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The Anti-Federalist Papers

The Anti-Federalist Papers

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The Anti-Federalist Papers

Index to the Antifederalist Papers
• Antifederalist No. 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION: A DANGEROU PLAN O! "ENE!IT ONL# TO T$E %ARI TOCRATIC& CO'"INATION% • Antifederalist No. ( %)E $A*E "EEN TOLD O! P$ANTO' % • Antifederalist No. + NE) CON TITUTION CREATE A NATIONAL GO*ERN'ENT, )ILL NOT A"ATE !OREIGN IN!LUENCE, DANGER O! CI*IL )AR AND DE POTI ' • Antifederalist No. - !OREIGN )AR . CI*IL )AR . AND INDIAN )AR / T$REE "UG"EAR • Antifederalist No. 0 COTLAND AND ENGLAND / A CA E IN POINT • Antifederalist No. 1 T$E $O"GO"LIN O! ANARC$# AND DI EN ION A'ONG T$E TATE • Antifederalist No. 2 ADOPTION O! T$E CON TITUTION )ILL LEAD TO CI*IL )AR • Antifederalist No. 3 %T$E PO)ER *E TED IN CONGRE O! ENDING TROOP !OR UPPRE ING IN URRECTION )ILL AL)A# ENA"LE T$E' TO TI!LE T$E !IR T TRUGGLE O! !REEDO'% • Antifederalist No. 4 A CON OLIDATED GO*ERN'ENT I A T#RANN# • Antifederalist No. 15 ON T$E PRE ER*ATION O! PARTIE . PU"LIC LI"ERT# DEPEND • Antifederalist No. 11 UNRE TRICTED PO)ER O*ER CO''ERCE $OULD NOT "E GI*EN T$E NATIONAL GO*ERN'ENT • Antifederalist No. 1( $O) )ILL T$E NE) GO*ERN'ENT RAI E 'ONE#6 • Antifederalist No. 1+ T$E E7PEN E O! T$E NE) GO*ERN'ENT • Antifederalist No. 1- E7TENT O! TERRITOR# UNDER CON OLIDATED GO*ERN'ENT TOO LARGE TO PRE ER*E LI"ERT# OR PROTECT PROPERT# • Antifederalist No. 10 R$ODE I LAND I RIG$T8 • Antifederalist No. 11 EUROPEAN AD'IRE AND !EDERALI T DECR# T$E PRE ENT # TE' • Antifederalist No. 12 !EDERALI T PO)ER )ILL ULTI'ATEL# U"*ERT TATE AUT$ORIT# • Antifederalist No. 13/(5 )$AT DOE $I TOR# TEAC$6 9PART 1: • Antifederalist No. 13/(5 )$AT DOE $I TOR# TEAC$6 9PART II: • Antifederalist No. (1 )$# T$E ARTICLE !AILED • Antifederalist No. (( ARTICLE O! CON!EDERATION I'PL# RE;UIRE A'END'ENT . PARTICULARL# !OR CO''ERCIAL PO)ER AND <UDICIAL PO)ER, CON TITUTION GOE TOO !AR • Antifederalist No. (+ CERTAIN PO)ER NECE AR# !OR T$E CO''ON DE!EN E. CAN AND $OULD "E LI'ITED • Antifederalist No. (- O"<ECTION TO A TANDING AR'# 9PART I: • Antifederalist No. (0 O"<ECTION TO A TANDING AR'# 9PART II: • Antifederalist No. (1 T$E U E O! COERCION "# T$E NE) GO*ERN'ENT 9PART 1: • Antifederalist No. (2 T$E U E O! COERCION "# T$E NE) GO*ERN'ENT 9PART (: • Antifederalist No. (3 T$E U E O! COERCION "# T$E NE) GO*ERN'ENT 9PART III:

• Antifederalist No. (4 O"<ECTION TO NATIONAL CONTROL O! T$E 'ILITIA • Antifederalist No. +5/+1 A *IRGINIA ANTI!EDERALI T ON T$E I UE O! TA7ATION • Antifederalist No. +( !EDERAL TA7ATION AND T$E DOCTRINE O! I'PLIED PO)ER 9PART I: • Antifederalist No. ++ !EDERAL TA7ATION AND T$E DOCTRINE O! I'PLIED PO)ER 9PART II: • Antifederalist No. +- T$E PRO"LE' O! CONCURRENT TA7ATION • Antifederalist No. +0 !EDERAL TA7ING PO)ER 'U T "E RE TRAINED • Antifederalist No. +1 REPRE ENTATION AND INTERNAL TA7ATION • Antifederalist No. +2 !ACTION AND T$E CON TITUTION • Antifederalist No. +3 O'E REACTION TO !EDERALI T ARGU'ENT • Antifederalist No. +4 APPEARANCE AND REALIT#/T$E !OR' I !EDERAL, T$E E!!ECT I NATIONAL • Antifederalist No. -5 ON T$E 'OTI*ATION AND AUT$ORIT# O! T$E !OUNDING !AT$ER • Antifederalist No. -1/-+ 9Part 1: Ri=hard $enr> Lee %T$E ;UANTIT# O! PO)ER T$E UNION 'U T PO E I ONE T$ING, T$E 'ODE O! E7ERCI ING T$E PO)ER GI*EN I ;UITE A DI!!ERENT CON IDERATION% • Antifederalist No. -1/-+ 9Part II: 9Ri=hard $enr> Lee: %T$E ;UANTIT# O! PO)ER T$E UNION 'U T PO E I ONE T$ING, T$E 'ODE O! E7ERCI ING T$E PO)ER GI*EN I ;UITE A DI!!ERENT CON IDERATION% • Antifederalist No. -- )$AT CONGRE CAN DO, )$AT A TATE CAN NOT • Antifederalist No. -0 PO)ER O! NATIONAL GO*ERN'ENT DANGEROU TO TATE GO*ERN'ENT , NE) #OR& A AN E7A'PLE • Antifederalist No. -1 %)$ERE T$EN I T$E RE TRAINT6% • Antifederalist No. -2 %"ALANCE% O! DEPART'ENT NOT AC$IE*ED UNDER NE) CON TITUTION • Antifederalist No. -3 NO EPARATION O! DEPART'ENT RE ULT IN NO RE PON I"ILIT# • Antifederalist No. -4 ON CON TITUTIONAL CON*ENTION 9PART 1: • Antifederalist No. 05 ON CON TITUTIONAL CON*ENTION 9PART (: • Antifederalist No. 01 DO C$EC& AND "ALANCE REALL# ECURE T$E RIG$T O! T$E PEOPLE6 • Antifederalist No. 0( ON T$E GUARANTEE O! CONGRE IONAL "IENNIAL ELECTION • Antifederalist No. 0+ A PLEA !OR T$E RIG$T O! RECALL • Antifederalist No. 0- APPORTION'ENT AND LA*ER#: NORT$ERN AND OUT$ERN *IE) • Antifederalist No. 00 )ILL T$E $OU E O! REPRE ENTATI*E "E GENUINEL# REPRE ENTATI*E6 9PART 1: • Antifederalist No. 01 )ILL T$E $OU E O! REPRE ENTATI*E "E GENUINEL# REPRE ENTATI*E6 9PART (: • Antifederalist No. 02 )ILL T$E $OU E O! REPRE ENTATI*E "E GENUINEL# REPRE ENTATI*E6 9PART +:

• Antifederalist No. 03 )ILL T$E $OU E O! REPRE ENTATI*E "E GENUINEL# REPRE ENTATI*E6 9PART -: • Antifederalist No. 04 T$E DANGER O! CONGRE IONAL CONTROL O! ELECTION • Antifederalist No. 15 )ILL T$E CON TITUTION PRO'OTE T$E INTERE T O! !A*ORITE CLA E 6 • Antifederalist No. 11 ;UE TION AND CO''ENT ON T$E CON TITUTIONAL PRO*I ION REGARDING T$E ELECTION O! CONGRE 'EN • Antifederalist No. 1( ON T$E ORGANI?ATION AND PO)ER O! T$E ENATE 9PART 1: • Antifederalist No. 1+ ON T$E ORGANI?ATION AND PO)ER O! T$E ENATE 9PART (: • Antifederalist No. 1- ON T$E ORGANI?ATION AND PO)ER O! T$E ENATE 9PART +: • Antifederalist No. 10 ON T$E ORGANI?ATION AND PO)ER O! T$E ENATE 9PART -: • Antifederalist No. 11 !ro@ North Carolina • Antifederalist No. 12 *ARIOU !EAR CONCERNING T$E E7ECUTI*E DEPART'ENT • Antifederalist No. 13 ON T$E 'ODE O! ELECTING T$E PRE IDENT • Antifederalist No. 14 T$E C$ARACTER O! T$E E7ECUTI*E O!!ICE • Antifederalist No. 25 T$E PO)ER AND DANGEROU POTENTIAL O! $I ELECTED 'A<E T# • Antifederalist No. 21 T$E PRE IDENTIAL TER' O! O!!ICE • Antifederalist No. 2( ON T$E ELECTORAL COLLEGE, ON REELIGI"ILIT# O! T$E PRE IDENT • Antifederalist No. 2+ DOE T$E PRE IDENTIAL *ETO PO)ER IN!RINGE ON T$E EPARATION O! DEPART'ENT 6 • Antifederalist No. 2- T$E PRE IDENT A 'ILITAR# &ING • Antifederalist No. 20 A NOTE PROTE TING T$E TREAT#/'A&ING PRO*I ION O! T$E CON TITUTION • Antifederalist Nos. 21/22 AN ANTI!EDERALI T *IE) O! T$E APPOINTING PO)ER UNDER T$E CON TITUTION • Antifederalist Nos. 23/24 T$E PO)ER O! T$E <UDICIAR# 9PART 1: • Antifederalist No. 35 T$E PO)ER O! T$E <UDICIAR# 9PART (: • Antifederalist No. 31 T$E PO)ER O! T$E <UDICIAR# 9PART +: • Antifederalist No. 3( T$E PO)ER O! T$E <UDICIAR# 9PART -: • Antifederalist No. 3+ T$E !EDERAL <UDICIAR# AND T$E I UE O! TRIAL "# <UR# • Antifederalist No. 3- ON T$E LAC& O! A "ILL O! RIG$T • Antifederalist No. 30 CONCLUDING RE'AR& : E*IL UNDER CON!EDERATION E7AGGERATED, CON TITUTION 'U T "E DRA TICALL# RE*I ED "E!ORE ADOPTION

proCided it ansHers T$AT des=ription. Hhen =o@pared to the .Antifederalist No. The PEOPLE are the Grand inEBest Hho haCe a RIG$T to FBdGe of its @erits. as darIness flies Defore the DBrninG taper. Dear the sa@e @arIs in their featBres as those Hho haCe Deen lonG HishinG to ere=t an aristo=ra=> in T$I CO''ON)EALT$ Jof 'assa=hBsettsK. in order to Hhi=h it @Bst and oBGht to De open to inspe=tion and free inEBir>. than Dlindl> adopt HhateCer a feH indiCidBals shall de@and. 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION: A DANGEROU PLAN O! "ENE!IT ONL# TO T$E %ARI TOCRATIC& CO'"INATION% !ro@ The "oston GaAette and CoBntr> <oBrnal. It Hill first De alloHed that @an> BndesiGninG =itiAens @a> Hish its adoption fro@ the Dest @otiCes. and offi=ers of the present GoCern@ent Hho fear to lose a part of their poHer. I hope it Hill De adopted. HithoBt alloHinG the@ either ti@e or opportBnit> to s=an or HeiGh it in the Dalan=e of their BnderstandinGs. haCe Deen so redBndant. Their @ena=inG =r> is for a RIGID GoCern@ent. If it is sBitaDle to the GENIU and $A"IT of the =itiAens of these states. Let all a=t BnderstandinGl> or not at all. De=aBse of its additional se=Brit> to the Hhole. As the plan noH offered =o@es so@ethinG near their Hishes. that in spite of those @er=enar> de=tai@ers. The> haCe striCed to oCeraHe or sedB=e printers to stifle and oDstrB=t a free dis=Bssion. and haCe endeaCored to hasten it to a de=ision Defore the people =an dBt> refle=t Bpon its properties. If the proposed plan proCes sB=h an one. it is an oDFe=t hiGhl> desiraDle. the plan Hill haCe a =andid and =o@plete exa@ination. The hideoBs dae@on of Aristo=ra=> has hitherto had so @B=h inflBen=e as to Dar the =hannels of inCestiGation. Those fBrioBs Aealots Hho are for =ra@@inG it doHn the throats of the people. the> =o@e Doldl> forHard and DE'AND its adoption. DBt if it Hill endanGer oBr liDerties as it stands. De the> eCer so Hise. I a@ pleased to see a spirit of inEBir> DBrst the Dand of =onstraint Bpon the sBDFe=t of the NE) PLAN for =onsolidatinG the GoCern@ents of the United tates. let it De a@ended. DBt these are @odest and silent. as re=o@@ended D> the late ConCention. The> =r> aloBd the Hhole @Bst De sHalloHed or none at all. Hill alHa>s ex=ite FealoBs> a@onG a free people: Detter re@ain sinGle and alone. Co@pBlsiCe or trea=heroBs @easBres to estaDlish an> GoCern@ent HhateCer. These AealoBs partisans @a> inFBre their oHn =aBse. The> Drand Hith infa@> eCer> @an Hho is not as deter@ined and AealoBs in its faCor as the@selCes. it Hill Dear the stri=test s=rBtin>. and I dare CentBre to predi=t. that it @a> not De i@proper to s=an the =hara=ters of its @ost strenBoBs adCo=ates. I had rather De a free =itiAen of the s@all repBDli= of 'assa=hBsetts. the de=eptiCe @ists =ast Defore the e>es of the people D> the delBsiCe @a=hinations of its INTERE TED adCo=ates DeGins to dissipate. and is the @ost =onsonant to their CieHs of an> the> =an hope for. thinIinG thereD> to pre=lBde an> a@end@ent. it @atters little to the@ of Hhat Iind. the> in=essantl> de=lare that none =an dis=oCer an> defe=t in the s>ste@ DBt DanIrBpts Hho Hish no GoCern@ent. than an oppressed sBDFe=t of the Great A@eri=an e@pire. the> are afraid of haCinG it aDated of its present RIGID aspe=t. The inBndation of aDBse that has Deen throHn oBt Bpon the heads of those Hho haCe had an> doBDts of its BniCersal Good EBalities. pre=lBde the people fro@ inEBir> and extinGBish eCer> sparI of liDeral infor@ation of its EBalities. 1232. the people @a> sBspe=t the )$OLE to De a danGeroBs plan. In order to de=eiCe the@. NoCe@Der (1. If He =an =onfederate Bpon ter@s that Hilt se=Bre to Bs oBr liDerties. fro@ sB=h CO*ERED and DE IGNING s=he@es to enfor=e it Bpon the@. At lenGth the lB@inar> of intelliGen=e DeGins to Dea@ its effBlGent ra>s Bpon this i@portant prodB=tion. and endanGer the pBDli= tranEBilit> D> i@pedinG a proper inEBir>.

. )ere the Eastern tates HillinG to enter into this @easBre6 )ere the> HillinG to a==ede to the proposal of *irGinia6 In Hhat @anner Has it re=eiCed6 Conne=ti=Bt reColted at the idea. (2-/24.:. lest T$EIR L5ML INTERE T shoBld De too stronGl> =onsidered. and shortl> restored the pBDli= tranEBilit>. These Ciolent partisans are for haCinG the people GBlp doHn the Gilded pill Dlindfolded.Greater nB@Der. Hill find e@plo>@ent for ten ti@es their present nB@Ders. De the rBin of oBr =oBntr>. in <onathan Elliot 9ed. sir.. I hope @> felloH/=itiAens Hill looI Hell to the =hara=ters of their preferen=e. A Cote of that aBGBst Dod> for fifteen hBndred @en. )e haCe Deen told of phanto@s and ideal danGers to lead Bs into @easBres Hhi=h Hill. The LaH>ers in parti=Blar.. ( %)E $A*E "EEN TOLD O! P$ANTO' % This essa> is an ex=erpted fro@ a spee=h of )illia@ Gra>son. 1233. III. "JanKIJerKs and LJaHK>JerKs: these Hith their train of dependents for@ the Aristo=rati=I =o@Dination. aided D> the exertions of the state. These =onsist Generall>. The> Hill proDaDl> find it sBited to T$EIR $A"IT . nor need the> fear to tr> the@ on this @o@entoBs o==asion. Hhole. A !EDERALI T Antifederalist No. in @> opinion. 'assa=hBsetts Has satisfied that these internal =o@@otions Here so happil> settled. it Hill pla=e the sBDFe=t in a different liGht.. 9Philadelphia. Hho endeaCor to sBppress all atte@pts for inCestiGation. @en of Great Health and expe=tations of pBDli= offi=e. if there De no rB@ors of Hars. 'assa=hBsetts Has FBst re=oCered fro@ a reDellion Hhi=h had DroBGht the repBDli= to the DrinI of destrB=tion fro@ a reDellion Hhi=h Has =rBshed D> that federal GoCern@ent Hhi=h is noH so @B=h =onte@ned and aDhorred. There @a> De reasons for haCinG DBt feH of the@ in the tate ConCention. The nB@eroBs triDBnals to De ere=ted D> the neH plan of =onsolidated e@pire. silen=ed all opposition. Ieep Bp an in=essant de=la@ation for its adoption. holders of pBDli= se=Brities. and re@e@Der the Old Patriots of 20. and HithoBt an> EBalifi=ation HhateCer. The ti@e draHs near for the =hoi=e of DeleGates. and Has BnHillinG to risI an> si@ilar distresses D> theoreti= experi@ents. Here BnHillinG to re=o@@end a @eetinG of a =onCention... I DeG leaCe to =onsider the =ir=B@stan=es of the Union ante=edent to the @eetinG of the ConCention at Philadelphia. if there De no apprehension of Hars. these are the LOA*E AND !I $E for Hhi=h the> hBnGer. )hen this state J*irGiniaK proposed that the General GoCern@ent shoBld De i@proCed.. and plainl> eCin=e to the Horld that there =annot De an> reason for adoptinG @easBres Hhi=h He apprehend to De rBinoBs and destrB=tiCe. if not to the $A"IT O! T$E PEOPLE. of the NO"LE order of CJin=innatBKs. the> haCe neCer led the@ astra>. The> Here Hell aHare of the danGers of reColBtions . The Eastern tates. The DeDates in the eCeral tate ConCentions on the Adoption of the !ederal ConstitBtion. <Bne 11. If the existen=e of those danGers =annot De proCed. The adoption of this GoCern@ent Hill not @eliorate oBr oHn parti=Blar s>ste@. liIe Greed> GBdGeons the> lonG to satiate their Cora=ioBs sto@a=hs Hith the Golden Dait. 1321: 0 Cols.

The Doard of treasBr> is aBthoriAed to sell in EBrope. to her Dest all>6 $oH are the DBt=h6 )e oHe the@ @one>. and foBr thoBsand poBnds. sir. it Has reFe=ted HithoBt hesitation. The> readil> Granted it.and =hanGes. to DrinG it aDoBt6 This HoBld haCe Deen Bnne=essar>. Hhi=h @a> De Cer> adCantaGeoBs. The DBt=h haCe a felloH/feelinG for Bs.Been EliAaDethLs loan6 At a Cer> =onsideraDle dis=oBnt. had it Deen approCed of D> the people. Hhile He re@ained their deDtors in so =onsideraDle a deGree. pro=Bred as Good a treat> Hith 'oro==o as =oBld De expe=ted. and Co@pan>. This Has her oDFe=t in aidinG Bs. for Hhen a proposition Has @ade to @aIe it a deDt of priCate persons. J<ohnK Ada@s applied to the@ for a neH loan to the poor. she =oBld neCer De for@idaDle to this =oBntr>. to one another. An a=t of ConGress has passed. If reEBisitions haCe not Deen =o@plied Hith. Did she harass Bs Hith appli=ations for her @one>6 Is it liIel> that !ran=e Hill EBarrel Hith Bs6 Is it not reasonaDle to sBppose that she Hill De @ore desiroBs than eCer to =linG. There Has no =o@plaint. As to PortBGal. !lint. )as oBr trade in a despi=aDle sitBation6 I shall sa> nothinG of Hhat did not =o@e Bnder @> oHn oDserCation. he Has eCen BnHillinG to a@end her reCenBe laHs. it is trBe. on GoinG into the 'editerranean. and Grant assistan=e. thoBGh it De not >et ratified. This DeinG the =ase a@onG oBrselCes. fro@ CieHs of national interest/!ran=e Has HillinG to plB=I the fairest feather oBt of the "ritish =roHn. sin=e the AlGerines and people of TBnis haCe not entered into si@ilar @easBres. or an> Hhere else. so as to @aIe the fiCe per =entB@ operatiCe. that. and. This Has oHinG to a faBlt at the head/EBarters/to ConGress the@selCes/in not sellinG the Hestern lands at an earlier period. )h> Has eCer> effort Bsed. he Hill not EBarrel Hith Bs on pe=Bniar> =onsiderations. in one >ear. )hen I Has in ConGress. $er strenGth is so s=attered. The> tooI adCantaGe of the HeaIness and ne=essities of <a@es I. $oH did the> pass . )as not !ran=e friendl>6 UneEBiCo=all> so. That respe=taDle Dod> Hisel> =onsidered. )ith respe=t to pain. I Hish to InoH D> Hhose interposition Has the treat> Hith 'oro==o @ade. ConGress =onsidered it in this point of CieH. Nations lend @one>. "Bt I a=InoHledGe it is not of an> =onseEBen=e. despised Confederation. to adFBst the pBDli= deDts DetHeen the indiCidBal states and the United tates. and Co@pan>. the> HoBld not De inattentiCe to oBr interest. she is friendl> in a hiGh deGree. that she neCer =an De danGeroBs to Bs either in pea=e or Har. and sB=h Bn=o@@on pains taIen. He haCe a treat> Hith her. The inflBen=e of Charles III at the "arDar> =oBrt. and tHo hBndred Cessels entered and =leared oBt. Hhat danGers Here there to De apprehended fro@ foreiGn nations6 It Hill De easil> shoHn that danGers fro@ that EBarter Here aDsolBtel> i@aGinar>. and are the> not HillinG that He shoBld oHe the@ @ore6 'r. in the !ren=h )est India Islands. he Has satisfied Hith thinGs as the> Here. to i@@s. I DelieCe that the @one> Hhi=h the DBt=h DorroHed of $enr> I* is not >et paid. that eCer I heard of. Loans fro@ nations are not liIe loans fro@ priCate @en. the residBe of those lands. I @Bst =onfess that pBDli= =redit has sBffered. The> Here in the sa@e sitBation Hith oBrselCes. and that oBr pBDli= =reditors haCe Deen ill Bsed. sixteen Cessels had had sea letters in the East India trade. fro@ an> other part of the Union. ex=ept *irGinia. )e haCe nothinG to fear fro@ pain. after losinG the DBt=h repBDli=. Here she hostile. and to Ro>al. erGeant. The do@esti= deDt is di@inished D> =onsideraDle sales of Hestern lands to CBtler. he Has deCisinG neH reGBlations of =o@@er=e for oBr adCantaGe. )as Penns>lCania disposed for the re=eption of this proFe=t of refor@ation6 No. it @Bst De . and @ade their oHn ter@s Hith that =onte@ptiDle @onar=h. )as it not D> that of the IinG of pain6 eCeral predator> nations distBrDed Bs.

!or the fear of disBnion. I HoBld re=o@@end that the present Confederation shoBld De a@ended. Is there not a stronG indB=e@ent to Bnion. $oH =an the> oDtain it DBt D> Bnion6 Can the Hestern posts De Got or retained HithoBt Bnion6 $oH are the little states in=lined6 The> are not liIel> to disBnite. .: are to =o@e and destro> oBr =ornfields. The larGe states haCe diCided the Da=I lands a@onG the@selCes. and that He shall De rBined and disBnited foreCer. and the =onfir@ation of the leGislatBres of eCer> state6 I =annot thinI that there is sB=h depraCit> in @anIind as that. their CieHs haCe extended @B=h farther. also. )hen it Has aGitated in ConGress.oHinG to ConGress. D> a hair. GiCe ConGress the reGBlation of =o@@er=e. Under a sBpposition that @anIind =an GoCern the@selCes. DisBnion is i@possiDle. Hhi=h are their =ornfields. NeH #orI and Penns>lCania anxioBsl> looI forHard for the fBr trade. I presB@e. are to fill the ChesapeaIe Hith @iGht> fleets. Is not a General and stronG GoCern@ent ne=essar> for their interest6 If eCer nations had indB=e@ents to pea=e. this Has all that Has asIed. The> haCe a dispBte Hith the "ritish GoCern@ent aDoBt their li@its at this @o@ent. Little @en are seldo@ fond of EBarrellinG a@onG Giants. Bnless He adopt this ConstitBtion. liIe the Goths and *andals of old. 9@oBnted on alliGators. that @anIind =an onl> De GoCerned D> for=e. that eCer> =ala@it> is to attend Bs. the Indians are to inCade Bs Hith nB@eroBs ar@ies on oBr rear. Their HeaIness Hill preCent the@ fro@ EBarrellinG. $orrors haCe Deen Greatl> @aGnified sin=e the risinG of the ConCention. The Eastern tates hold the fisheries. the AlGerines. the other. and to atta=I Bs on oBr front. $oH Here the senti@ents of the people Defore the @eetinG of the ConCention at Philadelphia6 The> had onl> one oDFe=t in CieH. in=e that period. for not folloHinG their exa@ple. sir. in a =o@@ittee of the Hhole. Hhile the "ritish are on one side and the paniards on the other6 ThanI $eaCen. and hoH lonG sin=e haCe the> i@DiDed a hostile spirit6 "Bt the Generalit> are to atta=I Bs. in order to =onCert oBr =leared lands into hBntinG/ GroBnds. pe=Blation is aDhorrent to the Eastern tates. )ill the> atta=I Bs after CiolatinG their faith in the first Union6 )ill the> not Ciolate their faith if the> do not taIe Bs into their =onfedera=>6 $aCe the> not aGreed. . and the reGBlation of trade. that the> are =apaDle of freedo@ and a Good GoCern@ent. Those in=onCenien=es haCe resBlted fro@ the Dad poli=> of ConGress. He haCe a CarthaGe of oBr oHn . fro@ the soBth. There are =ertain @odes of GoCerninG the people Hhi=h Hill sB==eed. "Bt Hhat HoBld I do on the present o==asion to re@ed> the existinG defe=ts of the present Confederation6 There are tHo opinions preCailinG in the Horld/the one. D> the old Confederation. and eat Bp oBr little =hildren8 These. )e are noH told D> the honoraDle Gentle@an 9GoCernor Randolph: that He shall haCe Hars and rB@ors of Hars. The idea of =onsolidation is aDhorrent to the people of this =oBntr>. and the Carolinians. and haCe GiCen as @B=h as the> thoBGht proper to the Generalit>. Co@@Btation is aDhorrent to NeH EnGland ideas. He are told that He oBGht to taIe @easBres Hhi=h He otherHise shoBld not. Penns>lCania and 'ar>land are to fall Bpon Bs fro@ the north. after CiolatinG pBDli= faith so flaGrantl>. or Has dee@ed ne=essar>. and lBdi=roBs in the extre@e8 Are He to De destro>ed D> 'ar>land and Penns>lCania6 )hat Hill de@o=rati= states @aIe Har for. that the Union shall De perpetBal. and that no alteration shoBld taIe pla=e HithoBt the =onsent of ConGress. are the @iGht> danGers Hhi=h aHait Bs if He reFe=t danGers Hhi=h are @erel> i@aGinar>. the> shoBld @aIe Har Bpon Bs. Their ideas rea=hed no farther than to GiCe the General GoCern@ent the fiCe per =entB@ i@post. There are others Hhi=h Hill not. . Hhose flat/sided Cessels neCer =a@e farther than 'adeira. the Eastern tates noH haCe. Hho @iGht haCe pBt the BnpopBlar deDts on the Da=I lands.

