)(a . Total surface area = (3 r2) sq.bc . ii. 0 2. (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) v. Curved surface area = (2 r2) sq. 10 100 .ab + b2) vi. (a3 + b3) = (a + b)(a2 . 1000 etc.1. 6. Aptitude :: Numbers @ : Home > Aptitude > Numbers > Important Formulas 1. Decimal Fractions: Fractions in which denominators are powers of 10 are known as decimal fractions. Aptitude :: Decimal Fraction @ : Home > Aptitude > Decimal Fraction > Important Formulas 1. Thus 1 1 = 1 hundredth = = 1 tenth = ..

in the product.777.. by the given counting number. > 0. Thus. Now 3 6 7 = = 0.00066 0. 0. Sum of decimal places = (1 + 2 + 3) = 6. .857 > 0. 2 x 2 x 2 = 8.002 = .000008 iv. put the decimal point to give as many places of decimal as there are in the dividend. The numbers so arranged can now be added or subtracted in the usual way.. Dividend contains 4 places of decimal. then convert each one of the given fractions in the decimal form. 2. ii. So. the decimal point is marked off to obtain as many places of decimal as is the sum of the number of decimal places in the given numbers. then such a number is called a .02 x . Now.0204 Ã· 17). a figure or a set of figures is repeated continuously.2 x 0. .066 = = = . Suppose we have to find the product (. Now. = 0.0204 Ã· 17 = 0.6. and fractions 57 9 order.006 5. Thus 0.11 x 100 11 . Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Fractions: The given numbers are so placed under each other that the decimal points lie in one column. 7 9 5 6.0012 v. Multiplication of a Decimal Fraction By a Power of 10: Shift the decimal point to the right by as many places as is the power of 10.32.2 x . Dividing a Decimal Fraction By a Counting Number: Divide the given number without considering the decimal point. Now. Multiplication of Decimal Fractions: Multiply the given numbers considering them without decimal point.6. 0. 6 7 3 > > . and arrange them accordingly.777. Comparison of Fractions: Suppose some fractions are to be arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude.073 x 10000 = 730.002). 0. 204 Ã· 17 = 12.9632 x 100 = 596. Now.02 x . iii. . Operations on Decimal Fractions: i. So. 5 7 9 0. Dividing a Decimal Fraction By a Decimal Fraction: Multiply both the dividend and the divisor by a suitable power of 10 to make divisor a whole number..84 184 8 = = . Now.decimal sign. Recurring Decimal: If in a decimal fraction.857.11 0. Since. in the quotient. Suppose we have to find the quotient (0. 5. Thus 1.00066 x 100 0.99 299 13 4.. 0. proceed as above. Let us to arrange the 3 6 7 in descending .

173. Thus 1 22 = 0.. If a set of figures is repeated. if a single figure is repeated. 0.Addition and S . = 90 90 6 9900 9900 Aptitude :: Simplification @ : Home > Aptitude > Simplification > Important Formulas 1. 'BODMAS' Rule: This rule depicts the correct sequence in which the operations are to be executed.. in which all the figures after the decimal point are repeated. D . Thus. it is expressed by putting a bar on the set. Converting a Mixed Recurring Decimal Into Vulgar Fraction: In the numerator..22 2251 = = . {} and ||. 0. first of all the brackets must be removed.067 = = 9 99 999 etc.1 15 1 2273 .3.Multiplication.16 16 . . take the difference between the number formed by all the digits after decimal point (taking repeated digits only once) and that formed by the digits which are not repeated.53 = .Subtraction Thus.of. .Bracket..142857142857. is called a pure recurring decimal.. Mixed Recurring Decimal: A decimal fraction in which some figures do not repeat and some of them are repeated. = 3. Eg. 0. 3 7 = 3. A . we must use the following operations strictly in the order: (i) of (ii) Division (iii) Multiplication (iv) Addition (v) Subtraction. = 0. M . then it is expressed by putting a dot on it. = 0. strictly in the order ().. n a recurring decimal. 0.Division. In the denominator. 0. is called a mixed recurring decimal. so as to find out the value of given expression. Here B . Converting a Pure Recurring Decimal into Vulgar Fraction: Write the repeated figures only once in the numerator and take as many nines in the denominator as is the number of repeating figures.333. in simplifying an expression. O .2273 = = .142857.recurring decimal. . take the number formed by as many nines as there are repeating digits followed by as many zeros as is the number of non-repeating digits.5 5 53 67 . Pure Recurring Decimal: A decimal fraction. After removing the brackets. 0.1733333. Thus.

