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Ruhleder - Franz Kafka's 'Das Urteil'~ an Interpretation

Ruhleder - Franz Kafka's 'Das Urteil'~ an Interpretation

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Franz Kafka's "Das Urteil": An Interpretation Author(s): Karl H. Ruhleder Source: Monatshefte, Vol. 55, No.

1, Franz Kafka Number (Jan., 1963), pp. 13-22 Published by: University of Wisconsin Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30161841 . Accessed: 05/01/2011 16:22
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But did Kafka intend to indicate in our Novelle that the water is about to be impregnated. recognize that the word Verkehr possesses the basic quality of a symbol. the fall from the bridge. the water which Bendemann touches split seconds later? The literary prototype of this scene provides more information: Hesiod reports that the semen of Uranus. " The universal meaning cannot be inferred from the last sentence alone. I had in mind a violent ejaculation. But what is the universal meaning this word stands for? Ejaculation. who had been emasculated. If Max Brod had not published Franz Kafka's statement explaining the true meaning of the last sentence of his Novelle Das Urteil. RUHLEDER Queens College 1. everybody would indeed reject such an interpretation as far-fetched. For Kafka said to Brod: "Do you know what the last sentence means? When I wrote it. and it is up to us to discover the universal meaning of the symbol and of the Novelle by connecting the meaning of other words which conceal their symbolic power. The semen then procreates Alraune in the womb of the prostitute."2 The bridge is already mentioned in the sentences preceding the last. but the word "bridge" cannot contain the meaning "ejaculation." either alone or in the context of the sentence. Both representations have in common the motif of ejaculation immediately before the condemned one meets his death. Kafka says no more.4 where the condemned person suffers an ejaculation in the moment immediately preceding his death. But the word stands in a sentence which follows the carrying out of a sentence of death. the words unendlicher Verkehr must contain the meaning "violent ejaculation." The meaning "ejaculation" per se is obviously represented in the German word Verkehr. denoting both vehicular traffic and sexual intercourse. the first half of the sentence merely points to the simultaneousness of another event. thus the remaining elements. We know about its real and literal meaning: it pictures a concrete problem of modern cities."1 With these words Kafka explained the true meaning hidden under the reality of the image in the last sentence: "In diesem Augenblick ging iiber die Briicke ein geradezu unendlicher Verkehr. namely two different meanings which are of equal importance to the reader.FRANZ KAFKA'S "DAS URTEIL": AN INTERPRETATION KARL H. with . And we must. therefore. The essential point is that the literal meaning in the context of an action which takes place in the business world of this century contains a meaning which leads into a completely different sphere of human life. engendered Venus. the Goddess of Love. so that the simultaneousness of the ejaculation and the fall to death call to mind Hanns Heinz Ewers' novel Alraune.

Its meaning is indeed the impregnation of the water. for this report is indeed the prototype of the central problem of our Novelle: the rebellion of the son (Cronus) against the father (Uranus).14 Monatshcfte the water. too. the imminent procreation of a love about whose qualities we cannot say anything at this moment. 2. completely expanded and floating in the air. the struggle between Uranus and Cronus. Hesiod. . um das darzustellen.5 What these three representations have in common is the element of involuntary procreation in a moment when punishment is being carried out. some of the representations show him holding his garment in an are over his head. gives a description of the father in which the prototype Uranus is easily recognized. and this fact lends the word Verkehr (intercourse / traffic) a more definite meaning in its connection with the simultaneousness of the infliction of punishment through the fall into the water: the universal meaning of the symbol seems to be the imminent procreation with the water. for it is modeled after Hesiod's report as well as representations in the pictorial arts. daB sie einen Augenblick im Fluge sich ganz entfaltete. the conversation between father and son. the way the father holds the blanket in our Novelle." (S. But the remark about the Kriegsjahre alludes to the old war of the generations. the scar unequivocally alludes to it. Nur eine Hand hielt er leicht an den Plafond. Kafka writes: " 'Nein!' rief der Vater.Verkehr-Ejakulation . 63). . for the reign of Uranus was thereby ended at the hands of his son Cronus. The wound itself was obviously inflicted before this time. In Hesiod's and Kafka's passages. Ewers creates by means of artificial insemination a female who personifies love. The central scene of the Novelle. a new love possessing the quality of Aphrodite. Although the passage does not describe the act of emasculation. daB man auf seinem Oberschenkel die Narbe aus seinen Kriegsjahren sah" (S. the sperm is conceived by the water. now it is cicatrized. and we must assume that a new love is to be created. . too. sein Hemd so hoch. The image of Uranus in the center of our Novelle makes us recognize that the symbol at its end . is mentioned in the Novelle when the father says: "' . the central theme of our Novelle is that of the revolt Consequently of the son (Cronus) against the father (Uranus). . .is closely connected with its center and Hesiod's report as well. die widerliche Gans. weil sie die Rocke so gehoben hat. we can therefore agree neither with Claude-Edmonde . 62) Although there are only a few traces of Uranus in the pictorial arts.6 But Hesiod's report of the emasculation. In our interpretation of the central scene. The scars on the inside of the upper parts of her thighs point to a kind of pre-existence as a mermaid.' und er hob. reports a sentence of death. warf die Decke zuriick mit einer Kraft. und stand aufrecht im Bett. Our definition of the symbolic meaning of the word Verkehr rests predominantly on Hesiod's report of the birth of Aphrodite.