)e are Cain. The ter@ federalists is therefore i@properl> applied to the@selCes. That it is reEBisite in order to Ieep Bs at pea=e a@onG oBrselCes. )e Hish to @aIe a noise in the Horld. also trBe. to preCent foreiGners fro@ diCidinG Bs. This aDBse of lanGBaGe does not help the =aBse. after all. Call onl> for reEBisitions for the foreiGn interest and aid the@ D> loans. DBt =an neCer =onCin=e. The =ontinBal @iGration of people fro@ EBrope. and their opponents. 1233. I den> positiCel>. I haCe stronG doBDts Hhether all its adCantaGes are not @ore spe=ioBs than solid. or at least a Great @aForit> of the@. Antifederalist No. the other Hhi=h Dinds tates and GoCern@ents toGether 9not =orporations. The> are national @en. are stronG arGB@ents aGainst @aIinG neH experi@ents noH in GoCern@ent. That a national GoCern@ent Hill add to the diGnit> and in=rease the splendor of the United tates aDroad. )hen these thinGs are re@oCed. is doBDtfBl. )e oBGht to =onsider. althoBGh it De otherHise HeaI. for there is no =onsideraDle nation on earth.% )hile the o==Bpation of the Hriters @a> not haCe =oin=ided Hith the na@e GiCen. =an ad@it of no doBDt: it is essentiall> reEBisite for Doth. The folloHinG Has pBDlished in the 'ar>land GaAette and "alti@ore AdCertiser.. it Hill GiCe enerG> to the GoCern@ent. Hhen the =o@ponent parts are stronG. is a preCioBs EBestion He @Bst first @aIe Bp oBr @inds Bpon. That it Hill render GoCern@ent. as 'ontesEBieB sa>s. @onar=hi=al. )e are >et too >oBnG to InoH Hhat He are fit for. and offi=ers of GoCern@ent. )ILL NOT A"ATE !OREIGN IN!LUENCE.. despoti=. in the onl> trBe and stri=t sense of the Hord. He =an Hith Greater prospe=t of sB==ess.. &eep on so till the A@eri=an =hara=ter De @arIed Hith so@e =ertain featBres. to a leaGBe or =onfedera=>. . )hether an> for@ of national GoCern@ent is preferaDle for the A@eri=ans.. if not JtheK GeniBs and disposition of oBr people is.. the one Hhi=h operates on indiCidBals. and the settle@ent of neH =oBntries on oBr Hestern frontiers. deCise =hanGes. and. I fear. national GoCern@ent. this alHa>s has Deen. as Hell as a Cariet> of other =ir=B@stan=es. That these oDFe=ts are @ore sBited to the @anners. + NE) CON TITUTION CREATE A NATIONAL GO*ERN'ENT. are federal. or interferinG in oBr GoCern@ent. that does not =ontain @an> sBDordinate =orporations Hith CarioBs =onstitBtions: this last has heretofore Deen deno@inated a leaGBe or =onfedera=>.InfBse neH strenGth and spirit into the state GoCern@ents. The trBe identit> of the aBthor is BnInoHn. 'ar=h 2. DANGER O! CI*IL )AR AND DE POTI ' LiIe the no@e de plB@e %PBDliBs% Bsed D> pro ConstitBtion Hriters in the !ederalist Papers. and oBGht still to De =alled. @ore diGnified at ho@e is eEBall> =ertain. Hhether the =onstrB=tion of the GoCern@ent De sBitaDle to the GeniBs and disposition of the people. eCer> deGree of i@position serCes onl> to irritate. That it is ne=essar>. D> the friends and sBpporters of the proposed =onstitBtion. the arGB@ents aGainst =onsolodatinG poHer in the hands of a =entral GoCern@ent Here Hidel> read. seCeral Antifederalists siGned their HritinGs %A !AR'ER. There are DBt tHo @odes D> Hhi=h @en are =onne=ted in so=iet>. liIe other nations.. Apportion the pBDli= deDts in sB=h a @anner as to throH the BnpopBlar ones on the Da=I lands. for. or repBDli=an.

if He HoBld onl> haCe a little patien=e and GiCe the@ Good and Hholeso@e institBtions. and the other Great IinGdo@s of the Horld haCe sBffered. and neCer assB@ed an> pree@inen=e. )hat is histor>. the =onseEBen=e is BnaCoidaDle/a !E) Hill. I onl> haAard a =onFe=tBre Hhen I sa>. "Bt Hhose faBlt is it6 )e @aIe the@ Dad. of GoCern@ent and laH. is too Bn=ertain to ad@it of de=ided opinion. That a national GoCern@ent Hill preCent the inflBen=e or danGer of foreiGn intriGBe. )here the people are free there =an De no Great =ontrast or distin=tion a@onG honest =itiAens in or oBt of offi=e. that Hill per@it @> still fosterinG the delBsion. Bntil the for@er De=o@e @asters. Then it is that GoCern@ent De=o@es trBl> a GoCern@ent D> for=e onl>. Hhi=h !ran=e. )e are also. In a national GoCern@ent. no doBDt. Bntil this Horld retBrns into that nothinG. that EBiet is happiness6 That =ontent and po@p are in=o@patiDle6 I haCe either read or heard this trBth. No @an of @erit =an eCer De disGra=ed D> offi=e. The onl> foreiGn. in HitAerland. DBt a disGBstinG and painfBl detail of the DBt=heries of =onEBerors. GoCern@ent haCinG no riGht to the@. The diCine Cato IneH eCer> Ro@an =itiAen D> na@e. and then aDBse and despise the@ for DeinG so. in order to DrinG so @an> separate tates into Bnifor@it>. D> Dad GoCern@ents. After all. as the> Here to A@eri=a in Har. The people DeinG free. DBt I see none sB=h and Cer> little prospe=t of sB=h. and the HoefBl =ala@ities of the =onEBered6 'an> of Bs are proBd. or se=Bre Bs fro@ inCasion. and GoCern the@selCes Hell too. The Hiss haCe Deen foBr hBndred >ears the enC> of @anIind. )hether national GoCern@ent Hill De prodB=tiCe of internal pea=e. the dispBtes Hill De the deep/rooted differen=es of interest.and feel hBrt that EBropeans are not so attentiCe to A@eri=a in pea=e. and are a=tBall> in=apaDle of. or priCate CieHs to Gratif>. >et Cato foBnd. Bntil He haCe Haded throBGh that series of desolation. I =an no lonGer doBDt. That the people are not at present disposed for. or at . and his @e@or> Hill find. Hhi=h HoBld sBDside Defore inFBr>. fro@ Hhen=e O@nipoten=e =alled it. in Hhi=h eCent the leGislatiCe poHer =an onl> De entrBsted to one @an 9as it is Hith the@: Hho =an haCe no lo=al atta=h@ents. to prote=t all their natBral riGhts. Bnless =aBtioBsl> and fortBnatel> ad@inistered. and @Bst GoCern the@. is in @> FBdG@ent dire=tl> the reCerse of the trBth. In all GoCern@ents CirtBe Hill =o@@and reCeren=e. Hhi=h oBGht to De the foBndation of eCer> riGhtfBl so=ial =o@pa=t. partial interests. desiroBs of =BttinG a fiGBre in histor>. hoBld He not refle=t. DBt the> to GoCern@ent. instead of an Bnion of Hill and for=e. HoBld De dispBtes of leCit> and passion. and then shoBld the sHord of GoCern@ent De on=e draHn 9Hhi=h $eaCen aCert: I fear it Hill not De sheathed. the> HoBld separate and diCide as interest or in=lination pro@pted/as the> do at this da>. The honor of sBpportinG the diGnit> of the hB@an =hara=ter. In proportion as the people lose their freedo@. OBr people are =apaDle of DeinG @ade an>thinG that hB@an natBre Has or is =apaDle of. in a =onfedera=>. Hhere part of the e@pire @Bst De inFBred D> the operation of General laH. and there is >et s=ar=el> an histor> of their nation. GoCern@ents of si@pli=it> and eEBal riGhts. pain. Hhi=h the A@eri=ans shoBld neCer forGet: That the silen=e of historians is the sBrest re=ord of the happiness of a people. Hhat He =all respe=t and differen=e onl> arise fro@ =ontrast of sitBation. see@s reserCed to the hard> $elCetians alone. as @ost of oBr ideas =o@e D> =o@parison and relation. respe=t and reCeren=e in the Doso@s of @anIind. that oBr state dispBtes. and are freEBentl> disappointed that offi=e =onfers neither respe=t or differen=e. and the latter De=o@e slaCes. Alas8 I see nothinG in @> felloH/=itiAens. A roGBe in offi=e @a> De feared in so@e GoCern@ents/he Hill De respe=ted in none. and alHa>s haCe done. Hhere @en relinEBish part of their natBral riGhts to se=Bre the rest. If the Dod> of the people Hill not GoCern the@selCes. DetHeen the GoCernors and GoCerned oDtains. eCer> Gradation of distin=tion. that the> are noH =apaDle of sBstaininG the HeiGht of EL!/GO*ERN'ENT: a DBrden to Hhi=h GreeI and Ro@an shoBlders proCed BneEBal.

)here the GoCern@ent is lodGed in the Dod> of the people. . terrifies the @inds of indiCidBals into @eanness and sBD@ission. It is said the people Hish to =hanGe the GoCern@ent. lBxBrioBs and effe@inate =apital to De=o@e a lBre to the enterpriAinG a@DitioBs. hoHeCer orGaniAed. 1233. and 4. a CaliGBla. the laH of self/preserCation. )hile eCer> Dit as e@otional a Hriter. These and sB=h reasons foBnded on the eternal and i@@BtaDle natBre of thinGs haCe lonG =aBsed and Hill =ontinBe to =aBse @B=h differen=e of senti@ent throBGhoBt oBr Hide extensiCe territories. In s@all independent tates =ontiGBoBs to ea=h other. 2. it is not to De expe=ted. =an haCe resoBr=es enoBGh to =orrBpt the @aForit> of a nation. @ore espe=iall> as the Health of the e@pire is there BniCersall> diffBsed. exe=rated D> the =o@@Bnit> at larGe. and the experi@ent oBGht not to De @ade. a 'ariBs. a Nero. It is not sBffi=ient to feiGn @ere i@aGinar> danGers. and to De fa@iliar Hith the@. The Dalan=e of poHer has lonG enGaGed the attention of all the EBropean Horld.least eCil foreiGn inflBen=e. the> =an neCer De =orrBpted. GiDDon relates that so@e Ro@an &niGhts Hho had offended GoCern@ent in Ro@e Here taIen Bp in Asia. or insolen=e and oppression Hill proCe the offsprinG of its GrandeBr. there @Bst De a dreadfBl realit>. and adopt the neH plan. $enr> 9Hho penned the Hell re@e@Dered %GiCe 'e LiDert> of GiCe 'e Death% phrase: opposed the neH ConstitBtion for @an> reasons. The fa=ilit> of =orrBption is in=reased in proportion as poHer tends D> representation or deleGation. the =hanGe is danGeroBs. The sa@e GoCern@ent perCadinG a Cast extent of territor>. and if the> =oBld. for no prin=e. and an ElaGaDalBs. @Bst haCe =onfined li@its. I @ade so@e oDserCations on so@e of those danGers Hhi=h these Gentle@en HoBld fain persBade Bs hanG oCer the =itiAens of this =o@@onHealth J*irGiniaK to indB=e Bs to =hanGe the GoCern@ent. -3. . The folloHinG is taIen fro@ ElliotLs DeDates. Unless there De Great and aHfBl danGers.!OREIGN )AR . It Has the extensiCe territor> of the Ro@an repBDli= that prodB=ed a >lla. the people rBn aHa> and leaCe despotis@ to reeI its CenGean=e on itself. CI*IL )AR . !ro@ oBr diCided and dispersed sitBation. or people. in order to aCoid the horrid eCils of a General GoCern@ent. As to an> nation atta=IinG a nB@Der of =onfederated independent repBDli=s . If He re=olle=t. and thBs it is that @oderation De=o@es Hith the@. and the diffi=Blt> or rather i@possiDilit> of es=ape preCents resistan=e. AND INDIAN )AR / T$REE "UG"EAR Patri=I $enr> Has a so@eHhat the antithesis to <a@es 'adison of !ederalist note. to handle the@. and fro@ the natBral @oderation of the A@eri=an =hara=ter. -1. All hB@an aBthorit>. I shoBld De happ> to .. A !AR'ER Antifederalist No. That extensiCe e@pire is a @isfortBne to De depre=ated.. . He are oDliGed to taIe a @ost serioBs CieH of the@//to see the@. 105/01. The Great EBestion DetHeen Bs is: Does that realit> exist6 These danGers are partiall> attriDBted to Dad laHs. the pla> is not Horth the =andle. in a Cer> feH da>s after. . Hill not noH De dispBted. 1-1/-(. $e deliCered lonG spee=hes to the *irGinia Ratifi=ation =onCention <Bne 0. @Bst De oDtained throBGh =orrBption. as in HitAerland. to a =on=entration in the hands of a feH. on last atBrda>. 111. and Hill not De =olle=ted into an> one oCerGroHn. In esti@atinG the @aGnitBde of these danGers. it has hitherto proCed a Harfare of arGB@ent and reason.

Hill diCert hi@self fro@ those i@portant oDFe=ts.. that EBrope is too @B=h enGaGed aDoBt oDFe=ts of Greater i@portan=e. Hill enaDle those states Hho haCe alread> dis=oCered their in=lination that Ha>.. If it De pBt in the poHer of a less nB@Der.@eet the@ on that GroBnd. Does this looI liIe hostilit>6 I @iGht Go farther. "> the Confederation. Hhi=h Hill De of pe=Bliar adCantaGe to Bs. '> poor sa>/so is a @ere nonentit>.. Unless Gentle@en =an De sBre that this neH s>ste@ is foBnded on that GroBnd. There is a dispBte DetHeen Bs and the paniards aDoBt the riGht of naCiGatinG the 'ississippi . >oB are safe. Hho is noH in Paris. "Bt. Hith this =oBntr>. Hith Bs. There is no danGer of a dis@e@Der@ent of oBr =oBntr>. had the =onsent of seCen states Deen sBffi=ient . DBt Good infor@ation. I @iGht sa>. eEBall> so Hith the poli=> of the EBropean nations. sir. Hill neCer atta=I her for her BnHillinG dela> of pa>@ent. It is a slipper> foBndation for the people to rest their politi=al salCation on @> or their assertions. to GiCe aHa> this riCer. that his opinion is. $oH a@ I to proCe it6 It Hill rest on @> Dare assertion.. The hoBse of "oBrDon. the> oBGht to stop their =areer. >oB Hill @ost infalliDl> lose the 'ississippi. The a@Dassador of the United tates of A@eri=a is not so despised as the honoraDle Gentle@an HoBld @aIe Bs DelieCe. to attend to Bs. The . it re@ains noH oBrs. $is =hara=ter and aDilities are in the hiGhest esti@ation.. Bnless sBpported D> an internal =onCi=tion in @enLs Dreasts. =annot De iGnorant of the panish transa=tions Jthe <a>/GardoEBi neGotiationsK. that Great friend of A@eri=a. As lonG as He =an preserCe oBr BnalienaDle riGhts. Hhi=h disproCes the sBGGestions of sB=h danGer. eCen states not DeinG sBffi=ient to =onCe> it aHa>. On that Great theatre of the Horld. It is a fa=t that the people do not Hish to =hanGe their GoCern@ent. This neH ConstitBtion Hill inColCe in its operation the loss of the naCiGation of that CalBaDle riCer.. Bnless a ConstitBtion De adopted Hhi=h Hill enaDle the GoCern@ent to plant ene@ies on oBr Da=Is. )hile the =onsent of nine states is ne=essar> to the =ession of territor>. This =itiAen has not Deen in the air> reGions of theoreti= spe=Blation/oBr a@Dassador JTho@as <effersonK is this Horth> =itiAen. I Hill not repeat Hhat the Gentle@en sa>/I Hill @ention one thinG.. I a@ persBaded that foBr fifths of the people of *irGinia @Bst haCe a@end@ents to the neH plan. No treat> =an De @ade HithoBt the =onsent of nine states. OBr a@Dassador tells >oB that the IinG of !ran=e has taIen into =onsideration to enter into =o@@er=ial reGBlations.. to re=on=ile the@ to a =hanGe of their GoCern@ent. he is Hell a=EBainted. Do >oB DelieCe that the @iGht> @onar=h of !ran=e. DeholdinG the Greatest s=enes that eCer enGaGed the attention of a prin=e of that =oBntr>. That relinEBish@ent HoBld aDsolBtel> haCe taIen pla=e. the riGhts of territor> are se=Bred. He shoBld De inno=ent of the danGers. I =on=eiCe.K for the non/pa>@ent of oBr deDt dBe to !ran=e. No GoCern@ent =an floBrish Bnless it De foBnded on the affe=tion of the people. not fro@ pBDli= aBthorit>. A serCant of a repBDli= is as @B=h respe=ted as that of a @onar=h. to relinEBish that naCiGation. that >oB reFe=t this GoCern@ent. )e haCe infor@ation =o@e fro@ an illBstrioBs =itiAen of *irGinia. and noH =all for a settle@ent of a==oBnts Hith A@eri=a6 This pro=eedinG is not Harranted D> Good sense. Let Bs folloH the saGe adCi=e of this =o@@on friend of oBr happiness. He are in safet>. A treat> had Deen nearl> entered into Hith pain. The honoraDle Gentle@an tells Bs that hostile fleets are to De sent to @aIe reprisals Bpon Bs.. It is little BsBal for nations to send ar@ies to =olle=t deDts.. This neH GoCern@ent. the little A@eri=an @atters Canish. The honoraDle Gentle@an Jeither <a@es 'adison or Ed@Bnd RandolphK. The six oBthern states opposed it. GiCe @e leaCe to sa>. hoBld the people Hish to =hanGe it. )e are threatened Hith danGer Ja==ordinG to so@e. in eCer> respe=t. eCen states Hished to relinEBish this riCer to the@. on re=ipro=al ter@s.

De=aBse the =o@pa=t is DroIen6 Then the dispBtes =on=erninG the Carolina line are to inColCe Bs in danGers. Then. . =o@es Penns>lCania. sir. The adoption of the neH s>ste@ Hill not re@oCe the eCil. It Hill De as poHerfBl to . @aIes the@ tre@Dle for 'exi=o and PerB. $ere the pi=tBre Hill not stand exa@ination. sir. The> are pra=tised Hith Great inGenBit> on this o==asion. As a =oBnterpart to Hhat He haCe alread> Deen inti@idated Hith. . )oBld this =oBntr>@an of oBrs De fond of adCisinG Bs to a @easBre Hhi=h he IneH to De danGeroBs6 And =an it De reasonaDl> sBpposed that he =an De iGnorant of an> pre@editated hostilit> aGainst this =oBntr>6 The honoraDle Gentle@an @a> sBspe=t the a==oBnt. Hhen his feeDle =olonies are exposed to the@6 ECer> adCan=e the people @aIe to the HestHard. to indB=e this ConCention to assent to this =hanGe.. $aCe the> not reGBlarl> =onfir@ed oBr riGht to it. and Hill prodB=e periloBs =onseEBen=es. If it De danGeroBs for *irGinia. "Bt here. Despised as He are a@onG oBrselCes. it is eEBall> so for the@. The danGer of oBr DeinG their ene@ies Hill De a preCailinG arGB@ent in oBr faCor. that it HoBld De Bnsafe for the@ to send fleets or ar@ies to =olle=t deDts. )e are. If this De not a fa=t. If so. it is Generall> said so. and that this Hill DrinG Har on this =oBntr>. . Do >oB sBppose the panish @onar=h Hill risI a =ontest Hith the United tates. Pla=e >oBrselCes in their sitBation. if a feH land spe=Blators and FoDDers haCe Ciolated the prin=iples of proDit>. . sir. that it Hill inColCe this =oBntr> in Har6 Is there no redress to De otherHise oDtained. . Penns>lCania is to Go in =onfli=t Hith *irGinia. He shall =on=lBde that Penns>lCania Hill do Hhat He do. that he HoBld Harn Bs of an> danGer fro@ !ran=e. The> are disGorGed of their federalis@. $olland Groans Bnder a GoCern@ent liIe this neH one. in terriDle arra>. Can it De sBpposed. DBt I Hill do oBr friend the FBsti=e to sa>. has DroBGht on that =oBntr> @iseries Hhi=h Hill not per@it the@ to =olle=t deDts Hith fleets or ar@ies . 'an> of the@ haCe latel> Deen =onCin=ed of its fatal tenden=>. I InoH there are friends of hB@an natBre in that state. eCen ad@ittinG the delinEBents and sBfferers to De nB@eroBs6 )hen Gentle@en are thBs driCen to prodB=e i@aGinar> danGers. render the idea of danGer fro@ that EBarter aDsBrd. the> Hill neCer @aIe Har on those Hho @aIe professions of Hhat the> are atta=hed to the@selCes. A strip of land rBnninG fro@ the HestHard of the AlleGhan> to the 'ississippi. a DBt=h president. is the sBDFe=t of this pretended dispBte. Penns>lCania has Deen a Good neiGhDor heretofore. and the a=tBal sitBation of !ran=e. in the next pla=e. I a@ sBre it Hill not De Bn=andid to sa> that the =hanGe itself is reall> danGeroBs. .friendl> disposition to Bs.. friGhtened D> danGers fro@ $olland. This President Hill DrinG @iseries on Bs liIe those of $olland. Bnder oBr present GoCern@ent. it is @BtBal and re=ipro=al. he is federal/ /so@ethinG terriDle//*irGinia =annot looI her in the fa=e. It Hill De their trBe interest to De Bnited Hith Bs. If He sBffi=ientl> attend to the a=tBal sitBation of thinGs. )e are presented Hith danGers of a Cer> Bn=o@@on natBre. He are terriDle to that @onar=h>. . HoBld >oB fiGht >oBr neiGhDors for =onsiderinG this Great and aHfBl @atter6 . He are told that so@e lands haCe Deen sold. I do not InoH the lenGth or Dreadth of this dispBted spot. . the> @aIe a transition to oDFe=ts of another Iind. A nB@Der of that =oBntr> are stronGl> opposed to it. As to the danGer arisinG fro@ Dorderers. )ill the> forfeit Good neiGhDorhood Hith Bs. and relinEBished all =lai@s to it6 I =an CentBre to pledGe that the people of Carolina Hill neCer distBrD Bs. Then the 'ar>land =o@pa=t is DroIen. I see nothinG Cer> terriDle in this. o@e Gentle@en haCe a pe=Bliar talent for the@. )e @Bst =hanGe oBr GoCern@ent to es=ape the Hrath of that repBDli=. B=h is the =ondition of EBropean affairs. Hhi=h =annot De foBnd. I a@ not a=EBainted Hith the arts of paintinG. A stadtholder. )hateCer @a> De the disposition of the aristo=rati=al politi=ians of that =oBntr>.

as a Cote of adoption. NothinG GiCes a de=ided i@portan=e DBt this federal GoCern@ent. )here is the danGer6 If. the> are as terriDle to the other states as to Bs. . he sa>s. This arti=le D> %AN O" ER*ER. it rendered Bs Ci=torioBs in that Dlood> =onfli=t Hith a poHerfBl nation. 0. TaIe lonGer ti@e in re=IoninG thinGs. This sele=tion Has an ansHer to PBDliBs J<ohn <a>K !ederalist No.. this despised GoCern@ent.% Has printed in The NeH/#orI <oBrnal and Has reprinted in the J"ostonK A@eri=an $erald on De=e@Der +. "Bt. =oBld possiDl> De. it is Hell InoHn that He haCe nothinG to fear fro@ the@. it has se=Bred Bs a territor> Greater than an> EBropean @onar=h possesses//and shall a GoCern@ent Hhi=h has Deen thBs stronG and CiGoroBs.Been Anne to the =ot=h parlia@ent. and that it oBGht to De proCided aGainst. #oB Hill sip sorroH. The danGer is here diCided. I HoBld re=Br to the A@eri=an spirit to defend Bs. Let not Gentle@en De told that it is not safe to reFe=t this GoCern@ent. Bnder the siGnatBre PBDliBs or The !ederalist. Antifederalist No. Their sBperiorit> in=reases dail>. reColBtions liIe this haCe happened in al@ost eCer> =oBntr> in EBrope. DBt those danGers are ideal. 0 COTLAND AND ENGLAND / A CA E IN POINT The onGoinG !ederalist essa>s appeared fro@ O=toDer of 1232 to 'a> of 1233. has GiCen extra=ts of a letter fro@ . in the Dail> AdCertiser. the hiGhest en=o@iB@//it =arried Bs throBGh a lonG and danGeroBs Har. *.. sir. The Confederation.ad@it Bs into the Union. He @Bst taIe shelter Bnder the federal GoCern@ent. )e =annot looI the@ in the fa=e. on the sBDFe=t of a Bnion DetHeen =otland and EnGland.. also. A Hriter. OBr Da=I settlers are =onsideraDl> stronGer than the>. if >oB Hant an> other se=Brit> than the laHs of *irGinia. there Has an>. in @> opinion. a==ordinG to the CBlGar phrase.. to =onCin=e the people of A@eri=a of the Denefits the> HoBld . #et there is another thinG it Hill as effe=tBall> do/ /it Hill oppress and rBin the people. si@ilar exa@ples are to De foBnd in an=ient Gree=e and an=ient Ro@e/ /instan=es of the people losinG their liDert> D> their oHn =arelessness and the a@Dition of a feH. No. I a=InoHledGe that li=entioBsness is danGeroBs. aGainst fa=tion and tBrDBlen=e. the neH for@ of GoCern@ent @a> effe=tBall> preCent it. to aCoid all danGers. sir. Hith a CieH of proCinG the adCantaGes Hhi=h. 1232. @erits. Then the saCaGe Indians are to destro> Bs. . De a==Bsed of i@De=ilit>.. and in the NeH #orI Pa=Iet. OBr =o@pa=t sitBation and natBral strenGth Hill se=Bre Bs. and aDandoned for Hant of enerG>6 Consider Hhat >oB are aDoBt to do Defore >oB part Hith the GoCern@ent.. I a=InoHledGe. that PBDliBs has Deen Cer> BnfortBnate in sele=tinG these extra=ts as a =ase in point. I HoBld DeG leaCe to re@arI. "Bt. ReDBttals 9Antifederalist in natBre: to !ederalist Hriters seldo@ Here pBDlished. )e are =aBtioned . Bppose the states to De =onfederated all aroBnd Bs. HithoBt preCioBs a@end@ents. that spirit Hhi=h has enaDled Bs to sBr@oBnt the Greatest diffi=Blties//to that illBstrioBs spirit I address @> @ost ferCent pra>er to preCent oBr adoptinG a s>ste@ destrB=tiCe to liDert>. He shall @aIe Bp otherHise. Hhat He Hant in nB@Ders. )herefore is it not safe6 )e are told there are danGers. the> =annot De de@onstrated. Hill De deriCed D> the states if the neH =onstitBtion is adopted.