iv. a m = am n an iii. am x an = am + n ii.2. 3. Surds: a n b n Let a be rational number and n be a positive integer such that a(1/n) = a Then. v. = iv. a0 = 1 2. Aptitude :: Surds and Indices @ : Home > Aptitude > Surds and Indices > Important Formulas 1. if a < 0 Thus. a b (a)n = a . we simplify the expression under the Virnaculum. Modulus of a Real Number: Modulus of a real number a is defined as |a| = a. 3. v. a = a(1/n) ii. (am)n = amn (ab)n = anbn a n= b vi. if a > 0 -a. a is called a surd of order n. Laws of Indices: i. Laws of Surds: i. Virnaculum (or Bar): When an expression contains Virnaculum. ab = a x b iii. before applying the 'BODMAS' rule. |5| = 5 and |-5| = -(-5) = 5.

c. while b and c are called mean terms. then c is called the third proportion to a and b. 2. (c : d). Third Proportional: a : b = c : d. 4 : 5 = 8 : 10 = 12 : 15. 4. then d is called the fourth proportional to a. 7. Compounded Ratio: 6. Mean Proportional: Mean proportional between a and b is ab. (e : f) is (ace : bdf). Comparison of Ratios: We say that (a : b) > (c : d) a c > . c. Ratio: The ratio of two quantities a and b in the same units. Fourth Proportional: If a : b = c : d. we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a. In the ratio a : b. Eg. Also. Product of means = Product of extremes. The compounded ratio of the ratios: (a : b).vi. d are in proportion. Duplicate Ratios: . 3. b. (a)m = am Aptitude :: Ratio and Proportion @ : Home > Aptitude > Ratio and Proportion > Important Formulas 1. we call a as the first term or antecedent and b. the second term or consequent. 9 Rule: The multiplication or division of each term of a ratio by the same non-zero number does not affect the ratio. Thus. 4 : 6 = 2 : 3. a : b :: c : d (b x c) = (a x d). Here a and d are called extremes. If a : b = c : d. consequent = 9. The ratio 5 : 9 represents 5 with antecedent = 5. Proportion: The equality of two ratios is called proportion. b d 5. b. is the fraction and we write it as a : b. Eg.

Outlet: A pipe connected with a tank or cistern or reservoir. is known as an inlet. = xy 5. then = fb d a-b c-d 8. if x = ky for some constant k and we write. If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in y hours (where y > x).Duplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a2 : b2). Triplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a3 : b3). . Ia c a+b c+d = . = x 3. is known as an outlet. If a pipe can empty a tank in y hours. that fills it. If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours. then on opening both the pipes. If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in y hours (where y > x). emptying it. = yx . = y 4. 2.. then the net part emptied in 1 hour 1 1 . Inlet: A pipe connected with a tank or a cistern or a reservoir. then: part filled in 1 hour 1 . then on opening both the pipes.. Sub-duplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a : b). if xy = k for some constant k and we write. x 1 . Variations: We say that x is directly proportional to y. Sub-triplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a1/3 : b1/3). then: part emptied in 1 hour 1 . x We say that x is inversely proportional to y. then the net part filled in 1 hour 1 1 . y y. [componendo and dividendo] Aptitude :: Pipes and Cistern @ : Home > Aptitude > Pipes and Cistern > Important Formulas 1.

other than 1 and am = x. log3 81 = 4. Properties of Logarithms: 1. log(.b) km/hr. 34 = 81 (iii). 2.01 = 2. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number. Examples: (i). 3. Speed upstream = (u . And.v) km/hr. the direction against the stream is called upstream. Aptitude :: Logarithm @ : Home > Aptitude > Logarithm > Important Formulas 1. loga 1 = 0 5. (a .Aptitude :: Boats and Streams @ : Home > Aptitude > Boats and Streams > Important Formulas 1. log2 1 =8 3. loga (xy) = loga x + loga + y 2. then: Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr. 2-3 1 = 8 (iv). If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the speed of the stream is v km/hr. then we write: m = logax and we say that the value of log x to the base a is m. 2. loga (xn) = n(loga x) .1)2 = .loga y y 3. Downstream/Upstream: In water. 103 1000 (ii). the direction along the stream is called downstream. loga x = loga x . logx x = 1 4.01 log10 1000 = 3.1) . If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr. (. then: Speed in still water = Rate of stream 1 = 2 1 (a + b) 2 km/hr.