58). his supreme authority and goal. In the office. The father's decrepitude is not seen and reported by Georg until the father asks: "Hast du wirklich diesen Freund in Petersburg?" (S. alles wird mit iibertragen werden" (S. A change of rooms would therefore result in Georg's taking over the position of his father. and she writes: "Kafka deified his father.' sagte der Vater leise. and not to the transport of objects. In the beginning of the scene. . Mme. Georg talks to him in a business-like tone and casually says: "Ich wollte dir eigentlich nur sagen. For the participle iibertragen refers to some intangible entity. the soul of this room. ohne Bewegung" (S. no doubt is thrown on the existence of the friend in Petersburg. and Georg is made to realize that he is different. He begins to undress his father. but doubt is thrown on the existence of the bond of friendship. then he solidly sits with his arms crossed. . The father ends the scene by saying only one word: "'Georg. he is standing in the darkness and coolness of the room. 59) This question is obviously unpleasant for Georg. Flores. 58). the second the deification of father Kafka. bases her interpretation predominantly on the Letter to My Father. on the other hand. 60)."Das Urteil" 15 Magny nor Kate Flores. This word seems to express neither support nor reproach. For the intended coolness and the natural twilight9 in the father's room. ich hierher.But what happens in the central scene? The first scene in the central section reports Georg's attempt to persuade the father to change rooms with him. The question itself triggers in Georg a flood of observations which seem to express his concern for the father.."8 The first of these interpretations asserts the progressive senilization. for later in the story we learn that the father also corresponds with the friend. 60). But if the reader carefully weighs the meaning of the following sentences: "Diei Zimmer werden wir wechseln.7 Mme. The father would not only be deprived of the atmosphere of his room but of his implicit superiority as well. In the beginning we learn that relations between the father and Georg were for months limited almost exclusively to matters concerning the joint management of the business. then he must concede that the extent of the change would indeed be enormous. The power of Kafka's symbolism remained concealed from both interpreters. To be sure. who is growing weaker and weaker and finally rests on Georg's breast. which lend it an almost sacral atmosphere. Es wird keine Verlinderung fiir dich sein. du wirst ins Vorderzimmer ziehen. however. daB ich nun doch nach Petersburg meine Verlobung angezeigt habe" (S. for it incites him to new deeds. 58). Magny's analysis proceeds from the assumption that the father is insane and that his verdict fully confirms this assumption. could not be duplicated in Georg's room. assuming an attitude of superiority (S. nevertheless Georg considers it a reproach. the father still is the giant of a man he always was (S. nothing whatsoever hinted at the senile condition of the father as it is reported in the course of the meeting.

