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Babylonian Legends of Creation

Babylonian Legends of Creation

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The Babylonian Legends of Creation, by E. A. Wallis Budge, [1921], at sacred-tex ts.


The Babylonian Legends of the Creation

and the

Fight Between Bel and the Dragon

by E. A. Wallis Budge

with the assistance of Sidney Smith

as Told by Assyrian Tablets From Nineveh

London: Harrison and Sons, ltd.

[1921] This text is in the public domain in the US because it was published prior to 19 23

The Babylonian Legends of Creation, by E. A. Wallis Budge, [1921], at sacred-tex ts.com

Discovery of the Tablets. The baked clay tablets and portions of tablets which describe the views and beli efs of the Babylonians and Assyrians about the Creation were discovered by Mr. ( later Sir) A.H. Layard, Mormuzd Rassam and George Smith, Assistant in the Depart ment of Oriental Antiquities in the British Museum. They were found among the ru ins of the Palace and Library of Ashur-bani-pal (B.C. 668-626) at Kuyunjik (Nine veh), between the years 1848 and 1876. Between 1866 and 1870, the great "find" o f tablets and fragments, some 20,000 in number, which Rassam made in 1852, was w

orked through by George Smith, who identified many of the historical inscription s of Shalmaneser II, Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, an d other kings mentioned in the Bible, and several literary compositions of a leg endary character, fables, etc. In the course of this work he discovered fragment s of various versions of the Babylonian Legend of the Deluge, and portions of se veral texts belonging to a work which treated of the beginning of things, and of the Creation. In 1870, Rawlinson and Smith noted allusions to the Creation in t he important tablet K.63, but the texts of portions of tablets of the Creation S eries at that time available for study were so fragmentary that it was impossibl e for these scholars to find their correct sequence. During the excavations whic h Smith carried out at Kuyunjik in 1873 and 1874 for the proprietors of the Dail y Telegraph and the Trustees of the British Museum, he was, he tells us, fortuna te enough to discover "several fragments of the Genesis Legends." In January, 18 75, he made an exhaustive search among the tablets in the British Museum, and in the following March he published, in the Daily Telegraph (March 4th), a summary of the contents of about twenty fragments of the series of tablets describing t he creation of the heavens and the earth. In November of the same year he commun icated to the Society of Biblical Archaeology copies of:--(1) the texts on frag ments of the First and Fifth Tablets of Creation; (2) a text describing the figh t between the "Gods and Chaos"; and (3) a fragmentary text which, he believed, d escribed the Fall of Man. In the following year he published translations of all the known fragments of the Babylonian Creation Legends in his "Chaldean Account of Genesis" (London, 1876, 8vo, with photographs). In this volume were included translations of the Exploits of Gizdubar (Gilgamish), and some early Babylonian fables and legends of the gods.

The Babylonian Legends of Creation, by E. A. Wallis Budge, [1921], at sacred-tex ts.com

Publication of the Creation Tablets. The publication of the above-mentioned texts and translations proved beyond all doubt the correctness of Rawlinson's assertion made in 1865, that "certain porti ons of the Babylonian and Assyrian Legends of the Creation resembled passages in the early chapters of the Book of Genesis." During the next twenty years, the Creation texts were copied and recopied by many Assyriologists, but no publicati on appeared in which all the material available for reconstructing the Legend wa s given in a collected form. In 1898, the Trustees of the British Museum ordered the publication of all the Creation texts contained in the Babylonian and Assyr ian Collections, and the late Mr. L. W. King, Assistant in the Department of Egy ptian and Assyrian Antiquities, was directed to prepare an edition. The exhausti ve preparatory search which he made through the collections of tablets in the Br itish Museum resulted in the discovery of many unpublished fragments of the Crea tion Legends, and in the identification of a fragment which, although used by Ge orge Smith, had been lost sight of for about twenty-five years. He ascertained a lso that, according to the Ninevite scribes, the Tablets of the Creation Series were seven in number, and what several versions of the Legend of the Creation, t he works of Babylonian and Assyrian editors of different periods, must have exis ted in early Mesopotamian Libraries. King's edition of the Creation Texts appear ed in "Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum," Part XIII , London, 1901. As the scope of this work did not permit the inclusion of his tr anslations, and commentary and notes, he published these in a private work entit led, "The Seven Tablets of Creation, or the Babylonian and Assyrian Legends conc erning the creation of the world and of mankind," London, 1902, 8vo. A supplemen

tary volume contained much new material which had been found by him since the ap pearance of the official edition of the texts, and in fact doubled the number of Creation Texts known hitherto. Click to enlarge Babylonian map of the world, showing the ocean surrounding the world and making the position of Babylon on the Euphrates as its centre. It shows also the mounta ins as the source of the river, the land of Assyria, Bit-Iakinu, and the swamps at the mouth of the Euphrates. [No. 92,687.]

The Babylonian Legends of Creation, by E. A. Wallis Budge, [1921], at sacred-tex ts.com

The Object of the Babylonian Legend of the Creation. A perusal of the texts of the Seven Tablets of Creation, which King was enabled, through the information contained in them, to arrange for the first time in the ir proper sequence, shows that the main object of the Legend was the glorificati on of the god Marduk, the son of Ea (Enki), as the conqueror of the dragon Tiama t, and not the narration of the story of the creation of the heavens, and earth and man. The Creation properly speaking, is only mentioned as an exploit of Mard uk in the Sixth Tablet, and the Seventh Tablet is devoted wholly to the enumerat ion of the honorific titles of Marduk. It is probable that every great city in B abylonia, whilst accepting the general form of the Creation Legend, made the gre atest of its local gods the hero of it. It has long been surmised that the promi nence of Marduk in the Legend was due to the political importance of the city of Babylon. And we now know from the fragments of tablets which have been excavate d in recent years by German Assyriologists at Kal'at Sharkat (or Shargat, or Sha r'at), that in the city of Ashur, the god Ashur, the national god of Assyria, ac tually occupied in texts of the Legend in use there the position which Marduk h eld in four of the Legends current in Babylonia. There is reason for thinking th at the original hero of the Legend was Enlil (Bel), the great god of Nippur (the Nafar, or Nufar of the Arab writers), and that when Babylon rose into power und er the First Dynasty (about B.C. 2300), his position in the Legend was usurped a t Babylon by Marduk. Click to enlarge Excavations in Babylonia and Assyria.

The Babylonian Legends of Creation, by E. A. Wallis Budge, [1921], at sacred-tex ts.com

Variant Forms of the Babylonian Legend of the Creation.

The views about the Creation which are described in the Seven Tablets mentioned above were not the only ones current in Mesopotamia, and certainly they were not necessarily the most orthodox. Though in the version of the Legend already refe rred to the great god of creation was Enlil, or Marduk, or Ashur, we know that i n the Legend of Gilgamish (Second Tablet) it was the goddess Aruru who created E nkidu (Eabani) from a piece of clay moistened with her own spittle. And in the s o-called "bilingual" version of the Legend, we find that this goddess assisted Marduk as an equal in the work of creating the seed of mankind. This version, al though Marduk holds the position of pre-eminence, differs in many particulars fr om that given by the Seven Tablets, and as it is the most important of all the t exts which deal directly with the creation of the heavens and the earth, a rende ring of it is here given.

The Babylonian Legends of Creation, by E. A. Wallis Budge, [1921], at sacred-tex ts.com

The "Bilingual" Version of the Creation Legend. 1. "The holy house, the house of the gods in the holy place had not yet been mad e. 2. "No reed had sprung up, no tree had been made. 3. "No brick had been laid, no structure of brick had been erected. 4. "No house had been made, no city had been built. Click to enlarge The Bilingual Version of the Creation Legend. [No. 93,014.] 5. "No city had been made, no creature had been constituted. 6. "Enlil's city, (i.e., Nippur) had not been made, E-kur had not been built, 7. "Erech had not been made, E-Aena had not been built, 8. The Deep (or Abyss) had not been made, Eridu had not been built. 9. "Of the holy house, the house of the gods, the dwelling-place had not been ma de. 10. "All the lands were sea 11. "At the time that the mid-most sea was [shaped like] a trough, 12. "At that time Eridu was made, and E-sagil was built, 13. "The E-sagil where in the midst of the Deep the god Lugal-dul-azaga dwellet h, 14. "Babylon was made, E-sagil was completed.

". From a foundation deposit at Babylon. a swamp. 90. "The lord Marduk piled up a dam in the region of the sea (i. 24. 27. 39. he made to be 34. 37. "He created the beasts of the field and [all] the living things in the field .. the vegetation of the marsh. "He laid bricks. 31. . "The goddess Aruru with him created the seed of mankind.. "He constructed houses.. "The gods the Anunnaki he created at one time. E-Kur he built. in place he created 36. the dwelling of their heart's happin ess. marshes.. ". creatures he set [therein]. swamps. he reclaimed land) 32.9961] 25. "He proclaimed their names rightly. 16. 30. the sheep and the you ng she carried. seed and shrub. "Lands. 18. "He created the green plants of the plain. [No. "He created the river Idiglat (Tigris) and the river Purattu (Euphrates). he formed cities. he founded a marsh. 26. 21. 23... 38. 33. "Reeds he created.15. "He created grass. "Plantations and shrub land. "He fashioned man. 19. an d he set them in their places. the lamb of the fold.e. 35. 28. the wild calf.. "They proclaimed supreme the holy city. 20. "He mixed up earth and moulded it upon the rush mat. "He . 29. he built a brick-work.. "The he-goat and the mountain goat .. Click to enlarge Terra-cotta figure of a god. "He constructed cities. 17. trees he created. "The wild cow and the calf she carried. 22. "To enable the gods to dwell in the place where they fain would be. "Nippur he made. "Marduk laid a rush mat upon the face of the waters.

owing to the preservation of fragments of them in the works of later Greek writers. and others. Versions in Greek of the Legends found by George Smith had long been known to cl assical scholars." at Babylon. [The remainder of the text is fragmentary. and likewise in their several organs both male and f emale. 91. There appeared men. wherein resided most hideous beings. Eusebius. Syncellus. e. som e had horses' feet.147] The Babylonian Legends of Creation.089. [1921]. while others united the hind-quarters of a horse with the bo dy of a man. terminated in their e xtremities with the tails of fishes. 93. Wallis Budge. [No. and dogs with four told bodies.979. the "Lord Marduk.40. Bulls likewise were bred th ere with the heads of men. i. In this work Berosus reproduced all the known historical facts and tradit ions derived from native sources which were current in his day. The most important of these is derived from the History of Babylonia. Other human figures were to be seen with the legs and horns of goats.C. the one that of a man. others w ith four. which was written in Greek by BEROSUS. They had one body but two heads.com The Legend of the Creation According to Berosus and Damascius. His account of the primeval abyss.. Of all which wer e preserved delineations in the temple of Belus at Babylon. A. and with two faces. [No. and of its inhabitants reads:-Click to enlarge Babylonian Monster. It is therefore not surprising to find that his account of the Babylonian beliefs about the orig in of things corresponds very closely with that given in the cuneiform texts. E-Anna] he built. reptiles. serpents. 108. with other monst rous animals. out of which everything came.] Click to enlarge Bronze figure of a Babylonian god." Click to enlarge Babylonian Demon.] "There was a time in which there existed nothing but darkness and an abyss of wa ters. about 250 B. [No. at sacred-tex ts. In addition to these. fishes.] . by E. which assumed each other's shape and countenance. and shows that the text formed part o f an incantation which was recited in the Temple of E-Zida. men too and other animals. which were produced on a two-fold pri nciple. the other of a woman.g. In short. there were creatures in which were combined the limbs of every specie s of animals. some of whom were furnished with two wings. possibly the great t emple of Nabu at Borsippa. with the heads and bodies of horses and the tails of fishes. a priest of Bel-Marduk.e. "[Erech he made. horses also with the heads of dogs. an d that it is of the greatest use in explaining and partly in expanding these tex ts.. resembling in shape the hippo-centaurs.