the race is said to be dead heat race. sailing or rowing is called a race. Case I: When the number is greater than 1. A is at the starting point and B is ahead of A by 12 metres. a start of 12 metres'. 2. Start: Suppose A and B are two contestants in a race. the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of the decimal point in the given number.1 6. etc. Case II: When the number is less than 1. 2 (two bar). namely 'characteristic' and 'mantissa'. 7. 5. loga x logx = a 7. In this case. Winner: The person who first reaches the winning point is called a winner. 4. Winning Point or Goal: The point set to bound a race is called a winning point or a goal. . Dead Heat Race: If all the persons contesting a race reach the goal exactly at the same time. For mantissa.3547 Mantissa: The decimal part of the logarithm of a number is known is its mantissa. If before the start of the race. Instead of -1. = logb a log a 3. Starting Point: The point from which a race begins is known as a starting point. Examples:Number Characteristic Number Characteristic 654. -2 etc.6453 1 0. 6. the characteristic is one more than the number of zeros between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative. In this case. 2 1 0 0.00123 3 Aptitude :: Races and Games @ : Home > Aptitude > Races and Games > Important Formulas 1. we write 1 (one bar). 4. Race Course: The ground or path on which contests are made is called a race course.06134 2 0.649 8. Common Logarithms: Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms. The logarithm of a number contains two parts. then we say that 'A gives B. Characteristic: The internal part of the logarithm of a number is called its characteristic. Races: A contest of speed in running. driving. loga x logb x log x = . we look through log table.24 26. 3. riding.

Sample Space: When we perform an experiment. A pack of cards has 52 cards. Aptitude :: Probability @ : Home > Aptitude > Probability > Important Formulas 1. 6 respectively.12) = 88 metres.To cover a race of 100 metres in this case. 5. iv. When we throw a die. These are all called face cards. Experiment: An operation which can produce some well-defined outcomes is called an experiment. 8. Examples: i. then the set S of all possible outcomes is called the sample space. 3. Cards of spades and clubs are black cards. Clubs. Drawing a card from a pack of well-shuffled cards. Rolling an unbiased dice.12) = 88 m. When we throw a coin. If A scores 100 points while B scores only 80 points. having 6 faces. B runs (100 . It has 13 cards of each suit. 2. Hearts and Diamonds. Picking up a ball of certain colour from a bag containing balls of different colours. the outcome is the number that appears on its upper face. There are 4 honours of each unit. 2. 4. marked 1. Queens and Jacks. 'A can give B 12 m' or 'A can give B a start of 12 m' or 'A beats B by 12 m' means that while A runs 100 m. name Spades. In a 100 race. Cards of hearts and diamonds are red cards. . 3. vii. Details: v. is called a random experiment. A will have to cover 100 metres while B will have to cover only (100 . Tossing a fair coin. vi. There are Kings. means that the person among the contestants who scores 100 points first is the winner'. iii. then either a Head (H) or a Tail (T) appears. ii. then we say that 'A can give B 20 points'. Random Experiment: An experiment in which all possible outcomes are know and the exact output cannot be predicted in advance. Games: 'A game of 100. A dice is a solid cube.

So.) + (T.(P. We say that: Sum due = Rs. i.D. 3. 56 = (Sum due) . 4.Event: Any subset of a sample space is called an event. 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. Rs.W. 156 in 4 years. B) Aptitude :: True Discount @ : Home > Aptitude > True Discount > Important Formulas IMPORTANT CONCEPTS Suppose a man has to pay Rs. i. and true discount is reckoned on the amount. 156 due 4 years hence. S = {H.W. we have.W.D.) Interest is reckoned on P.D. the payment of Rs.Examples: 1. Amount = (P. 156 due 4 years hence.. then P(A) = 1 . Clearly. S = {1. HT. P(E) n(E) .W. In rolling a dice. E S. (156 . IMPORTANT FORMULAE Let rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. Then.) = Rs.) We define: T. 1.W. In tossing a coin. = Interest on P. 5. Present Worth (P.P(A).Probability of Occurrence of an Event: Let S be the sample and let E be an event.) = Rs. 6}. T} If two coins are tossed. 2. Then.100) = Rs. 4.Results on Probability: v. the S = {HH. TH. 2. TT}. = n(S) 6. now will clear off the debt of Rs.W. v. 100 at 14% will amount to R. True Discount (T. i. 100. P(S) = 1 0 P (E) 1 P( ) = 0 For any events A and B we have : P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) . 5. 3. P. 100 x Amount = 100 x .P(A If A denotes (not-A).

D. When the sum is put at compound interest. RxT Amount x R x 2.) . Amount 5.D.W.D.) = 100 + (R x T) 4.W.(T.) x R x T = T = 100 100 + (R x T) (S. Sum (T. then P.) = S.) . (S. T. on T. (P.) x 3.D.I.T.I.I.D.D.(T.) = (S.I. R = 1+ T 100 .

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