freilich babe ich Komidie gespielt!'" (S.Verkehr-Ejakulation . Er konnte ihn nicht gleich ins Bett legen. The logical denouement of the scene of the rebellion against the God-Father is his verdict. And in consequent continuation of the analogy. and now he is suppressinga new rebellion which takes place in our century.becomes intelligible to every- one.16 Monatshefte playing with his watch chain. 'Ja. 6i) Although the literal meaning of the passageseems to emphasize the senility of the father. 3. 63) The central scene. aber noch eigentlicherwarst du ein teuflischerMensch!'" (S. that the old war of the generationsis being enacted here when the father is placed in a position ." (S.die Augen erstarrt. the word Uhrkette is the key to the real meaning of the passage.11 the modern form of the punishment(ejaculation) which had been executed on Uranus (emasculation). 65) The reason for the verdict is. 65). "Ein schreckliches Gefiihl hatte er [Georg].in which the emasculation took place in the past. For Kafka wants to point out that the watch is in Georg's pocket. erkanntesofort den Schaden und biB. A long time ago he had been the victim of a rebellion of his son. we must arrive at the following definition of our symbol (Verin kehr-Ejakulation the moment of the fall from the bridge into the it meansthe creation of a new love whose qualitiesapproximate water).he is lying in bed . the fact that Georg Bendemann is a human being who combines in himself the innocence of a child and something devilish. Its wording connects the verdict proper with the preceding sentence. nur zu spiit . Both protagonist and antagonist are fully aware of the fact that they are playing an old role. daB an seiner Brust der Vater mit seiner Uhrkette spielte. als er wiihrend der paar Schritte zum Bett hin merkte. And after this scene the meaning of the last image and its symbol . then. The scene is followed immediatelyby the representation of the father with the blanket hovering in the air (Uranus in the pictorial arts) and the allusion to the emasculationthrough the word Narbe. At that time as well as now. which explains why the God-Fatherhanded down his ruling: "'Ein unschuldigesKind warst du ja eigentlich.in seine Zunge. those of Aphrodite. "Und darum wisse" precedes the verdict as an anouncement. It reads: "'Und darum wisse: Ich verurteile dich jetzt zum Tode des Ertrinkens!'" (S. daB er vor Schmerz einknickte. for Georg as well as the father concede that they have been playing a comedy: "'Kom6diant!'konnte sich Georg zu rufen nicht enthalten. water is the conceiving element. the scene does of course not portray father Kafka but a God-Father. The use of the words unschuldig and teuflisch indicates that the action is being continued in a distinctly . For Georg-Cronussuffers in the sense of Dante's contrapasso. This fact in turn makes us realize that Georg is playing the role of Cronus10versus Uranus in this scene. so fest hielt er sich an dieser Uhrkette. does not portray a senile but an old father. to be sure.

" (S. he spies (erspiiht) an Autoomnibus. erspiihte zwischen den Gelinderstangen einen Autoomnibus. visually dominating. For God Himself dies for us. der mit Leichtigkeit seinen Fall iibert6nen wiirde. Flores when she comments on Herbert Tauber's interpretation: 12 "Mr." (S. Nevertheless the God-Father combines the Christian as well as the pre-Christian characteristics (hovering blanket and scar): on the one hand He sentences the Son to death because the Son rebelled against Him at this time just as Cronus rebelled at that time. and by using these words the God-Father makes himself known as the God of Christianity. wie ein Hungriger die Nahrung. The corresponding infliction of punishment is expressed in the symbol Verkebr-Ejakulation of the last sentence. He also sentences the "innocent child" in Georg Bendemann. Georg is driven toward the water. to be sure. The action of espying is therefore the most intensive attempt to direct the reader's attention to the cause." At the same time the verb directs our attention to the object of the search which. who is driven to the water after the ruling has been handed down. belongs to the sphere of modern problems of transportation. and the purpose of the verdict . 65) But this is neither the last nor the first of the Christian symbols. Georg is holding on to the railing of the bridge in such a manner that his outstretched body and the roadway of the bridge form a cross. the God-Father sentences His Son: "'Jesus!' rief sie und verdeckte mit der Schiirze ihr Gesicht. aber er war schon davon. like the word Verkehr. Tauber finds religious meaning in the mere word 'above. In the interpretation of this scene again we cannot agree with Mmine. The symbol of the cross is. 65-66) According to this passage. After all. Er schwang sich iiber. in a seemingly last effort to hold on to life. but also the effort of "finding out completely. als der ausgezeichnete Turner. and this principle "self for all" (Autoonmibus) indeed drowns out (i2bertont) the fall of . Noch hielt er sich mit schwiicher werdenden Hiinden fest. is the meaning of this Autoomnibus in the series of Christian symbols? The most literal. rief leise: 'Liebe Eltern. the wording. The purpose.and Georg's position is at the same time the expression of his physical helplessness." and in the succession of Christian symbols it means that God himself dies for all of us in Georg Bendemann. But what.' and even in the charwoman's exclamation 'Jesus!' " '3 For precisely the word "Jesus" is the most powerful of the Christian symbols in the final scene which follows the verdict. then. Nevertheless. Undoubtedly the purpose is expressed in the words Autoomnibus and Fall. for translated it means "self for all. The verb erspdhen expresses the effort of searching for something."Das Urteil" 17 Christian sphere. ich habe euch doch immer geliebt.' und lieB sich fallen. On the other hand. and Kafka continues: "Schon hielt er das Gelinder fest. der er in seinen Jugendjahren zum Stolz seiner Eltern gewesen war.