making APASON the husband of TAUTHE. Wallis Budge. from which last three others proceed. From these. confused and disordered mass of watery matter. and of the other half the heavens. seeing a va st space unoccupied. [1921]. and animals being generated the rein. and the moon. and they represented the three layers of the comprehensible world. the whole universe consisting of moisture. Belus upon this. Out of this mass there were evolved two orders of beings. as it gushed out. the Demiurgus. and AUS. in Greek THALASSA. and separated t he Heavens from the Earth. Belus formed al so the stars. died. demons and gods. And from these proceeds an only-begotten son. that .) In the sixth century of our era DAMASCIUS the SYRIAN. by whom they signify Jupiter. which may be described as a boundless. On this account it is that they are rational and partake of divine knowled ge. and they conceiv e Two.com The Seven Tablets of Creation. Ancient Fra gments." [BELUS CREATES THE UNIVERSE. another progeny is derived. though by nature fruitful.] "This Belus. London. the sea. divided the darkness. AN US. with the earth. Ancient Fragments.[THE SLAUGHTER OF THE QUEEN OF THE ABYSS. is the account which Berosus gives in his first book. p. in which he says: "But the Babylonians. also. All things being in this situation. and cut the woman asunder: and of one half of her he formed the earth. and reduced the universe to order. TAUTHE and APASON. even as Berosus said. Belus came. who. The demons had hideous forms. how it came into be ing is unknown. and the five planets." (See Cory.) The Babylonian Legends of Creation. 1832. and from thence to form ot her men and animals. London." ( See Cory. 318. and ILLINUS. part reptile and part human. the last of the Neo-Platon ic philosophers. MOYMIS . they say." [THE CREATION OF MAN. which wer e part animal. Such. at sacred-tex ts.] "For. like the rest of the Barb arians. 1832. But the animals no t being able to bear the prevalence of light. All th is (he says) was an allegorical description of nature. which in the Cha ldean language is THALATTH. In the beginning nothing whatever existed except APSU. part bird. pass over in silence the One principle of the Universe. The gods had wholly human forms. Description of Their Contents. which should be capable of bearing the air. is the fabricator of the world. a third. DACHE and DACHUS. commanded one of the gods to ta ke off his head. according t o Polyhistor Alexander. and the sun. and at the same time destroyed the animals within her. A. And of AUS and DAUCE is born a son called Belus. which I conceive is no other than the Intelligible World proceeding from the t wo principles. was a woman named OMUROCA. and denominating her the mother of the gods.] "The person. 24-26. namely . wrote in Greek in a work on the Doubts and Solutions of the fir st Principles. and from whence were formed men. KISSARE and ASSORUS. by E. a nd again. the deity above-mentioned took off his own head: upon which the other god s mixed the blood. who presided over them. but which might equally be interpreted the Moon. and to mix the blood with the earth. pp.

and head of the whole community of fiends. Th eir attributes cannot at present be described.] In the consultation which took place between APSU and TIAMAT.g. the personification of confusion and disorder of every kind.] After countless aeons had passed the gods ANSHAR and KISHAR came into being. the atmosphere. Fortunately the Babylonians and Assyrians have supplied us with representations of Tiamat. They appear to have had no existence in popular religio n. Theologically. 93.] As soon as the gods appeared in the universe "order" came into being. and APSU. Click to enlarge Terra-cotta figure of a Babylonian Demon. She is depicted a s a ferocious monster with wings and scales and terrible claws. The whole story of this struggle is the subject of the Seven Tablets of Creation. and symbol. 22.. Similar descriptions are found in the literatures of other primitive nations. and sometimes that of an animal. i." After another long and indefinite period the independent gods of the Babylonian pantheon came into being. and these show us what form ancient tradition assigned to her. of the history and attributes of this last-named god nothing is known." he took counsel with his female associate TIAMAT with the object of finding som e means of destroying the "way" (al-ka-at) or "order" of the gods. she was nevertheless the mother of everything. and the st . and the underworld. plane ts and other stars. and his companions the demons. night and evil. to the Hebrews She is depicted both on bas-reliefs and on cylinder seals in a form which associate s her with LABARTU. Tiamat represented to the Babylonian s the same state in the development of the universe as did tohu wa-bhohu (Genesi s i. their messenger MU -UM-MU took part. ANU . e.078. EA .458. and foul. and her body is sometimes that of a huge serpent. 2). formlessness and voidness. t he former represents the "hosts of heaven. and it has been thought that they may be described as theological conceptions containing the notions of matter and some of its attributes.is to say. The gods are deifications of the sun. [No. The atmosphere and the underworld together formed the earth as opposed to the sky or heaven. heaven or the sky. The story of the fight between them is nothing more nor less than a picturesque allegory of natural phenomena. When APSU. 103. but from its name we may assume that it was a sort of Babylonian Book of Fate. Click to enlarge Bronze figure of a Babylonian Demon. [No.e. a female devil that prowled about the desert at night suck ling wild animals but killing men. or CHAOS.. demons and devils. but they seem to represent two fo rms of primitive matter.381. In the popula r imagination she represented all that was physically terrifying. and was the possess or of the DUP SHIMATI or "TABLET OF DESTINIES" . The result of the consultation was that a long struggle began between the demons and the gods. saw this "order. and oth ers. moon. and it is clear that the object of the powers of darkne ss was to destroy the light. and abominable. are perso nifications of darkness. of primeval matter. Click to enlarge Terra-cotta plaque with a Typhonic animal in relief. T he texts say that the first two gods to be created were LAKHMU and LAKHAMU . No description of this Tablet o r its contents is available. [No." and the latter the "hosts of earth. And it is tolerably certain that she was the type. who is here called NUDIMMUD .

of ANU.. for she "set up" (1) the Viper. Nothing is known of the origin or attributes of UMMU-KHUBUR. In the Egyptian Le gend of Ra and Aapep. "spawn of impotent revolt.] At this point a new Text fills a break in the First Tablet. is enumerat ed among the allies of Tiamat. An exact parallel of this brood of devils is found in Egyptian mythology where the allies of Set and Aapep are called "Mesu betsh et" i. and describes the fi ght which took place between Nudimmud or Ea. [Nimrud Galler y. Not content with Ummu-Khubur's brood of devils." They are depicted in the form of serpents . who plays in it exactly the same part as Ea in the Babylonian Legend. her husband. the Sky-god. Set regarded t he "order" which Her-ur was bringing into the universe with the same dislike as that with which APSU contemplated the beneficent work of Sin. invincible weapon. storm. Drawn from a bas-relief from the Pal ace of Ashur-nasir-pal. the Scorpion-man. and (9) the Horned Beast." and were under the command of (11) Kingu . (5) the ravening Dog. The victory over Apsu.. was everlasting. When Tiamat heard of Ea's victory over Apsu and Mummu she was filled with fury. 28 and 29. but we know that Ea w as the possessor of the "pure (or white. i.ory of the great fight between Her-ur. e tc. And the hostility of Set and his allie s to the gods. at Nimrud. the monster is rendered spell-bound by the god Her-Tuati.e.. This fact suggests that the first Zodiac was "set up" by Tiamat. who with he r Eleven Helpers formed the Twelve Signs. (3) the god Lakhamu. King of Assyria. i. the great god of heaven. Tiamat called the stars and powe rs of the air to her aid. The first act of TIAMAT after the death of Apsu was to increase the number of he r allies. (7) the mighty Storm-wind. the association of evil with certain s tars may date from that period. (2) the Snake. the confused and boundless mass of primeval water.. Ia). We may note in passing that some of the abo ve-mentioned Helpers appear among the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac which Marduk "s et up" after his conquest of Tiamat. e. the Moon-god. Nos. whom Tiamat calls "her husband. the Sun-god. or holy) incantation" and that he over came Apsu and his envoy by the utterance of a powerful spell. and determined to avenge the death of Apsu. Her brood probably consisted of personifications of mist. represents the setting of impassable boun daries to the waters that are on and under the earth. and their brother gods. and Set. but some think she was a fo rm of TIAMAT. Click to enlarge Battle between Marduk (Bel) and the Dragon. 885-860 B. clo ud. The helpers of Tiamat were placed by her under the command of a god called KINGU who is TAMMUZ.. in the kingdom of darkness.e. The exact details of the conquest cannot be given.C. and some of them became the "Nine Worms of A###775###menti" that are mentioned in the Book of the Dead (Chap. He was the counterpart. or equivalent. Ea went forth to fight the powers of dar kness and he conquered Apsu and Mummu. That the Babylonians regarded the primitive gods as powers of evil is clear from the fact that Lakhamu. fog. the gre at captain of the hosts of darkness. the formation of the Ocean. These bore ( 10) the "merciless. one of them. (8) the Fish-man. We know that a certain creature called "UMMU-KHUBUR" at once spawned a brood of devilish monsters to help her in her fight against the gods. the Horned Beast.e. (the representative of the establis hed "order" which the rule of the gods had introduced into the domain of Apsu an d Tiamat) and Apsu and his envoy Mummu. (6) the Scorpion-man. may be quoted as an example. (4) the Whirlwind. whirlwinds and the blighting and destroying powers which primitive ma n associated with the desert." Thus Tiamat had Eleven mighty Helpers besides the devils spawned by Ummu-Khubur.g. Sham ash. like that of Tiamat and her allies. for it is said in the text "Kingu was exalted and rece .

he was "afflicted" and "sat in sorrow. and he therefore we nt and reported the new happenings to Anshar. with a serrated edge." He fe lt unable to renew the fight against the powers of darkness. A banquet was prepared. but they continued to drink. and the Igigi (or )." and took counsel with him. and then they proceeded to invest him with the power that would cause ev ery command he spake to be followed immediately by the effect which he intended it to produce. and Ea induced his son." Armed with all the magical powers conferred upon him by this Tablet. On the . each surmounted by a lion. Click to enlarge Shamash the Sun-god setting (?) on the horizon. Then. When Anshar heard the matter he was greatly dis turbed in mind and bit his lips. and the adversary of Tiamat and her powers of darkness. and in his left a . 89. thus becomes naturally the protagonist of the gods. and he ne eded to be endowed by them with magical powers. whic h may be described as the Babylonian Olympus. flames of fire ascending from his sho ulder. who offers to act as the champion of the gods and to f ight Tiamat and her allies. are being drawn open by attendant gods. she recited over him a certain s pell or incantation. When Ea heard that Tiamat had collected her forces and Was determined to continu e the fight against the gods which Apsu and Mummu had begun. to his assistance. he possessed the same power and attributes as Anu." i. he sent him on an embassy to Tiamat with the view of conciliating her. and the gods attended. A gap in the text here prevents us fr om knowing exactly what Anshar said and did. It is impossible at present to explain this interlude. Marduk to be present. It was all-important for Marduk to appear at the council of the gods before he undertook his task. who forthwith met in a place called "Upshukkinaku" . A bove the horizon is a goddess who holds in her left hand an ear of corn. and she was muttering angrily.e. for he saw that the real difficulty was to find a worthy antagonist for Kingu and Tiamat. were also summon ed. We next find Anshar in conv erse with the god Marduk. "Whatsoever goeth forth from thy mouth shall be establ ished.. and heartened by all the laudatory epithets which his wife Tiamat heaped upon him. Then Anshar summoned a grea t council of the gods. In his right he holds a tree (?). Kingu went forth at the head of his devils. and that she had ma de her husband Kingu her champion. Marduk being a form of the Sun-god. commanded a garment to disappear and it did so. but the context suggests that he su mmoned Anu. who may be regarded as star-gods. and at leng th "their spirits were exalted. The two portals of the dawn. the greatest of all the powers of light." They appointed Marduk to be their champion offi cially. When Anu reached the place where she was he found her in a very wrathful state. and when he command ed it to reappear it did so.110.ived the power of Anu. a council of the gods was c alled.. and then she gave him the TABLET OF DESTINIES and fastened it to his breast. Anu was so appalled at the sight of her that he t urned and fled. When Tiamat appointed Kingu to be her captain. and ate bread and drank hot and sweet sesame wine. Click to enlarge Shamash the Sun-god rising on the horizon. The fu mes of the wine confused their senses. and having met and kissed eac h other they sat down. saying. Next Marduk.] When Anu reported his inability to deal with Tiamat. because it was necessary for him to be formally recognised by them as their champion. having given him certain instr uctions. The primitive gods Lakhmu and L akhamu. representative of the "host of hea ven. From a Babylonian seal cylinder in the British Museum. [ No. with the view of testing the new power which had bee n given him.. or to fin d any parallel to it in other ancient Oriental literature. the Sky-god.