that Hhen the Bnion Has the sBDFe=t of deDate in the =ottish leGislatBre. and fro@ hen=e it @Bst eCidentl> appear. in fa=t. and fBrnish larGe Dodies of @en to assist in her Hars Hith !ran=e. to a =oBntr> of Hhi=h the> =an InoH DBt Cer> little ex=ept D> =o@@on report. that it HoBld De danGeroBs to entrBst the@ Hith the @eans of defense. and that eCen the>. It @Bst De oDCioBs to eCer>one. than the> HoBld De. it @Bst De oDCioBs to eCer> disinterested oDserCer 9Desides @an> other HeiGht> oDFe=tions Hhi=h Hill present the@selCes to CieH:. in realit>. and endeaCored to =all the attention of parlia@ent to their distresses. an> thinG Hhi=h GiCes the @ost distant idea that their Hriters are in faCor of sB=h GoCern@ents. =otland Has at all ti@es on ter@s of the @ost =ordial a@it>. in an> of the pie=es pBDlished aGainst the proposed =onstitBtion. $oH far these predi=tions haCe Deen Cerified I DelieCe it Hill not reEBire @B=h troBDle to proCe. DeinG so feH. espe=iall> if the> =a@e in =o@petition Hith the prospe=ts of CieHs of the @inistr>. fra@ed D> the late =onCention. Hith Hho@. DBt it is =lear these oDFe=tions arise fro@ a =onsolidation not affordinG se=Brit> for the liDerties of their =oBntr>. on the =ontrar>. De@pster: GaCe a @ost patheti= des=ription of the sBfferinGs of the =o@@onalt> of =otland. It deserCes also to De re@e@Dered. @B=h less to those it Hill =ontain at a fBtBre period. and afford the@ so@e relief D> en=oBraGinG their fisheries. in the late Har DetHeen !ran=e and Great "ritain. Ciolentl> opposed the Bnion. as the> HoBld then haCe it in their poHer to DreaI the Bnion. I oDserCe that the Hriter aDoCe @entioned. adeEBate to the present inhaDitants of this extensiCe =ontinent. the> HoBld Dear a Great proportion of her deDt. Here the> a separate nation. of =oBrse. parti=Blarl> on the sea =oast. !ro@ this representation of the sitBation of =otland. and. Cer> little of their attention HoBld De GiCen to the trBe interest of their =onstitBents. Bnder sB=h a GoCern@ent as HoBld De effe=ted D> the neH s>ste@. fort>/fiCe @e@Ders DeinG Cer> far fro@ the proportion of =otland. it is BnreasonaDle to sBppose that sB=h larGe nB@Ders HoBld EBit their =oBntr>. alleGinG that the> Here in=apaDle of defendinG the@selCes and their propert> fro@ an inCasion Bnless the> Here assisted D> GoCern@ent. GiCe the people DBt the @ere na@e of DeinG free. deriCe no adCantaGes fro@ a =onsolidation of GoCern@ent Hith EnGland. taIes Great pains to shoH the disadCantaGes Hhi=h HoBld resBlt fro@ three or foBr distin=t =onfedera=ies of these states. This Hill De fBll> illBstrated D> attendinG to the Great e@iGrations Hhi=h are @ade to A@eri=a. stipBlated D> the =onstitBtion. DBt. It is a trBth that their petitions Here disreGarded. Hhen its extent and nB@Ders Here dBl> =onsidered. D> an> @eans. for their defense. that the nB@Der is not. the least a=EBainted Hith EnGlish histor>. that the people of =otland. It Has also predi=ted that the representation in the parlia@ent of Great "ritain. parti=Blarl> in the hoBse of =o@@ons. I Hill onl> fBrther re@arI. and predi=ted that the people of =otland HoBld. that sin=e the Bnion of the tHo nations the Great Dod> of the people in =otland are in a @B=h Horse sitBation noH. and reasons Here assiGned. =an De Hith no other intention than HilfBll> to de=eiCe his felloH =itiAens. Has too s@all. the sin=ere Hish . that it is not aDoBt tHo or three >ears sin=e a @e@Der of the "ritish parlia@ent 9I DelieCe 'r. that the desiGn of PBDliBs. as Hell as =o@@oners8 9Hho Here not =orrBpted D> EnGlish Gold:. De attentiCel> and dispassionatel> =onsidered. DreaI fro@ the tender ties of Iindred and friendship and trBst the@selCes on a danGeroBs Co>aGe a=ross a Cast o=ean. and that it is. @iGht 9or at least a @aForit> of the@ @iGht: at all ti@es De i@@ediatel> Bnder the inflBen=e of the EnGlish @inistr>. !or if the people =oBld haCe DBt a =o@@on sBpport at ho@e. It is a =ertaint>. I a@ =onfident it @Bst De.deriCe fro@ a Bnion. sBrel> no one =an draH an> =on=lBsion that this =oBntr> HoBld deriCe happiness or se=Brit> fro@ a GoCern@ent Hhi=h HoBld. I @Bst =onfess that I haCe not seen. in artfBll> holdinG Bp to pBDli= CieH Jthe DBGDear ofK sB=h =onfedera=ies. !or if the representation. petitioned to haCe ar@s and a@@Bnition sBpplied the@ D> their General GoCern@ent. so@e of their @ost sensiDle and disinterested noDles. Defore the Bnion.

of eCer> trBe friend to the United tates. that there shoBld De a =onfederated national GoCern@ent. DBt that it shoBld De one Hhi=h HoBld haCe a =ontrol oCer national and external @atters onl>. and not interfere Hith the internal reGBlations and poli=e of the different states in the Bnion. B=h a GoCern@ent. Hhile it HoBld GiCe Bs respe=taDilit> aDroad. HoBld not en=roa=h Bpon. or sBDCert oBr liDerties at ho@e. AN O" ER*ER

Antifederalist No. 1 T$E $O"GO"LIN O! ANARC$# AND DI EN ION A'ONG T$E TATE
One of larGest series of Antifederalist essa>s Has penned Bnder the pseBdon>@ %CENTINEL.% The Philadelphia Independent GaAetteer ran this (- essa> series DetHeen O=toDer 0. 1232 and NoCe@Der (-. 1233. o@e historians feel @ost of the %Centinel% letters Here Hritten D> a@Bel "r>an. and a feH D> EleaAer OsHald. oHner of the Independent GaAetteer. A @ore re=ent stBd> D> Charles PaGe @ith. <a@es )ilson. !oBndinG !ather 9Chapel $ill. 1401:. refrains fro@ @aIinG sB=h theor> This sele=tion is fro@ the eleCenth letter of %Centinel.% appearinG in the Independent GaAetteer on <anBar> 11. 1233. The eCils of anar=h> haCe Deen portra>ed Hith all the i@aGer> of lanGBaGe in the GroHinG =olors of eloEBen=e, the affriGhted @ind is then=e led to =lasp the neH ConstitBtion as the instrB@ent of deliCeran=e. as the onl> aCenBe to safet> and happiness. To aCoid the possiDle and transitor> eCils of one extre@e. it is sedB=ed into the =ertain and per@anent @iser> ne=essaril> attendant on the other. A state of anar=h> fro@ its Cer> natBre =an neCer De of lonG =ontinBan=e, the Greater its Ciolen=e the shorter the dBration. Order and se=Brit> are i@@ediatel> soBGht D> the distra=ted people Deneath the shelter of eEBal laHs and the salBtar> restraints of reGBlar GoCern@ent, and if this De not attainaDle. aDsolBte poHer is assB@ed D> the one. or a feH. Hho shall De the @ost enterprisinG and sB==essfBl. If anar=h>. therefore. Here the ineCitaDle =onseEBen=e of reFe=tinG the neH ConstitBtion. it HoBld De infinitel> Detter to in=Br it. for eCen then there HoBld De at least the =han=e of a Good GoCern@ent risinG oBt of li=entioBsness. "Bt to rBsh at on=e into despotis@ De=aBse there is a Dare possiDilit> of anar=h> ensBinG fro@ the reFe=tion. or fro@ Hhat is >et @ore Cisionar>. the s@all dela> that HoBld De o==asioned D> a reCision and =orre=tion of the proposed s>ste@ of GoCern@ent is so sBperlatiCel> HeaI. so fatall> Dlind. that it is astonishinG an> person of =o@@on BnderstandinG shoBld sBffer sB=h an i@position to haCe the least inflBen=e on his FBdG@ent, still @ore astonishinG that so fli@s> and de=eptiCe a do=trine shoBld @aIe =onCerts a@onG the enliGhtened free@en of A@eri=a. Hho haCe so lonG enFo>ed the DlessinGs of liDert>. "Bt Hhen I CieH a@onG sB=h =onCerts @en otherHise pre/e@inent it raises a DlBsh for the HeaIness of hB@anit> that these. her DriGhtest orna@ents. shoBld De so di@siGhted to Hhat is self/eCident to @ost @en. that sB=h i@De=ilit> of FBdG@ent shoBld appear Hhere so @B=h perfe=tion Has looIed for. This oBGht to tea=h Bs to depend @ore on oBr oHn FBdG@ent and the natBre of the =ase than Bpon the opinions of the Greatest and Dest of @en. Hho. fro@

=onstitBtional infir@ities or parti=Blar sitBations. @a> so@eti@es CieH an oDFe=t throBGh a delBsiCe @ediB@, DBt the opinions of Great @en are @ore freEBentl> the di=tates of a@Dition or priCate interest. The soBr=e of the apprehensions of this so @B=h dreaded anar=h> HoBld Bpon inCestiGation De foBnd to arise fro@ the artfBl sBGGestions of desiGninG @en. and not fro@ a rational proDaDilit> GroBnded on the a=tBal state of affairs. The least refle=tion is sBffi=ient to dete=t the falla=> to shoH that there is no one =ir=B@stan=e to FBstif> the predi=tion of sB=h an eCent. On the =ontrar> a short ti@e Hill eCin=e. to the Btter dis@a> and =onfBsion of the =onspirators. that a perseCeran=e in =ra@@inG doHn their s=he@e of poHer Bpon the free@en of this tate JPenns>lCaniaK Hill ineCitaDl> prodB=e an anar=h> destrB=tiCe of their darlinG do@ination. and @a> Iindle a fla@e preFBdi=ial to their safet>. The> shoBld De =aBtioBs not to trespass too far on the forDearan=e of free@en Hhen HrestinG their dearest =on=erns. DBt prBdentl> retreat fro@ the GatherinG stor@. The other spe=ter that has Deen raised to terrif> and alar@ the people oBt of the exer=ise of their FBdG@ent on this Great o==asion. is the dread of oBr splittinG into separate =onfedera=ies or repBDli=s. that @iGht De=o@e riCal poHers and =onseEBentl> liaDle to @BtBal Hars fro@ the BsBal @otiCes of =ontention. This is an eCent still @ore i@proDaDle than the foreGoinG. It is a presB@ption BnHarranted. either D> the sitBation of affairs. or the senti@ents of the people, no disposition leadinG to it exists, the adCo=ates of the neH =onstitBtion see@ to CieH sB=h a separation Hith horror. and its opponents are strenBoBsl> =ontendinG for a =onfederation that shall e@Dra=e all A@eri=a Bnder its =o@prehensiCe and salBtar> prote=tion. This hoDGoDlin appears to haCe sprBnG fro@ the deranGed Drain of PBDliBs. JThe !ederalistK a NeH #orI Hriter. Hho. @istaIinG soBnd for arGB@ent. has Hith $er=Blean laDor a==B@Blated @>riads of Bn@eaninG senten=es. and @e=hani=all> endeaCored to for=e =onCi=tion D> a torrent of @ispla=ed Hords. $e @iGht haCe spared his readers the fatiGBe of HadinG throBGh his lonG/ Hinded disEBisitions on the direfBl effe=ts of the =ontentions of ini@i=al states. as totall> inappli=aDle to the sBDFe=t he Has professedl> treatinG, this Hriter has deCoted @B=h ti@e. and Hasted @ore paper in =o@DatinG =hi@eras of his oHn =reation. $oHeCer. for the saIe of arGB@ent. I Hill ad@it that the ne=essar> =onseEBen=e of reFe=tinG or dela>inG the estaDlish@ent of the neH =onstitBtion HoBld De the dissolBtion of the Bnion. and the institBtion of eCen riCal and ini@i=al repBDli=s, >et oBGht sB=h an apprehension. if Hell foBnded. to driCe Bs into the fanGs of despotis@6 Infinitel> preferaDle HoBld De o==asional Hars to sB=h an eCent. The for@er. althoBGh a seCere s=oBrGe. is transient in its =ontinBan=e. and in its operation partial. DBt a s@all proportion of the =o@@Bnit> are exposed to its Greatest horrors. and >et feHer experien=e its Greatest eCils, the latter is per@anent and BniCersal @iser>. HithoBt re@ission or exe@ption. As passinG =loBds oDs=Bre for a ti@e the splendor of the sBn. so do Hars interrBpt the Helfare of @anIind, DBt despotis@ is a settled Gloo@ that totall> extinGBishes happiness. Not a ra> of =o@fort =an penetrate to =heer the deFe=ted @ind, the Goad of poHer Hith BnaDatinG riGor insists Bpon the Bt@ost exa=tion, liIe a @er=iless tasI@aster. JitK is =ontinBall> infli=tinG the lash. and is neCer satiated Hith the feast of BnfeelinG do@ination. or the @ost aDFe=t serCilit>. The =eleDrated Lord &ai@s. Hhose disEBisitions of hB@an natBre eCiden=e extraordinar> strenGth of FBdG@ent and depth of inCestiGation. sa>s that a =ontinBal =iCil Har. Hhi=h is the @ost destrB=tiCe and horriDle s=ene of hB@an dis=ord. is preferaDle to the Bnifor@it> of Hret=hedness and @iser> attendant Bpon despotis@, of all possiDle eCils. as I oDserCed in @> first nB@Der. this is the Horst and the @ost to De dreaded.

I =onGratBlate @> felloH =itiAens that a Good GoCern@ent. the Greatest earthl> DlessinG. @a> De so easil> oDtained. that oBr =ir=B@stan=es are so faCoraDle. that nothinG DBt the foll> of the =onspirators =an prodB=e anar=h> or =iCil Har. Hhi=h HoBld presentl> ter@inate in their destrB=tion and the per@anent har@on> of the state. alone interrBpted D> their a@DitioBs @a=hinations. CENTINEL

%P$ILANT$ROPO .% 9an anon>@oBs *irGinia Antifederalist: appeared in The *irGinia <oBrnal and Alexandria AdCertiser. De=e@Der 1. 1232. HritinG his Cersion of histor> Bnder the proposed neH ConstitBtion. The ti@e in Hhi=h the =onstitBtion or GoCern@ent of a nation BnderGoes an> parti=Blar =hanGe. is alHa>s interestinG and =riti=al. Ene@ies are CiGilant. allies are in sBspense. friends hesitatinG DetHeen hope and fear, and all @en are in eaGer expe=tation to see Hhat sB=h a =hanGe @a> prodB=e. "Bt the state of oBr affairs at present. is of sB=h @o@ent. as eCen to aroBse the dead ... JA =ertain defender of the ConstitBtion has stated that oDFe=tions to itK are @ore =al=Blated to alar@ the fears of the people than to ansHer an> CalBaDle end. )as that the =ase. as it is not. Hill an> @an in his soDer senses sa>. that the least infrinGe@ent or appearan=e of infrinGe@ent on oBr liDert> /that liDert> Hhi=h has latel> =ost so @B=h Dlood and treasBre. toGether Hith anxioBs da>s and sleepless niGhts/oBGht not Doth to roBse oBr fears and aHaIen oBr FealoBs>6 ... The neH =onstitBtion in its present for@ is =al=Blated to prodB=e despotis@. thraldo@ and =onfBsion. and if the United tates do sHalloH it. the> Hill find it a DolBs. that Hill =reate =onCBlsions to their Bt@ost extre@ities. )ere the> @ine ene@ies. the Horst i@pre=ation I =oBld deCise HoBld De. @a> the> adopt it. !or t>rann>. Hhere it has Deen =hained 9as for a feH >ears past: is alHa>s @ore =Brsed. and sti=Is its teeth in deeper than Defore. )ere Col. JGeorGeK 'asonLs oDFe=tions oDCiated. the i@proCe@ent HoBld De Cer> =onsideraDle. thoBGh eCen then. not so =o@plete as @iGht De. The ConGressLs haCinG poHer HithoBt =ontrol/to DorroH @one> on the =redit of the United tates, their haCinG poHer to appoint their oHn salaries. and their DeinG paid oBt of the treasBr> of the United tates. thereD>. in so@e @easBre. renderinG the@ independent of the indiCidBal states, their DeinG FBdGes of the EBalifi=ation and ele=tion of their oHn @e@Ders. D> Hhi=h @eans the> =an Get @en to sBit an> pBrpose, toGether Hith Col. 'asonLs Hise and FBdi=ioBs oDFe=tions/are GrieCan=es. the Cer> idea of Hhi=h is enoBGh to @aIe eCer> honest =itiAen ex=lai@ in the lanGBaGe of Cato. 5 LiDert>. 5 @> =oBntr>8 OBr present =onstitBtion. Hith a feH additional poHers to ConGress. see@s Detter =al=Blated to preserCe the riGhts and defend the liDerties of oBr =itiAens. than the one proposed. HithoBt proper a@end@ents. Let Bs therefore. for on=e. shoH oBr FBdG@ent and solidit> D> =ontinBinG it. and proCe the opinion to De erroneoBs. that leCit> and fi=Ileness are not onl> the foiDles of oBr te@pers. DBt the reiGninG prin=iples in these states. There are @en a@onGst Bs. of sB=h dissatisfied te@pers. that pla=e the@ in $eaCen. the> HoBld find so@ethinG to Dla@e, and so restless and self/ sBffi=ient. that the> @Bst De eternall> refor@inG the state. "Bt the @isfortBne is. the> alHa>s leaCe affairs Horse

than the> find the@. A =hanGe of GoCern@ent is at all ti@es danGeroBs. DBt at present @a> De fatal. HithoBt the Bt@ost =aBtion. FBst after e@erGinG oBt of a tedioBs and expensiCe Har. !eeDle in oBr natBre. and =o@pli=ated in oBr for@. He are little aDle to Dear the roBGh PostinG of =iCil dissensions Hhi=h are liIel> to ensBe. ECen noH. dis=ontent and opposition distra=t oBr =oBn=ils. DiCision and desponden=> affe=t oBr people. Is it then a ti@e to alter oBr GoCern@ent. that GoCern@ent Hhi=h eCen noH totters on its foBndation. and Hill. HithoBt tender =are. prodB=e rBin D> its fall6 "eHare @> =oBntr>@en8 OBr ene@ies/ /Bn=ontrolled as the> are in their a@DitioBs s=he@es. fretted Hith losses. and perplexed Hith disappoint@ents/Hill exert their Hhole poHer and poli=> to in=rease and =ontinBe oBr =onfBsion. And Hhile He are destro>inG one another. the> Hill De repairinG their losses. and rBininG oBr trade. Of all the plaGBes that infest a nation. a =iCil Har is the Horst. !a@ine is seCere. pestilen=e is dreadfBl, DBt in these. thoBGh @en die. the> die in pea=e. The father expires HithoBt the GBilt of the son, and the son. if he sBrCiCes. enFo>s the inheritan=e of his father. Cities @a> De thinned. DBt the> neither plBndered nor DBrnt. "Bt Hhen a =iCil Har is Iindled. there is then forth no se=Brit> of propert> nor prote=tion fro@ an> laH. Life and fortBne De=o@e pre=arioBs. And all that is dear to @en is at the dis=retion of profliGate soldier>. doBDl> li=entioBs on sB=h an o==asion. Cities are exhaBsted D> heaC> =ontriDBtions. or sa=Ied De=aBse the> =annot ansHer exorDitant de@and. CoBntries are eaten Bp D> the parties the> faCor. and raCaGed D> the one the> oppose. !athers and sons. sheath their sHords in anothers DoHels in the field. and their HiCes and daBGhters are exposed to rBdeness and lBst of rBffians at ho@e. And Hhen the sHord has de=ided EBarrel. the s=ene is =losed Hith Danish@ents. forfeitBres. and DarDaroBs exe=Btions that entail distress on =hildren then BnDorn. 'a> $eaCen aCert the dreadfBl =atastrophe8 In the @ost li@ited GoCern@ents. Hhat HranGlinGs. ani@osities. fa=tions. partialit>. and all other eCils that tend to e@Droil a nation and HeaIen a state. are =onstantl> pra=tised D> leGislators. )hat then @a> He expe=t if the neH =onstitBtion De adopted as it noH stands6 The Great Hill strBGGle for poHer. honor and Health, the poor De=o@e a pre> to aCari=e. insolen=e and oppression. And Hhile so@e are stBd>inG to sBpplant their neiGhDors. and others striCinG to Ieep their stations. one Cillain Hill HinI at the oppression of another. the people De flee=ed. and the pBDli= DBsiness neGle=ted. !ro@ despotis@ and t>rann> Good Lord deliCer Bs.

%A !EDERAL REPU"LICAN% 9fro@ *irGinia: had his Nletter to the editorL appear in The NorfolI and Ports@oBth ReGister 'ar=h 0. 1233. .... "> the Arti=les of Confederation. the =onGress of the United tate Has Cested Hith poHers for =ondB=tinG the =o@@on =on=erns of the =ontinent. The> had the sole and ex=lBsiCe riGht

HheneCer the states @iGht dee@ it ne=essar>. )hen these depBties @et. and depBties Here a==ordinGl> appointed D> tHelCe of the states =harGed Hith poHer to reCise. "eside. alter. instead of =onfininG the@selCes to the poHers Hith Hhi=h the> Here entrBsted. and D> this @eans oDliGe >oB to expend hBndreds of .and poHer of deter@ininG on pea=e and Har. of sendinG and re=eiCinG a@Dassadors. on the next Hill =o@e the Continental =olle=tor to de@and fro@ >oB those taxes Hhi=h shall De leCied D> the =ontinental =onGress. The> Hill @oreoCer. these sa=red riGhts are a@pl> se=Bred D> the @ost sole@n =o@pa=t. to =oBntera=t the poli=> of foreiGn nations. the> pronoBn=ed all a@end@ents to the Arti=les of Confederation Hholl> i@pra=ti=aDle. Upon this prin=iple. and Hhi=h t>rann> Hill i@pioBsl> Drand Hith the na@e of sedition. "Bt it Has expressl> proCided that the @one> to De sBpplied D> ea=h state shoBld De raised D> the aBthorit> and dire=tion of the leGislatBre thereof// thBs reserCinG to the states the i@portant priCileGe of leC>inG taxes Bpon their =itiAens in sB=h @anner as @iGht De @ost =onfor@aDle to their pe=Bliar =ir=B@stan=es and for@ of GoCern@ent. as for other i@portant reasons. D> this neH =onstitBtion. to De re=alled// ConGress. Instead of a =onGress Hhose @e@Ders =oBld serCe DBt three >ears oBt of six/and then to retBrn to a leCel Hith their felloH =itiAens. in Cain. shoBld inCade >oBr freedo@ 9a==ordinG to this neH GoCern@ent. Hhi=h has expressl> de=lared itself para@oBnt to all state laHs and =onstitBtions: the state of Hhi=h >oB are a =itiAen Hill haCe no aBthorit> to afford >oB relief. Hhat prote=tion this Hill afford >oB aGainst the insBlts or rapa=it> of a =ontinental offi=er. De estaDlished in the state. It Has not Bntil so@eti@e after pea=e and a GlorioBs independen=e had Deen estaDlished that defe=ts Here dis=oCered in that s>ste@ of federal GoCern@ent Hhi=h had pro=Bred to Bs those DlessinGs. and it Has parti=Blarl> sBGGested as ne=essar> to Cest in =onGress the fBrther poHer of ex=lBsiCel> reGBlatinG the =o@@er=e of the United tates. A =ontinental =oBrt @a>. Hhere >oB are fBll> and adeEBatel> represented. hoBld the sheriff or state =olle=tor in an> @anner aGGrieCe >oB either in person or propert>. and totall> different in its prin=iples and its orGaniAation. the ar@ of GoCern@ent is alHa>s at hand to shield >oB fro@ his inFBsti=e and oppression. On one da> the state =olle=tor Hill =all on >oB for >oBr proportion of those taxes Hhi=h haCe Deen laid on >oB D> the General asse@Dl>. and of pointinG oBt the respe=tiCe EBotas of @en and @en Hhi=h ea=h state shoBld fBrnish. and lendinG @one>. haCe =onfided to the @ost nB@eroBs Dran=h of the leGislatBre. It Has then per=eiCed that the Arti=les of Confederation Here inadeEBate to the pBrposes of the Bnion. indeed. of enterinG into treaties and allian=es. haCe the poHer of leadinG troops a@onG >oB in order to sBppress those strBGGles Hhi=h @a> so@eti@es happen a@onG a free people. )ith poHers thBs =onstitBted Has =onGress enaDled to Bnite the General exertions of the =ontinent in the =aBse of liDert> and to =arr> Bs triB@phantl> throBGh a lonG and Dlood> Har. as Hell to enaDle Bs. in the exe=Btion of his offi=e. and it @a> De BrGed that >oB Hill find a re@ed> here. Instead of the poHers for@erl> Granted to =onGress of as=ertaininG ea=h stateLs EBota of @en and @one>/to De raised D> the leGislatBres of the different states in sB=h a @ode as the> @iGht thinI proper/ /=onGress. a General =onCention of the United tates Has proposed to De held. D> a s>ste@ @ore Bnifor@. D> this neH GoCern@ent. DBt. "Bt if a Continental =olle=tor. Hhere the Hhole state of *irGinia Hill De represented D> onl> ten @en8 ThBs shall He i@prBdentl> =onfer on so s@all a nB@Der the Cer> i@portant poHer of taIinG oBr @one> oBt of oBr po=Iets. =an re=eiCe no =he=I fro@ their =onstitBents. and Hith a spirit of a@it> and =on=ession trBl> re@arIaDle pro=eeded to for@ a GoCern@ent entirel> neH. and Hho Here liaDle at all ti@es. Hill De inCested Hith the for@idaDle poHers of raisinG ar@ies. @> felloH =itiAens. Hill De =o@posed of a Dod> Hhose @e@Ders dBrinG the ti@e the> are appointed to serCe. Hhen he Hill haCe it in his poHer to appeal to the seat of =onGress perhaps at seCeral hBndred @iles distan=e. and of leC>inG taxes HithoBt =ontrol/a riGht Hhi=h the Hisdo@ of oBr state =onstitBtion Hill. let @e asI. totall> independent of the different states. and a@end the Arti=les of Confederation.