must be truly universal. for justice and love are the motives of redemption. For the floating down per se representsthe idea that the divine principle had to descend into man to makeitself perceptible. Kafka speaks of the nature of this new period through his symbols only. This is." At first the word jetzt seems to point only to the present time. however. The Christiansymbols of the last scene and the pre-Christian symbol (the impregnationof the water) indicate however that the creation of a new life and above all of a new love is imminent. The cause. they write each other letters. The fact that Georg accepts the verdict without opposition indicatesthat one of the motives is justice. for the God-Father says: "Ich verurteile dich jetzt zum Tode des Ertrinkens. of course.the verdict per se. as if it were explainingthe verdict as the consequence of the rebellion. not the case.worthy of love."14 In conformity with Christianand anti-Christian prophecies. of The representation this natureseems to be the friend with whom both Georg and the God-Father correspond. "Now" it is happeningagain. this third period is expected to bring forth new life and a new love. since the cause is stated in the sentence preceding the verdict. the old war of the generations was re-enacted in this second period. the innocent childlike nature? 4. namely at the beginning of our Christian era. places redemption in a much larger context."at the beginning of the Christianera. What is the meansof redemption? The question seems to be answered in another symbol. when once before a similar sentence of death had been handed down. the future period which is to be brought about by this verdict "now. In the case of carnallyminded mankindthis could only be accomplished by incarnation. and there can be no doubt that his devilish-humannature is representedin the Georg who comes to see his father. the Uranus aspect of the God-Fatherbelongs to this period. But where does his second nature reveal itself. According to the literal meaning. according to the combinedChristianand pre-Christian symbols. The purpose of the verdict is redemption. who with his spiritualand sensualnature turned away from God and toward sin. the period preceding the first verdict that had been pronounced "then.which. 3. the figurative meaning asserts the existence of a correspondence. or even consubstan- .conformity.18 Monatshfeite man. the word jetzt also points to the past. and the beginning of the new future is imminent: the Son lets himself drop but does not yet touch the water. the staircase which Georg seems to float down after the sentencing. and worthy of imitation. We found that the cause of the verdict and redemption was Georg Bendemann'sduality. the period between "then" and "now". To be sure. The wording. Our little word jetzt consciously divides world history into three periods: i. But in the context of the sentence. 2.