In the first place he founded E-Sharra .] Round h his foo a bow a Museum. he received gifts and presents from the gods his fathers. he dete rmined to carry out a series of works of creation. i. Marduk leaped upon her bod y and looked on her followers as they attempted to escape..115. He also formulated regulations concerning the maintenance o f the same." i." What the words "middle of Tiamat" meant to the Ba bylonian we are not told. to prevent her from es caping from it when he had snared her. a spear. and a lion. In t he Seventh Tablet (l. or the mansion of heaven. It seems pretty certain that this description of the equipment of Marduk was taken over from a very ancient account of the Fight with Tiamat in which the hero was Enlil. He took a bow. 89.right is a god who seems to be setting free a bird from his right hand. and next he set apart and arranged proper places for the old gods of the three realms--Anu. and gave him the insignia of royalty. acting as the celestial architect. Marduk then took the TABLET OF DESTINIES fr om Kingu's breast. and to scatter her blood to the winds. and he placed the four winds near it. and he trampled u pon them as they lay in it helpless. im is a river with fish in it. . 108) Marduk is said to have "entered into the middle of Ti amat. Having establ ished the framework of his new heaven and earth Marduk. n amely. he went out to meet and defeat Tiamat. with nd lasso. in the British About 2500 B. Marduk caught all the Eleven allies of Tiamat in his net. Then the gods saluted him as their king.e. out of one half he fashioned the dome of heaven.. and a club. the deep. which was drawn by four horses. i. who at once cast his net over her.e. and sealed it with his seal and placed it on his own breast. thinking that her words of power would destroy his strength. Her spell ha d no effect on the god. which he placed over against A psu. the god of the air." a nd the "seizer of the middle. He created mighty winds and tempests to a ssist him.e.C. Tiamat saw Marduk and began to revile him. From the seal-cylinder of Adda ... At the same moment he made a gale of foul wind to blow on her face. To the right of the goddess stand a hunting god. But the Four Winds wh ich he had stationed round about Tiamat made all their efforts to flee of no eff ect. And as they handed to him these things they commanded him to go and hack the body of Tiamat in pieces. and staggered about and lost all control of his legs. and as a reward for his destruction of t heir terrible foe. Marduk approached and looked upon the "Middle" or "Inside" or "Womb" of T iamat ." i. under t is a young bull. and out of the o ther he constructed the abode of Nudimmud. Click to enlarge . When Kingu from the "middle of Tiamat" saw Ma rduk arrayed in his terrible panoply of war. mounting upon the Storm. but it is clear that Marduk's entry into it was a sign al mark of the triumph of the god. set to work to furnish them.. he filled his body f ull of fire and set the lightning before him. and grasped the thunderbolt in his hand. Thereupon Marduk began to arm himself for the fight.. and then. He split the body of Tiamat i nto two parts. By this "cunning plan" Marduk deprived the powers of darkness of the opportunity of repeating their revolt with any chance of success. and at the mere sight of the g od all the other fiends and devils were smitten with fear and reduced to helples sness. he was terrified and trembled. and her womb fell out from it. whilst her body was distended he drove his spear into her. or of the region which lies between heaven and hell. He took in his hands a net wherewi th to catch Tiamat." and because he did so he is called "Nibiru. and Tiamat split asunder. the throne and the pala. and divined the plan of Kingu who had taken up his place therein. and when he challenged her to battle she flew into a rage and attempted to overthrow him by reciting an incant ation.. [No. the sceptre. "he who entered in. and behind him is an attendant god.e. Bel and Ea. whatever that may be. and entering through her mouth it filled her body. Then returning to the dead body of Tiamat he smashed her skull with his club and scattered her blood to the north wind. or Ea. The text then goes on to say that Marduk "devised a cunning plan.

which is n ow published (see p. The pavilion of the Sun-god stands on the Celestial Ocean." In the List of Signs of the Zodiac here given. and drew up tables of the times . Above his head are the three symbols of the Moon.] The text of the Fifth Tablet. On a stand in front o f the pavilion rests the disk of the Sun. e ach containing three stars. were identified with the stars of the northern and southern heaven.000. [No. and the places of the planets with it. and the four sm all disks indicate either the four cardinal points or the tops of the pillars of the heavens. Anu 23 stars. the king (Nabu-aplu-iddina.C. or Venus. the moon. In the Fift h Tablet of the Creation Series (l. and that careful observation of them would enable the skilled seer to recognize in the stars favo urable and unfavourable portents. Syriac and Arabic astrological an d astronomical texts all associate with the Signs of the Zodiac twelve groups.C. It has been referred to and discussed by various sc holars. say about 500 B.). for the greater numb er of the religious beliefs of the Babylonians are grouped round them. the science of astronomy had gone hand in hand with the superstition of astrolo gy in Mesopotamia from time immemorial. The prominence of the celestial bodies in the history of creation is not to be wondered at. They also possessed lists of the fixed stars. Moreover. for Enlil ruled 33 stars. who are bodies of deified spirits. Such observations. and its importance is very great. which would undoubtedly have supplied details as t o Marduk's arrangement and regulations for the sun. and as early as the period of the First Dynasty ( about 2000 B. 91.C. the Babylonians made some of the gods reg ents of groups of stars. which are commonly known as the "Thirty-six Dekans. for we read that Marduk "set up for the twelve "months of the year three stars apiece. The three figures in front of the disk represent the high priest o f Shamash. 2) the Signs of the Zodiac are called Lumash i . Egyptian. Click to enlarge Tablet inscribed with a list of the Signs of the Zodiac.821) of the Persian Period of which a reproduction is here given. the Babylonians were able to calculate astronomical events wit h considerable accuracy. will be acceptable to the students of the history of the Zodiac. treated from a magical poin t of view. it will be seen that each Sign is associated wit h a particular month. They had by that time formulated the existence of the Zodi ac. the Sun. and at a very early period the oldest go ds of Babylonia were associated with the heavenly bodies.. who was identified with t he Evening and Morning Star. The Sun-god is seated on a throne within a pavilion holding in one hand a disk and bar which (like in Egyptian) may symbolize eternity. Now these are supplied by the little tablet (No. 77. 77.) and an attendant goddess. 68) for the first time.] At a later period. The Babylonians believed that the will of the gods was made known to men by the motions of the planets. formed a huge mass of literature which was being added to continually ." The text of line 4 of the Fifth Tablet of the Creation Series proves that the Babylonians were acquainted with these groups of stars. and the planet Venus. respectively. Greek. which is held in position by ropes gra sped in the hands of two divine beings who are supported by the roof of the pavi lion. And all the primitive goddesses coalesced and were grouped to form the goddess Ishtar. [No. and they had distinguished between the planets and the fixed stars. and fixed the "stations" of the moon. about 870 B. and to reconcile the solar and lunar years by the use of epagomenal months.Tablet sculptured with a scene representing the worship of the Sun-god in the Te mple of Sippar. From the nature of the case this literature enshrined a very considerable numb er of facts of pure astronomy. and the Signs of the Zodiac in the heavens is wanting. but unfortunately no list of their names is given in the context. The transcript of the text.821. the stars. Thus the Annunaki and the Igigi. and Ea 15 stars .

the crescent of the Moon-god Sin.858). another is indicated. which represent the gods Anu. the great national god of Babylonia. Thereupon Marduk summons a council of the gods. and prove that the astral element in Babylonian religion was very conside rable. because they lacke d worshippers at their shrines and offerings. 1 and 2. 4 are a standard with an animal's head. Mus. a solar god. symbol of Ea (?). 5 are a seated figure of the goddess Gula and the Scorpion-man. the Fire-god. When Marduk had arranged heaven and earth. To make a way out of this difficul ty Marduk devised another "cunning plan. No. presumably to Mard uk. 3 are three altars (?) or shrines (?) with a monster in Nos. and the disk of Shamash the Sun-god. supplies much information about the symbols of the gods. and had established the gods in their places. The accompanying illustration. and Ea suggested that if one of the gods were sacr ificed the remainder of them should be set free from service. In Reg. about 1120 B. "Sin-Shamash-Ishtar. however. K ing of Babylon. j ustified in assuming that the gaps in it contained statements about the grouping of the gods into triads. Over the first is the lance of Marduk. Nusku. then. Click to enlarge The mutilated text of the Fifth Tablet makes it impossible to gain further detai ls in connection with Marduk's work in arranging the heavens." From Kingu's blood Ea fashioned mankind for the service of the gods . one triad "Anu-Bel-Ea" is actually menti oned. which is reproduced from the Boundary Stone of Ri tti-Marduk (Brit. In the Fourth Tablet of Creation. In royal historical inscriptions the kings often invok e the gods in threes. the Tortoise." and announced his intention of creatin g man out of "blood and bone" DAMI ISSIMTUM . Such lists were probably based upon very ancient docu ments. representative of Shukamuna and Shumalia. the god of learning. a two-headed snake = the Twins. and a bird. 90. e. and asks them to name the i nstigator of the fight in which he himself was the victor. (2) the sacri fice which the gods had to make for the creation of man. In Reg. Nergal.of their heliacal risings. We are. we have the Star of Ishtar. In Reg. 6 are forked lightning. though they never call any one three a triad or trinity. When the universe was finally constituted several other great gods existed. is the authority for his words. a sign o f Ea. Nabu. and the Lamp of Nusku. the Scorpion of the goddess Ishkhara. Marduk of Babylon. In the variant version ." In th ese triads Anu represents the sky or heaven. Enurta. th e god of war and handicrafts. Ea the underworld. Thus in Register 1. and in the Fifth Tablet. I t seems as if this arrangement of gods in threes was assumed to be of divine ori gin. the gods complained that their existence was barren. the Creatress. whom they seized forthwith. here. but has two features in common with it. and over the third is the symbol of the goddess Nin kharsag. 2 are three stands (?) surmounted by tiaras. Bel or Enlil the region under the s ky and including the earth. Tiamat's second husband. In reply the gods nam ed Kingu. In Reg.. and bound with fe tters and carried to Ea. an unknown symbol with a horse's head.. above a bull. Enlil (Bel) and Ea respectively. s ymbol of Adad. Sin the Moon.g. and then having "inflicted punishment upon him they let his blood. Marduk made known to Ea h is intention of creating man. over the second the mason's square of Nabu. These two feature s are: (1) the council of the gods to discuss the creation of man. Down the left-hand side is the serpent-god representing the constellation of the Hydra. Shamash the Sun. 11) the statement of Berosus that man was created out of the blood of a god mixed w ith earth. and of the Signs of the Zodiac in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar I. the great national god of Assyria. an d Ishtar the star Venus. We have already quoted (see p.C. Now among the texts which have been found on the tablets at Kal'at Sharkat is an account of the creation of man which differs from the version given in the Seve n Tablets of Creation. the Fire-god. and in Reg.. and Ashur.