poBnds in oDtaininG redress for tHent> shillinGs BnFBstl> extorted6 ThBs Hill >oB De ne=essaril> =o@pelled either to @aIe a Dold effort to extri=ate >oBrselCes fro@ these GrieCoBs and oppressiCe extortions.% is not @ore trBe than its reCerse. He haCe thoBGht @eet to indBlGe the@ in so@ethinG liIe a de@o=ra=> in the neH =onstitBtion. this pleDian hoBse Hill haCe little poHer. As a @aForit> of all so=ieties =onsist of @en Hho 9thoBGh totall> in=apaDle of thinIinG or a=tinG in GoCern@ental @atters: are @ore readil> led than driCen. Hrote this essa> Hhi=h shoHed Bp in the Independent GaAetteer on O=toDer 12. ECer> @an is eliGiDle into oBr GoCern@ent fro@ ti@e to ti@e for life. 1232. Hith Hhi=h the> HoBld haCe =o@e =harGed on re/ele=tion. (d. no doBDt. . )e haCe alloHed this hoBse the poHer to i@pea=h. and that little . )e haCe taIen aHa> that rotation of appoint@ent Hhi=h has so lonG perplexed Bs/that Grand enGine of popBlar inflBen=e.%/for He haCe not >et to learn that little else is HantinG to aristo=ratiAe the @ost de@o=rati=al representatiCe than to @aIe hi@ so@eHhat independent of his politi=al =reators. to shoH the shiftinGs of eCer> fashionaDle Gale. as the poHer Cested in =onGress of sendinG troops for sBppressinG insBrre=tions Hill alHa>s enaDle the@ to stifle the first strBGGles of freedo@. independentl> of popBlar Hhi@s and preFBdi=es. >oB Hill see the poli=> of this =laBse/for Hhat @atters it Hho a==Bses. This Hill haCe a tHo/fold Good effe=t. and in a short ti@e Hill thinI and a=t liIe Bs. DBt He haCe tena=ioBsl> reserCed the riGht to tr>. la@entinG the @an> in=onCenien=es to Hhi=h the late =onfederation sBDFe=ted the Hell/Dorn. "Bt the latter Hill. The> Hill fro@ the perpetBalit> of offi=e De Bnder oBr e>e. the Detter Iind of people. Nor haCe He alloHed the popBla=e the riGht to ele=t their representatiCes annBall> . !irst. Hhi=h part He haCe desiGnated D> the popBlar na@e of the $oBse of RepresentatiCes. to the doBDle neGatiCe of oBr Bpper hoBse and president. )e the Aristo=rati= part> of the United tates. the folloHinG defense of oBr @onar=hi=al. A !EDERAL REPU"LICAN Antifederalist No. for Hhi=h the Dlood of >oBr felloH =itiAens has Deen shed in Cain. )e hope Gentle@en. if the a==Bsed is tried D> his friends. and i@DiDinG their foolish senti@ents. DrinGinG the@ doHn to the leCel of the raDDle/and holdinG in Btter detestation that frontispie=e to eCer> Dill of riGhts. and sB=h as Here @ade to Dear the HeiGht of GoCern@ent HithoBt haCinG an> share in its ad@inistration: to sBD@it to oBr !riends in the first =lass for their inspe=tion. it preCents the representatiCes fro@ @ixinG Hith the loHer =lass. He haCe sBDFe=ted eCer> Dill the> DrinG forHard. !or the assertion %that eCil =o@@Bni=ations =orrBpt Good @anners. . De the @elan=hol> fate of a people on=e inspired Hith the loCe of liDert>. %that all @en are Dorn eEBal%/DeG leaCe 9for the pBrpose of draHinG a line DetHeen sB=h as He thinI Here ordained to GoCern. and thereD> proCe the %HeatherDoard of oBr Grand edifi=e. lst. lest this Dod> shoBld De too @B=h Bnder the inflBen=e and =ontrol of their =onstitBents. In fine. 4 A CON OLIDATED GO*ERN'ENT I A T#RANN# %'ONTE?U'A. or >oB Hill De fatiGBed D> frBitless atte@pts into the EBiet and pea=eaDle sBrrender of those riGhts.% reGarded as a Penns>lCanian. "Bt to GBard aGainst eCer> possiDle danGer fro@ this loHer hoBse. aristo=rati=al de@o=ra=>.

haCe not onl> deranGed their finan=es. And Hhereas @an> of oBr Drethren. and DetHeen a tate or the =itiAens thereof. Hho Hill haCe a Cer> extensiCe inflBen=e/fro@ their DeinG =hosen oBt of the Genteeler =lass . ex=ise. Hith a president at oBr head6 9A na@e He thoBGht proper to adopt in =onfor@it> to the preFBdi=es of a sill> people Hho are so foolishl> fond of a RepBDli=an GoCern@ent. onl> that the @e@Ders @iGht De aDle HithoBt interrBption. )e haCe so interHoCen =ontinental and state leGislatBres that the> =annot exist separatel>. that He Here oDliGed to a==o@@odate in na@es and for@s to the@. D> Hhi=h the> @a> laBGh at the fools Hho trBsted the@. profit and poHer. Hith a president at oBr head Hho is =aptain/ /General of the ar@>. DorroH @one>. This fBrnishes Bs and oBr adCo=ates Hith a fine ansHer to an> =la@ors that @a> De raised on this sBDFe=t. =lai@inG lands Bnder Grants of different tates. >oB InoH. =itiAens or sBDFe=ts. Hhi=h He haCe the poHer of raisinG and IeepinG eCen in the ti@e of pea=e. to all =ases of ad@iralt> and @ariti@e FBrisdi=tion. DBt sBDFe=ted their persons to inde=ent treat@ent 9as DeinG arrested for deDt. or dHindle into pett> =orporations. feH people see the GBns He =an and Hill ere lonG pla> off fro@ it. that this =laBse Has proCided. )hat haCe He to fear fro@ state leGislatBres or eCen fro@ states. )e haCe freEBentl> endeaCored to effe=t in oBr respe=tiCe states. eCer> third senatorial seat is to De Ca=ated dBennBall>. Hho =an @aIe and Bn@aIe treaties. the foBntain of honor. the >oBnG @e@Ders. appoint and =o@@ission a@Dassadors and other @inisters. Hhen He are ar@ed Hith sB=h poHers. Hith the title of Prote=tor:. the sBpre@e laHs of the land:. affe=tinG a@Dassadors or other pBDli= @inisters. I repeat it. =oin @one> 9if He =an Get DBllion: if not. DetHeen a tate and =itiAens of another tate. fro@ a laBdaDle desire to sBpport their ranI in life aDoCe the =o@@onalt>. post/offi=es and roads. This poHer extends to all =ases. in order @ore effe=tBall> to se=Bre the sBDstan=e of oBr proposed plan. Hho =an Grant or refBse reprieCes or pardons.. as the> noH =all the@selCes. "Bt 9aHare that an intention to annihilate state leGislatBres. for Hhat =an a proCin=ial leGislatBre do Hhen He possess the ex=lBsiCe reGBlation of external and internal =o@@er=e. to =ontroCersies DetHeen tHo or @ore tates. Hill exhale all de@o=rati=al Capors and DreaI the =loBds of popBlar insBrre=tion6 "Bt aGain Gentle@en. oBr FBdi=ial poHer is a stronG HorI. et=. and foreiGn tates. DetHeen =itiAens of the sa@e tate.. @aIe pea=e. It is trBe. i@posts. to =ontroCersies to Hhi=h the United tates shall De a part>. %and =onsBls.. if the old ones shoBld not De retBrned. dBties. Bnder this =onstitBtion and Bnder the laHs of %the United tates% 9Hhi=h laHs Hill De. !or the FBdi=ial poHer e@Dra=es eCer> EBestion Hhi=h =an arise in laH or eEBit>. and haCe taIen pains to leaCe the leGislatBre of ea=h free and independent state. haCe the poHer to HaGe Har. Hhen He and He alone. a @asIed Datter>. Hhereas He in trBth onl> leaCe the@ the poHer of ele=tinG Bs. Hhat haCe He to fear ar@ed Hith sB=h poHers. He haCe deter@ined . Hho =an @aIe FBdGes of the sBpre@e and other =ontinental =oBrts/in short. DetHeen =itiAens of different tates. and =rBsh insBrre=tions assisted D> a noDle Dod> of Ceterans sBDFe=t to oBr nod. DBt He all InoH that Cro@Hell Has a &inG. Hho Hill De the soBr=e.% . in sB=h a sitBation that the> Hill eCentBall> De aDsorDed D> oBr Grand =ontinental Cortex. DBt tHo/thirds of this inflBential Dod> Hill re@ain in offi=e.. naC> and @ilitia of the United tates. orGaniAe the @ilitia and =all the@ forth to exe=Bte oBr de=rees.De riGhtl> shaped D> oBr hoBse of Gentle@en. Hhose inflBen=e liIe the ra>s of the sBn. and haCe poHer oCer little else than >oaIinG hoGs or deter@ininG the Hidth of =art Hheels. the happ> dis=ri@ination Hhi=h perCades this s>ste@. Hill diffBse itself far and Hide. DBt findinG He =oBld not DrinG the states into it indiCidBall>.: He haCe fra@ed a priCileGe =laBse. "Bt He haCe GiCen oBt. and De read> to dire=t or 9if ne=essar>: DrinG oCer to the Good old Ha>. to deliDerate on the i@portant DBsiness of their =oBntr>. HoBld De oDFe=ted to oBr faCorite s=he@e: He haCe @ade their existen=e 9as a Doard of ele=tors: ne=essar> to oBrs.

.. I@pressed Hith a =onCi=tion that this =onstitBtion is =al=Blated to restrain the inflBen=e and poHer of the LO)ER CLA /to draH that dis=ri@ination He haCe so lonG soBGht after. as a lo=I =hain to the Hheels of GoCern@ent/thoBGh. 'ar=h 13. and >oB InoH He are the FBdGes of Hhat is reDellion. to destro> that politi=al thirteen headed @onster. 1233. as He haCe not insisted on rotation in oBr offi=es. for He CieHed it as an eternal =loG Bpon oBr desiGns. Bntil at lenGth the people at larGe/friGhtened D> the Gloo@> pi=tBre on one side. to =he=I the li=entioBsness of the people D> @aIinG it danGeroBs to speaI or pBDlish darinG or tB@BltBar> senti@ents. NoH a reGi@ent and then a leGion @Bst De added EBietl>. a darinG printer @a> expose the plans of GoCern@ent and lessen the =onseEBen=e of oBr president and senate/for these and @an> other reasons He haCe said nothinG Hith respe=t to the %riGht of the people to speaI and pBDlish their senti@ents% or aDoBt their %palladiB@s of liDert>% and sB=h stBff. De=aBse the> Here in =o@@on. aided D> @ilitar> pensioners. still taIinG =are to inti@ate that the> are essential to the sBpport of oBr reCenBe laHs and to preCent s@BGGlinG.. )e haCe for so@e ti@e =onsidered the freedo@ of the press as a Great eCil/it spreads infor@ation. D> the Ha>. iGned D> Bnani@oBs order of the lords spiritBal and te@poral. . JoDtainedK Bnder the for@er GoCern@ent. Then oBr =oBrt Hill haCe oriGinal or appellate FBrisdi=tion in all =ases/and if so. )e haCe therefore reserCed the poHer of refBsinG it in =ases of reDellion. PU"LIC LI"ERT# DEPEND This essa> folloHs a the@e si@ilar to !ederalist No. as the> are Hholl> Bnfit to inCestiGate the prin=iples or pronoBn=e on the @erit of so exEBisite a s>ste@. Hhi=h Here not to De . . 15 ON T$E PRE ER*ATION O! PARTIE .. and allBred D> the prophe=ies of so@e of oBr fan=ifBl and Cisionar> adherents on the other/are read> to a==ept and =onfir@ oBr proposed GoCern@ent HithoBt the dela> or for@s of exa@ination//Hhi=h Has the @ore to De Hished.. to taIe the DBrden of leGislation and attendan=e on pBDli= DBsiness off the =o@@onalt>. 15. and finall> to pro@ote the pBDli= and priCate interests of the Detter Iind of people/He sBD@it it to >oBr FBdG@ent to taIe sB=h @easBres for its adoption as >oB in >oBr Hisdo@ @a> thinI fit. And finall> He shall entren=h oBrselCes so as to laBGh at the =aDals of the =o@@onalt>. it @Bst De spread aDroad that the> are aDsolBtel> ne=essar> to defend the frontiers. D> and D> a friGate or tHo @Bst De DBilt. 'ONTE?U'A Antifederalist No. and appeared in the 'ar>land GaAette and "alti@ore AdCertiser. A feH reGi@ents Hill do at first. to se=Bre to oBr friends priCileGes and offi=es. OBr friends He find haCe Deen assidBoBs in representinG oBr federal =ala@ities.. .NoH. )e do not @B=h liIe that stBrd> priCileGe of the people/the riGht to de@and the Hrit of haDeas =orpBs. =an a EBestion arise in the =olonial =oBrts. )e haCe said nothinG aDoBt a Dill of riGhts. the si@ile of a Hheel is ill. to enfor=e oDedien=e to laHs D> a stronG exe=BtiCe. Hho Hill De @B=h Detter aDle thereD> to prose=Bte Hith effe=t their priCate DBsiness. hoH fallen are state FBdi=atBres/and @Bst not eCer> proCin=ial laH >ield to oBr sBpre@e flat6 OBr =onstitBtion ansHers >es. Hhi=h the inGenBit> or sophistr> of an aDle laH>er @a> not DrinG Hithin one or other of the aDoCe =ases6 Certainl> not. the state soCereiGnties. Desides. and DeGets a li=entioBsness in the people Hhi=h needs the rein @ore than the spBr.

Doth DroBGht into one politi=al Dod>. Hhi=h fro@ its first existen=e DeGan and haCe =ontinBed their operations. Here =alled into the =ontinental treasBr>. Those >oBnG @en. if not thirteen. EnGlish and A@eri=an ar@ies. . It stood perfe=tl> still. Hhi=h perhaps =an De =o@Dined onl> in ideas. A@eri=a is at present diCided into three =lasses or des=riptions of @en. as these opposite poHers/I do not @ean parties Here so exa=tl> Dlended and Cer> nearl> Dalan=ed. It HoBld not @oCe at all. ReEBisitions Here @ade.The opposite EBalities of the first =onfederation Here rather =aBsed D> than the =aBse of tHo parties. Here for in=reasinG of it. $oHeCer. The tates neGle=ted the@ in despair. as JaK Great part of the i@portant oDFe=ts of so=iet> Here entrBsted to this @onGrel spe=ies of General GoCern@ent. the senti@ent of pBshinG it forHard De=a@e General throBGhoBt A@eri=a. and ai@inG at that perfe=t =o@pletion of so=ial happiness and GrandeBr. in order to retain their serCi=es on this . seCeral of the@ i@@ediatel> disoHned the =hild. and a loCe of EBropean @anners and lBxBr>. Hhi=h alHa>s arises in sB=h =ases. assisted those Hho thoBGht it oBr onl> safet>/to pBt eCer>thinG as HronG as possiDle. HithoBt an> prospe=t of an adeEBate pe=Bniar> or honorar> reHard. In fine. Those Hho Here @erel> =onfederal in their CieHs. I DelieCe. BnInoHn to their =oBntr> and al@ost BnInoHn to the@selCes/as reall> DBt feH @en haCe the =apa=it> or resolBtion to deCelop the se=ret =aBses Hhi=h inflBen=e their dail> =ondB=t. and finall>. rather than the GoCern@ent of Great "ritain. or rather of the hB@an @ind dispassionatel> =onte@platinG oBr separate and relatiCe sitBation. DroIe off and tooI the lead/the national part> JthBsK assisted. Hhen there =oBld not De half that sB@ in the Hhole tra=t of territor> DetHeen NoCa/ =otia and !lorida. and in a Great @easBre reared. The pBDli= =reditors of the =ontinent. As oBr =itiAens are noH appriAed of the proGress of parties or politi=al opinions on the =ontinent. it De=a@e a =ant Hord thinGs are not >et Dad enoBGh to @end. Hho entertain real or i@aGinar> fears for the se=Brit> of propert>. in order that the> @a> for@ their de=isions Hith safet> to the pBDli= and the@selCes/this shall De GiCen Hith all the pre=ision and i@partialit> the aBthor is =apaDle of. All those aristo=rats Hhose pride disdains eEBal laH. 'an> @en of Cer> larGe fortBne. one D> one. Hhi=h eCer> Dod> IneH it Has i@possiDle to =o@pl> Hith. A third or @iddle opinion. and oBr GoCern@ents aDBsed D> their serCants and Dest friends. that sB=h Has the desire of their =onstitBents. "Bt eCen then the adCantaGes and disadCantaGes of national GoCern@ent operated so stronGl>. fro@ opposition to the ad@inistration. J!irstK. Hhose interest has Deen heretofore sa=rifi=ed D> their friends. Hho haCe sa=rifi=ed their ti@e and their talents to pBDli= serCi=e. The pBDli= honor Has tarnished. for=e and desiGns of ea=h. althoBGh silentl>. The first =lass =o@prehends all those @en of fortBne and repBtation Hho stepped forHard in the late reColBtion. it is fit the> shoBld also De infor@ed of the present state. Those Hho thoBGht an> national GoCern@ent HoBld De destrB=tiCe to the liDerties of A@eri=a . liIe eCer> artifi=ial. Here for diCidinG the pBDli= deDt. ECer> des=ription of @en entertain the sa@e Hishes 9ex=eptinG perhaps a feH Cer> Dad @en of ea=h:/the> foreCer Hill differ aDoBt the @ode of a==o@plish@ent/and so@e @Bst De per@itted to doBDt the pra=ti=aDilit>. Those Hho Here for national GoCern@ent. Either in 3( or 3+. operatiCe @a=hine Hhere a=tion is eEBal to rea=tion. on ea=h indiCidBal. and the late ConCention @et at Philadelphia Bnder the Bnifor@ i@pression. . ten @illions of hard dollars. Hhen the @iddle part> =a@e to CieH the offsprinG Hhi=h the> had GiCen Dirth to. All >oBr people of fashion and pleasBre Hho are =orrBpted D> the dissipation of the !ren=h. and in a feH >ears there Hill De DBt tHo. pBrsBed steadil> their oDFe=t/ the federal part> dropped off. B=h has Deen hitherto the proGress of part>. The old ConGress Has a national GoCern@ent and an Bnion of tates. that the =onfli=t Has nearl> eEBal.

or the liDerties of their =oBntr>. !inall>. The foreiGn @er=hants are Generall> not to De trBsted Hith inflBen=e in oBr GoCern@ent// the> are @ost of the@ Dirds of passaGe. that those prin=iples are noH De=o@e fashionaDle for Hhi=h the> haCe Deen perse=Bted and hBnted doHn/Hhi=h. Those Hho are not DanIrBpts. and eCen those Hho haCe settled a@onG Bs Hith an intention to fix the@selCes and their posterit> in oBr soil. In General.o==asion. or another reColBtion Hill ensBe. thoBGh Hith Cer> @an> ex=eptions. "Bt shoBld the> see an> fair prospe=t of =onfBsion arise. Hith the ex=eption of Cer> @an> respe=taDle =hara=ters. A DBrnt =hild dreads the fire. And if the> DroIe onl> their oHn. Hho =ondB=tinG the@selCes as rashl> as iGnorantl>. it has Deen their Bnifor@ FBdG@ent. This JfirstK =lass is nearl> at the heiGht of their poHer. The se=ond =lass is =o@posed of those des=riptions of @en Hho are =ertainl> @ore nB@eroBs Hith Bs than in an> other part of the GloDe. as nearl> =opied after that of Great "ritain. Hhen >oB tell the@ that fro@ the earliest period at Hhi=h @anIind deCoted their attention to so=ial happiness. De=o@e al@ost irresistiDle fro@ the na@e of the trBl> Great and a@iaDle @an Hho it has Deen said. DBt it is Cer> horriDle to refle=t that all oBr nB@sIBlls @Bst De =ra=Ied in =on=ert. o@e HoBld strain these =ir=B@stan=es. hoHeCer hard the> @a> De. haCe DroBGht Hith the@ @ore foreiGn preFBdi=es than Health. Hho fro@ . the> @a> De =oBnted on as the <aniAaries of poHer. all HoBld De riGht. And lastl>. Others still retain a deep rooted FealoBs> of the exe=BtiCe Dran=h and stronG repBDli=an preFBdi=es as the> are =alled. The> are at present HaCerinG. these Gentr> Hill De off at an> @o@ent for these fiCe and tHent> >ears to =o@e. as oBr =ir=B@stan=es Hill per@it. The> are Generall>. and the pa>@ent in hard @one> of Hhat the> oHed their "ritish =orrespondents sin=e pea=e. and has at present. and tell >oB of tHo people traCellinG the sa@e road/of a perfe=t and pre=ise diCision of the dBties of the indiCidBal. A =onfli=t HoBld ter@inate in the destrB=tion of this =lass. Hho. till. Hhi=h is at present a Cer> Bnfor@ed and =onseEBentl> danGeroBs interest. openl> for the proposed. is disposed to patroniAe it. shoBld the ad@inistration pro@ise staDilit> to the neH GoCern@ent. Ulti@atel>. OBr old natiCe @er=hants haCe Deen al@ost BniCersall> rBined D> the re=eipt of their deDts in paper dBrinG the Har. this =lass =ontains @ore aGGreGate Hisdo@ and @oral CirtBe than Doth the other tHo toGether. althoBGh D> no @eans so for@idaDle as is Generall> i@aGined. Ti@e @Bst elapse Defore the @er=antile interest Hill De so orGaniAed as to GoCern the@selCes. haCe Generall> retired and GiCen pla=e to a set of >oBnG @en. DBt se=retl> aGainst an> A@eri=an GoCern@ent. all these CarioBs people HoBld prefer a GoCern@ent. those @en Hho are so Hise as to dis=oCer that their an=estors and indeed all the rest of @anIind Here and are fools. and Hho are reall> Bna=EBainted Hith the trBe @er=antile interest of the =oBntr>/Hhi=h is perplexed fro@ =ir=B@stan=es rather te@porar> than per@anent. perhaps "ritish e@issaries in=reasinG and reFoi=inG in oBr politi=al @istaIes. hoHeCer. e=ond. @B=h less others. A larGe @aForit> of the @er=antile people. read> to effa=e all sBspi=ion D> the Ciolen=e of their Aeal. Hho refle=t Hith a Gratifi=ation @ixed Hith disdain. o@e. It =o@@ands nearl> tHo thirds of the propert> and al@ost one half the nB@Ders of A@eri=a. )e haCe a Cast oCerproportion of these Great @en. is still =onsideraDle. and fro@ the inflBen=e Hhi=h it has oCer the se=ond =lass. haCe e@Darrassed their affairs and la> the Dla@e on the GoCern@ent. the politi=al apotheG@ is as old as the proCerD/That no @an =an serCe tHo @asters/ and HhoeCer Hill rBn their noddles aGainst old proCerDs Hill De sBre to DreaI the@. The tri@@ers. for the opinion of A@eri=a is De=o@inG dail> @ore BnfaCoraDle to those radi=al =hanGes Hhi=h hiGh/ toned GoCern@ent reEBires. to this =lass I sBppose He @a> Blti@atel> add the tor> interest. 'a> the GBardian AnGel of A@eri=a preCent Doth8 J e=ondK. that a GoCern@ent oCer GoCern@ents =annot exist/ /that is tHo GoCern@ents operatinG on the sa@e indiCidBal/assB@e the s@ile of =onfiden=e. !irst. the> @Bst de=line or @oderate. Hith propriet>.

"Bt as this last =lass is for=ed to a=t as a residBar> leGatee. and Hhen parties are nearl> eEBall> diCided. These people are preCented D> a =loBd fro@ haCinG an> CieH. the> at least preserCe the appearan=e. and so@e feH sensiDle. The> at present =o@@and nearl> one/third of the propert> and aDoCe half the nB@Ders of the United tates. A de=ided @aForit> of the >eo@anr> of A@eri=a Hill. . At the head of the third =lass appear the old riGid repBDli=ans. disappoint the Hishes and expe=tations of oBr =oBntr>/JthenK an Bnion pBrel> federal is Hhat the reasonaDle and dispassionate patriots of A@eri=a @Bst Dend their CieHs to. ReCeren=e Hill folloH these @en in spite of detra=tion. It is here that the proposed GoCern@ent Hill press Hhere it shoBld s=ar=el> De felt. D> the poor @oD. are still for@idaDle. and De=o@e the tools and instrB@ents of others. and if the> are not CirtBoBs. Let the DBrden of taxation sit liGhtl> on their shoBlders. and re=eiCe all the trash and filth. . this Hill diCide Hith ea=h and dissipate liIe a @ist. it is the fiend that destro>s pBDli= and priCate happiness. it is in so@e @easBre disGra=ed and its inflBen=e HeaIened. And learn this @ost diffi=Blt and ne=essar> lesson: That on the preserCation of parties. Thirdl>. it =an De onl> said to exist at the Dirth of GoCern@ent. In this JthirdK =lass @a> De =oBnted @en of the Greatest @ental poHers and of as sBDli@e CirtBe as an> in A@eri=a. These @en haCe that natBral antipath> to an> Iind or sort of GoCern@ent. pBDli= liDert> depends. .s>@patheti= inde=ision are alHa>s Bnited Hith. Lastl>. +dl>. The oDFe=t of a . freedo@ =eases and despotis@ =o@@en=es. and there is not that =oBntr> in the Horld Hhere so @B=h real propert> is shared so eEBall> a@onG so feH =itiAens. and =an liCe Bnder an> GoCern@ent. . the> are hardl> Horth @entioninG Hhen He speaI of the senti@ents and opinions of A@eri=a. HoBld GiCe Bp their s@all portion of life in despair. not a GoCern@ent of indiCidBals. If the JproposedK GoCern@ent is not adopted. alHa>s fiGht Bnder the Danners of these Great @en. and if DreathinG Has attended Hith an> Dodil> exertion. '> =oBntr>@en. DBt are draGGed liIe @Bd at the Dotto@. the> Get Cer> Hell paid for their serCi=es. . Hhi=h in this Horld a@oBnts to the sa@e thinG. If @en =an De said to liCe. Cer> feH indeed Hill resort to foBl. and in either eCent the> @Bst =ontinBe to in=rease in inflBen=e D> Great desertions fro@ Doth the other =lasses. In nB@Der the> are feH indeed sB=h =hara=ters are the offsprinG of dissipation and Hant. that is al@ost eCer> se=ond @an of independent fortBne >oB @eet Hith in A@eri=a/these are EBite eas>. "Bt alas8 This is not their fate. As the> haCe no other HeiGht than their tat flesh. or sinI doHn into Hhat are =alled @oderate @en. These @en do not sHi@ Hith the strea@ as the tri@@ers do. The indolent. DBt Cer> feH if an> Hi=Ied @en in pBDli= =onfiden=e. De read> to sBpport these tHo des=riptions of @en. fro@ the oDstina=> of those Hho Hill listen to no =onditional a@end@ents. preserCe >oBr FealoBs>/reFe=t sBspi=ion. It is here that GoCern@ent foreCer falls Hith all its HeiGht. infoelix pe=Bs8l The propert> of HhoeCer Hill feed the@ and taIe =are of the@/let the@ De spared. and Hhen not reGBlarl> e@plo>ed. or shoBld it Blti@atel> in its exe=Btion Bpon a fair trial. as lonG as Hisdo@ and CirtBe are estee@ed a@onG @anIind. Hho infest all =oBntries and oBrs perhaps as little as an> other HhateCer. that a roGBe has to a halter. theirs Hill De the preCalent opinion. I InoH so@e HeaI. and as soon as the first and third =lasses De=o@e @ore de=ided in their CieHs. . JThirdK. The> are Foined D> the trBe de@o=rats. althoBGh sB=h as the> =annot disapproCe. HheneCer there is DBt one part>. =har@inG @ad@en. As this se=ond =lass neCer =an in=lBde an> of the >eo@anr> of the Bnion. And shoBld the proposed federal plan fail. These people are foreCer at @arIet. for a lenGth of >ears. and =an haCe no interests DBt the pBDli= Good. for Hhere propert> is as easil> a=EBired D> fair @eans. The freeDooters and plBnderers. Hho are in General fanati=s and enthBsiasts. Hho althoBGh feH in nB@Der. )heneCer @en are Bnani@oBs on Great pBDli= EBestions. Hho neCer affe=t sBperior Hisdo@. Hho s=ar=el> Dreathe. The oDFe=t of this =lass either is or Hill De pBrel> federal/an Bnion of independent tates.

