Biodiversity

Form 2 science Chapter 3
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3.1 Diversity of Living Organisms

1. The diversity of living organisms is the variety of different kinds of living organisms.

2. The place where organisms live is called the habitat.

3.2 Classification of Living Organisms

Vertebrates Animal Inveterate Organisms Flowering Plant Nonflowing

Vertebrate and Invertebrates Animals

1. More than 90% of the world's animal species consist of invertebrates. 2. Vertebrates are animals with backbones whereas invertebrates are animals without backbones.

Invertebrates Animals Animals without backbones

Fish
1. Live in water 2. Cold-blooded (Poikilothermic) 3. Body covered with scales

4. Breathe through gills 5. Usually lay eggs and the eggs are fertilised externally 6. Move or swim using fins .

Amphibians
1. Live on land and in the water. 2. Cold-blooded (Poikilothermic) 3. Have moist skin without scales or hair 4. Breathe through lungs and moist skin 5. Usually lay eggs and the eggs are fertilised externally

Mexican salamander

Reptiles 1. Most reptiles live on land 2. Cold-blooded (Poikilothermic) 3. Body covered with dry and hard scales 4. Breathe through lungs. 5. Lay eggs and the eggs are fertilised internally.

Birds
1. Live on land 2. Warm-blooded (Homoiothermic) 3. Body covered with feathers 4. Have beak and scaly legs 5. Breathe through lungs 6. Lay eggs and the eggs are fertilised internally

Mammals
1. Most mammals live on land (whales and dolphins live in the sea) 2. Warm-blooded (Homoiothermic) 3. Body covered with hair or fur 4. Breathe through lungs 5. Give birth to young (except for platypus and anteater) 6. Feed the young with milk from mammary glands

Plants
Dicotyledons Flowering Monocotyledons

Plants

Algae

Conifers Non-flowering Mosses

Ferns

Flowering plants ~~ Dicotyledon 1. Has two cotyledons in the seed 2. Has net-veined leaves 3. Has a taproot system 4. Has a woody stem

Flowering plants ~~ Monocotyledon

1. Has one cotyledon in the seed 2. Has parallel-veined leaves 3. Has a fibrous root system 4. Has a non-woody stem

Dicotyledon or monocotyledon ?

A

B

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Non-flowing plants

1. Non-flowering plants do not produce flowers and seeds.

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Non-flowing plants ~~ Algae

1. Do not have leaves, stems and roots 2. Have chlorophyll 3. Grow in water or damp areas.

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Non-flowing plants ~~ Conifers

1. Have true roots, stems and needlelike leaves 2. Have chlorophyll 3. Produce cones 4. Reproduce by seeds

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Non-flowing plants ~~ Mosses

1. Do not have real leaves, stems and roots 2. Have chlorophyll 3. Reproduce by spores 4. Grow in damp areas

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Non-flowing plants ~~ Ferns

1. Have leaves, stems and roots 2. Have chlorophyll 3. Leaves have spore-producing structures 4. Grow in moist and shady places

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3.3 The Importance of Biodiversity to the Environment

1. Biodiversity is important to maintain balance in nature. 2. Biodiversity is important to our environment. It brings us ecological, economical and cultural benefits.

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