Material for deciding t his question is wanting. It is indisputable that Marduk obtained hi s pre-eminence in the Babylonian Pantheon at this early period. let the first-comer (i." or laudatory epithets mentioned above. and that they all were merely forms of him. their acceptance was confined entirely to the pr iests and scribes. or the bond of heaven and earth. The Anunnaki themselves made the bricks.. qualities and attributes of every god were enshr ined in him. or Satnael. but t here is no doubt that in one form or another it persisted in Mesopotamia for tho usands of years. But some authori ties deny the existence of monotheistic conceptions among the Babylonians at tha t time. The Anunnaki. as he had formerly assigned to each god his place in the heavens. 47. and the narrative relating to it associates it with religious observances. and in the "Ninety-nine Beautiful Names of Allah. but tradition gene rally ascribes it to the creation of man by the supreme God. The tablet ends with a long hymn of praise which the Anunna ki sang to Marduk. Arabs. Let the father repeat them and teach them to his son. any and every man) proclaim them. and the tradition of it has made its way into the rel igious literatures of the Hebrews. when Babylon first became the capital of the countr y. find parallels in "Seventyfive Praises of Ra. Thus the gods accepted the absolute supremacy of Marduk. but it may be safely said that whatever monotheistic co nceptions existed at that time. and attribute Marduk's kingship of the gods to the influence of the poli tical situation of the time. and mistress of the greater part of the known world. When the temple was finished. decided to build him a shrine or temple. They certainly find no expression in the popular religious te xts. The respect in which the Fifty Names were held by the Babylonia ns is well shown by the work of the Epilogue on the Seventh Tablet.406). Bu t there is no foundation whatsoever for the assertion which has so often been ma de that the Two Accounts of the Creation which are given in the early chapters i . i. and chose Babylon. and it is probable that all the apocryphal stories which describe the expulsion from heaven of the angels who contended against God under the leadership of Satan." for its site.e. The place of sacrifice is specified with some c are. Let them be in the ears of the herdsman and the shepherd. for.e. Both the source of the original form of the Legend of the Fight between Ea and A psu.." which are held in such great esteem by t he Muhammadans.." about whom nothing is known. To this Marduk agreed. The cu neiform texts tell us nothing about the cause of the dispute." The object of the writer of the Fifty Names was to show that Marduk was the "Lor d of the gods. This fact is proved by the tablet (No. which contains a long list of gods who are equated wit h Marduk in his various forms. and it is said to be "Uzu-mu-a. about 2000 B." that the power." sung by the Egyptians under the XIXth dynasty. and describes the summoning of an assembly of the gods to pro claim ceremonially the great Fifty Names of this god. "Let them be held in remembrance. so now he assigned to each god hi s place in E-Sagila. From the above it is clear that a dispute broke out between Marduk and the gods after he had created them.two (or more) gods are sacrificed. Copts and Abyssinians. wishing to give an expression of their admiration for Marduk's her oism.e. are derived from a Babylonian original which has not yet been found. "the workmen god s. The " Fifty Names. let the wise and the understanding consider them together. and Marduk and Tiamat. Syrians. or I blis." Uzu-mu-a may be the bolt with which Marduk locked the two halves of Tiamat into place. Ilu Nagar Ilu Nagar. . and they built the great temple of E-Sagila at Babylon.C. i. and the period of its composition are unknown. the "Gate of God. The tendency in the later Babylonian religion to make Marduk the god above all gods has led many to think that monotheistic conc eptions were already in existence among the Babylonians as early as the period o f the First Dynasty. Marduk re-enacted the scene of creation. where it is said. The apocryphal book of "Bel and the Dragon" shows that a form o f the Legend was in existence among the Babylonian Jews long after the Captivity .

the second line being the antiphon of the first. The literary form of the text of the Seven Tablets fulfils the requirements of S emitic poetry in general. and one of them achieved so much notorie ty that the priest employed recited it as an incantation to charm away the tooth ache. and these often illustrate each other.:-"When in the height heaven was not named. He was slain by a god who se name is unknown. Thus we have:-enuma elish la nabu shamamu shaplish ammatum shuma la zakrat Here there is clearly a rhythm which resembles that found in the poems of the S yrians and Arabs.] Among the primitive Semitic peoples there were probably many versions of the sto ry of the Creation. who is here represented in the form of a huge serpent. A lmighty and Alone. his mouth was 6 cubits (about 9 feet) wide. who added the Legend of the Creation to the Legend of the Dragon in much the same way as t he editor of the Gilgamish Legends included an account of the Deluge in his narr ative of the exploits of his hero. the diameter of each eye is half a biru. In the Story of ZIUSUDU. and the God of Creation only appears at a later period. In other Accounts the Dragon bears a strong resemblance to the Le viathan of Psalm civ. one day and one night. into two equa lly accented parts. an d his paws are 20 biru long. however. Job xli. It is true that there are many points of resemblance between the narr atives in cuneiform and Hebrew. From a seal-cylinder in the British Museum. and there is little doubt that certain pass ages in this text are the originals of the Babylonian version as given in the Se ven Tablets. but in the latter t he conception of God is that of a Being Who existed in and from the beginning. on e of them in a comparatively modern form. This is proved by tablet Spart ali ii. but the f undamental conceptions of the Babylonian and Hebrew accounts are essentially dif ferent. or verse. Thus in the Sumerian Account the narrative of the e xploits of the hero called ZIUSUDU begins with a description of the Creation a nd then goes on to describe a Flood. And there is reason to think that the Legend of the Dragon had originally noth ing whatever to do with the Creation. and the devils of chaos and evil are His servants. And the half-lines can be further resolved into two halves. 26. but there are many instances of its inconsistent use in severa .g. e. All forms of the Legend of the Creation and o f the Dragon were popular in Babylonia. and the circumference of his ears 12 cubits (18 feet). an d a considerable amount of literary evidence is now available for reconstructing the history of the Legend. no doubt. each containing a single accented word or phrase. 1. there is no mention of any Dragon . Click to enlarge Marduk destroying Tiamat. falls into two halves. and the blood continued to flow from his body for three year s. Thus there is every reason for believing that the L egend as it is given in the Seven Tablets is the work of some editor. It is quite clear that the Account of the Creation given in the Seven Tablets is derived from very ancient sources."Each line. The lines usually fall into couplets. [No. In the former the earliest beings that existed were foul demons and dev ils. And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name. or verse. In the one text he is said to be 50 biru in length. 89.n Genesis are derived from the Seven Tablets of Creation described in the preced ing pages. In the second text the Dragon is 60 bir u long and his thickness is 30 biru. three months. and 1 biru in thickness. for the texts of fragments of two distinct Accounts of the Creation describe a fight between a Dragon and some deity othe r than Marduk. where the scribe writes his lines and spaces the words in such a w ay as to show the subdivision of the lines. and the narrative told by the Seven Tablets is. 265A.589. and a well-marked caesura divides each line.

by E. [Together] they increased in stature. 13. Click to enlarge Portion of a tablet inscribed in Assyrian with a text of the First Tablet of the Creation Series. a fate had not been fixed. When of the gods none was shining. 10. Long were the days. at sacred-tex ts. 11. The Babylonian Legends of Creation. they were named. 5419C. 6.l parts of the text. . And the name of the earth beneath had not been recorded. they grew tall. 14. 3. The god Anshar made his eldest son Anu in his own image. Anshar and Kishar came into being. the oldest of beings. The gods came into being in the midst of them. A field had not been measured. 9. "Mummu" Tiamat. The god Nudimmud was the first among his fathers. the years increased. The god Lakhmu and the goddess Lakhamu were made to shine. their son. 17. their progenitor. [was created]. who bare each and all of them-5. Wallis Budge.--Translation. A name had not been recorded. Both rhyme and alliteration appear to be used occasionally . A. 4. Apsu. When the heavens above were yet unnamed. 16.com The Seven Tablets of Creation. FIRST TABLET. [K. The god Anu. a marsh had not been searched out. 1. 7. [1921]. 12. 2. the equal of his fathers. 15.] 8. Their waters were merged into a single mass. and others besides them. And the god Anu begat Nudimmud (Ea) the image of himself.

. She struck a blow.. Their way was not good. their guardian.." 33.. 29. 25. 27. . 21. 20. Apsu took up his word and said.. he who thinketh deeply. The confraternity of the gods was established. Endowed with understanding. lo.. "There shall be a sound of lamentation. They went. "Whatsoever we have made we will destroy.. To Tiamat. She uttered a curse. [saying]. they lay down [on a couch] facing Tiamat.... "[O] Mummu. ". 44. and unto [Apsu.. She raged all alone. 22. the steward of his house. and their works . . I will sweep them away. Her belly was stirred up to its uttermost depths. 36.. "Verily their way shall be filled with disaster.. 43. 28. Mummu answered and gave counsel unto Apsu. 34.. Apsu (the watery abyss) could not diminish their brawl 26. Unrivalled amongst the gods his brothers . the holy (?) one. who makest my liver to rejoice.. And Tiamat gathered herself together ... my steward. 30. They took counsel together about the gods [their children]. 38.18.... . unto sickness.. At that time Apsu. "Come. lo.]. by night I have no rest. 46.. "Verily I will make an end of their way. 35. saying. 39. then we shall rest. 23.." 47. 45. Exceedingly mighty in strength above his father Anshar who begat him. he made mention of a matter. Shouted out and summoned Mummu.. saying 31. the orator 19. 40.. Tiamat on hearing this 42. to Tiamat we will go. "By day I find no peace. Tiamat was troubled and she .. spake. the progenitor of the great gods." 41. 37. their way .. Was stirred up to wrath and shrieked to her husband. 24. then we shall rest. 32.

the exalted one. 114. and according to the theologians of t he City of Ashur.. Ea recited an incantation which caused Apsu to fall asleep. He had four ears and four eyes. 58. "Then verily by day thou shalt find peace. his son Marduk. 112. Ea overcame both his adversaries and divided Apsu into chambers and laid fetters upon him. They were exceedingly wroth. 62. For that they were planning evil against the gods. The gods made answer . they made plots by day and by night without ce asing. 59. [do thou destroy] their way which is strong. Mummu and Apsu) planned the cursing in the assembly. they uttered cries of hostility. 60. "Come. 50. or are too broken to translate.. his children. to the great delight of his father. 57. Lakhmu begat by his wife Lakhamu a son who is no other than An shar. They began a lamentation.. 55. [and] by night thou shalt have re st.48. his face grew bright. He recited a cunning incantation. or Ashur. Ummu-Khubur. who fashioned all things. He took him on his knee.e. A nurse was appointed to rear him. 110. who is not named. The fragments of text show that Ea waged war against Apsu and Mummu. who pondereth everything that is. 113. 111. 53. very powerful and holy. but he was strong enough to attack E a when he turned to deal with Apsu. [Endowed] with understanding. a statem ent which suggests that he was two-headed. he kissed him . 61. 52. Mummu embraced his neck . and resembled the Latin god Janus. fuming and raging. [In the British Museum tablets lines 63-108 are either wanting entirely. In one of the chambers of Apsu a god was begotten and born. Apsu heard him. He brought it to nought (?)... 54. searched out their [plan]. who in some way suffered. and went forth to battle to help Tiamat..] 109. 115. He then "loosed the joints" of Mummu. Sharp of tooth.. and he grew up a handsome chi ld. They formed a band. and dire [in respect of the gods]: 49. The counsel of Mummu was . she spawned huge serpents.. he made the form of everything to stand still. pitiless in attack (?) . They set the battle in array. According to the Ninevite theologians Ea begat by h is wife. They (i. 56. and the last 130 lines of the Berlin fragment are much mutilated. They repeated the curses to the gods their eldest sons." 51. the prudent god.. Ea. They offered battle.. Set up the unrivalled weapon.

125. shall do great deeds. the Scorpion-man. read 'thy'] hand with the sovereignty of the whole company of the gods. let the Fire-god be quenched. whatsoever goeth forth from thy mouth shall be established. "I have filled his [sic. and no man resist their attack. Leader of the hosts in battle. she fastened it on his breast. 128. Among the gods. So that their bodies might rear up. the Fish-man. Open your mouths. Kingu. The Whirlwind. The mighty Storm-wind. 123." 139. She decked them with brightness. 132." 137. They carried the Weapon which spared not. the horned Beast (Capricorn?) 124. 142. and the god Lakhamu. the ravening Dog. So that fright and horror might overcome him that looked upon them. . 120. She set up the Viper. 136. 121. She filled their bodies with venom instead of blood. attacker in the fight. "I have uttered the incantation for thee. That is to say. 134. He who in the battle is the master of the weapon. she made him to sit down in [goodly apparel] 133. monstrous serpents. thy command shall not fall empty. Grim. she made him the great one amongst them. Most mighty were Tiamat's decrees. 119. She gave him the TABLET OF DESTINIES. "As for thee. I have magnified thee i n the assembly of the gods. and the Snake. thou who art my only spouse. Bearer of the firmly grasped weapon. 118. Thus she caused eleven [monsters] of this kind to come into being. 127. He who is glorious in battle and is most mighty. 122. she set on high. 129. her first-born son who had collected her company. 117. 126. 130. she fashioned them in exalted forms. disposer of the troops. [sayin g].116. 138. 135. 141. He fixed the destinies for the gods his sons. "May the Anunnaki make great thy renown over all of them. nor flinched from the battle. When Kingu was raised on high and had taken the heavens (literally. the god Anutum) 140. 131. She appointed. they could not be resisted. [Saying]. "Mayest thou be magnified. arrayed in terror.