undoubtedly as a challenge to take upon themselves the sufferings of Christ. 54) and.mit. the text must also define the innocent-childlike and consequently basically different nature of this friend. they correspond (S. this ego per se would have been a Son after the Father's heart (S. 54). 64). the unfamiliar full beard he wore did not quite conceal the face George had known so well since childhood (S. for the ego undoubtedly took upon itself the sufferings of . 53). diese Hand erhob und die Menge anrief" (S. it seems to be the "innocent child" the GodFather mentions in the sentence preceding the verdict. 56) indicates that the substance of the friend no longer conforms to Georg's qualities. 61). 53). He lived in an isolation that was peculiar to him (in seiner Fremde. 55)We believe that the passages referred to clearly show that the friend is part of Georg's ego. S. not ohne . for he is different and not like these friends. and to this ego is directed the appeal of the priest. Since the central scene of the Novelle pictured Georg as the devilish rebel against the God-Father. so that we must assume that this friend is indeed Georg's second nature. He stayed alive (worked hard without deriving a profit from his work. For quite some time this friend has been living in an almost absolute isolation (expressed by the words "St. arbeitet sich nutzlos ab. But the antithesis is ohne in. 64). S. And the besondere Korrespondernzverhiiltnis (S. he would find his bearings neither without nor in his friends (S. And undoubtedly the friend possesses none of those qualities responsible for Georg's success in business. Georg and the friend are indeed so different that the friend's flight caused Georg's success: "Nun hatte aber Georg seit jener Zeit. assuming greater intimacy with Georg. The aforementioned passages already indicate that the friend is a being who intentionally detached himself from the sphere dominated by Georg and whose quality consists of his ability to stay alive. "der sich ein breites Blutkreuz in die flache Hand schnitt. The peculiar antithesis omhne in (one would expect ohme . to a lesser degree with Georg Bendemann. For Kafka says that Georg cannot cut himself to another pattern that might make a more suitable friend for him (S. 56). The friend would not get on with the friends. It is closely connected with the God-Father.mit) contains a further definition of the quality of the friend from Petersburg. Petersburg" and "Russia") into which the friend has actually fled (S. the other ego that has detached itself intentionally from Georg. 53). and finally God has gloriously united Himself with the ego. "hat sich herrlich [die Herrlichkeit is one of God's attributes] mit ihm verbunden" (S. 62). so wie alles andere. to a larger degree with the God-Father. within the circle of factors which constitute the other part of Bendemann's nature. 53) but had almost no social intercourse (S. which would not get on in (within) Georg."Das Urteil" 19 tiality. auch sein Geschift mit gr6oerer Entschlossenheit angepackt" (S.

in temporary subjection to. Both words reveal their symbolic power in the context of the symbolic meaning.20 Monatshefte Christ. The author. that he is the greatest thing they have in common. knows the hopelessness of the rebellion. But Kafka goes even further and lets Bendemann perceive why he suffers by showing him the principle "self for all" (Autoomnitbus). 65). in the human being ensnared in the commercial spirit of our time. for Kundschaft undoubtedly alludes to the frohe Botschaft (Greek euaggelion). but also in rebellion against the God-Father. then we are justified in qualifying the being of the friend as a Christian substance. Their images. or rather fits together like the teeth of two combs.Kafka breaks down. since it must have emanated from Him. who cannot reconcile it with himself. a Komoidie (S. so that the resulting action on this mutual third level contradicts all the images and ideas of our minds. Our Novelle represents Kafka's innermost struggle. on two different levels. the discord of his existence. On the other hand. for his Cronus-ego opposes the unconditional submission to an ego that emanated from God and reunited itself with Him. although the action on the mutual third level takes place in the business world we are well acquainted with. for Bendemann's sufferings consummate the redemptive purpose. Kafka makes the actors of his ego suffer in performing their roles the way he himself suffered. But in spite of everything the rebellion against the Father is merely a performance. The Georg of our Novelle is perhaps not fully aware of this from the beginning. for this substance is "innocent" and consubstantial with the Father so that He reunites Himself with the substance (S. the Christian substance is also in Georg Bendemann. 63). Kafka identifies himself closely with Bendemann in a diary entry. Such is the nature of the literal meaning of the story." however. is not quite compatible with the story. The action on both levels meshes like two cog wheels. and the old newspaper (Zeitung) which he had somehow taken to bed with him (S. are interrupted and inserted into the fragments of a series of images representing a different level of thought. however. and Zeitung in the sentence "eine . For the God-Father's reference to Georg's customers (Kundschaft) which he has in his pocket (S. the mention of the "old newspaper. the level dominated by Georg and the level of the Petersburg ego. The word Kundschaft belongs to the business story and strengthens the literal meaning. 65) fit in with the universal meaning. which on their own level produce a continuous flow of thoughts. 5. But at this moment the parallel Bendemann .16 so that the Georg and the friend of our Novelle seem to be the projection of his own ego which faces the God-Father. however. The images of our Novelle do not permit an identification with father Kafka's business enterprise. When Kafka says in his diary15 that the friend is the link between father and son. 64).