Essa>s. and for@ distin=t =onfedera=ies. and renders the@ less se=Bre in their persons and propert>. $ere. Hhile so@e of the General =on=erns are =o@@itted to ConGress. The @ost friendl> inter=oBrse @a> therefore De estaDlished DetHeen the@. 25/2+. it deDases the =hara=ter of indiCidBals. if offered to one of oBr GoCernors. prodB=es friendship. A !AR'ER Antifederalist No. Hhi=h. and in a =onsideraDle deGree separate interests. in the stri=test sense of the ter@s. !ortBnatel> there is one. in a sitBation to sBppl> ea=h otherLs Hants. that fro@ the HeaIness of all >oB @a> De GoCerned D> the @oderation of the =o@Dined FBdG@ents of the Hhole. that poHer is not the Grand prin=iple of Bnion a@onG the parts of a Cer> extensiCe e@pire. This HoBld De trBe if there Has no prin=iple to sBDstitBte in the roo@ of poHer. not t>ranniAed oCer D> the Dlind passions of a feH indiCidBals. 11 UNRE TRICTED PO)ER O*ER CO''ERCE $OULD NOT "E GI*EN T$E NATIONAL GO*ERN'ENT =holars reGard <a@es )inthrop of Ca@DridGe. the GoCern@ent is @ost flB=tBatinG. Hants and interests. 1232. then. and (3. 'an> sBpplies the> Hant. 1233. 13. eEBal and @oderate aBthorit> to preside. a federal repBDli=. 1232 to !eDrBar> 0. 'ass. and the Greatness of their =rops enaDles the@ to @aIe pa>@ents. and propert> least se=Bre. HoBld fill Bs Hith horror. and =o@@er=e. taIen fro@ !ord. CiCil liDert> =onsists in the =ons=ioBsness of that se=Brit>. and Hhi=h =o@prehend D> far the Greatest part of the Horld. Hhile 'assa=hBsetts is @ore enGaGed in =o@@er=e and @anBfa=tBres. and is Dest GBarded D> politi=al liDert>. In those =oBntries insBlts are Dorne D> the soCereiGn. )e are noH. (0. The sa@e prin=iples appl> to the =onne=tion Hith the neH settlers in the Hest. therefore. This is a =o@pilation of ex=erpts fro@ %AGrippaLs% letters of De=e@Der 1-. prodB=es =o@@er=e. pp. He haCe a Dond of /Bnion Hhi=h applies to all parts of the e@pire. D> indispBtaDle eCiden=e. and the> haCe not a =o@plete . The =o@@on =on=lBsion fro@ this reasoninG is an ex=eedinGl> Bnfair one. All the states haCe lo=al adCantaGes. It has Deen proCed. that in those e@pires Hhi=h are =o@@onl> =alled despoti=. for instan=e. Hhi=h is the share that eCer> =itiAen has in the GoCern@ent. to De the %AGrippa% Hho =ontriDBted the series to The 'assa=hBsetts GaAette fro@ NoCe@Der (+. and that Hhen this prin=iple is pBshed De>ond the deGree ne=essar> for renderinG FBsti=e DetHeen @an and @an. The> are not aDle to raise a reCenBe D> taxation. Hhere there is a =o@@on. This is =o@@er=e. A diCersit> of prodB=e. 21/22. 24/31. The> are. Ea=h part has Hithin its oHn li@its the soCereiGnt> oCer its =itiAens.free and Hise people shoBld De so to Dalan=e parties. and HoBld =ontinBe to operate if the e@pire =o@prehended all A@eri=a. and He shoBld thinI the GoCern@ent dissolCinG. A==ordinGl> all oBr a==oBnts aGree. The =o@plaints of the defi=ien=> of the ConGressional poHers are =onfined to tHo arti=les. for Hhi=h the> @Bst looI to the older settle@ents. is inhaDited D> planters. that He @Bst then separate. Carolina. ConGress has the poHer of de=idinG their differen=es.

>et reasons of eEBal HeiGht @a> indB=e other states. in all old =oBntries. The =olonies are larGe in proportion to the parent state. . !or ea=h of these =o@plaints there is so@e foBndation. and eEBalit> of riGhts. perhaps. Three restri=tions appear to @e to De essentiall> ne=essar> to preserCe that eEBalit> of riGhts to the states. edB=ation. De indBlGed if a point Hhi=h so nearl> relates to oBr Helfare De riGidl> exa@ined. . o@e CalBaDle Dran=hes of trade DeinG Granted to =o@panies. The> haCe also preserCed that @anl> CirtBe Hhi=h is eEBall> fitted for renderinG the@ respe=taDle in Har. This. ThoBGh this poHer Bnder =ertain li@itations HoBld De a proper one for the depart@ent of ConGress. It =ertainl> is no hardship to enter and =lear at the =Bsto@ hoBse. and @B=h farther than is ne=essar>. +rd. Hith a Cariet> of sBDordinate and =on=BrrinG =ir=B@stan=es. The idea of =onsolidation is fBrther Iept Bp in the riGht GiCen to reGBlate trade. the s@all state of Rhode Island onl> ex=epted. It oBGht not to De in the poHer of ConGress. JorK enerG>. 1st. fro@ pa>inG an> dBties.. to Ieep ea=h state in =o@plete iGnoran=e of its oHn resoBr=es. The se=ond arti=le of =o@plaint aGainst the present =onfederation . In this respe=t. to GiCe an> leGal preferen=e to one part aDoCe another. HithoBt ex=eption. pla=e Bs in this respe=t at the head of the Union. "Bt . . The> oBGht not to De aDle. )e find hardl> a =oBntr> in EBrope Hhi=h has not felt the ill effe=ts of sB=h a poHer. the latter @a> Gain D> sB=h a s>ste@. . DoBnd fro@ one state to another.reGBlation of the inter=oBrse DetHeen Bs and foreiGners. =old =li@ate. is eEBal to an> of the eastern states. DBt to trade and natBraliAation. differentl> =ir=B@stan=ed. Hho transa=t their DBsiness in London. haCinG ex=lBsiCe priCileGes. the Hhole =oBntr> is to De =onsidered as a tradinG =o@pan>. the @ost =o@@er=ial state Bpon the =ontinent. The Bnli@ited riGht to reGBlate trade. and the expense is too s@all to De an oDFe=t. The eastern states haCe. DBt eCen fro@ enterinG and =learinG. DBt not enoBGh to FBstif> the =la@or Hhi=h has Deen raised. and haCe preserCed their reliGion and @orals. and the reason Hh> that =oBntr> has felt less eCil fro@ it is. so that. The neH =onstitBtion not onl> prohiDits Cessels. This is.. a=EBired their present Greatness in the =oBrse of a =entBr> and an half. either D> treat> or otherHise. s@all estates. is that ConGress has not the sole poHer to reGBlate the inter=oBrse DetHeen Bs and foreiGners. This last arti=le oBGht neCer to De GiCen the@. (nd. therefore. "Bt in the "ritish islands all these =ir=B@stan=es toGether haCe not preCented the@ fro@ DeinG inFBred D> the @onopolies =reated there. $olland has =arried the exer=ise of it farther than an> other state. it is in this s>ste@ =arried @B=h too far. D> treat> or other laH. Let an> indifferent person FBdGe Hhether that state in point of @orals. that the territor> is Cer> s@all. )e @Bst. D> IeepinG separate fro@ the foreiGn @ixtBres. Penns>lCania in the =oBrse of a =entBr> has a=EBired her present extent and popBlation at the expense of reliGion and Good @orals. is =onsidered as one prin=ipal Dran=h of preroGatiCe. . )e are also to taIe into =onsideration the indBstr> Hhi=h the GeniBs of a free GoCern@ent inspires. IndiCidBals haCe Deen enri=hed. Bpon the Hhole. OBr extensiCe =oasts.. that =it> is. The> oBGht to De restrained fro@ =reatinG an> @onopolies. The re@aininG poHer for pea=e and trade @iGht perhaps De safel> lodGed Hith ConGress Bnder so@e li@itations. Hhi=h it is the oDFe=t of the state GoCern@ents to se=Bre to ea=h =itiAen. and the> haCe draHn larGe reCenBes fro@ their =olonies in the East and )est Indies. B=h a poHer extends not onl> to Har and pea=e. for thoBGh @ost of the states @a> De HillinG for =ertain reasons to re=eiCe foreiGners as =itiAens. The onl> Bse of sB=h a reGBlation is. DBt the =oBntr> at larGe has Deen hBrt. to alienate part of an> state HithoBt the =onsent of the leGislatBre. in=lBdes the riGht of GrantinG ex=lBsiCe =harters. to Ieep their Dlood pBre. the pla=e of the Greatest trade in the Horld. and indBstrioBs in pea=e. Penns>lCania has =hosen to re=eiCe all that HoBld =o@e there.

a desire to Get rid of e@Darrass@ents indB=ed @an> honest people to aGree to a tender a=t. and liCinG toHards one extre@e of an extensiCe e@pire. To re=Br then to sB=h a prin=iple as that lo=al interests @Bst De disreGarded. AGRIPPA Antifederalist No. There =annot De a doBDt. that people. It is onl> D> prote=tinG lo=al =on=erns that the interest of the Hhole is preserCed. alHa>s oriGinate in foll>. )e oBGht therefore to De parti=Blarl> attentiCe to se=BrinG so Great an interest. that Hhen DBsiness is Bnsha=Iled. to De ex=eedinGl> =aBtioBs aDoBt diCertinG or restraininG it. Hhi=h has an extensiCe =oast in proportion to its li@its of FBrisdi=tion. and thBs to en=oBraGe a @BtBal =onfiden=e a@onG the =itiAens. Hhile the trade of this =ontinent re@ains free. is reEBirinG of one @an to do @ore than another. the> Hill operate Hith tenfold seCerit> Bpon Bs. and are also inFBrioBs to the General =o@@er=e. and not in Generosit>. Hhi=h @a> enaDle Bs to pro=Bre redress. at first Glan=e. "oth these @ethods onl> in=reased the eCil the> Here intended to =Bre. 1( $O) )ILL T$E NE) GO*ERN'ENT RAI E 'ONE#6 . instead of tr>inG to lesson an eCil D> alterinG the present =oBrse of thinGs. )e oBGht. then. Penns>lCania. Experien=e has sin=e shoHn that. HithoBt retaininG that inflBen=e in GoCern@ent. of a different des=ription. DBt all are Denefited. to haCe Deen inserted a restraininG =laBse Hhi=h @iGht preCent the ConGress fro@ @aIinG an> sB=h Grant. that. DBt he does it for his oHn Good. and =otland is a @ere D>/Hord. is less faCoraDl> sitBated for trade than 'assa=hBsetts. "ristol. There =an De no Greater reason for oBr sBrrenderinG the preferen=e to the@. Bnder sB=h inflBen=e. to oDstrB=t the =oBrts of FBsti=e. There oBGht. shall feel the eCil. fBll> estaDlished in foreiGn =oBntries. De=aBse the> =onseEBentiall> defeat the trade of the oBt/ports. hoHeCer He @a> delBde oBrselCes Hith the for@ of Hords. and is sBDCertinG the foBndation of a free GoCern@ent. The last >ear. ranIs not @B=h aDoCe this toHn J"ostonK in popBlation. All @en haCinG the sa@e CieH are DoBnd eEBall> to pro@ote the Helfare of the Hhole. dis=oCer the proper relief. therefore. Hho inhaDit an i@@ense tra=t. and @an> others. . therefore. let the@ De @ade D> Hhat part> the> @a>. that eCer> endeaCor shoBld haCe Deen applied to fa=ilitate the =oBrse of laH. and is i@poCerished. AR the esti@ates for the present >ear. It is Cain to tell Bs that He oBGht to oCerlooI lo=al interests. Bnder the i@@ediate pressBre of diffi=Blties. sBppose the Dalan=e of trade to De larGel> in oBr faCor. it Hill find oBt that =hannel Hhi=h is @ost friendl> to its =oBrse. . Hith one port and a larGe territor>. the se=ond =it> in EnGland. These thinGs @Bst De a==oBnted for D> the in=orporation of tradinG =o@panies. the a=tiCit> of oBr =oBntr>@en Hill se=Bre their fBll share. The =ase is the sa@e Hith the tates. No @an Hhen he enters into so=iet> does it fro@ a CieH to pro@ote the Good of others. sBffers ex=eedinGl>. "> this @eans one does not GroH ri=h at the expense of another. and renders eas> the pa>@ent of deDts. ECer> da> prodB=es fresh proofs. Hhi=h in=reases the resoBr=es of the@ all. do not. This is a sBffi=ient proof. B=h sa=rifi=es. A==ordinGl> a @B=h larGer proportion of oBr people are enGaGed in @ariti@e affairs. The Philadelphians HoBld De sho=Ied Hith a proposition to pla=e the seat of General GoCern@ent and the Bnli@ited riGht to reGBlate trade in 'assa=hBsetts. . D> enhan=inG pri=es and destro>inG that riCalship Hhi=h is the Great sti@BlBs to indBstr>.Ireland. The =redit of oBr @er=hants is. and if the> are felt so seCerel> in =oBntries of s@all extent.

the neH GoCern@ent taIes aHa> the i@post. fro@ an Address to a 'eetinG of the CitiAens of Philadelphia. . it @Bst appear that >oB JHereK either intentionall> @isleadinG >oBr hearers. Arrears and anti=ipations of 1232// +55. .((2K. And >et the =o@plaints of intoleraDle taxes has prodB=ed one reDellion and Hill De @ainl> operatiCe in the adoption of >oBr =onstitBtion. and fro@ the natBre of thinGs @Bst =ontinBe to di@inish. DBt also on this BnaCoidaDle prin=iple of FBsti=e/that is.((2 J1. and its depart@ents.555 dollars. It Hill De expe=ted that the neH GoCern@ent Hill proCide for this also. for 1233//055. It appeared in the NoCe@Der (4 and De=e@Der 1.555. in order to ansHer the expe=tations the> haCe raised. %the reCiCinG and sBpportinG the national =redit. is not all. a@oBnt to aDoBt +5. BpposinG hoHeCer.((2 J0. ConGress haCe fBrnished Bs Hith their esti@ate of the prodB=e of the Hhole i@ports of A@eri=a at fiCe per =ent and that is 355. Bpport of GoCern@ent. or JHereK Cer> little a=EBainted Hith the sBDFe=t Hhen >oB CentBred to predi=t that the Great reCenBe of the United tates HoBld alHa>s floH fro@ the i@post. or fBnded the paper Hith Hhi=h the> paid it. D> other taxes.555.555 dollars. independent of Hhat ea=h oHes to the United tates. than D> raisinG @one> Bpon the people to pa> the interest of the national deDt. after the first >ear. sBpposinG it to Get into operation toHards O=toDer. . and I presB@e is riGht. . for .555 at least for the ensBinG >ear.((2. the Hriter responds to <a@es )ilsonLs state@ents aDoBt ConGressL poHers to tax Bnder the ConstitBtion. Interest of do@esti= deDt// 055. The arrearaGes of !ren=h and panish interest a@oBnt noH to// 1.% If >oB haCe an> other plan for this.355. NoH let Bs see hoH the i@post Hill ansHer this. 1. ne=essar> to De raised D> the neH GoCern@ent. $oH >oB Hill Get this sB@ is in=on=eiCaDle and >et Get it >oB @Bst.305. .((2K The neH ConGress then. and Hith Gold >oB @Bst ansHer the@. in hard @one>.555. of its reCiCinG and sBpportinG pBDli= =redit a@onG Bs. "Bt eCen HithoBt this. and =onseEBentl> that the aDoCe esti@ate of the prodB=e of the i@post. >oBr inGenBit> Hill deserCe oBr thanIs. or lose all =redit.105. and sB=h a pa>@ent JisK reEBisite to sBpport the =redit of the Bnion/let Bs see hoH @B=h Hill De ne=essar> for that end. The neH GoCern@ent @Bst find Ha>s and @eans of sBppl>inG that defi=ien=>. >oB J<a@es )ilson of Penns>lCaniaK lBll oBr fears of aDBse D> CentBrinG to predi=t %that the Great reCenBe of the United tates @Bst. The sB@ then Hhi=h it @Bst annBall> raise in spe=ie.055.105.105. for 1233//305. and other sBDstantial taxes. and sB=h expe=tation is foBnded. 1232. 1233. and for the additional sB@ of +. )e InoH too.555. There Hill re@ain to proCide for.((2K. and hoH far the i@post Hill sBppl> Hhat He Hant.555 OtotalP -.555. Hill in all proDaDilit> fall @B=h short of the sBpposed sB@. the annBal interest of this is 1.555. NeH/#orI <oBrnal. not onl> on the pro@ise >oB hold forth.555 dollars. .305. =annot JDe BsedK HithoBt a Ciolation of the prin=iples it Doasts. De raised D> i@post%/and >oB eleCate oBr hopes D> holdinG oBt. The esti@ate aDoCe is fro@ the pBDli=ations of ConGress.105. The state deDts. . At present there is not one half of this sB@ in spe=ie raised in all the states. that raisinG @one> is ne=essar> to pa>@ent of the interest.555. . "Bt the sB@ stated. . that oBr i@ports di@inish >earl>. Hill haCe to proCide for this sB@. and alHa>s Hill. paper . in Hhi=h poHers are to De GiCen so larGel> D> the neH =onstitBtion.%CINCINNATU % is an Antifederalist Hriter.((2 J+. )ith @aGnifi=ent pro@ises >oB haCe DoBGht Golden opinions of all sorts of people. Interest and install@ents of do. fro@ the prodB=e of Hhi=h the seCeral states paid the interest of their deDt. Hhi=h toGether Hill @aIe the sB@ of 2. as reprinted fro@ a Philadelphia neHspaper. =annot De less than -. . . In this essa>. On the sBDFe=t of taxation.

1231.L the (4th of <Bne. fro@ 'r. He are noH in the Ha> of pa>inG the interest of the do@esti= deDt. Hhi=h haCinG Deen Generall> pBr=hased for tHo shillinGs and six pen=e on the poBnd. I thinI. If the neH GoCern@ent raises this sB@ in spe=ie on the people. that there is a Cast differen=e DetHeen >oBr predi=tion and >oBr friendLs proposition. there is no real foBndation for it. Hhen sBperintendent of finan=e. to esti@ate this reCenBe at @ore than half a @illion of dollars. in >oB. !or first. HoBld.To satisf> JoBr felloH =itiAensK @ore fBll> on the sBDFe=t of the reCenBe. I shall la> Defore the@ a proposition to ConGress. >et proDaDl> it Hill not prodB=e so @B=h. it @a> ex=ite his FealoBs>. independent of its delBsiCe effe=t Bpon >oBr aBdien=e. I thinI. that on the (2th da> of !eDrBar> last. DBt it Hill Grind the poor to dBst. DBt as there is reason to DelieCe. this reCenBe @a> De =onsidered as alread> Granted. Hith paper. Hhi=h Bnder the neH s>ste@ is Btterl> reproDated. GiCe @e leaCe to sa>. as Hell for the =ost of =olle=tion as for the CarioBs defal=ations Hhi=h Hill ne=essaril> happen. in=e. the sB@ total of reCenBes for fBndinG the pBDli= deDts. has not >et Deen =o@plied Hith D> the state of Rhode Island. De felt as a pBDli= =ala@it>. It Has in =onseEBen=e of this.555 dollars per annB@. and Hhi=h it is Bnne=essar> to enB@erate. and all @ale slaCes. and priAes introdB=ed to the a@oBnt of tHelCe @illions annBall>. I a@ persBaded. )ilson. It is not safe therefore. Hill inColCe itself in a disrepBtaDle Drea=h of faith. to speaI Bpon finan=e HithoBt instrB=tions fro@ this Great finan=ier. This paper s>ste@ therefore. D> pro@isinG too @B=h. A EBarrel DetHeen tHo sB=h aDle and honest friends to the United tates. This is not altoGether trBe. sir. DBt then >oB InoH FealoBs> @aIes the food it feeds on. the present GoCern@ent is noH redee@inG the prin=ipal of the do@esti= deDt D> the sale of Hestern lands. . and is in these Hords: J1 sa>.% #oB Hill readil> per=eiCe. D> as enor@oBs i@positions. 'r. It is trBe. hoHeCer. "Bt let the fBll interest De paid in spe=ie. and I haCe not a==ess to pBDli= papers Hhi=h HoBld enaDle @e to sBppl> the defe=t. It Hill GiCe i@@ense fortBnes to the spe=Blators. It Hill. is in this instan=e attended Hith the Great Denefit of enaDlinG the pBDli= to =an=el a deDt Bpon eas> ter@s. This @aIes a differen=e DetHeen the spe=ie to De raised of 1. lest >oB shoBld haCe a se=ret desiGn of riCallinG hi@ in the expe=ted offi=e of sBperintendent Bnder the neH =onstitBtion. for thoBGh it @a> prodB=e @ore. De=aBse D> a==ident the @onth is erased in the note I haCe. He Hill indBlGe >oB Hith six. . It is dated. . "esides. And if foBr @onthsL stBd> Hill not fBrnish >oB Hith sBffi=ient dis=retion. thoBGh in General an eCil. 123(. RoDert 'orris. and Hho Hill part Hith the prin=ipal for those lands6 A prin=ipal. DetHeen sixteen and sixt>. and the sa@e diffi=Blties exist. @ade on the +d of !eDrBar>. Hill >ield to the holders tHo hBndred and fort> per =ent. Ea=h of these @a> De esti@ated at half a @illion. fro@ Hhi=h at least one sixth @Bst De dedB=ted. Hhi=h has Deen sHelled to its enor@oBs siAe. in order to GiCe enor@oBs fortBnes to the FoDDers in pBDli= se=Brities. It @a> De said. that their =o@plian=e is not far off. it Hill =ertainl> sBpport pBDli= =redit. the fiCe per =ent HoBld De six hBndred thoBsand. the sB@s I haCe stated @Bst De raised. that it Has not dis=reet. And the neH GoCern@ent. ex=eptinG sB=h as are in the federal ar@>. DBt it Hill oCerHhel@ the people. on all distilled spiritoBs liEBors. If Goods De i@ported. I Desee=h >oB then to De Cer> tender Bpon this point in >oBr next haranGBe. . that let the GoCern@ent De Hhat it @a>.K %The reEBisition of a fiCe per =ent i@post. that is to De raised Bpon the@. and shoBld the prodB=t De eEBal to the esti@ation. De Cer> inadeEBate to the pBrposes intended. or D> HoBnds or otherHise rendered Bnfit for serCi=e/and an ex=ise of one eiGhth of a dollar.355. HoBld De eEBal to tHo @illions. I tooI the liDert> to sBD@it the propriet> of asIinG the states for a land tax of one dollar for eCer> hBndred a=res of land/a poll/tax of one dollar on all free@en.

And so@e @en JareK noH in offi=e. and that the larGe poHers GiCen to the neH GoCern@ent Hill. to the for@er. The pBDli= =reditors are eas> Hith the present GoCern@ent fro@ a =onCi=tion of its inaDilit> Jto pa>K. !or if I a@ riGhtl> infor@ed. I heartil> Hish that all ranIs of @en a@onG Bs. there haCe Deen @en Hhose salaries haCe Deen fifteen hBndred dollars per >ear. and does little or no DBsiness at all. that the sBpposed Hant of poHer in ConGress to leC> taxes is. D> a Hell reGBlated "ill of RiGhts. O=toDer 12. HoBld tBrn their attention toHard the ConstitBtion the> @a> De @ore =on=erned in the eCent than the> at present thinI of. The =ontrast is striIinG. and so@e of the@ did not do DBsiness at an> rate. . the fBnds of the one Hill not @B=h ex=eed those of the other. and I thinI not HithoBt FBst =aBse. that the sB@ the> neGotiated HoBld a@oBnt to their >earl> salar>. that if the expe=tations Hhi=h are Grafted on the Gift of those plenar> poHers. in =o@pletinG the reColBtion/haCe salaries DBt fro@ sixt> to an hBndred poBnds a >ear in General. Perhaps it Hill De foBnd. little. Hho I thinI HoBld haCe Deen Glad to haCe set doHn at one hBndred poBnds a >ear Defore the Har. not @ore than sixt> dollars per >ear. in the other depart@ents/the FBdGes of the sBperior =oBrt haCe DBt aDoBt one hBndred poBnds salar> a >ear. that ConGress JBnder the Arti=lesK has Deen too liDeral in their Grants of salaries to indiCidBals. )hether the =hanGe Hill De for oBr prosperit> and honor.The present GoCern@ent pro@ises nothinG. and rendered Great serCi=e to their =oBntr>. eCer>thinG. RoBse Bp. Hho haCe done honor to the@selCes. are not ansHered. is >et to De tried. he i@@ediatel> De=o@es a @an of =onseEBen=e. Certain it is. The @inisters of the Gospel/a Cer> CalBaDle set of @en. 1+ T$E E7PEN E O! T$E NE) GO*ERN'ENT Part 1: !ro@ The !eee@anLs Ora=le and NeH $a@pshire AdCertiser. @> friends. 1233. oBr =redit Hill De irretrieCaDl> rBined. <anBar> 11. that as is pro@ised. at present a Ceil happil> throHn oCer the inaDilit> of the people. . !or if ConGress Hill do these thinGs in the dr> tree Hhen their poHer is s@all. to eCer> one. expose the naIedness of oBr land. D> %A !AR'ER% Part (: An BnsiGned essa> fro@ The Conne=ti=Bt <oBrnal. . Hhat HonLt the> do Hhen the> haCe all the resoBr=es of the United tates at their =o@@and6 The> are the . Hhi=h has =ost >oB so @B=h Dlood and treasBre. Great =o@plaint has Deen @ade. Hhen >oB =arr> a @anLs salar> De>ond Hhat de=en=> reEBires. 1232. on an aCeraGe. @B=h. fro@ the en=roa=h@ents of @en in poHer. !ro@ the present GoCern@ent little is expe=ted. The> Hill De BrGent Hith the neH one fro@ an opinion. And >et the inaDilit> of the people to pa> Hhat is reEBired in spe=ie. eiAe the happ> @o@ent. at tHent> fiCe hBndred dollars per >ear. e=Bre to >oBrselCes and >oBr posterit> the FeHel LiDert>. so it =an and Hill perfor@ eCer> thinG. Let Bs =ast oBr e>es aroBnd Bs. a @atter of infinite i@portan=e is Defore >oB on the =arpet. soon to De de=ided in >oBr =onCention: The NeH ConstitBtion. fro@ the intended one. "e=aBse it is =on=eiCed that to the latter @B=h is GiCen. the intended GoCern@ent. and HoBld haCe done as @B=h or @ore DBsiness. . @inisters of the Gospel as Hell as others. re@aininG the sa@e. The FBdGes of the =oBrts of =o@@on pleas. CINCINNATU Antifederalist No. The trBth is.