He went into the presence of Anshar. Wallis Budge. 18.com SECOND TABLET. 15. pitiless in attack (?) . Ea hearkened to his story. Tiamat wrought wickedness to avenge Apsu. The days were long. they made plots by day and by night without cea sing. 1. 2. 5. They formed a band and went forth to battle to help Tiamat. Mother Tiamat who gave us birth hath sown these things. she spawned huge serpents 21. They offered battle. Set up the unrivalled weapon. 40. 6..] 10. she rageth furiously. 16. Tiamat made solid that which she had moulded. They were exceedingly wroth.The Babylonian Legends of Creation. They set the battle in array. She bound the gods her children with [evil bonds]. 13. the father who begat him. had harnessed his chariot he went to meet Ea. who fashioned all things. 14. 17. 20. 9. fuming and raging. 8. Click to enlarge Portion of a tablet inscribed in Assyrian with a text of the Second Tablet of th e Creation Series. When . at sacred-tex ts. 4. 3. [No. his father. 11. A.. they uttered cries of defiance. She hath set in order her assembly. He was sorely afflicted and abode in sorrow. 12.559. All the gods have joined themselves to her. Ummu-Khubur. by E. [1921]. 7. He went his way to the dwelling of Anshar. Whatsoever Tiamat had devised he repeated unto him. They march by her side together with those whom ye have created. Sharp of tooth. his wrath died down. 19.

They carried the Weapon which spared not. nor flinched from the battle. He who in the battle is the master of the weapon. 30. She set up the Viper." 49. "May the Anunnaki make great thy renown over all of them. and the god Lakhamu. "He who is glorious in battle and is most mighty shall do great deeds." 43. 37. [Saying]. She appointed. 40. "I have recited the incantation for thee. thy command shall not fall empty. 31. [saying ]-44. 28.22. disposer of the troops. 48. 33. she fashioned them in exalted forms. her first-born son who had collected her company." 45. "the god Anutum") 46. attacker in the fight. That is to say. Kingu. "Open your mouths. Most mighty were Tiamat's allies. [saying]. So that fright and horror might overcome him that looked upon them. 25. "I have filled his [sic. The Whirlwind. 41. 26. 34. 47. let the Fire-god be quenched. she made him the great one amongst t hem. and no man resist their attack. the Fish-man. I have magnified thee in the assembly of the gods. they could not be resisted. "As for thee. Bearer of the firmly-grasped weapon. "Mayest thou be magnified. the Horned Beast. 27. monstrous serpents arrayed in terror. thou who art my only spouse. Grim. When Anshar heard that Tiamat was stirred mightily. She decked them with brightness. read 'thy'] hand with the sovereignty of the whole company of the gods. what goeth forth from thy mo uth shall be established. He fixed the destinies for the gods his sons. 35. Leader of the hosts in battle. the ravening Dog. Thus she caused eleven [monsters] of this kind to come into being. she made him to sit down in [goodly apparel] 39. 23. When Kingu was raised on high and had taken the heavens (literally. 42. The Storm-wind. 32. Among the gods. 36. . 29. the Scorpion-man. She gave him the TABLET OF DESTINIES. So that their bodies might rear up. and the Snake. She filled their bodies with venom instead of blood. she fastened it on his breast. 24. 38. she set on high.

He spake unto him a word [concerning Tiamat] 85.. towards Ea he lifted up his head. 80. and hastened on the way to her. they sat in lamentation.. [Anu] heard the order of his father Anshar. He (Anu) went to his father Anshar who begat him. 90. "Nowhere is there a god who can attack Tiamat. "He would not escape from Tiamat's presence with his life. 88. 89. "Go and stand thou in the presence of Tiamat.] 72. 93. 76. "That her spirit [be quieted]. he turned back. his mind was not at peace [Lines 52-54 too fragmentary for translation. he bit his lips 51. 84. 78. "Thou hast slain Mummu and Apsu 56. [They said]. her heart softened. . [She laid] hands upon me that withered me up. "But should she not hearken unto thy word. but they are too fragmentary to translate. 91. 81. 82. the Father of the gods.50. . he looked down upon the ground. line 85 reads:-83. he addressed the Anunnaki. He could not prevail against her. Anu drew nigh.. [spake] majestically. lines 59-71 wanting. my warrior 74." 92. "But Tiamat hath exalted Kingu--where is the one who can meet her? [Lines 57 and 58 imperfect. They shut their mouths. He took the straight road to her.. [saying] . He lifted up his heart." 86. The Lord Anshar. "Speak thou our word unto her so that she may be abated.. whose attack cannot be stayed. Lines 83 and 84 contain Anu's report to Anshar. Anshar spake a word unto his son [Anu]:-73. Anshar was distressed. 77.] An'shar then addresses Ea and says:-55. "Whose power is exalted." 79. ". 75. All the Anunnaki assembled at their posts. He turned pale. he searched out the plan of Tiamat.. 87. this is a difficulty.

"My son. The Lord [Marduk] rejoiced at the word of his father. let not the opening of thy mouth be closed. "The . hear the counsel and advice of thy father. He approached and took up his place before Anshar. Anshar looked upon him and his heart was filled with gladness. "Cast deep sleep upon Tiamat with thy holy spell. and his (Anshar's) fear was r emoved. 124. ". 129. Ea called Marduk to the place where he gave oracles. 98. who dost comprehend everything.. 133." 113. 119. 101. "Thou thyself shalt soon trample upon the neck of Tiamat. 125." 96. who is a woman. 126. 97." 131. pursueth thee with weapons. I will make to take place all that is in thy heart. in the strife. [Then Marduk said] 117. ." [Anshar sa ys to Marduk] 121. "What man is the cause of the battle which made thee go forth 122.e. to his father he spake.. He (i. 115. let not the opening of thy mouth be closed. Tiamat. 100. Anshar) kissed his (Marduk's) lips. "Stand there [with joy]. "Thou art the son who refresheth his heart. [Saying]. "He whose [strength] is mighty [shall be] an avenger for [us] 95.. 120. I will make to take place all that is in thy heart. The Lord [Marduk] rejoiced at the word of his father.. "I will go. "Betake thyself to thy march with all speed. 123. when he looketh upon thee he will be at rest. "O Lord of the gods. "Rejoice our [hearts] and make us glad. "Rejoice our [hearts] and make us glad. 116. 130. Overlord of the Great Gods. Marduk the Hero. His heart leaped with joy. 118. ". 127. 132.. "I will go. 99.94. "Draw nigh and enter the presence of An-shar.. 114. "O Marduk. [saying].. Marduk came and according to his heart he addressed him. "Anshar. "Thou thyself shalt soon trample upon the neck of Tiamat. "My father. 128.

137. Click to enlarge Portion of a tablet inscribed in Assyrian with a text of the Third Tablet of the Creation Series. 11. 3. 93. "Thou must know and understand the [intention of my heart] 6. "That which my mouth uttereth shall never fail or be brought to nought. "Sit ye down together in friendly fashion in Upshukkinaku. 10. 139. "Whatsoever I bring to pass let it remain unaltered. "Let them issue decrees to Marduk as their avenger.. "'The intention of his heart he hath made me to know in this wise:-- . "All that I am now going to tell thee do thou repeat to them [saying]. 14.134. [1921]. ". take up thy stand before them. "Let me issue decrees by the opening of my mouth even as ye do. his envoy. are brought before thee 7. all the gods. my envoy. at sacred-tex ts. "I will despatch thee unto the gods Lakhmu and Lakhamu. 1. Anshar your son hath charged me. 138. 136. 8." The Babylonian Legends of Creation. "Summon a meeting. and 2. spake a word [saying]. A.017. "'[O ye gods]. Anshar opened his mouth.... let them heat sesame wine. 13. ". who makest glad my liver. Wallis Budge. [No. Gaga. "Slay Tiamat and bestow life upon you. "Should I as your avenger 135. proclaim and magnify my position.com THIRD TABLET. 140. "Let them make a council. 4. "Let them eat bread. by E.] 5. Unto the god Gaga (). "Get thee gone. 12. "O Gaga. let them sit down to a feast 9.

Kingu. 24. "'She appointed. 38. "'So that their bodies might rear up. "'They were exceedingly wroth. 29. "'They offered battle. and no man resist their attack. "'[Saying]: I have recited the incantation for thee. 34. 27. "'She hath set in order her assembly. she set on high. "'The Storm-wind.15. 36. 32. 20. "'She set up the Viper. 37. "'They formed a band and went forth to battle to help Tiamat. 22. nor flinched from the battle. attacker in the fight. and the Snake. and the god Lakhamu. she made him to sit down in [goodly apparel] 43. she fashioned them in exalted forms. monstrous serpents arrayed in terror. "'The Whirlwind. disposer of the troops. "'Among the gods. 39. they could not be resisted. "'Leader of the hosts in the battle. the Fish-man. pitiless in attack (?) 26. 35. her first-born son who had collected her company. 40. the Scorpion-man. the Ravening Dog. they uttered cries of defiance. they made plots by day and by night without c easing. she made him the great one among t hem. "'Thus she caused Eleven [monsters] of this kind to come into being. "'Mother Tiamat who gave us birth hath sown these things. "'So that fright and horror might overcome him that looked upon them. 30. "'Sharp of tooth. 19. foaming and raging. 23. she rageth furiously. 18. "'They set the battle in array. "'They carried the Weapon which spared not. 25. "'That is to say. 28. she spawned huge serpents. "'Grim. "'Set up the unrivalled weapon. the Horned Beast. 21. 17. . "'She filled their bodies with venom instead of blood. "'All the gods have joined themselves to her. "'They march by her side together with those whom ye have created. 42. "'She decked them with brightness. 41. who formed all things. 31. "'He who in the battle is the master of the weapon. 33. I have magnified thee i n the assembly of the gods. "'Most mighty were Tiamat's allies. 16. "'Bearer of the firmly-grasped weapon. "'Ummu-Khubur.

but he could not prevail against her.e. "''May the Anunnaki make great thy renown over all of them. the envoy of the gods. 64. "'As for thee. "'His heart is stirred up to oppose Tiamat. and he kissed the ground at their feet. "When Kingu was raised on high and had taken the heavens (literally. "'Open your mouths. "'Marduk.. Gaga departed and hastened upon his way 68. "'He opened his mouth. Ea) was afraid and turned back. thou who art my only spouse. the god Anutum). 52. 54. 55. proclaim and magnify my position. "'That which my mouth uttereth shall neither fail nor be brought to nought. "'Summon a meeting. "'Slay Tiamat. hath set out. what goeth forth from thy m outh shall be established. reverently 69. 63. 60. 56.. "'I sent the god Anu. he spoke unto me [saying]: 58. Anshar your son hath charged me.' 53. 57. and bestow life upon you. and spake unto them [saying]: 71. "[O ye gods].' 65." 67. To the god Lakhmu and the goddess Lakhamu. issue your decrees speedily 66. "''Mayest thou be magnified. "''I have filled his (i.e. He did homage.' 49. 46. "'Let me issue decrees by the opening of my mouth even as ye do.44. . "Hasten ye therefore. 50. let the Fire-god be quenched. 61. "'Sit ye down together in friendly fashion in Up-shukkinaku. 70. stood up. [saying]: 51. 45. "'Whatsoever I bring to pass let it remain unaltered. thy) hand with the sovereignty of the whole comp any of the gods. 62. she fastened it on his head [saying]: 48. "'Should I as your avenger 59. "She gave him the TABLET OF DESTINIES. He bowed down. "'He who is glorious in battle and is most mighty shall do great deeds. his sons."' 47. "He fixed the destinies for the gods. thy command shall not fall empty. "'Nudimmud (i. "That he may go to meet your mighty enemy. the gods his fathers. your son.

