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ecosystems. Evolution by natural selection is a process that occurs over successive generations. Inheritance is a theory of how characteristics of one generation are derived from earlier generations. Cells theory is that all organisms are composed of cells and that all cells come from preexisting cells. Biological classification is a group of species who share physical characteristics. Bioenergetics is the energy that powers life and operates according to the same rules that govern energy in the universe. Ecosystem is organisms interacting with each other andith their environments. A change in any part of biological community or the physical environment invariably causes changes in other parts. Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism; that regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. There are examples of natural selection all over the news today. For example, a man run over, killed after falling off a bus because of the death of this man his genes will not be passed on to future generations. In the news, there are many examples of natural selection.
Species that diverged from the same ancestors were grouped into the same categories. Carolus Linneaus distinguished himself by classifying living organisms according to their similarities and differences. Thereafter. Biologists deal with millions of species. (3) Cells: Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. this one owes its discovery to technology.´ now called genes. Unlike Darwin¶s and Mendel¶s theories. the mechanism for this species change is called natural selection. Chapter 8 puts them in the context of Darwinian evolution and shows how intimately connected these two ideas²evolution and inheritance²really are. or characteristics. Gregor Mendel. First. Cells could not be observed until after the microscope was developed and refined around the beginning of the 17th century. (4) Biological Classification: Not all of biology¶s main ideas were first articulated in the 19th century. species (distinct forms of life) change or evolve over the generations. a process that continues today. classification schemes came to be based less on similarities and differences in form and more on evolutionary relatedness among species.(1) Evolution by Natural Selection: Charles Darwin was among the first to propose a scientifically testable explanation for the diversity of life. people could see things not visible to the unaided eye. Darwin¶s theory of evolution1 by natural selection has two parts. Organizing and keeping track of so many ³items´ is a daunting task. Second. More than any other single idea. Mendel¶s results were largely ignoredfor the first 35 years. most agree that contemporary biology began when Darwin published his book. The Origin of Species. a monk living in a monastery in eastern Europe. was grappling with another concept: How are traits from parents inherited by offspring? The principles of inheritance proposed from his experiments with common pea plants have been successfully applied to all organisms. It was Gregor Mendel¶s results that gave rise to the modern science of genetics and molecular biology. in other words. Mendel proved that the traits. Indeed. Biological classification started much earlier. in 1859. contemporaries of both Darwin and Mendel. proposed the cell theory.They realized that the cell is the smallest unit capable of exhibiting all of the characteristics of life. why there are so many different kinds of living things on Earth. In the late 18th century. One of the triumphs of 20th-century biology was how much we were able to extend our understanding of genes and inheritance. Chapter 3 explains Mendel¶s findings. They were rediscovered in the early 20th century and have since become one of the foundation stones of modern biology. This evolutionary approach is how we organize and classify organisms today. Darwin and Mendel published their first significant findings within a few years of each other. evolution ties together and interrelates with all of the other ideas and theories of biology. or.Thanks to Darwin¶s theory of evolution by natural selection nearly one hundred years later. . but unlike Darwin. (2) Inheritance: At the same time that Darwin was formulating his theory of biological evolution. which states that all organisms are composed of cells and that all cells come from preexisting cells. of organisms pass from one generation to the next by means of hereditary ³factors. evolution by natural selection is accepted by nearly all scientists as biology¶s most important theory. Today.
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier¶s experiments of the late 18th century helped to place the chemistry of life into the context of a larger understanding of chemistry and energetics. and environments that include important nonliving features. (7) Ecosystems: Organisms interact with each other and with their environments.The manner in which they do so constitutes the study of physiology. . Changes in any part of the biological community or the physical environment invariably cause changes in other parts. Claude Bernard realized that organisms function best when their internal conditions are maintained within rather narrow limits.´ Rather it was forged more slowly by a widely separated and diverse group of specialists.This is the youngest of biology¶s major ideas. Organisms tolerate widely varying external conditions by maintaining stable conditions internally²a condition known as homeostasis. communities comprising many different living things.This concept recognizes that organisms do not exist alone. Unlike the other major theories of biology. (6) Homeostasis: In the mid-19th century. this one has no readily identifiable ³parent. a product largely of the 20th century.(5) Bioenergetics: The energy that powers life operates according to the same rules that govern energy in the inanimate universe. but are part of populations of similar beings.