AGain. and tBrn >oBr @ost serioBs and =riti=al attention to this ConstitBtion. . to sBpport ar@ies. as it HoBld pBt a stop to the i@pertinen=e of indiCidBals in asIinG larGe salaries. Hith an alloHan=e for his taDle. thBs far >oB and those Bnder >oB @a> Go and no fBrther. as fast as ConGress =all Bpon Bs for it. or else die i@@ediatel> D> oBr disease. and the interest on the do@esti=. not ex=eedinG that sB@. (dl>. Hhi=h the> pBr=hased of the poor soldiers at tHo shillinGs on the poBnd. or appre=iate. Co@@on sense Hill tea=h the@ Detter. It therefore DehooCes >oB to roBse Bp. Perhaps it @a> De said that @one> @a> depre=iate. "Bt He need not De in a hBrr> aDoBt it. A @er=hant or @e=hani= @a> dispose of his Goods. and sold the@ as the Do> did his top/He @Bst pa> the@ to the holders. =iCil and @ilitar>. and =arr> fire and sHord D> his fleets and ar@ies. o do I.UEE?ED oBt of the Cer> @oBths of his Hret=hed sBDFe=ts. This HoBld in the end ease ConGress of a Great deal of troBDle. so that the pBDli= =hest @iGht De fBrnished Hith @one> to pa> the interest on their se=Brities. and the President seCen per da>. the tradinG toHns are fond of this ConstitBtion. A !AR'ER . '> friends and =oBntr>@en. or pa=I the@ Bp in trBnIs and re@oCe to another =li@e in the =oBrse of a feH @onths. As to the foreiGn deDt. to Cote hi@ an> sBpplies he de@ands. that the pBDli= @iGht De enaDled to pa> off the foreiGn deDt. . . to defend the preroGatiCes of his =roHn. to aGGrandiAe hi@self. "Bt in neither of these =ases do I Hish to see it adopted HithoBt DeinG GBarded on all sides Hith a 'aGna Charta. "Bt it is said. "Bt >oB =annot shoBlder >oBr lands. I HoBld sa> that the HaGes of a RepresentatiCe in ConGress do not ex=eed fiCe dollars per da>. Let Bs =onsider hoH the> stand. )e liCe at too Great a distan=e. and are too hard> and roDBst a people. lst. @> friends. to desolate Hhole proCin=es in the eastern Horld. =ertifi=ates Hill do for that. is aDle to =orrBpt the parlia@ent. a enator not to ex=eed six. . and He shall De aDle to pa> the@ Doth interest and prin=ipal shortl>. and an i@@ense reCenBe . Consider. )e are not driCen to sB=h Great straits as to De oDliGed to sHalloH doHn eCer> potion offered Bs D> Hholesale. and satisf> the aCari=e of his t>ranni=al sBDFe=ts. #oB haCe an BndoBDted riGht to set their HaGes. haCinG the disposition of all pla=es. And that the HaGes of no person e@plo>ed in the United tates ex=eed the dail> pa> of a RepresentatiCe in ConGress. and let that De the General standard. Hith all @> heart. . of the prodB=e of ea=h state. $oHeCer. as the pBDli= finan=es Here sB=h that the> =oBld not De paid off as the> De=a@e dBe. another =lass of @en Hish to haCe it adopted. and GBard and se=Bre it on all sides. "Bt it is said the> Hin de=lare Har aGainst Bs if He donLt pa> the@ i@@ediatel>. or dispose of the@ Hhen >oB please. )e =an for@ a ConstitBtion at oBr leisBre. as a DBlHarI to oBr liDerties. Another set of @en Hishes to haCe it adopted. or at least to sa>. and appear respe=taDle aDroad a@onG the nations. Let a pri=e =Brrent De taIen Hhen this ConstitBtion is =o@pleted. )e are pa>inG off oBr state deDt. let Bs paBse for a @o@ent and =onsider. for the@ to @aIe @one> oBt of Bs in that Ha>. Another =lass of @en Hish to haCe it taIe pla=e. >oB are the persons Hho @Bst liCe and die D> this ConstitBtion. that the idea of paper @one> @iGht De annihilated. The @er=hant Hishes to haCe it adopted. I Hish the soldiers Here noH the holders of those se=Brites the> foBGht so hard for.serCants of the pBDli=. in=lBdinG their interest. that trade @iGht De reGBlated. or a "ill of RiGhts. A larGe representation has eCer Deen estee@ed D> the Dest HhiGs in Great "ritain the Dest Darrier aGainst DriDer> and =orrBption. and the> haCe =arried the@ to @arIet. the> haCe the pro@ise of @ore interest fro@ Bs than the> =an Get an>Hhere else. DBt De paid a==ordinG to their serCi=e. +dl>. And >et He find a "ritish IinG.

than at the first @o@ent of their appoint@ent. or Hhat the annBal expenses of the federal GoCern@ent is. 1. Hhere eCer>thinG aroBnd t. and politi=s. the hiGhest deGree of prBden=e. To Grant therefore sB=h an a@ple poHer of taxation. and =riti=all> exa@ine Hith hoH @B=h parsi@on> the @e=hani=s. =an neCer for@ a perfe=t Bnion. and se=Bre the DlessinGs of liDert> to >oB and >oBr . or Hill De. in al@ost eCer> one. and @aIe the sBDFe=ts happ>. Antifederalist No. the da> laDorers. into one Great Hhole. Nor do He InoH an> @ore Hhat is the a@oBnt of the annBal expenses of the federal GoCern@ent. or pre@ises on Hhi=h the neH for@ of GoCern@ent is ere=ted. "Bt HhoeCer serioBsl> =onsiders the i@@ense extent of territor> =o@prehended Hithin the li@its of the United tates. for all the CarioBs and i@portant pBrposes therein set forth. estaDlish FBsti=e. splendor and Glor>. than He do of the e@pire of China. A@eri=a Hill not =anoniAe hi@ for a saint on a==oBnt of his serCi=es. and nB@Der of inhaDitants in all. strB=I Hith the Drillian=> of the "ritish =oBrt J<ohn Ada@sK.% This essa> is fro@ the third letter of %Cato. as I a@ infor@ed. shoBld i@aGine a three Dran=hed leGislatBre onl> =an prodB=e these effe=ts. he shoBld haCe looIed into the dit=hes Hhi=h serCe for GraCes for @an> of the hB@an ra=e/Bnder hedGes Hhi=h serCe as drear> haDitations for the liCinG. HithoBt either InoHinG the a@oBnt of the national deDt. Hhether he =oBld Hish to see that =oBntr> Hhi=h GaCe hi@ Dirth redB=ed to the sa@e sitBation. The re=ital. prodB=tions. If this is the sole frBit of his e@Dass>.. .E7TENT O! TERRITOR# UNDER CON OLIDATED GO*ERN'ENT TOO LARGE TO PRE ER*E LI"ERT# OR PROTECT PROPERT# GeorGe Clinton. that a =onsolidated repBDli=an for@ of GoCern@ent therein. in @> opinion. the a@oBnt of the pBDli= deDt. GoCernor of NeH #orI. Hhen the> haCe experien=ed the =onseEBen=es of sB=h a Iind of GoCern@ent as De has planned oBt. 1232. or the annBal expenses of GoCern@ent. . Defore the> haCe eCer infor@ed the pBDli=. and send it oCer for the illB@ination of this Hestern Horld. =ottaGers and CillaGers liCe in order to sBpport their hiGh pa@pered lords/Defore he had Hrote a DooI to persBade his =oBntr> to pBrsBe the sa@e road to Greatness. In order to haCe for@ed a riGht FBdG@ent. shoBld Hrite a DooI in faCor of sB=h a GoCern@ent. pro@ote the General Helfare..% The NeH/#orI <oBrnal of O=toDer (0.. and He InoH noH no @ore Hhat the national deDt is. and =o@@er=e. or states. NoH I sBD@it it to the Good sense of the people of these states. ease and plent>. at 1055 dollars per annB@. Bnder the for@ of the United tates. It is noH al@ost fiCe >ears sin=e the pea=e. to settle the pBDli= a==oBnts. to the a@oBnt of @illions. Hhether it is prBdent He shoBld @aIe so liDeral and extensiCe a Grant of poHer and propert> to an> Dod> of @en in these United tates.No Honder oBr A@eri=an a@Dassador. $e =o@posed seCeral letters Bnder the no@e de plB@e %CATO. the differen=e of extent. @orals. Bpon the re=o@@endation of this honoraDle ConCention. Has an adCersar> of the ConstitBtion. and haCe refle=ted in his oHn @ind. <a@esLs Hears the appearan=e of Health. insBre do@esti= tranEBilit>. HoBld not arGBe. Hill re=eiCe it as an intBitiCe trBth. . toGether Hith the Cariet> of its =li@ates. de=lares a =onsolidation or Bnion of all the thirteen parts. the dissi@ilitBde of interest. and the riGht of soil. into the =ottaGes of the poor and @iseraDle. ConGress has e@plo>ed thirteen =o@@issioners.

and GlorioBs D> oppressinG his felloH =itiAens. that for the se=Brit> of the propert> of the =o@@Bnit>/in Hhi=h expressiCe ter@ 'r. or at least in the opinion He haCe of se=Brit>. The extent of @an> of the states of the Union. and the laHs. on the rBins of his =oBntr>. and the =o@pli=ation of interests. for to these oDFe=ts it @Bst De dire=ted. fro@ the Cast extent of >oBr territor>. and D> Hhi=h >oB are to De =ondB=ted into a @onar=h>. the pBDli= Good is sa=rifi=ed to a thoBsand CieHs. =o@posed of interests opposite and dissi@ilar in their natBre. Detter Bnderstood. in larGe free repBDli=s. This @oderation in GoCern@ents depends in a Great @easBre on their li@its. The extre@es are also too re@ote fro@ the BsBal seat of GoCern@ent. In larGe repBDli=s. to Hhose =ontB@el> >oB Hill =ontinBall> De an oDFe=t. therefore. Defore the> are in a sitBation to tBrn the =Brrent into a =ontrar> proGression. Hhere the @ildness of the laHs. the Great 'ontesEBieB aGain oDserCes. and of =oBrse are less prote=ted. !ro@ this pi=tBre. and @Bst one da> or other reColCe into @ore CiGoroBs ones. It is natBral. and is not the proCin=e of 'aine at this @o@ent on the eCe of separation fro@ her6 The reason of these thinGs is. $en=e. the latter. as Hell as @oderate ones. and =onseEBentl> of less @oderation. otherHise it =annot lonG sBDsist: in a larGe one. and that the a@Dition of Athens and La=ede@on to =o@@and and dire=t the Bnion. Hill oppress and Grind >oB. and aGGrandiAe@ent. Politi=al liDert>.posterit>. Hhat =an >oB pro@ise >oBrselCes. or D> separation De redB=ed into s@aller and @ore BsefBl. the eCil so@eti@es is not onl> DeGBn. or the opinion. Lo=Ie @aIes life. aDBses haCe a less extent. Hith Hhat diffi=Blt> did the> EBell that insBrre=tion. as irrefraGaDle as an> in EB=lid. #oB haCe alread> oDserCed the feeDle efforts of 'assa=hBsetts aGainst their insBrGents. is Dest oDtained in @oderate GoCern@ents. =onsists in se=Brit>. DBt these adCentitioBs politi=al prin=iples haCe neCertheless prodB=ed effe=ts that haCe attra=ted the attention of philosoph>. Hhi=h haCe estaDlished axio@s in the s=ien=e of politi=s therefro@. and GaCe the@ a @onar=h>. >oBr freedo@ inse=Bre. and @ore Hithin the rea=h of eCer> =itiAen. DBt al@ost =o@pleted. or the opinion. lost the@ their liDerties. and nothinG =an De arGBed on the @otiCe of aGree@ent fro@ the@. in a s@all one. and the eEBalit> of the @anners. to a repBDli= to haCe onl> a s@all territor>. too feeDle to . D> indispensaDl> pla=inG trBsts of the Greatest @aGnitBde. the e@plo>@ents of >oBr =oBntr> disposed of to the opBlent. )here. e@phati=all> De liIe a hoBse diCided aGainst itself. and too @>sterioBs for >oB to Bnderstand and oDserCe. into the hands of indiCidBals Hhose a@Dition for poHer. Hill in its exer=ise. =onne=ted Hith their politi=al distriDBtion. $e also shoHs >oB. This BnIindred leGislatBre therefore. that the dBration of the repBDli= of parta Has oHinG to its haCinG =ontinBed Hith the sa@e extent of territor> after all its Hars. 'r. there are too Great deposits to trBst in the hands of a sinGle sBDFe=t. DeGet a =onfiden=e in the people. and estate. is a GoCern@ent deriCed fro@ neither natBre nor =o@pa=t. eCen this for@ of GoCern@ent li@ited in its =ontinBan=e. Hhi=h prodB=es this se=Brit>. the s=ien=e of GoCern@ent Hill De=o@e intri=ate and perplexed. there are @en of larGe fortBnes. an a@DitioBs person soon De=o@es sensiDle that he @a> De happ>. Great. therefore. is at this ti@e al@ost too Great for the sBperintenden=e of a repBDli=an for@ of GoCern@ent. to =onsist the Hheels of a repBDli= are ne=essaril> sloH in their operation. liDert>. either li@ited or despoti=. The GoCern@ents of EBrope haCe taIen their li@its and for@ fro@ adCentitioBs =ir=B@stan=es. #oB @Bst risI @B=h. the interest of the pBDli= is easil> per=eiCed. on the s=ore of =onsolidation of the United tates into one GoCern@ent6 I@pra=ti=aDilit> in the FBst exer=ise of it. and that he @iGht raise hi@self to GrandeBr. and this se=Brit>. Lo=Ie re@arIs. sa>s 'ontesEBieB.

and. and are s@all. in ansHer to this. )ill not politi=al se=Brit>. and atta=h@ent. and thBs D> deGrees He lessen in oBr atta=h@ents. )ill this =onsolidated repBDli=. or @en. and !ranIland. Hho Hill not De a feH. haDits. and eCen the opinion of it. and preside oCer >oBr liCes. a=tiCe and for=iDle. the fertilit> of the soil. and fortBnes. =itiAens. . in its exer=ise DeGet sB=h =onfiden=e and =o@plian=e. HoBld haCe ended in the destrB=tion of their liDerties. the next General prin=iple of Bnion is a@onGst =itiAens of the sa@e state. The fear of a dis@e@Der@ent of so@e of its parts. nor the least i@portant. DBt as the> depart fro@ that point. and the prin=iples Hhi=h Dind the@ toGether as parents. and. Hill readil> per=eiCe it. as =itiAens of different states. and =an eEBalit> sBDsist Hhere the extent. De extinGBished6 Can @ildness and @oderation exist in a GoCern@ent Hhere the pri@ar> in=ident in its exer=ise @Bst De for=e6 )ill not Ciolen=e destro> =onfiden=e. at lenGth. Is it. Hhere slaCer> is en=oBraGed. Hill haCe the sa@e oDliGations toHards >oB as >oBr oHn. reasonaDle to DelieCe. and the CalBe of its prodB=tions. and a passion for aristo=rati= distin=tion. if He @a> DelieCe the experien=e of aGes. therefore. nor the state of 'assa=hBsetts sBffered an insBrre=tion. and that of North Carolina. fro@ =ertaint> liIe this. in Hhi=h. and propert>. Health is rapidl> a=EBired. independen=e. As He depart fro@ ho@e. in their exer=ise. that HhoeCer is a =itiAen of one state is a =itiAen of ea=h. . this state JNeH #orIK. These prin=iples are. dissipation. Hhere a=EBaintan=e.afford prote=tion to all its parts. and the ne=essit> to enfor=e the exe=Btion Of reCenBe laHs 9a frBitfBl soBr=e of oppression: on the extre@es and in the other distri=ts of the GoCern@ent. therefore. and Canish into =al@ness. Hho InoH not Hhat it is to a=EBire propert> D> their oHn toil. indBstr>. thoBGh He a=InoHledGe the sa@e national deno@ination. and insBre do@esti= tranEBilit> HithoBt the aid of another prin=iple. DBt the exer=ise of a prin=iple Hhi=h HoBld haCe preCented these thinGs. the> lose their for=e. therefore. If. He lose in the ties of a=EBaintan=e. Hill De ex=itinG fa=tions aGainst it. or NeH $a@pshire. fro@ the @ildness of the =li@ate. The ties of the parent ex=eed that of an> other. eEBalit> and frBGalit> are natBral to the =li@ate and soil. and pra=ti=e of it Hill natBrall> lead to @aIe odioBs distin=tions a@onG =itiAens6 The people Hho @a> =o@pose this national leGislatBre fro@ the soBthern states. nor to e=ono@iAe Hith the saCinGs of indBstr>/Hill these @en. The stronGest prin=iple of Bnion resides Hithin oBr do@esti= Halls. and that therefore he Hill De as interested in the happiness and interest of all. Hith the sa@e =are and atta=h@ent6 IntBitiCe reason ansHers in the neGatiCe. or the dis@e@Der@ent of her fairest distri=t. liIe a peDDle =ast on the =al@ sBrfa=e of a riCer/the =ir=les DeGin in the =enter. and fortBnes. had an ar@> Bnder their =ontrol. haDits. as the one he is deleGated fro@. poli=>. Bnder >oBr inspe=tion. as to do HithoBt the aid of a standinG ar@>6 I den> that it Hill. EnlarGe the =ir=le still fBrther. Hhere freedo@. and Hhose @anners and fortBnes Dear a @ore eEBal rese@Dlan=e to >oBr oHn6 It @a> De sBGGested. and Hhere the sa@e =aBses natBrall> lead to lBxBr>. CATO . the> neCer HoBld haCe lost *er@ont. noBrish affe=tion. a@onG the =itiAens of these states. as @en Hho are >oBr oHn =itiAens. He no @ore than a=InoHledGe a sa@eness of spe=ies. to De Iept on foot. Hill in=identall> and ne=essaril> reEBire a per@anent for=e. De as tena=ioBs of the liDerties and interests of the @ore northern states. liDerties. and liDert> of =oBrse less respe=ted and prote=ted. that inhaDitants of GeorGia. HhoeCer has attended to the histor> of @anIind. . "Bt the arGB@ent is falla=ioBs. leGislatinG in >oBr oHn state. The @al=ontents in ea=h state. if estaDlished. till.

Antifederalist No. 10 R$ODE I LAND I RIG$T8
This essa> appeared in The 'assa=hBsetts GaAette. De=e@Der 2. 1232. as reprinted !ro@ The !ree@anLs <oBrnal, 9Or. The North/A@eri=an IntelliGen=er6: The aDBse Hhi=h has Deen throHn Bpon the state of Rhode Island see@s to De Greatl> Bn@erited. PopBlar faCor is CariaDle. and those Hho are noH despised and insBlted @a> soon =hanGe sitBations Hith the present idols of the people. Rhode Island has oBt done eCen Penns>lCania in the GlorioBs HorI of freeinG the NeGroes in this =oBntr>. HithoBt Hhi=h the patriotis@ of so@e states appears ridi=BloBs. The General Asse@Dl> of the state of Rhode Island has preCented the fBrther i@portation of NeGroes. and haCe @ade a laH D> Hhi=h all Dla=Is Dorn in that state after 'ar=h. 123-. are aDsolBtel> and at on=e free. The> haCe fBll> =o@plied Hith the re=o@@endations of ConGress in reGard to the late treat> of pea=e Hith Great "ritain. and haCe passed an a=t de=larinG it to De the laH of the land. The> haCe neCer refBsed their EBota of taxes de@anded D> ConGress. ex=eptinG the fiCe per =ent i@post. Hhi=h the> =onsidered as a danGeroBs tax. and for Hhi=h at present there is perhaps no Great ne=essit>. as the Hestern territor>. of Hhi=h a part has Cer> latel> Deen sold at a =onsideraDle pri=e. @a> soon prodB=e an i@@ense reCenBe, and. in the interi@. ConGress @a> raise in the old @anner the taxes Hhi=h shall De foBnd ne=essar> for the sBpport of the GoCern@ent. The state of Rhode Island refBsed to send deleGates to the !ederal ConCention. and the eCent has @anifested that their refBsal Has a happ> one as the neH =onstitBtion. Hhi=h the ConCention has proposed to Bs. is an ele=tiCe @onar=h>. Hhi=h is proCerDiall> the Horst GoCern@ent. This neH GoCern@ent HoBld haCe Deen sBpported at a Cast expense. D> Hhi=h oBr taxes/the riGht of Hhi=h is solel> Cested in ConGress. 9a =ir=B@stan=e Hhi=h @anifests that the CarioBs states of the Bnion Hill De @erel> =orporations: // HoBld De doBDled or treDled. The liDert> of the press is not stipBlated for. and therefore @a> De inCaded at pleasBre. The sBpre@e =ontinental =oBrt is to haCe. al@ost in eCer> =ase. %appellate FBrisdi=tion. Doth as to laH and fa=t.% Hhi=h siGnifies. if there is an> @eaninG in Hords. the settinG aside the trial D> FBr>. ConGress Hill haCe the poHer of GBaranteeinG to eCer> state a riGht to i@port NeGroes for tHent> one >ears. D> Hhi=h so@e of the states. Hho haCe noH de=lined that iniEBitoBs traffi=. @a> re/enter into it/for the priCate laHs of eCer> state are to sBD@it to the sBperior FBrisdi=tion of ConGress. A standinG ar@> is to De Iept on foot. D> Hhi=h the Ci=ioBs. the s>=ophanti=I. and the ti@e/ serCinG Hill De exalted. and the DraCe. the patrioti=. and the CirtBoBs Hill De depressed. The Hriter. therefore. thinIs it the part of Hisdo@ to aDide. liIe the state of Rhode Island. D> the old arti=les of =onfederation. Hhi=h. if re/exa@ined Hith attention. He shall find Horth> of Great reGard, that He shoBld GiCe hiGh praise to the @anl> and pBDli= spirited sixteen @e@Ders. Hho latel> se=eded fro@ oBr hoBse of Asse@Dl> Jin Penns>lCaniaK, and that He shoBld all i@press Hith Great =are. this trBth on oBr @inds/That it is Cer> eas> to =hanGe a free GoCern@ent into an arDitrar> one. DBt that it is Cer> diffi=Blt to =onCert t>rann> into freedo@.