"They formed a band and went forth to battle to help Tiamat. monstrous serpents. her first-born son who had collected her company. 83. 97. Kingu. "Leader of the hosts in the battle. "She hath set in order her assembly. 89. 74. . she rageth furiously. "Sharp of tooth. "She filled their bodies with venom instead of blood. "She decked them with brightness. "The Whirlwind. 92. they made plans by day and by night without ce asing. and the god Lakhamu. 91. 80. 95. 88. "She set up the Viper. 94. "So that their bodies might rear up. nor flinched from the battle. "He who in the battle is the master of the weapon 100. "Amongst the gods. arrayed in terror. the Scorpion-man. "Set up the unrivalled weapon. "She appointed. "Mother Tiamat who gave us birth hath sown these things. foaming and raging. she set on high. they could not be resisted. 76. they uttered cries of defiance. "They carried the Weapon which spared not. 79. 90. and no man resist their attack. pitiless in attack (?) 84. attacker in the fight. "They offered battle. "Bearer of the firmly-grasped weapon. 78. 77. "That is to say. "They were exceedingly wroth. 75. "The Storm-wind. "They march by her side together with those whom ye have created. and the Snake.72. "The intention of his heart he hath made me to know in this wise:-73. 85. she made him the great one among th em. 86. "All the gods have joined themselves to her. 82. "They set the battle in array. the Ravening Dog. "Most mighty were Tiamat's allies. 99. "Ummu-Khubur. she fashioned them in exalted forms. the Fish-man. "Grim. 98. disposer of the troops. "So that fright and horror might overcome him that looked upon them. 96. 81. she made him to sit down in [goodly apparel]. she spawned huge serpents. 87. 93. the Horned Beast. who formed all things. "Thus she caused Eleven [monsters] of this kind to come into being.

"That he may go to meet your mighty enemy. and had taken the heavens (Anutum) 108. "' 123. "She gave him the TABLET OF DESTINIES.e. the envoy of the gods. "'His heart is stirred up to oppose Tiamat.' 107. she fastened it on his head [saying] : 106. "'He opened his mouth. thou who art my only spouse. 102. 104. "'Let me issue decrees by the opening of my mouth.. thy) hand with the sovereignty of the whole comp any of the gods. proclaim and magnify my position. council). they wailed loudly. "'Summon a meeting (i. "'May the Anunnaki make great thy renown over all of them. 121. "He fixed the destinies for the gods. your son. hath set out.101. issue your decrees speedily 124. "'He who is glorious in battle and is most mighty shall do great deeds.e. "We cannot comprehend the work of Tiamat. "'Sit down together in friendly fashion in Upshukkinaku. I have magnified thee in the assembly of the gods. 110. "Hasten ye therefore. "'I have filled his (i. "'As for thee. "'Mayest thou be magnified. "'Whatsoever I bring to pass let it remain unaltered. he spoke unto me. "'I sent the god Anu. The gods Lakhmu and Lakhamu heard. "'Slay Tiamat. "'Nudimmud (i. "Who were [our] enemies until [the gods] were posted [in heaven]? 128.e. 118. what goeth forth from thy mouth shall be established. 113. Ea) was afraid and turned back. and bestow life upon you.' 105. let the Fire-god be quenched. even as ye do.. "'Open your mouths. "'Marduk. All the Igigi gods wept bitterly [saying]: 127. 112. thy command shall not fall empty. 114. "[Saying]: 'I have recited the incantation for thee. 126. 122. but he could not prevail against her. 103. 120. "'That which my mouth uttereth shall neither fail nor be brought to nought. 111." . his sons." 125. [saying]: 109. 115.. 119. "When Kingu was raised on high. [saying]: 116. "'Should I as your avenger 117.

e. 2. by E. 135. "Thou art honourable by reason of thy greatness among the gods. the words thou utterest become Anum (i. the words thou utterest become Anum (i.129. 5. 10. at sacred-tex ts.e. 8. their bodies were filled to overflowing. "The power to exalt to heaven and to cast down to the earth both shall be in thy hand. All the great gods. 6. Brother [god] kissed brother [god] in the [divine] assembly. "Worship. "From this day onward thy command shall not be abrogated. they sat down to a feast. 130. He (i. Wallis Budge. they went. [1921]. The taste of the sweet drink confused their . "That which goeth forth from thy mouth shall be established. which is the object of the sanctuary of the gods.. 9... "Thy position is unrivalled. 133. They entered in. They drank themselves drunk. 7. Marduk) seated himself in the seat of kingship in the presence of h is fathers [who said unto him]: 3. A. they heated the [sesame wine]. 134.e. against thy utte rance shall be no appeal. They held a meeting. They ate bread..com FOURTH TABLET. who issue decrees. They gathered themselves together. 137. "No one among the gods shall overstep thy boundary. "Thy position is unrivalled.. . 4. they filled [the court] before Anshar. spirits) we re exalted. 131. 1.. as fi xed as the sky). 136. They founded for him a majestic canopy. 132. 11. "Thou art honourable by reason of thy greatness among the gods.e. The Babylonian Legends of Creation. They issued the decree for Marduk as their avenger. their livers (i. as fi xed as the sky). They were overcome by heaviness [of drink]. 138.

"Lord." 33. he grasped it in his right hand. 36." 29. and the symbol of royalty ( ?) 30. 13." 25. the cloak disappeared. "Thou shalt sit down. "Let the wind carry her blood into the depth [under the earth]. 16. "And the god who deviseth evil. thou art our avenger. 32. "Speak but the word. 38. "Speak a second time and the cloak shall return uninjured. he set ready his weapon [in the stand]. 40. shalt hold the foremost position among the gods. it shall break the head of th y foe. "Go. . He set the lightning in front of him. the throne. They rejoiced and adored [him. he attached it to [his belly]. one cloak) was set in their midst. He slung his spear. 23. Lord. They set him on the road which leadeth to peace and adoration. He spoke a second time. cut off the life of Tiamat." 19. His body was filled with a glancing flame of fire. They conferred upon him the sceptre.12. 18. The bow and the quiver he hung at his side. 20. They addressed the god Marduk their first-born [saying]: 21. "Whensoever they lack [it] shall be forthcoming in thy sanctuary. in the council thy word shall be exalted. They gave him the unrivalled weapon. 26. Marduk spoke the word. He raised the club. and it shall come to p ass. "Thou. issued the decree for the god Bel. 39. "Decree thou the throwing down and the building up. 24. "Marduk is King. He strung [his] bow. the destroyer of the enemy [saying]: 31. When the gods his fathers saw the issue of the utterance of his mouth 28. "Thy weapon shall never fall [from thy hands]. the cloak reappeared. Then a cloak (literally. 14. 22. his fathers. 27. 15. 17. spare thou his life. 34. saying]. The gods. pour thou out his soul. "We have given unto thee sovereignty over the whole creation. and the cloak shall disappear. "O god Marduk. whosoever putteth his trust in thee. 37. 35.

the North wind. his mighty weapon. the unequalled and terrible tempest. the East wind. 44. To make turbid the inward parts of Tiamat. He set his face towards the place of Tiamat. 50.. He went up into his chariot.. On his lips . 46. the storm. 48.. 53. 65. Pawing the ground. Click to enlarge Portion of a tablet inscribed in Babylonian with a text of the Fourth Tablet of the Creation Series.. 3437." the wind of "seven.. He equipped it. The Lord approached. his head was crowned [thereby]. 42. his hand grasped. 64.] 43. he looked upon the middle of Tiamat. . 93. He made the four winds to take up their position so that no part of her migh t escape. foaming [eager to] fly. 60. who was . The wind of "four." the typhoon. he restrained 62. they were trained to trample under foot. He despatched the seven winds which he had made.] 47. He created the "foul" wind. He made a net wherewith to enclose Tiamat. [No. The South wind. They were skilled [in biting]. 45. 54. The gods. [the odour] of their teeth bore foetidness.] 58. His brightness streamed forth. he hastened on his journey.. He held the net close to his side. his fathers. they continue the description of Mard uk's equipment. 63. 52. The Lord raised up the wind storm. 59. he yoked thereto a team of four horses.. gazed upon him. champing. they gazed upon him. . 61. they followed in his train. the parching blast. the gift of his father Anu.016. At that moment the gods were gazing upon him with fixed intensity. He took a direct path. [K. the West wind.41. the wind incomparable Click to enlarge Portion of a tablet inscribed in Assyrian with a text of the Fourth Tablet of th e Creation Series. [Lines 55-57 too fragmentary to translate. . 51.. 49.

"Let now thy troops gird themselves up. 91. On hearing these words Tiamat 88. 85. let them bind on their weapons. "[Thou hast made him to usurp] the attributes of Anu 83. Tiamat [shrieked but] did not turn her head. The Lord raised up the wind-storm. "Stand up! Thou and I. [Saying]. 67. she pronounced her spell. "[Against] the gods. They advanced to fight each other. "[Thou hast made thyself] mighty.. 89.. 92. 68. . [saying]: 77. they drew nigh in battle. 69. Tiamat and Marduk. her senses became distraught. 86.. 80.. Tiamat uttered shrill cries again and again.. thou hast wrought evil. ". he sent it.. Became like a mad thing." 75. 93. roused themselves. 82. thou art puffed upon high. her husband.. the envoy of the gods. "They have appointed thee in the place which should be theirs. my fathers. His will was destroyed. his motion was paralysed. his mighty weapon. He searched out the plan of Kingu. ". She recited an incantation.. their fathers . Kingu staggered in his gait. [Against] Tiamat. 81. who was furious (?). let us to the fight!" 87. thou hast planned evil.66. "Thy heart [hath stirred thee up] to invoke battle 79. The gods of battle demanded their weapons. 74. 95. 76. 94.. 84. 71. ". "[Thou hast exalted Kingu to be [thy] husband. 72. With lips full of [rebellious words] she maintained her stubbornness 73. And the gods his helpers who were marching by his side 70. that thou hast come as the Lord of the gods. 90. Marduk looked.. That on which she stood split in twain at the words. 78. [forsooth]. Saw the [collapse of] their chief and their sight was troubled. The Lord cast his net and made it to enclose her. ".

115. They received [Marduk's] chastisement. Her heart was gripped. and they were caught in the snare. 119. They and their resistance he trod under his feet. which should never have been his. they were confined in restraint. 108. He brought her to nought. 112.. he destroyed her life. After he had crushed and overthrown his enemies. Marduk tied them up. The god Kingu who had been magnified over them 120. they could not escape. he split up her belly. 104. 116. he smashed their weapons. she opened wide her mouth [panting]. He crushed. Marduk made the evil wind to enter [it] whilst her lips were unclosed. The . 106. their sides. Her host was scattered.... her allies. He sealed it with a seal and fastened it on his breast 123. 97. and broke and ran 109. he took up his stand upon it. who had marched at her side. Marduk took from him the TABLET OF DESTINIES. 100. He cast down her carcase. The evil wind that had its place behind him he let out in her face.96. he . And the gods. 110. . 107. 98. They were cast into the net. 105. her levies became fugitive. (as a dead god?). of the world they filled with [their] cries of grief. 121.. 117. 111. He threw fetters. After Marduk had slain Tiamat the chief. The company of the devils that marched at her . 114. 101. he esteemed him [as little worth] as the god Dugga. 122. Marduk grasped the spear. Tiamat opened her mouth to its greatest extent. Quaked with terror. He clave open her bowels. And [on] the Eleven Creatures which Tiamat had filled with awfulness. 113. 118. 102. The raging winds filled out her belly. he pierced [her] heart. 124.. 99. But they found themselves hemmed in. And betook themselves to flight to save their lives. 103. He made the haughty enemy to be like the dust underfoot.

He made the-gods Anu. The valiant Marduk achieved the object of Nudimmud (Ea). they were glad. The Babylonian Legends of Creation.. 1. which he made to be heaven. 139. The abode E-Sharra. at sacred-tex ts. He appointed the Stations for the great gods. 141. he contemplated the regions thereof. 146. 133. 130. Bel and Ea to inhabit their [own] cities. by E. He established completely Anshar's victory over the enemy. They brought unto him offerings of triumph and peace. He slit open the channels (i. 131.125.e. He crossed heaven. 143. 137. With his unsparing club he clave her skull. He caused the North Wind to carry it away to a place underground. 136. The Lord Marduk measured the dimensions of the Deep.e. 138. the gods) looked on. 128. A.. [1921]. 126.com FIFTH TABLET. He set in heaven the Stars of the Zodiac which are their likenesses. they rejoiced. The Lord [Marduk] trampled on the rump of Tiamat. arteries) of her blood. 132. . 127. He ordered them not to let her water escape. 144. He slit Tiamat open like a flat (?) fish [cut into] two pieces. he posted a guard. he examined Tiamat's carcase. he worked cunningly. 2. He separated flesh [from] hair. 135. The Lord [Marduk] paused. 142. Wallis Budge. He betook himself to the abode of Nudimmud (Ea) that is opposite to the Dee p (Apsu). 129. His fathers (i. 145. 140. He founded E-Sharra. The one half he raised up and shaded the heavens therewith. He pulled the bolt. He imposed strict restraint on the gods whom he had made captive. a place like unto it. 134. He turned back to Tiamat whom he had defeated.