. die es ahnunesweise anzeigt. in incoherent images and episodes. The following entry in Kafka's diary seems to summarize the theme as well as the manner of representation: Zwischen Freiheit und Sklaverei kreuzen sich die wirklichen schrecklichen Wege ohne Fiihrung fiir die kommende Strecke und unter sofortigem Verl6schen der schon zuriickgelegten. je tiefer man in den Einzelfall . Page references in the text are to this edition. . und die Gr6o3e meines Leidens liegt weit unter jenem Leiden. .und zwar so. Solcher Wege gibt es unzihlige oder nur einen.17 The theme of our Novelle is based on its prototypes.wobei man dann je nach der Entfemung der Schnittebene. wie das griechische Wort auch ausdriickt. 151r f. Bd. trans. as a series of perhaps only momentary connections of the human mind with the prototypes of tradition of whiich the mind is no longer conscious. The process of representation no longer is .horizontal." 4 Miinchen. and desiring love he embraced Gaia and lay over her stretched out complete. Und zwar all dies gleichzeitig. mit einem Georg schon ganz unbekannten Namen" (S. die den Einzelfall ins Grenzenlose ausstrahlen liift. life seems indeed to be enacted on a central level. 2"7: "Das Symbol steht auf beiden Ebenen zugleich. 1911. Ich leide nicht iibermliBig. auf der. die Angelegenheit des Individuums. Richmond Lattimore (Ann Arbor. in einer einzigen Situation. The individual feels only one thing: the terrible precariousness of his inner existence. S. for the restoration of property which has been lost or stolen. eine Biographie (Frankfurt. But exactly this vertical process is the proper way in which to represent human life in modern times. die man durch den Strahl legt. Beide Ebenen vereint es auf besondere Art. es hiuft sich nicht an. dal man. ist Sache der Spannkraft. 199): And huge Ouranos came on bringing night with him. Max Brod (New York: Schocken Books. man kann das nicht feststellen. Franz Kafka. 2Franz Kafka. ineinander zusammen. but isn't the business world the representation of the act of redemption? Originally "redemption" in biblical usage means the particular and definite act of paying a sum of money. op. '054). and holding in his right the enormous sickle with its long blade edged like teeth.if we may say so . Ich habe mich nicht zu beklagen. 65) gains significance only in the Christian sphere of the story: it means that the good news (euaggelion) has been forgotten. We seem to have arbitrarily torn these words out of the context of the business story. only the manner of representation has changed. or its equivalent. wirft sie. S. das mir vielleicht zuk~me. Ich kann nicht weg. . mit denselben rWorten. "Das Urteil. and from his hiding place his son reached with his left hand and seized him. denn es gibt keine Obersicht. "Hesiod. Theogony. 66." Gesavrmelte Schriften. . denn ich leide nicht zusammenhlingend. And according to Kafka's manner of representation. a We agree with Max Brod's definition of the symbol."Das Urteil" 21 alte Zeitung. ed. 1o46). Dort bin ich. ist geistiger Aufbruch. wenigstens fiihle ich es vorliiufip nicht. '8 Max Brod. but vertical. . eindrint. desto klarer auch das Allgemeine sieht. I. S. und auf der gegenstiindlich realen. des Volkes oder der Menschheit verhandelt findet. cit.