%AL!RED% defended the Arti=les of Confederation. taIen fro@ The NeH/#orI <oBrnal. De=e@Der (0. 1232 as reprinted fro@ the JPhiladelphiaK Independent GaAetteer. To the real PATRIOT of A@eri=a: . . . A@eri=a is noH free. he noH enFo>s a Greater portion of politi=al liDert> than an> other =oBntr> Bnder heaCen. $oH lonG she @a> =ontinBe so depends entirel> Bpon her oHn =aBtion and Hisdo@. If she HoBld looI to herself @ore. and to EBrope less. I a@ persBaded it HoBld tend to pro@ote her feli=it>. he possesses all the adCantaGes Hhi=h =hara=teriAe a ri=h =oBntr>/ri=h Hithin herself. she oBGht less to reGard the politi=s. the @anBfa=tBres. and the interests of distant nations. )hen I looI to oBr sitBation/=li@ate. extent. soil. and its prodB=tions. riCers. ports, Hhen I find I =an at this ti@e pBr=hase Grain. Dread. @eat. and other ne=essaries of life at as reasonaDle a rate as in an> =oBntr>, Hhen I see He are sendinG Great EBantities of toDa==o. Hheat and floBr to EnGland and other parts of the GloDe De>ond the Atlanti=, Hhen I Get on the other side of the Hestern @oBntains. and see an extensiCe =oBntr>. Hhi=h for its @BltitBde of riCers and fertilit> of soil is eEBal. if not sBperior. to an> other HhateCer Hhen I see these thinGs. I =annot De DroBGht to DelieCe that A@eri=a is in that deploraDle rBined =ondition Hhi=h so@e desiGninG politi=ians represent, or that He are in a state of anar=h> De>ond rede@ption. Bnless He adopt. HithoBt an> addition or a@end@ent. the neH =onstitBtion proposed D> the late =onCention, a =onstitBtion Hhi=h. in @> hB@Dle opinion. =ontains the seeds and s=ions of slaCer> and despotis@. )hen the ColB@e of A@eri=an =onstitBtions JD> <ohn Ada@sK first @ade its appearan=e in EBrope. He find so@e of the @ost e@inent politi=al Hriters of the present aGe. and the reCieHers of literatBre. fBll of ad@iration and de=larinG the> had neCer Defore seen so @B=h Good sense. freedo@. and real Hisdo@ in one pBDli=ation. OBr Good friend Dr. JRi=hardK Pri=e Has =har@ed. and al@ost prophesied the near approa=h of the happ> da>s of the @illenniB@. )e haCe liCed Bnder these =onstitBtions, and. after the experien=e of a feH >ears. so@e a@onG Bs are read> to tra@ple the@ Bnder their feet. thoBGh the> haCe Deen estee@ed. eCen D> oBr ene@ies. as %pearls of Great pri=e.% Let Bs not. >e loCers of freedo@. De rash and hast>. Perhaps the real eCils He laDor Bnder do not arise fro@ these s>ste@s. There @a> De other =aBses to Hhi=h oBr @isfortBnes @a> De properl> attriDBted. Read the A@eri=an =onstitBtions. and >oB Hill find oBr essential riGhts and priCileGes Hell GBarded and se=Bred. 'a> not oBr @anners De the soBr=e of oBr national eCils6 'a> not oBr atta=h@ent to foreiGn trade in=rease the@6 $aCe He not a=ted i@prBdentl> in exportinG al@ost all oBr Gold and silCer for foreiGn lBxBries6 It is noH a=InoHledGed that He haCe not a sBffi=ient EBantit> of the pre=ioBs @etals to ansHer the CarioBs pBrposes of GoCern@ent and =o@@er=e, and HithoBt a Drea=h of =harit>. it @a> De said. that this defi=ien=> arises fro@ the Hant of pBDli= CirtBe. in preferrinG priCate interest to eCer> other =onsideration. If the states had in an> toleraDle deGree Deen aDle to ansHer the reEBisitions of ConGress/if the =ontinental treasBr> had Deen so far assisted. as to haCe enaDled Bs to pa> the interest of oBr foreiGn deDt/possiDl> He shoBld haCe heard little. Cer> little aDoBt a neH s>ste@ of GoCern@ent. It is a FBst oDserCation that in @odern ti@es @one> does eCer>thinG. If a GoCern@ent =an =o@@and this BnB@ ne=essariB@ fro@ a =ertain reCenBe. it @a> De =onsidered as Health> and respe=taDle, if not. it Hill lose its diGnit>. De=o@e ineffi=ient and

=onte@ptiDle. "Bt =annot He reGBlate oBr finan=es and la> the foBndations for a per@anent and =ertain reCenBe. HithoBt BndoinG all that He haCe done. HithoBt @aIinG an entire neH GoCern@ent6 The @ost Hise and philosophi= =hara=ters haCe DestoHed on oBr old s>ste@s the hiGhest en=o@iB@s. Are He sBre this neH politi=al pheno@enon Hill not fail6 If it shoBld fail. is there not a Great proDaDilit>. that oBr last state Hill De Horse than the first6 Orators @a> de=lai@ on the Dadness of the ti@es as lonG as the> please. DBt I @Bst tell the@ that the Hant of pBDli= CirtBe. and the Hant of @one>. are tHo of the prin=ipal soBr=es of oBr GrieCan=es, and if He are /Bnder the pressBre of these Hants. it oBGht to tea=h Bs frBGalit>/to adopt a frBGal ad@inistration of pBDli= affairs.... AL!RED

The %ne=essar> and proper% =laBse has. fro@ the DeGinninG. Deen a thorn in the side of those seeIinG to redB=e federal poHer. DBt its atta=I D> "rBtBs serCed to =all attention to it. leaCinG a paper trail of intent Cerif>inG its pBrpose Has not to GiCe ConGress an>thinG the ConstitBtion %forGot.% DBt rather to shoH tHo additional tests for an> leGislation ConGress shoBld atte@pt: to Hit//that the intended a=tions HoBld De Doth ne=essar> AND proper to exe=BtinG poHers GiCen Bnder =laBses 1/12 of Arti=le I e=tion 3. This is the fa@eoBs "RUTU . This JneHK GoCern@ent is to possess aDsolBte and Bn=ontrollaDle poHers. leGislatiCe. exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial. Hith respe=t to eCer> oDFe=t to Hhi=h it extends. for D> the last =laBse of se=tion eiGhth. arti=le first. it is de=lared. that the ConGress shall haCe poHer %to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG into exe=Btion the foreGoinG poHers. and all other poHers Cested D> this ConstitBtion in the GoCern@ent of the United tates. or in an> depart@ent or offi=e thereof.% And D> the sixth arti=le. it is de=lared. %that this ConstitBtion. and the laHs of the United tates. Hhi=h shall De @ade in pBrsBan=e thereof. and the treaties @ade. or Hhi=h shall De @ade. Bnder the aBthorit> of the United tates. shall De the sBpre@e laH of the land, and the FBdGes in eCer> tate shall De DoBnd thereD>. an> thinG in the ConstitBtion or laH of an> tate to the =ontrar> notHithstandinG.% It appears fro@ these arti=les. that there is no need of an> interCention of the tate GoCern@ents. DetHeen the ConGress and the people. to exe=Bte an> one poHer Cested in the General GoCern@ent. and that the ConstitBtion and laHs of eCer> tate are nBllified and de=lared Coid. so far as the> are or shall De in=onsistent Hith this ConstitBtion. or the laHs @ade in pBrsBan=e of it. or Hith treaties @ade Bnder the aBthorit> of the United tates. The GoCern@ent. then. so far as it extends. is a =o@plete one. and not a =onfederation. It is as @B=h one =o@plete GoCern@ent as that of NeH #orI or 'assa=hBsetts, has as aDsolBte and perfe=t poHers to @aIe and exe=Bte all laHs. to appoint offi=ers. institBte =oBrts. de=lare offenses. and annex penalties. Hith respe=t to eCer> oDFe=t to Hhi=h it extends. as an> other in the Horld. o far. therefore. as its poHers rea=h. all ideas of =onfederation are GiCen Bp and lost. It is trBe this GoCern@ent is li@ited to =ertain oDFe=ts. or to speaI @ore properl>. so@e s@all deGree of poHer is still left to the tates, DBt a little attention to the poHers Cested in the General GoCern@ent. Hill =onCin=e

eCer> =andid @an. that if it is =apaDle of DeinG exe=Bted. all that is reserCed for the indiCidBal tates @Bst Cer> soon De annihilated. ex=ept so far as the> are Darel> ne=essar> to the orGaniAation of the General GoCern@ent. The poHers of the General leGislatBre extend to eCer> =ase that is of the least i@portan=e/there is nothinG CalBaDle to hB@an natBre. nothinG dear to free@en. DBt Hhat is Hithin its poHer. It has the aBthorit> to @aIe laHs Hhi=h Hill affe=t the liCes. the liDert>. and propert> of eCer> @an in the United tates, nor =an the ConstitBtion or laHs of an> tate. in an> Ha> preCent or i@pede the fBll and =o@plete exe=Btion of eCer> poHer GiCen. The leGislatiCe poHer is =o@petent to la> taxes. dBties. i@posts. and ex=ises,/ there is no li@itation to this poHer. Bnless it De said that the =laBse Hhi=h dire=ts the Bse to Hhi=h those taxes and dBties shall De applied. @a> De said to De a li@itation. "Bt this is no restri=tion of the poHer at all. for D> this =laBse the> are to De applied to pa> the deDts and proCide for the =o@@on defense and General Helfare of the United tates, DBt the leGislatBre haCe aBthorit> to =ontra=t deDts at their dis=retion, the> are the sole FBdGes of Hhat is ne=essar> to proCide for the =o@@on defense. and the> onl> are to deter@ine Hhat is for the General Helfare. This poHer. therefore. is neither @ore nor less than a poHer to la> and =olle=t taxes. i@posts. and ex=ises. at their pleasBre, not onl> the poHer to la> taxes Bnli@ited as to the a@oBnt the> @a> reEBire. DBt it is perfe=t and aDsolBte to raise ,he@ in an> @ode the> please. No tate leGislatBre. or an> poHer in the tate GoCern@ents. haCe an> @ore to do in =arr>inG this into effe=t than the aBthorit> of one tate has to do Hith that of another. In the DBsiness. therefore. of la>inG and =olle=tinG taxes. the idea of =onfederation is totall> lost. and that of one entire repBDli= is e@Dra=ed. It is proper here to re@arI. that the aBthorit> to la> and =olle=t taxes is the @ost i@portant of an> poHer that =an De Granted, it =onne=ts Hith it al@ost all other poHers. or at least Hill in pro=ess of ti@e draH all others after it, it is the Great @ean of prote=tion. se=Brit>. and defense. in a Good GoCern@ent. and the Great enGine of oppression and t>rann> in a Dad one. This =annot fail of DeinG the =ase. if He =onsider the =ontra=ted li@its Hhi=h are set D> this ConstitBtion. to the tate GoCern@ents. on this arti=le of raisinG @one>. No tate =an e@it paper @one>. la> an> dBties or i@posts. on i@ports. or exports. DBt D> =onsent of the ConGress, and then the net prodB=e shall De for the Denefit of the United tates. The onl> @eans. therefore. left for an> tate to sBpport its GoCern@ent and dis=harGe its deDts. is D> dire=t taxation, and the United tates haCe also poHer to la> and =olle=t taxes. in an> Ha> the> please. ECer>one Hho has thoBGht on the sBDFe=t. @Bst De =onCin=ed that DBt s@all sB@s of @one> =an he =olle=ted in an> =oBntr>. D> dire=t tax, Hhen the federal GoCern@ent DeGins to exer=ise the riGht of taxation in all its parts. the leGislatBres of the seCeral states Hill find it i@possiDle to raise @onies to sBpport their GoCern@ents. )ithoBt @one> the> =annot De sBpported. and the> @Bst dHindle aHa>. and. as Defore oDserCed. their poHers De aDsorDed in that of the General GoCern@ent. It @iGht De here shoHn. that the poHer in the federal leGislatBre. to raise and sBpport ar@ies at pleasBre. as Hell in pea=e as in Har. and their =ontrol oCer the @ilitia. tend not onl> to a =onsolidation of the GoCern@ent. DBt the destrB=tion of liDert>. I shall not. hoHeCer. dHell Bpon these. as a feH oDserCations Bpon the FBdi=ial poHer of this GoCern@ent. in addition to the pre=edinG. Hill fBll> eCin=e the trBth of the position. The FBdi=ial poHer of the United tates is to De Cested in a sBpre@e =oBrt. and in sB=h inferior =oBrts as ConGress @a>. fro@ ti@e to ti@e. ordain and estaDlish. The poHers of these =oBrts are Cer> extensiCe, their FBrisdi=tion =o@prehends all =iCil =aBses. ex=ept sB=h as arise DetHeen =itiAens of the sa@e tate, and it extends to all =ases in laH and eEBit> arisinG Bnder the ConstitBtion. One inferior =oBrt @Bst De estaDlished. I presB@e. in ea=h tate. at least. Hith the ne=essar> exe=BtiCe offi=ers appendant thereto. It is eas> to see. that in the =o@@on =oBrse of thinGs. these =oBrts Hill e=lipse the diGnit>. and taIe aHa> fro@ the respe=taDilit>. of

for =arr>inG all these into exe=Btion. Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper. if the !ederal GoCern@ent sB==eeds at all. it is prett> =ertain the> Hill. in the@selCes. @a> the ConGress repeal this laH. of reGBlatinG trade. and to effe=t an entire =onsolidation of the Hhole into one General GoCern@ent. The poHers GiCen D> this arti=le are Cer> General and =o@prehensiCe. is a poHer Cer> =o@prehensiCe and definite. for it Hill De foBnd that the poHer retained D> indiCidBal tates. Hill De natBrall> in=lined to re@oCe it oBt of the Ha>. Bppose the leGislatBre of a tate shoBld pass a laH to raise @one> to sBpport their GoCern@ent and pa> the tate deDt. to insinBate that the ConstitBtion HoBld Harrant a laH of this Iind8 Or Bnne=essaril> to alar@ the fears of the people. "Bt Hhat is @eant is. "> sB=h a laH. than that of an indiCidBal tate. that eCer> @an. are the sBpre@e laH of the land. institBtinG =oBrts. and ex=ises. in pBrsBan=e of this ConstitBtion. Hill De a =loG Bpon the Hheels of the GoCern@ent of the United tates. and haCinG sB=h adCantaGes. s@all as it is. $oH far the =laBse in the eiGhth se=tion of the first arti=le @a> operate to do aHa> Hith all idea of =onfederated tates. for =arr>inG into exe=Btion all poHers Cested D> the ConstitBtion in the GoCern@ent of the United tates. then. and it @a> re=eiCe a =onstrB=tion to FBstif> the passinG al@ost an> laH.the tate =oBrts. therefore. and to a=EBire a sBperiorit> oCer eCer>thinG that stands in their Ha>. are eCer disposed to in=rease it. and dis=iplininG the @ilitia. deriCinG their aBthorit> fro@ the United tates. it is a trBth =onfir@ed D> the BnerrinG experien=e of aGes. ar@inG. and the> @a> so exer=ise this poHer as entirel> to annihilate all the tate GoCern@ents. and redB=e this =oBntr> to one sinGle GoCern@ent. it Hill ne=essaril> a=EBire in its exer=ise in operation. and in the =oBrse of hB@an eCents it is to De expe=ted that the> Hill sHalloH Bp all the poHers of the =oBrts in the respe=tiCe tates. raisinG and sBpportinG ar@ies. the GoCern@ent of a parti=Blar tate @iGht De oCertBrned at one stroIe. to proCide for the General Helfare of the United tates6 !or all laHs @ade. orGaniAinG. the latter. for aBGht I InoH. and eCer> Dod> of @en. that Hhat this ConstitBtion Hants of DeinG a =o@plete =onsolidation of the seCeral parts of the Bnion into one =o@plete GoCern@ent. dBties. "esides. totall> independent of the tates. These =oBrts Hill De. and exe=BtiCe poHers. and re=eiCinG fro@ the@ fixed salaries. and the FBdGes in eCer> tate shall De DoBnd thereD>. Hill operate in the !ederal leGislatBre to lessen and Blti@atel> to sBDCert the tate aBthorit>. inCested Hith poHer. De=aBse it @a> preCent the =olle=tion of a tax Hhi=h the> @a> thinI proper and ne=essar> to la>. and other General poHers. Hhi=h is i@planted in hB@an natBre. possessed of perfe=t leGislatiCe. i@posts. or an> depart@ent or offi=er thereof. D> sBGGestinG that the !ederal leGislatBre HoBld De @ore liIel> to pass the li@its assiGned the@ D> the ConstitBtion. proper and ne=essar>. an>thinG in the ConstitBtion or laHs of the different tates to the =ontrar> notHithstandinG. and @a>. It @Bst De Cer> eCident. to all intents and pBrposes. And if the> @a> do it. D> statinG this =ase. and are D> this =laBse inCested Hith the poHer of @aIinG all laHs. De exer=ised in sB=h @anner as entirel> to aDolish the tate leGislatBres. fBrther than the> are less responsiDle to the people. It is not @eant. FBdi=ial. Hill @ost =ertainl> sB==eed. it is i@possiDle to sa>. "RUTU . This disposition. and thereD> De depriCed of eCer> @eans of its sBpport. A poHer to @aIe all laHs. that the leGislatBre of the United tates are Cested Hith the Great and Bn=ontrollaDle poHers of la>inG and =olle=tinG taxes.

Hhen it is on=e fixed. and the =onstitBtion of eCer> state in the Bnion proCide for the reCision of the @ost triflinG laHs. . than to repent Hhen it is too late. "Bt a feH >ears elapsed. in its present for@. eCer> laH. it is to De hoped He shall De Bnani@oBs in endeaCoBrinG to @aIe the Dest of it. the> are alHa>s destrB=tiCe of priCate and pBDli= happiness. Defore it De passed. . and all fBrther opposition DeinG Cain. Hill in a Great @easBre destro>. . deliDeratel> re=eiCed and =orre=ted. )h> then is a =onstitBtion Hhi=h affe=ts all the inhaDitants of the United tates/Hhi=h is to De the foBndation of all laHs and the soBr=e of @iser> or happiness to one/ EBarter of the GloDe/Hh> is this to De so hastil> adopted or reFe=ted. fro@ the ti@e in Hhi=h . The strBGGles of the people aGainst a Dad GoCern@ent. if it does not totall> annihilate. afford DBt a Gloo@> pi=tBre in the annals of @anIind. Defore it passes. as the> did the =allinG the last. Hhen no pea=eaDle re@ed> Hill De left Bs. The pBDli= Coi=e =alls so loBdl> for a neH =onstitBtion that I haCe no doBDt He shall haCe one of so@e sort. He shall dee@ it Hell Horth a little ti@e and attention. Hh> is it that the fra@inG of a =onstitBtion for the GoCern@ent of a Great people/a HorI Hhi=h has Deen FBstl> =onsidered as the Greatest effort of hB@an GeniBs. )hat Hill De the =onseEBen=e of this6 One thinG is eCident/that no repBDli= of so Great @aGnitBde eCer did or eCer =an exist. and Hhi=h fro@ the DeGinninG of the Horld has so often Daffled the sIill of the Hisest @en in eCer> aGe/shall De =onsidered as a thinG to De throHn oBt. "> the proposed =onstitBtion.% taIen fro@ The 'assa=hBsetts GaAette. and if He =onsider the @aGnitBde of the oDFe=t. and I shall De @B=h astonished. De=o@e one Great repBDli=. the separate GoCern@ents of the seCeral states. DBt the pea=eaDle =onsent of a people to estaDlish a free and effe=tiCe GoCern@ent is one of the @ost GlorioBs oDFe=ts that is eCer exhiDited on the theater of hB@an affairs. The plan @a> then De re=onsidered.. It is De>ond a doBDt that the neH federal =onstitBtion. Hhi=h is at present proposed. . NoCe@Der (2. The experi@ent is at least Horth tr>inG. and Bnani@it> Hill De foreCer Danished. if adopted. is to BnderGo repeated reCisions. either D> their passinG throBGh different hoBses of asse@Dl> and senate. A feH @onths onl> Hill De ne=essar> for this pBrpose. so as to @eet the approDation of eCer> friend to his =oBntr>. in the first shape Hhi=h it @a> happen to assB@e6 )here is the i@pra=ti=aDilit> of a reCision6 Cannot the sa@e poHer Hhi=h =alled the late =onCention =all another6 Are not the people still their oHn @asters6 If. '> onl> fear is that the i@patien=e of the people Hill lead the@ to a==ept the first that is offered the@ HithoBt exa@ininG Hhether it is riGht or HronG. that it =annot ad@it of a reCision6 If a laH to reGBlate hiGhHa>s reEBires to De leisBrel> =onsidered and BnderGo the exa@ination of different Dodies of @en. He =an still adopt this in its present for@. And after all. as reprinted fro@ the JPhiladelphiaK Independent GaAetteer. ECer> @easBre of an> i@portan=e Hill De =ontinental. The> are often BnfortBnate.Antifederalist No. one after another. 13/(5 )$AT DOE $I TOR# TEAC$6 9PART 1: %AN OLD )$IG. do not Greatl> refor@ it . the> @a> easil> appl> to =onGress and state their oDFe=tions. 1232. the> shoBld not approCe of it. I InoH. if a neH =onCention =annot aGree Bpon an> a@end@ents in the =onstitBtion. o@e. ConGress @a> as easil> dire=t the =allinG another =onCention. in effe=t. Hhen the seCeral state =onCentions =o@e to =onsider this =onstitBtion. haCe oDFe=ted that another =onCention Hill not De liIel> to aGree Bpon an>thinG/I a@ far hoHeCer fro@ DeinG of that opinion. )e shall.. or D> reEBirinG the@ to De pBDlished for the =onsideration of the people. It is 'B=h Detter to paBse and refle=t Defore hand. if a neH =onCention =alled toGether for the pBrpose of reCisinG the proposed =onstitBtion.

exa=tinG a sole@n resiGnation of their riGhts fro@ &inG <ohn. in for@inG the =onstitBtions of the seCeral states. and the> are al@ost eEBall> diCided in their reliGioBs prin=iples. And all politi=al Hriters aGree. the period is Cer> shortl> re@oCed Hhen He shall sinI first into @onar=h>. the Dill of riGhts. . Hhi=h Has oDtained of the Prin=e and Prin=ess of OranGe. that a repBDli=an GoCern@ent =an exist onl> in a narroH territor>. and Hith Bni@paired strenGth. in the different nations of EBrope. on their a==ession to the throne. after the restoration of Charles 11. In different nations. @an> of Hhi=h. He find different Grants or reserCations of priCileGes appealed to in the strBGGles DetHeen the rBlers and the people. "efore He estaDlish a GoCern@ent. In liIe @anner the people of this =oBntr>. haCe lonG sin=e Deen sHalloHed Bp and lost D> ti@e. The petition of riGhts Has afterHards =onsented to D> Charles I and =ontained a de=laration of the liDerties of the people. is one a@onG @an> exa@ples on this head. sB=h as the riGhts of =ons=ien=e.an=ient Ro@e extended her do@inions De>ond the DoBnds of Ital>. and at the sa@e ti@e fBrnishes an e@inent proof of hoH @B=h less i@portan=e it is. !ro@ the @o@ent He De=o@e one Great repBDli=. AN OLD )$IG . Hhile its oriGin @a> De tra=ed to the =onfines of antiEBit>. A =onfedera=> of repBDli=s @Bst De the estaDlish@ent in A@eri=a. . had Deen reall> a=tBated D> no other @otiCes than the pBDli= Good. . aGainst the inCasion of those liDerties Hhi=h it is essential for Bs to retain. Hhi=h Has @an> ti@es reneHed in Parlia@ent dBrinG the reiGns of his sB==essors. of the reiGn of a HeaI prin=e or the reColBtion in their GoCern@ent. If He Hill exer=ise a little patien=e and DestoH oBr Dest endeaCors on the DBsiness. Hhi=h it is of no real Bse for GoCern@ent to depriCe Bs of. If the @en Hho at different ti@es haCe Deen entrBsted to for@ plans of GoCern@ent for the Horld. . and then into despotis@. or He @Bst =ease altoGether to retain the repBDli=an for@ of GoCern@ent. "Bt HheneCer this i@portant HorI shall De a==o@plished. . Hhi=h exists at this @o@ent in fBll CiGor. Hhi=h haCe so often rent asBnder the fir@est estaDlish@ents. in @an> instan=es. that the =onstitBent parts of a =onfedera=> of repBDli=s @a> De riGhtl> fra@ed. Hhere the> haCe not Deen =arefBll> se=Bred. to oDtain the @ost expli=it de=larations in faCor of their liDerties. He oBGht =arefBll> to GBard oBrselCes D> a Dill of riGhts. D> express and sole@n Dills and de=larations in their faCor. at the a==ession of the $anoCer fa@il>/are other instan=es to shoH the =are and Hat=hfBlness of that nation to i@proCe eCer> OpportBnit>. haCinG all poHer in their oHn hands. He find the people. in their =eleDrated @aGna =harta. that He @a> >et for@ a federal =onstitBtion @B=h sBperior to an> for@ of GoCern@ent Hhi=h has eCer existed in the Horld. than it is that the =onfedera=> itself shoBld De riGhtl> orGaniAed. #et eCen these haCe Deen often inCaded. o@e of these riGhts are said to De BnalienaDle. D> Dills of riGhts. !or hardl> an> tHo of the Hiss =antons haCe the sa@e for@ of GoCern@ent. at the reColBtion. In EnGland. tooI =are to se=Bre the@selCes. DBt Hhi=h. In this =oBntr> perhaps He are possessed of @ore than oBr share of politi=al CirtBe. existed and floBrished for a lonG ti@e toGether. "Bt a =onfedera=> of different repBDli=s has. . haCe Deen too often insBlted Hith all the Hantonness of an idle DarDarit>. in the =oBrse of hB@an eCents. Bntil the doHnfall of her repBDli=. either in for@ or sBDstan=e. Hhose a=ts Hill De the sBpre@e laH of the land. and the a=t of settle@ent. I CentBre to pronoBn=e that it Hill not De done HithoBt a =arefBl attention to the !ra@inG of a Dill of riGhts. The =eleDrated $elCetian leaGBe. and Hhose poHer Hill extend to al@ost eCer> =ase HithoBt ex=eption. The haDeas =orpBs a=t. so as to preCent as far as possiDle the en=roa=h@ents of their fBtBre rBlers Bpon the riGhts of the people. the =ondition of hB@an natBre in all aGes HoBld haCe Deen Hidel> different fro@ that Hhi=h has Deen exhiDited to Bs in histor>. or destro>ed D> the arDitrar> hand of poHer. Hith the Darons at their head. I do not thinI it i@possiDle.

"Bt the "ritish haCe no other reason for holdinG the posts. Hill se=Bre Bs fro@ all atte@pt Hithin and HithoBt. 1233. Let Bs pro=eed D> this rBle. and "erlin. that the "ritish Hill neCer relinEBish the posts in EBestion Bntil =o@pelled D> for=e. as Hell as others on the sa@e side. than the last reason of &inGs.% it see@s Hrote Hith an air of =onfiden=e and triB@ph. for JtheK "ritish GoCern@ent to haCe pBt the sa@e stop on oBr =itiAens HoBld haCe Deen a proper. =onseEBentl> HithoBt an> =ontrollinG poHer. that an aDilit> GiCen to "ritish sBDFe=ts to re=oCer their deDts in this =oBntr> Hill De one of the DlessinGs of a neH GoCern@ent. *ienna. or De left HithoBt ex=Bse. is it not reasonaDle to sBppose that the sa@e Good sense and loCe of freedo@. 13/(5 )$AT DOE $I TOR# TEAC$6 9PART II: %A NE)PORT 'AN.555 panish Dollars/and all this done D> the pro=Bre@ent of that Cer> ConGress Hhose insiGnifi=an=> and Hant of poHer had Deen =onstantl> pro=lai@ed for tHo or three >ears Defore. . "Bt there is nothinG Hithin the =o@pass of possiDilit> of Hhi=h I a@ not perfe=tl> sBre. his essa> had Deen @B=h shorter. 'arino. "Bt let Bs atte@pt to reason on this sBDFe=t. D> indB=inG the "ritish to aDandon the frontiers. on this side the Atlanti=. and the Ciolation of the =apitBlation of Charles ToHn. Reason is trBl> defined. And the onl> internal dis=ord that has happened in HitAerland Has on a reliGioBs a==oBnt. and aGain. in all =ases short of @athe@ati=al de@onstration. If the "ritish sBDFe=t @et Hith leGal i@pedi@ents to the re=oCer> of his deDts in this =oBntr>. that is. Hhen the> tooI a Cer> Great nB@Der of @en of Har and @er=hant ships Defore Har Has de=lared. and see to Hhi=h side that Hill lead Bs.Antifederalist No. and is @entioned D> traCellers as a Cer> enliGhtened and happ> people. 'ar=h 12. an a@ple retaliation. and aDoBt fiCe thoBsand inhaDitants. in the neiGhDorhood of the HarliIe and intriGBinG CoBrts of Paris. and noH He are in a passion to De rid of it. and a sBpre@e =ontrollinG poHer is . Hith a Doldness ex=eeded D> nothinG DBt its falsehood. If these s@all repBDli=s. the Ciolation of the arti=les D> Hhi=h the people of "oston resiGned their ar@s. The Hiss Cantons for a hBndred >ears haCe re@ained separate Independent tates. And GiCinG the@ the treasBre of the United tates is a Cer> BnliIel> @eans of re@oCinG that. that I a@ @ore fBll> persBaded of than I a@. . . )e Here lonG =ontendinG for Independen=e. De=aBse the !ren=h had DBilt so@e forts on the soBth side of an i@aGinar> line in the Hilds of A@eri=a. =ontaininG perhaps DBt little @ore GroBnd than the toHn of NeHport. De=aBse the> haCe no poHer to fBlfill their enGaGe@ents. )e are told in this pie=e. haCe Iept their freedo@ and oriGinal for@ of GoCern@ent.% Hrote this Hit Hhi=h appeared in The NeHport 'er=Br>. to De a sBpposinG that the liIe =aBses Hill prodB=e the liIe effe=ts. despised people. The DBt=h are the @ost =aBtioBs people on earth. he speaIs of reason and reasoninG/I Hish he had InoHn or pra=tised so@e of that reasoninG he so @B=h pretends to. )e are told that so lonG as He Hithhold this poHer fro@ ConGress He shall De a HeaI. And this He are told. after the ti@e na@ed in the treat> for their eCa=Bation. their GBns. / I per=eiCe in >oBr last JissBe aK pie=e siGned %A Rhode/Island 'an. ECen the little RepBDli= of t. sBrroBnded D> poHerfBl and a@DitioBs neiGhDors. and it is reasonaDle to sBppose the> Here aDBndantl> persBaded of the per@anen=> and effi=a=> of oBr GoCern@ent D> their risIinG so @B=h @one> on it. a sB@ eEBal to (05. )itness their =ondB=t to the !ren=h in 1200. De=aBse no nation pa>s less reGard to the faith of treaties than the "ritish. has Iept its freedo@ and independen=e these thirteen hBndred >ears. AGain He are told that ConGress has no =redit Hith foreiGners. perhaps in the sa@e paper that annoBn=es to the Horld the loan of a @illion of $olland Gilders/if I @istaIe not the sB@.