He proclaimed [the names] of the bow to be as follows:-81.. He gave the god Nannar (i. kissed the bow [saying]: "That . 11. After line 26 comes a break in the text of 40 lines . He founded the Station of Nibir (Jupiter) to settle their boundaries. 18.e. They observed how craftily the bow had been constructed. He made a strong corridor on the left and on the right. He set the Station of Bel and Ea thereby.e. "At the beginning of the month when thou risest over the land." 79. lines 66-74 are too fragmentary to translate. According to the day of the year he . 16. He fixed the zenith in the heavenly vault (?) 12. to determine the day 14. He .. He set up for the twelve months three stars apiece. 4. [Then] the god Anu lifted up [the bow] in the company of the gods. 3567. [K. 5. 76.] 13. 82. 9. but are t oo fragmentary to translate. figures. "Its third name is 'Bow Star in heaven' .] 75. The gods. He fixed the year. He set him for the government of the night. he appointed the limits thereof. That none might exceed or fall short. he set him in a crown (i. but they seem to have described further acts of Creation.. "Verily. 6. "On the fourteenth day .. the first is 'Long Wood. He opened great gates under shelter on both sides. Monthly. "Make [thy] horns to project to limit six days [of the month] 17.. disk) [saying]: 15. They extolled the work which he had done.. "On the seventh day make thyself like a crown. without fail. looked on the net which he had made.. [Lines 19-26 dealt further with Marduk's instructions to the Moon-god." 80.' the second is . his (Marduk's) fathers.3. 8... 7. Click to enlarge Portion of a tablet inscribed in Assyrian with a text of the Fifth Tablet of the Creation Series... 78.. 77. 10. the Moon-god) his brightness and committed the night to his care.

"Let one brother [god of their number] be given. 1. [1921]. 7. "[This time also] I speak truth. let this [chosen] one be given in order th at they (i. He opened his mouth. Ea answered and spake a word unto him 10. the King spake a word unto the A nunnaki [saying]: 15." 9. "I will set up man. For the consolation of the gods he repeated unto him a word of counsel [say ing]: 11.. Marduk assembled the great gods. and I will set them (i. the other gods) may be established. and I will beautify [them]. [Some there were who] opposed me. 17.. Wallis Budge. he addressed the gods.e. and these yield no connected sense.' 6. by E. that which I spake unto you aforetime was true. "Who caused Tiamat to revolt. I will form bone. 18. 'Man' [shall be] his name. at sacred-tex ts. [Of the remaining 57 lines of this tablet only fragments of 17 lines are preserv ed. he issued a decr ee. "The service of the gods shall be established. 2. He opened his mouth. the heart of Marduk moved him to carry out the works of a craftsman.83. On hearing the words of the gods. he spake to Ea that which he had planned in his heart." 13. "They are [now] grouped together in one place. [he came near] graciously. let him suffer destruction that men may be fashioned. 8. "Who was it that created the strife. 4. "Verily. "I will make twofold the ways of the gods. the gods) free. A. but they shall be partitioned in two. 12.] The Babylonian Legends of Creation. He fixed a station for it . "Let the great gods be assembled. 5... 14. 16. to join battle with me? .e. "I will solidify blood. "I will create the man 'Man.com SIXTH TABLET. h e gave counsel [saying]: 3.

The features of his face [shone like] the day exceedingly. man was chosen: Marduk .. 39. they inflicted punis hment on him.e. In the second year [the shrine was as high as] a hill. and he set the gods free.. divided . 20. Marduk. th eir lord [they said]: 23. 28. let us take our ease therein.." 21. they let his blood. "What benefit have we conferred upon thee? 38. the construction whereof ye desire 45. "Come. Ea) fashioned mankind for the service of the gods. The Anunnaki .. 35. "Let him who created the strife be given [as sacrifice].." 42. who hast established our splendour. I will fashion a splendid shrine. laid service upon him.. 26. Babylon.... and the summit of E-S 32. 27.. 31... The great gods. 47. the Prince of the gods. By decrees . "Who made Tiamat to revolt.. the King of the gods. 30. as a guard. "[It was] Kingu who created the strife. 40. [He said)." 46.. "I will make . 24. On hearing this Marduk .." 25. 43.. He made twofold the ways on the earth [and in the heavens?] . "O thou Moon-god (Nannaru). "Like unto . a city. They spake unto Marduk. [For] that work. to join battle [with thee]. "On the day that we reach [thereto] we will take our ease therein. which pleased him not.19. 34. 44.. The Anunnaki who . let us make a shrine. 33. The Anunnaki worked the mould [for making bricks]. 41.. our time of festival. From his blood he (i. "Come. whose name shall be renowned. answered him. their bricks were . "I will cause the axe in the act of sinking to do away his sin.. They bound him in fetters [they brought] him before Ea. He laid down for Anu a decree that protected [his] heart . Unto the King of the gods of heaven and of earth... the staff shall rule . [saying]: 36.. 37. 22. their lord... he set the Anunnaki up on high. the Igigi. 29.. "Come [at] night. After Ea had fashioned man he .

they shall cleave to the god (?) 96. he (Marduk) is most holy (elli) 99.. "Who hath set the day at his door . the created things fashioned by his fingers 108.. those gods and goddesses shall bear(?) 95. ". his work is . [After line 53 the middle portions of several lines of text are obliterated. [saying] : "This Babylon shall be your abode. "No mighty one [shall destroy] his house. and then proceeded to issue decrees. "His . 107..... 103. of the Ocean (Apsu)...e. 53. all our names have they called. they shall make shrines. 106. They gathered together from the . It (i.. Enlil.. He (i. and then he lays up in E-Sagila the famous bow which he bore during his fight against Tiamat. After the Anunnaki had finished the construction of E-Sagila. 50. unto Marduk. 102. whose father Anu proclaimed [his name] from his birth. "In his bright light let them walk for ever..e.. Whe n the text again becomes connected we find the gods singing a hymn of praise to Marduk.agila reached the [celestial] Ocean. ". the decision (concerning) the Black-headed [belongeth to] the gods 98. they shall make bright. ".. 105... and had comple ted the making of their shrines. 48. 100. Ea [shrines] they appointed.. but from what remains of it it is clear that the gods partook of a meal of consecra tion of the shrine of E-Sagila. ".. the gods have proclaimed his sonship.. 52. Next Marduk assigns seats to the Seven Gods of Fate and to Enlil and Anu. "Delivered the gods his fathers in the time of trouble. they proclaimed and venerated (?) his names. 51. They made the ziggurat [to reach] the celestial Ocean.. 97.. "They shall never forget. his going. "Verily.. the abo de which they had made. the great gods shall dwell therein . 49. "Whatever is . "He hath imposed the service of the gods. is exceedingly bright. "Marduk.. In BAR-MAH. "By whose help the storm wind was bound . "Verily. 101. the ziggurat) stood before them majestically: at the bottom and [a t the top] they observed its two horns..] 94. and them he hath set free 109. "[On] men whom he hath formed.. Marduk) made the gods his fathers to take their seats . 104. .

our Avenger.. . 118. Over his fathers the gods.. "ASAR-LU-DUG. the Hero. 124. "By a mighty combat he saved our dwelling in the time of trouble. but it is clear from the text t hat remains that Lakhmu. 115. and Lakhamu. the god who made him (i. ". call him in the second place 130. and Anshar all proclaimed the names of Mar duk. 114. hath arisen and hath [bound] the Serpent . 141. "Who hath made glad the hearts of the Anunnaki.e.... "Who . "Let men praise him .. 127. "The gods themselves are magnified by his name.. "[And] the gods who had been formed. 119. 112.' (?) . "He is the Lord who hath made all the gods to live by his holy mouth. verily . "He hath allotted stations to the Igigi and the Anunnaki.. "ASAR-LU-DUG. "We will fulfil (?) the utterance of his mouth. 121. When the text again becomes connected Marduk has just been addressing the g ods. did the god . "He hath assigned our dwelling in heaven and in earth in the time of troubl e.. man) to live..] 140. 125. is his name by which his father Anu hath named him. .110. who hath made them to . . 123. 120. 129. mighty [his] belly. "King of the gods of heaven and of earth. 111. 131. 126.. "The 'King of the Protecting Heart. 113. he is the light of the gods. they looked at him. all the parts of heaven and of the land 128.verily.. In Up-shukkinaku he appointed their council for them. 117... "[He is] the far-seeing (maruku) god. may he direct their sanctua ries. [They said]:--"Of [our] son. all of them. "[We] will look unto the King of all the heaven and the earth at night when the place of all the gods is darkness (literally sadness). "Broad is his heart. 116. "His kingship [we will exalt]. whom he fashioned as though [they were ] his offspring." [Lines 132-139 are too fragmentary to translate. "Yea. "Verily. [over] the gods of heaven and earth. "The god Marudukku ()-.. the mighty . whose name our company hath procl aimed. he is the object of trust of his country .. 122..

142. Let but [Tutu] recite an incantation.e. 16. who makest garden herbs to spring up. 15.. To whom the gods pay worship (?) reverent . 11.com SEVENTH TABLET. glad].. who art the god ZI-UKKINA. lord of adoration and grace. O ASARI. None among the gods is like unto him.e. "We will exalt the name by our speech. possessor) of holiness. [1921]. 13. 5. 14." 143. Let him be raised up on a high throne in the assembly of the gods... The Babylonian Legends of Creation. Supplier of their wants. who art ZI-AZAG. 10. 8. 17. Bel. O TUTU--creator of their new life. O god TUTU. Every one of them pronounced his name in the sanctuary. Whose drink is abundance.. was the third name they gave him--holder (i. .. Let but [the gods] attack him (i. he shall resist them su ccessfully. 12. by E. 7. Who dost make grain and fibrous plants. who goeth forth . O god TUTU. 20.. 3. 2.--giver of plantations.. who art fertile in coun sel. Tutu) in wrath. God of the favourable wind. [and Ea]. Who stablished the shining heavens for the gods. 1. He founded their paths. 18. A. Wallis Budge. 144. life of the host of the gods. Never shall his deeds be forgotten among men. They sat down and in their assembly they proclaimed his rank.. 6. 9. Who makest straight the direction of Anu. 19. at sacred-tex ts. appointer of sowing time. O ASARU-ALIM--who art weighty in the council-chamber.. he fixed [their courses]. 4. He is their patron who fixed [their] . the gods shall be at rest. O ASARU-ALIM-NUNA--the adored light of the Father who begat him.. that they may be satisfied [or.

108. 111. O TUTU. Who by his own holy incantation hath destroyed all the evil ones. 30. 37. life). 26. 112. 28. let them magnify. Saying. "He shall [ever] take Tiamat captive. 24. 29. 33. "He who entered into the middle of Tiamat resteth not. "He shall herd together the whole company of the gods like sheep. 22. In sore straits we have felt his favouring breeze. The positions of the fragmentary lines supplied by du plicate fragments are uncertain. Who dost not permit the worker of evil to go forth by his side. [K. In the mouth of the Black-headed whom his hands have made. he shall disembowel her. [Lines 39-106 are wanting. he shall slit up her treasure (varian t. 109. "He shall set the courses of the stars of the heavens.] 35. let them sing his praises. In mercy towards them he created mankind. 25.. Lord of the holy incantation. His words shall endure for ever. He riveted on the gods his enemies the yoke which had been resting on them. verily .] 107. He felt compassion for the gods who were in captivity. 110. O God TUTU.. their hearts. Let them (the gods) declare.. Establisher of the company of the gods . Who turneth that which is little into that which is much... 27. 23. Reducer of the disobedient . 38. O god SHAZU. he holdeth the beginning and the end of them. who searchest the inward parts of t he belly. stablisher of plenty. The Merciful One in whose power it is to give life. Click to enlarge Portion of a tablet inscribed in Assyrian with a text of the Seventh Tablet of t he Creation Series. who art the god MU-AZAG in the fifth place--let their mouth reci te a holy incantation [to him]. 8522. who maketh the dead to live. "His name shall be 'Nibiru' the seizer of the middle.21. 34. they shall never be forgotten. Creator of fulness and abundance." . the wise heart of the gods. 36.. in any case they give no connected sense. Verily. 32. 31. who art the god AGA-AZAG in the fourth place--let men exult.