Kerr. (176-181) .". ogy (New York. 251. in der Bedeutung seiner Jugend (Bern. Zeitigenden. S. 1961)." Tagebiicher. A." "Es ist ja ganz warm drauBen. 16 "Der Freund ist die Verbindung zwischen Vater und Sohn. 1958). . 18 Tagebiicher. and the future . S. . p. 1946). (195) Bd. rein Leben und rein Werk (Weimar. Angel Flores (New York. er hilt sein Gewand im Bogen iiber sein Haupt (Himmelsgewilbe). I. Vollendenden. three tenses to this [redemption]: the past . n. Franz Kafka: Eine Biographie Franz Kafka: An Interpretation his Works 12Herbert Tauber. er ist ihre griBte . "The Judgment. and in it grew Aphrodite. 967: "Er ist das iiber der Erde schwebende Himmelsgewilbe (in der Kunst hilt er darum sein Gewand oft in einem Bogen iiber seinem Haupt). translatedand explainedby Karl StreckfuB. probably 1893. p. ed. 975: "In der bildenden Kunst hat Uranus o "Georg stauntedariiber. 12 ff.S." Paulys Realencyclopadie. 10The God of Time. and threw them behind him . nach dem Schuld und Strafe in einer gewissen Beziehungzueinanderstehen: Der Siinder soil ihnliches im engeren oder weiteren Sinne erleiden.22 Monatshefte he swung it sharply. "The Judgment."Franz Kafka Today. 971. 1948). Einen solchen Schatten warf also die hohe Mauer.. 1958). and lopped the membersof his father. Auf dem Panzer des Augustus von Primaportaist U. . "The Objective Depiction of Absurdity. Angel Flores and Homer Swander (Madison.. Tagebiicher (New York: Schocken Books. the present . Halbband. .or the new life which is lived because of what God in Christ has done." - .: U. Gemeinsamkeit. p. and resurrectionof Christ. and the gods call her a girl . Chr. was in Kafka's reference library. ." Norman Cohn." ' "Georg hat so viele Buchstabenwie Franz. wie sein Opfer (contra-patire). "Kronos ist ." wie auf dem Augustuspanzer 7 Claude-EdmondeMagny. 6Paulys Realencyclopiidie. 345. . S. p. Jhdt. (190-192) wenig Spuren hinterlassen.A volume of Dante's Divine Comedy. . 12. hiilt sein Gewand iiber sich. and in the phrase "the third Reich. S. 14The interpretation history as an ascent through three successive stages is not of new. 17. [they] drifted a great while on the open sea. . in ganzer Figur.or what God has done for sinful mankind in the life. It derived from Messianicpropheciesand reappearedin Auguste Comte's idea of history.-3. and there spread a circle of white foam from the immortalflesh. . Catalogue of reference library in: Karl Wagenbach. 13Op." The Kafka Problem. S. 8Kate Flores. Halbband. Himmelsgott . He may have been familiar with the idea of contrapasso. 1948). p. ." Hugh T. 17 Hugh T. cit.ed. Handbook of ChristianTheolHis Franz Kafka." of (New Haven. die sich jenseits des schmalenHofes erhob. Dante.An essay in a handbook of Christiantheology states: "There are. S. blirtig und nackt. In Bendemann ist 'mann' nur eine fiir alle noch unbekanntenMbglichkeitender Geschichte vorgenommene Verstiirkung von 'Bende. . (S. 297. death. 1947). 145: "Es ist das Gesetz der Wiedervergeltung. 17. 1958). 296. . as it were.' Bende aber hat ebenso viele Buchstabenwie Kafka und der Vokal e wiederholtsich an den gleichen Stellen wie der Vokal a in Kafka. The Pursuitof the Millenium(New York: Harper and Brothers. cit. Kerr. IX. ." sagte Georg. 58) Conversation between Georg and his father: "Das Fenster hast du auch geschlossen?" "Ich habe es so lieber. . 11 Friedrich Schneider.wie dunkel das Zimmer des Vaters selbst an diesem sonnigen Vormittag war. op. 23. Stuttgart. 83. nach oben blickend. zu sehen. 58) des Reifenden. . Unter den Berliner Skulpturen findet sich auch eine Statuette aus dem 2.I-II Bd.and men do too. in the Marxiandialectic." (S.or what God in Christ will yet do to consummate redemptivepurpose. . 297. S.

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