No god could resist his wrath at its height. 135. Saying. 134. Of sin and wickedness before him . Let the wise man and the learned man meditate upon all of them. the gods) treated him with contempt. they magnified his going. Proclaimed his names fifty times. 127. may they reign to all eternity. Let them (i. "He whose title hath rejoiced his fathers 120.. by E. 126. [1921]. 133.113. at sacred-tex ts. Because he made the [heavenly] places and moulded the stable [earth]. "Shall be even as I am. Let [man] rejoice in Marduk.e. 130. 114. 122. 129. 132. "He shall make to have effect my instructions. Among the men who are to come after a lapse of time.. No god hath ever brought to the ground that which issueth from his mouth. Let the first comer take them and repeat them. The Babylonian Legends of Creation. A. 119. By the title of "Fifty times" the great gods 124. All the Igigi repeated the title. They (i. "Lord of the Lands. his command altereth not. the names) open the ears of the shepherd and the herdsman. his bowels of mercy are great. 121. Father Bel proclaimed his name. 136." 123. 116. 118. 125. he turned not his back [in flight].. . Ea heard and his liver rejoiced.e. Wallis Budge." 117. 115. That his land may be fertile and he himself abide in security. 128.com EPILOGUE. his name shall be Ea. Let [these words] be heard without ceasing. His heart is large. His word is true. the Lord of the Gods. The father shall repeat them to his son that he may lay hold upon them. "He shall dispose of all the magical benefits of my rites. 131..

and the destruction of the Tower of Babel. the exact position of which is at present uncert ain. with a List Showing the Mo nth that was Associated with Each Star in the Persian Period.A. is now known to contain no mention o f a tower or building of any sort. 2 Airu " Kakkab u (kakkab) Alap shame The Star and the Bull of heaven. The Labourer.. No. which Sm ith thought referred to the Tower of Babel. and the cylinder seal.J. [1921].326. Enqu iries are from time to time made at the Museum for tablets which deal with the T emptation of Eve. This shows that the Babylonians thought that one half of the body of Tiamat . and the Divine comm ands to Adam and Eve. 296 + R. 3657.821 (85-4-30. 2. But it is now known t hat the tablet which was believed to refer to man's eating of the fruit of the T ree of Knowledge (K. 2013) is of some importance because it speaks of one objec t which was in the "upper Tiamat" . TRANSLATION. In like manner the text on K. The description of Paradise in Genesis ii seems to show trace s of Babylonian influence. Assistants in the Department. A. 91).A. In fact. BY SIDNEY SMITH. Mus.. he was o f opinion that the Creation Tablets in the British Museum contained descriptions of the Temptation of Eve by the serpent and of the building and overthrow of th e Tower of Babel. When George Smith published his Chaldean Account of Genesis in 1876. 473 + 79-7-8. 3 Simanu " Re'u kinu shame u (kakkab) tu'ame rabuti . M.. There are in the British Museum several fragments of Neo-Babylonian copies of the Seven Tablets of Creation.137. was tho ught to be proof that a Babylonian legend of the Temptation existed. Brit.com Notes. TRANSLITERATION. by E. 77. Wallis Budge. 615) describes the banquet of the gods to which they invited Marduk. It was also thought by him that K. it is perhaps not superfluous to say that nothing of the k ind exists. Ge orge Smith printed a copy of the seal in his book (p. 3364 conta ined a set of instructions which God gave to Adam and Eve after their creation. One of these (S. and C. in other words. into "the waters that were abo ve" and "the waters that were beneath" the firmament respectively. The first comer utters his complaint of humiliation before him.. 89. 15). 1 Nisannu (kakkab) (amel) Agru.. was made into the celestial ocean. GADD. [Lines 138-142 are too fragmentary to translate. M. No. 3. and of another which was in the "lower Tiama t" . which was split up by Marduk. 1. at sacred-tex ts. but it is now known and admitted by all Assyriologists that the text on this tab let contains moral precepts and has nothing to do with the Creation Series. and the other half into the terrestrial ocean.] The Babylonian Legends of Creation. List of the name of the Stars or Signs of the Zodiac.

.BIL. E.A. M.The faithful shepherd of heaven and the Great Twins.SAG . [1921]... Virgin with ear of corn. I have been assisted in the preparation of this monograph by Mr. The Scorpion... Enurta (the god).A.GAN. 4 Duuzu " AL. 11 Shabatu " Gula . and the Band of Fishes.. Tebetum " SUH###804###UR. by E.. Wallis Budge. WALLIS BUDGE. 5 Abu " Kalbu rabu . . Great Dog (Lion)..com Footnotes.. Arah###804### shamna " Akrabu ..MASH . Sidney Smith. The Tortoise. DEPARTMENT OF EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN ANTIQUITIES.. 7 8 9 10 -fish..u rikis nuni The star . The Great Star 12 Addaru " DIL...... Assistant in the Department.. (shittu) .. A.. 6 Ululu " Shiru .. June 1. 1921.... Tashritum " Zibanitum ... . The Goat The Babylonian Legends of Creation.. BRITISH MUSEUM..LUL. at sacred-tex ts. Kislimu " PA..


1876. Brit. 1 3. vii." ^7 The god whose head was taken off was not Belus.014 (82-5-2 2. on which the destiny of every man was writt the world. No. with a god inside it. but the god who the cuneiform texts tell us was called "Kingu. but t he god who the cuneiform texts tell us was called "Kingu. ^5 This is a name under which Marduk was worshipped at Eridu." ^8 Muallidat gimrishun . 1048). or "sea." in the cou rt of the temple of King Solomon. It is doubtful if APSU here really means the great abyss of waters from out of which the world was called. ^11 Or perhaps the "belly of Tiamat.Footnotes ^1 See the Transactions. 2 Kings.) . 142).. London. en at or before the creation of e can be erased. (See Brugsch. 1883. as is commonly thought. or of this Tablet is perpetuated in the "Preserved 62). Keilschrifttex te aus Assur. ^4 APSU. Inschriften (Astronomische ) Leipzig. ^3 The text is found on a tablet from Abu Habbah. ^10 (Cun. Vol. l. as is commonly thought. etc. a ceremonial object u sed in the cult of the god. IV. something like the great basin. 146. ^2 See the duplicate fragments described in the Index to Ebeling. Part XXIV. The first shows an oval object rimmed with stars and the other a pe ar-shaped object." The Egyptians distinguished a portion of the heavens by the name of "Khat Nut. or altered. Nothing that is written (maktub) ther fail to take effect. 1919 fol." "the belly of Nut. more probably. Leipzig. ^6 The god whose head was taken off was not Belus. p. Plates I-VI. ^9 It is probable that the idea Tablet" of the Kur'an (Surah x. 23. Texts." and two drawings of it are extant. Plate 44. xxv. It was. mentioned in I Kings. 93. Mus.

^18 Thus he is equated with En-Urta. in one aspect. in their places. lines 88-101 contain the equivalent to the whole gap in the .) ^28 The god here alluded to is Mardak. thus giving it a participia l form. ###5473######801######789######802######800######789######793###. and Ebellog. who. No. ^29 See above. who had proposed to slay the gods. and only engaged in active hostilities to avenge Apsu. and transcripts of the Berlin fragments (Ebeling. ^30 Lines 83. No. and Brugsch. 1. Plate ii ff.C. Shamash. 179. 6. See Lepsius. ^25 Literally. Nos." ^26 A title of Tiamat. ^14 Formerly known as Ninip. Part XIII).^12 This is the original of the Syriac word for the Signs of the Zodiac malwashe (plural of malwasha). 39. Thesaurus (Astronomische und Astrologische Inschriften). and it is clear that she and her Allies represent the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac. ^21 The biru was the distance which a man would travel in two hours. Part XIII. Cuneiform Texts. he found i t necessary to fix the stars. Historical Texts. and it was believed that nothin g could exist apart from its name. is a fire-god. as early as the fourteenth c entury B. ^27 These nine monsters with the Weapon (Thunderbolt?) and Kingu form the Eleven Allies of Tiamat. They were well known to the Egyptians. Berlin. I. Nabu. La Litanie du Soleil. as the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac. Sin. Paris. ^22 This translation is made from transcripts of the British Museum fragments (C uneiform Texts.. Assurtexte. possessed a full list of them. ^16 See Kur'an. Chronologie. ^17 Published by King. the images of the great gods. 1883. ^15 See Naville. ^24 Tiamat's wrath was roused by Apsu. 84. 118). 1 848. The Syrians added to it an m. ^23 The name of an object was the object itself. (See the Fifth Tablet of Creation. En-lil. see Ta blet IV. She took no part in the first struggle of Apsu and Mummu against the god s. p. Plate 50. "they excited themselves to hostility. 40. Part XXV. ^20 See King. her ch ildren. When Marduk destroyed Tiamat and her associates. 55. Plate 33. II. who repeats the statement as made by Muhammad the Prophet. Leipz ig. Adad. ^13 D###789######787######789### also called ###800######801######802######809## ####800###. 117. ^19 See Poebel. Surah vii. Ke ilschrifttexte aus Assur. Cuneiform Texts. That there were ninety-nine Beautiful Names o f God rests on the authority of Abu Hurairah. who. 1875. v. ## #806######789######802### and ###5392######800######789######800######789######7 93###. Nergal. 88-101 are translated from the British Museum fragments and th e Berlin fragments. e tc.

the establishing of a new creation to take the place of the old. "He (Allah) knoweth w hat is before them and what is behind them. i. ^51 Compare the language of the Kur'an (Surah II. the allusion is. ^50 Here the title "Black-headed" refers to all mankind.e.. but it is sometimes use d by the scribes to distinguish the population of the Euphrates Valley from fore ign peoples of light complexions.British Museum tablet. to the "ways" of Anu. Bel and Ea. ^49 This line seems to imply that Marduk was regarded as the instructor of the " old" gods. Part XXIV. the destruction of Tiamat. and made his claim to it legal. ^35 This equipment of the charioteer is shown on the bas-reliefs. ^38 By impressing his seal on the Tablet Marduk proved his ownership of the Tabl et. ^31 i. ^42 I.. ^48 From this text it seems clear that Up-shukkinaku was the name of a chamber i n the temple of E-Sagila. which ar e treated as technical terms in astrology.e.e." ^44 See Cuneiform Texts.e. where it is said that the god Sin is "Marduk. ishtenish lu kuppudu-ma ana shina lu uzizu. ^33 I." ^32 I. the gods were impatient to begin the fight. who maketh bright the night. i ff. ^47 This is the first known mention of the "horns" of a ziggurat. It was destroyed probably soon after the capture of B abylon by Cyrus (539 B. ^37 I... ^34 The meaning of pal-a is unknown." It is possible that Marduk skinne d Tiamat. ^39 This is an oblique way of saying that Marduk succeeded where Ea failed. 256).C." The famous ziggurat of ESagila here mentioned was built in Seven Stages or Steps. each probably having i ts own distinctive colour. 7-15. and the exact meaning of the word is doubtful. Plate 50. "let what thou sayest prevail." ^45 Lines 44 and 45 announce Marduk's determination to build Babylon.e. ^36 Compare Psalms xviii.. "reed" or "sedge. This name probably means the "chamber of the shakkanak u." .e. civ." i. ^41 Reading..e. "to cause the gods to be content. ^46 This is the word commonly used for "temple-tower. ^40 The word is kupu. the chamber in which the governor of the city (shakkanaku) went annual ly to embrace the hands of the god Bel-Marduk. from whom he thereby received the right of sovereignty over the country.." ^43 Literally "they (indefinite) opposed me. probably. v.) and when Alexander the Great reached Babylon he found it ruins.

^52 These lines suggest that the fight between Marduk and Tiamat was recurrent. ^53 "To open the ears" -. it is incorrect to translate the verbal forms as preterites.to give understanding. ^54 The Egyptian Sheta .

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