DeinG @ostl> @arried @en. Addison sa>s. a !aDri=iBs. and the noDles of *eni=e. Hherein he in=Bl=ates. ODFe=ts and inti@ations liIe these soon =hanGe the =ha@pion for the people to an adCo=ate for poHer. is for the extent of its do@inion the ri=hest and Dest peopled of all the tates of Ital>. a @an the @ost indBstrioBs in the a=EBisition of InoHledGe and infor@ation. that %eCer> laH that the people haCe not ratified in person. that the people shoBld exa@ine and deter@ine eCer> pBDli= a=t the@selCes. effi=ient poHer is @B=h talIed of D> the dis=ontented. And the instan=es of desiGned shipHre=Is. =onCersation. oBr =oBntr> is =o@pared to a ship of Hhi=h He are all passenGers. It see@s rational in a =ase of this i@portan=e to =onsBlt the opinion of the aDlest @en. The> are neCer so DBt dBrinG the ele=tion of @e@Ders of Parlia@ent. is so Great that nothinG =an eEBal the@ DBt those instan=es in Hhi=h pretended patriots and politi=ians haCe raised the@selCes and fa@ilies to poHer and Greatness. @a> Go fro@ ho@e sin=ere and patrioti= DBt D> the ti@e he has dined in po@p for a HeeI Hith the Health> =itiAens of NeH #orI or Philadelphia. the> Hell deserCe to lose it. RoBsseaB. "Bt it has alread> Deen shoHn that He haCe deleGated a @ore de=isiCe poHer to oBr ConGress than is Granted D> the RepBDli= Hiss Cantons to their General Diet. are rarel> to De foBnd. Ltis @B=h harder for politi=ians. . )hether hB@an natBre De less =orrBpt than for@erl> I Hill not deter@ine/DBt this I InoH: that <BliBs Caesar. and thinIinG.no se=Brit> aGainst this. perhaps. a @an the @ost disinterested and DeneColent toHards @anIind. and the people. as appears D> Hhat happened in Ireland in the ti@e of Charles the !irst. AGain. If to taIe Bp the =ross and renoBn=e the po@ps and Canities of this sinfBl Horld is a hard lesson for diCines. it is no laH. and in !ran=e in the ti@e of $enr> the !oBrth. sBper=arGoes. the> are slaCes. And he sa>s fBrther that %the Hhole ad@inistration of the GoCern@ent passes into different hands eCer> tHo @onths. the little RepBDli= of LB==a @a> De @entioned/ Hhi=h. is a sa>inG too Hell InoHn to need repeatinG. is Coid. And D> the Bse the> @aIe of their liDert> dBrinG the short @o@ents the> possess it. and part oHners. D> destro>inG that freedo@ and those laHs the> Here =hosen to defend. and to Hho@ =an He Detter appeal than to <. D> traCel. If it Here ne=essar> to =ite @ore pre=edents to proCe that the people oBGht not to trBst or re@oCe their poHer an> fBrther fro@ the@. =r> that CirtBe is DBt a na@e. a Cato.% This is far fro@ adCisinG that thirt> thoBsand soBls shoBld resiGn their FBdG@ents and Hishes entirel> to one @an for tHo >ears/to a @an. findinG the@selCes thBs Dasel> Detra>ed. the> are nothinG. These RepBDli=s haCe enFo>ed pea=e . $e De=o@es fas=inated Hith the eleGan=ies and lBxBries of Health. "Bt that @en Hill sa=rifi=e the pBDli= to their priCate interest. has existed Bnder its present =onstitBtion aDoBt fiCe hBndred >ears. A Cin=innatBs. Here natiCes and inhaDitants of the =oBntries Hhose poHer the> BsBrped and dren=hed in Dlood. is an a@ple se=Brit> aGainst an aDBse of poHer. <. and all of the@ inhaDitants and proprietors of the =oBntr>. fro@ then=e Ltis GraCel> =on=lBded that no offi=er =an eCer Detra> or aDBse his trBst. and see Hith Hhat Doldness @en =hanGed sides and deserted the people in pBrsBit of profit and poHer. )e are told that the TrBstees of oBr poHers and freedo@. or perhaps an> aGe. sBrroBnded D> the DBIedo@ of TBs=an>. )e are not sBre that @en haCe @ore CirtBe at this ti@e and pla=e than the> had in EnGland in the ti@e of GeorGe the e=ond. and as 'r. Let an>one looI into the histor> of those ti@es. and that He are in danGer of DeinG =onEBered D> the intriGBes of EBropean poHers. . The> are @B=h @istaIen. a repBDli=an D> Dirth and edB=ation/one of the @ost exalted GeniBses and one of the Greatest Hriters of his aGe. OliCer Cro@Hell. Hill haCe lost all his riGid ideas of e=ono@> and eEBalit>. Hho. and a )ashinGton. and ships rBn aHa> Hith D> a =o@Dination of @asters. $is Hords are. readinG. . The Hant of a de=isiCe. and one Hho has Hrote a *olB@e on GoCern@ent entitled the o=ial Contra=t.% This is Cer> far fro@ =onfir@inG the do=trine of =hoosinG those offi=ers for tHo >ears Hho Here Defore =hosen for one. and. The people of EnGland thinI the> are free. As soon as the> are ele=ted.

to defe=ts in the s>ste@ itself. De =arefBl. 'B=h @ore @iGht De said to shoH the Ditterness and @is=hief =ontained in this Gilded pill. The deCastations. and haCe at lenGth sB==eeded to GiCe to this senti@ent al@ost BniCersal =Brren=> and Delief. deliGht @B=h in alleGor>. Hhat taxes are reEBisite and sBffi=ient/I sa>. se=ond. draHinG their @en fro@ the ploBGh and loo@ to De shot at and =Bt ea=h otherLs throats for the honor of their respe=tiCe nations. foBr or fiCe >ears in =o@pletion. and its adoption =onsidered as the happiest eCent/sBpposinG. In treatinG this sBDFe=t I haCe not presB@ed to adCise. and ABstria. the present ConstitBtion destro>ed. the harpies of poHer haCe Deen indBstrioBsl> in=Bl=atinG the idea that all oBr diffi=Blties pro=eed fro@ the i@poten=> of ConGress. "Bt sBpposinG that the present =onstitBtion. PrBssia. the> are DBt no@inal RepBDli=s. I sa>. if the people are tired of these priCileGes. noH is the ti@e to part Hith the@ foreCer. And D> hoH @B=h fBrther He are fro@ EBrope than the Hiss Cantons Hith their allies. HithoBt DeinG =onEBered. Hhile those GoCern@ents Hhi=h possess this de=isiCe. D> so @B=h less are He in danGer of DeinG =onEBered than those repBDli=s Hhi=h haCe existed. and haCe intrBded DBt feH =o@@ents. aGreed to in stronGer or @ore DindinG ter@s6 )hat se=Brit> =an De GiCen that in seCen >ears hen=e. I shoBld fet=h @> si@ile fro@ the =oBntr> and =o@pare it to iDerian )heat 9otherHise =alled iDerian =heat: Hhi=h is InoHn to haCe Deen the @ost praised. are as often as tHent> or thirt> >ears. He shall date in the first. 'arino are fro@ !ran=e. "Bt if the free @en of this =ontinent are Hear> of that poHer and freedo@ the> haCe so dearl> DoBGht and so shortl> enFo>ed/ the poHer of FBdGinG and deter@ininG Hhat laHs are @ost Hholeso@e. their tadtholder. and siGn @>self in plain EnGlish. The @al=ontents. (1 )$# T$E ARTICLE !AILED This essa> is =o@posed of ex=erpts fro@ %CENTINEL% letters appearinG in the 9Philadelphia: Independent GaAetteer. DBt DeinG fond of DreCit>. hoBld I De indBlGed a feH Hords in that Ha>. and LB==a and t. As for the United ProCin=es of $olland. and @ost short/liCed thinG that Has eCer adopted. the loCers of noCelt>. losses and DBrdens o==asioned D> . @aIinG the@ in realit> a @onar=h>. and @onar=hies D> their &inGsL reiGns. eiGhth. another ConCention shall not De =alled to fra@e a third ConstitBtion6 And as an=ient Gree=e =oBnted D> ol>@piads. not to i@pBte the te@porar> and extraordinar> diffi=Blties that haCe hitherto i@peded the exe=Btion of the =onfederation. A NE)PORT 'AN Antifederalist No. Cer> @B=h liIe oBr intended President. hoHeCer. effi=ient poHer. and sBDFe=t to all its =ala@ities. The onl> EBestion is. the @ost Horthless. =an a neH one De ratified Hith @ore sole@nit>. I shoBld not =o@pare the neH ConstitBtion to a hoBse. or ninth ConstitBtion. penned D> the aDlest @en. O=toDer 0 and NoCe@Der +5. in for@inG oBr opinion on this sBDFe=t. !or >ears past. DBt the >oBnGest of the@ one hBndred and thirt> >ears. see@s to De BniCersall> alloHed. 1232. so@e earlier than others.so@e hBndreds of >ears. so @B=h ai@ed at. I haCe @entioned the state of those =oBntries Hhi=h @ost rese@Dle oBr oHn and leaCe to the natBral sense of the reader to @aIe his oHn =on=lBsions. I shall rel> on the Good sense of the pBDli= to Ieep the@selCes oBt of the trap. of the seCenth. or third >ear. That the present =onfederation is inadeEBate to the oDFe=ts of the Bnion. the @ost dear. Hhat additional poHers are HantinG to GiCe dBe enerG> to the federal GoCern@ent6 )e shoBld.

>et this Denefit is a==o@panied in the neH =onstitBtion Hith the s=oBrGe of despoti= poHer. He shall find that the> GaCe eCer> san=tion and aBthorit> to the . li@ited his =rops to his oHn sBDsisten=e. DBt =heerfBll> exerted the@selCes to =o@pl> Hith the =alls of their =oBntr>. . the Dills of =redit had sBffered sB=h a depre=iation fro@ the ex=essiCe EBantities in =ir=Blation. . that the> =eased to De BsefBl as a @ediB@. )hen He enGaGed in the expensiCe =ontest Hith Great "ritain. D> e@ittinG Dills of =redit. . and the inadeEBa=> of the poHers of the present =onfederation is erroneoBsl> sBpposed to De the onl> =aBse of oBr diffi=Blties. and thBs postponed the ne=essit> of taxation for seCeral >ears. HithoBt the BsBal Gradations. the ex=essiCe i@portations of foreiGn @er=handise and lBxBries. the hBsDand@an. it Has Hholl> exhaBsted. is the seCerest test that an> GoCern@ent =an De pBt to. it has eCer failed of fBll sB==ess. Hhi=h fell =hiefl> Bpon the patrioti= and CirtBoBs part of the =o@@Bnit>. to a defe=t in the =onfederation6 An> GoCern@ent. had resoBr=e to an anti=ipation of the pBDli= resoBr=es. $en=e persons of eCer> des=ription are reCellinG in the anti=ipation of the hal=>on da>s =onseEBent on the estaDlish@ent of the neH =onstitBtion. the ConGress. the freEBent =alls of the @ilitia and lonG =ontinBan=e in a=tBal serCi=e. DBt the pe=Bniar> assistan=e that He =oBld pro=Bre fro@ the@ Has soon exhaBsted. Hhen the people not onl> sBD@itted to the GrieCoBs i@positions. "Bt aDoBt the >ear 35 or 31. so as to enaDle the@ to reGBlate =o@@er=e. hoHeCer. Perhaps the strained exertions of tHo >ears HoBld not haCe sBffi=ed to the dis=harGe of this reEBisition. eCer> sordid prin=iple of the @ind @Bst haCe Deen then extin=t. HoBld haCe experien=ed the sa@e fate. If He reCieH the pro=eedinGs of the tates. the @one>s ne=essar> for oBr defense. Hhi=h haCe drained the =oBntr> of its spe=ie and inColCed it in deDt. )hat Gross de=eption and fatal delBsion8 AlthoBGh Cer> =onsideraDle Denefit @iGht De deriCed fro@ strenGtheninG the hands of ConGress. hoHeCer enerGeti=. the sBDsisten=e of oBr oHn ar@ies. !ro@ the first settle@ent of this =oBntr> Bntil the =o@@en=e@ent of the late Har.the late Har. D> dire=t taxation. $en=e it has Deen the poli=> of all Hise states@en. into the haDits of taxation. Under this =onCi=tion. )here the =ontrar> =ondB=t has Deen pBrsBed. in si@ilar =ir=B@stan=es. The onl> resoBr=e noH re@aininG Has to oDtain D> dire=t taxation. OBr allies Here applied to in this exiGen=>. Hho had eCen @ore nB@eroBs and Detter appointed ar@ies in the field than at an> for@er ti@e. nor of a people so Hholl> Bnprepared and BninBred to the@/the la@p of sa=red liDert> @Bst indeed haCe DBrned Hith BnsBllied lBstre. =o@@er=e had Deen sBspended for near six >ears. as far as =ir=B@stan=es per@itted. Here not eEBal to fBrnish the ne=essar> sB@s/indeed. let Bs taIe a reCieH of oBr sitBation Defore and sin=e the reColBtion. Their aDilities. The i@posinG of a DBrdenso@e tax at on=e on a people. the deCastations of the ene@>. to lead the people D> s@all DeGinninGs and al@ost i@per=eptiDle deGrees. The =oBntr> at this period Has Cer> @B=h i@poCerished and exhaBsted. The histor> of @anIind does not fBrnish a si@ilar instan=e of an atte@pt to leC> sB=h enor@oBs taxes at on=e. In this sitBation of affairs. despotis@ itself has often proCed BneEBal to the atte@pt. the eCils of the depre=iation of the paper @one>. sensiDle of the diffi=Blt> of leC>inG the @onies ne=essar> to its sBpport. He still had the sa@e poHerfBl ene@> to =ontend Hith. and =oBntera=t the adCerse restri=tions of other nations. are all oCerlooIed. This @eans Has pBrsBed to a @ost rBinoBs lenGth. $oH then =an He i@pBte the diffi=Blties of the people to a dBe =o@plian=e Hith the reEBisitions of ConGress. had all =on=Brred to prodB=e Great distress throBGhoBt A@eri=a. in=lBdinG the @eans of their sBDsisten=e. Hhi=h HoBld @eet Hith the =on=Brren=e of all persons. a@oBnted to the Hhole in=o@e of their far@s and other propert>. for Hant of a @arIet. the taxes Here so liGht and triCial as to De s=ar=el> felt D> the people. not BnfreEBentl> proCinG the rBin of the proFe=tors. the reEBisition of the >ear 123(. Taxation is in eCer> GoCern@ent a Cer> deli=ate and diffi=Blt sBDFe=t.

. This is the soBr=e to Hhi=h @a> De tra=ed eCer> eCil He experien=e. D> a prostitBtion of the sa=red rites of their reliGion. The Hheels of the General GoCern@ent haCinG Deen thBs =loGGed. ConGress haCe latel> sold land to the a@oBnt of eiGht @illions of dollars. instead of the tate leGislatBres. and eCer> @e=hani= art dependent on naCiGation. Hho. foBnded on sB=h =o@plaints. Hhi=h all aGree to Cest in ConGress.. the> are aDoBt estaDlishinG a s>ste@ of GoCern@ent. Re=olle=t the lanGBaGe of =o@plaint for >ears past.reEBisitions of ConGress that their laHs =oBld =onfer. in liIe @anner. and pla=inG this GoCern@ent so independent of the people as to enaDle the ad@inistration to Gratif> eCer> =orrBpt passion of the @ind. that =an De relieCed D> a @ore enerGeti= GoCern@ent. this properl> Bnderstood HoBld @eet the CieHs of all the honest and Hell @eaninG. =o@pare the re=o@@endations of ConGress. I DelieCe is all that is HantinG to render A@eri=a as prosperoBs as it is in the poHer of an> for@ of GoCern@ent to render her. it @a> De asIed Hhat prospe=t is there of the GoCern@ent resB@inG its proper tone. @> felloH =itiAens. $en=e the hBsDand@an Here distressed D> the de@and for their =rops DeinG lessened and their pri=es redB=ed. @an> of oBr staple =o@@odities Here denied entran=e in "ritain. that the prodB=e of i@posts on =o@@er=e. )hen this taIes pla=e. as ConGress Has i@potent on this sBDFe=t6 B=h indeed Has the =ase Hith respe=t to "ritain. exa@ine the reasons assiGned D> the different states for appointinG deleGates to the late ConCention. that Hill proCe @ore destrB=tiCe to the@ than the Hooden horse filled Hith soldiers did in an=ient ti@es to the =it> of Tro>.. D> pBttinG it in the poHer of the fBtBre GoCern@ent to leC> @one> at pleasBre. fro@ @otiCes of interest or en@it>. and Bnder the spe=ioBs preten=e of haCinG dis=oCered a pana=ea for all the ills of the people. institBtinG federal =oBrts in eCer> =oBnt> of eCer> state6 "> a sBperD presidential =oBrt6 "> a larGe standinG ar@>6 In short. Hhi=h is a =onsideraDle portion of the Hhole deDt. /Bnless @ore =o@pBlsor> poHers are Granted6 To this it @a> De ansHered. CieH the poHers Cested in that Dod>/the> all . and the arrearaGes of taxes still a==B@BlatinG. HithoBt =he=I or =ontrol6 A transfer to ConGress of the poHer of i@posinG i@posts on =o@@er=e. It is to De la@ented that the interested and desiGninG haCe aCailed the@selCes so sB==essfBll> of the present =risis. the Bnli@ited reGBlation of trade. =oBld restri=t and =ontrol it HithoBt risIinG a retaliation on the part of A@eri=a. Hhi=h la> at the @er=> of eCer> foreiGn poHer. to riot on >oBr spoils. and to @aIe treaties. it De=a@e the interest of eCen the A@eri=an @er=hant to GiCe a preferen=e to foreiGn Dotto@s. hen=e the distress of oBr sea@en. that the> atte@pted to =olle=t the sB@s =alled for in the sa@e @anner as is proposed to De done in fBtBre D> the General GoCern@ent. Hill rapidl> lessen and eCentBall> dis=harGe the present en=B@Dran=es. oBr Cessels Here ex=lBded fro@ their )est India islands. shipHriGhts. are aspirinG despots a@onG >oBrselCes prostitBtinG the na@e of a )ashinGton to =loaI their desiGns Bpon >oBr liDerties. "> these reGBlations too. He Here li@ited in @arIets for oBr prodB=e. I HoBld asI hoH Has the proposed ConstitBtion to haCe shoHered doHn those treasBres Bpon eCer> =lass of =itiAens. Hhose hostile reGBlations GaCe sB=h a staD to oBr naCiGation as to threaten its annihilation. This horse Has introdB=ed D> their hostile ene@> the Gre=ians. pointinG oBt the re@ed>. as has Deen so indBstrioBsl> in=Bl=ated and so fondl> DelieCed D> so@e6 )oBld it haCe Deen D> the addition of nB@eroBs and expensiCe estaDlish@ents6 "> doBDlinG oBr FBdi=iaries. the @ode D> reEBisition Hill De foBnd perfe=tl> adeEBate to the extraordinar> exiGen=ies of the Bnion. )hat GaCe Dirth to the late =ontinental ConCention6 )as it not the sitBation of oBr =o@@er=e. toGether Hith the i@@ense tra=ts of land at their disposal.

fish. that the dBe reGBlation of trade and naCiGation Has the anxioBs Hish of eCer> =lass of =itiAens. the> Hill pBrsBe their oHn politi=s respe=tinG oBr i@ports and exports.. Hhen it is proDaDle the i@portant oDFe=t of oBr =o@@er=e =oBld De effe=ted D> a . . Bsed the pen/na@e %CANDIDU . De=aBse of oBr GoCern@ent. . PARTICULARL# !OR CO''ERCIAL PO)ER AND <UDICIAL PO)ER. of Hhat aCail HoBld De a prosperoBs state of =o@@er=e. After so re=ent a triB@ph oCer "ritish despots. This oDFe=t DeinG proCided for D> the ConstitBtion proposed D> the General ConCention. 'an> people are sanGBine for the ConstitBtion. after inColCinG oBrselCes in the distresses of an ardBoBs Har. and those that arise fro@ oBr GoCern@ent.UIRE A'END'ENT .har@oniAe in the senti@ent.. and De=o@e an BnHield> repBDli=. is still @ore extraordinar>. and that the northern states HoBld then De=o@e =arriers for the soBthern.. I HoBld asI Hhat @otiCe HoBld indB=e "ritain to repeal the dBties on oBr oil. people oCerlooIed and Here not sensiDle of the needless sa=rifi=e the> Here @aIinG for it. The Great EBestion then is. The poHers of EBrope do not la> an> extraordinar> dBties on oBr oil. et=. to dBpe the people D> the arts the> are pra=tisinG. or !ran=e on oBr fish. CENTINEL Antifederalist No.. AlloHinG for a @o@ent that it HoBld De possiDle for trade to floBrish Bnder a despoti= GoCern@ent. after sB=h torrents of Dlood and treasBre haCe Deen spent. for eCer> state to GiCe Bp their Hhole poHer of leGislation and taxation. and in=BrrinG sB=h a deDt. "Bt it @a> De said. and let Bs adopt Hhat @ode of GoCern@ent He please.. if He shoBld adopt the proposed ConstitBtion6 Those nations laid these dBties to pro@ote their oHn fisher>. Bnless He =an =he=I the@ D> so@e =o@@er=ial reGBlations.. Hho @a> leC> at pleasBre the @ost oppressiCe taxes. Hhen the prodB=e of it HoBld De at the aDsolBte disposal of an arDitrar> Bn=he=Ied General GoCern@ent. CON TITUTION GOE TOO !AR "enFa@in ABstin of 'assa=hBsetts. I HoBld adCise those persons to distinGBish DetHeen the eCils that arise fro@ extraneoBs =aBses and oBr priCate i@prBden=ies. De=e@Der 1 and (5.% TaIen fro@ tHo letters D> %CandidBs% Hhi=h appeared in the J"ostonK Independent Chroni=le. or toDa==o. "Bt in this enliGhtened aGe.. Hhether it is ne=essar> in order to oDtain these pBrposes. De=aBse the> apprehend oBr =o@@er=e Hill De Denefited. that sB=h =o@@er=ial reGBlations Hill taIe pla=e after He haCe adopted the ConstitBtion. for the express pBrpose of assertinG the riGhts of hB@anit>. (( ARTICLE O! CON!EDERATION I'PL# RE. Hho @a> destro> eCer> prin=iple of freedo@. neither do the> dis=oBraGe oBr ship DBildinG on this a==oBnt. It does not appear that the e@Darrass@ents of oBr trade Hill De re@oCed D> the adoption of this ConstitBtion. Has the Great oDFe=t of =allinG the ConCention. . it is trBl> astonishinG that a set of @en a@onG oBrselCes shoBld haCe had the effronter> to atte@pt the destrB=tion of oBr liDerties. Hho @a> eCen destro> the priCileGe of =o@plaininG. 1232.

to operate Bnifor@l> throBGhoBt the states. . Also the naCiGation a=t of this state J'assa=hBsettsK. Has adopted Bpon si@ilar prin=iples. and . proCided it had Deen adopted D> the Hhole =onfedera=>. The adCo=ates for the ConstitBtion. HithoBt enerG> to enfor=e a =o@plian=e. and Bnited Hith so@e parts of the ConstitBtion proposed D> the respe=taDle =onCention. on the appli=ation of ConGress. DBt as =opied fro@ for@er resolBtions of ConGress. to De exer=ised Hhen tHo thirds of the@ in their leGislatiCe =apa=ities shall sa> the =o@@on Good reEBires it. Has BrGent on this sBDFe=t. to De the @ost effe=tBal plan to pro@ote oBr naCiGation. sBppressinG an> insBrre=tion. $an=o=I and Ada@s. not as oriGinatinG fro@ an indiCidBal.. Has de=lared D> oBr 'inister in EnGland. Hhere it is liIel> to De Bsed Hith the Bt@ost =aBtion. This DeinG the =ase. the troops to De Bnder the =o@@and of ConGress. to fra@e a treat> of A'IT# for the pBrposes of dis=harGinG ea=h stateLs proportion of the pBDli= deDt. "Bt to trBst this poHer in the hands of a feH @en deleGated for tHo. instrB=t their deleGates in ConGress. toGether Hith their Cessels. to =arr> into effe=t an> federal @easBre. the folloHinG oBtlines are therefore sBD@itted. either foreiGn or do@esti=. to fBrnish 9HheneCer reEBired D> ConGress: a proportionate nB@Der of the 'ilitia Hho are eCer to De Hell orGaniAed and dis=iplined. He shoBld haCe DBt little o==asion to exer=ise for=e. The reCenBe arisinG fro@ the i@post to De sBDFe=t to their appropriations. I presB@e it Hill not De inCalidated D> the =ant ter@ of antifederalis@. %to enaDle the@ to fBlfill their pBDli= enGaGe@ents Hith foreiGn =reditors. is EBite ideal. re=eiCinG to ConGress all ne=essar> poHers to reGBlate oBr =o@@er=e Hith foreiGn nations. DBt I DelieCe He haCe @ore to expe=t fro@ the affe=tions of the people. Certain =hara=ters noH on the staGe. !ranIlin.. He haCe reason to Cenerate. this reGBlation of =o@@er=e. . That the LeGislatBre of ea=h state. B=h assistan=e to De fBrnished D> the Bpre@e Exe=BtiCe of ea=h state. ProCided a Bnifor@ =o@@er=ial s>ste@ Has adopted. is =o@pli@entinG the a@Dition of hB@an natBre too hiGhl>. as poHer is thoBGht ne=essar> to raise an ar@>. I a@ HillinG to pla=e it. and ea=h tate felt its aGreeaDle operations. to risI the tranEBilit> of these tates on their aDsolBte deter@ination. and a@onG the seCeral states. "Bt it @a> De said. +d. The troops in =ases of inCasion to De Bnder the =o@@and of the Bpre@e Exe=BtiCe of the state i@@ediatel> in danGer. that their opposers haCe neCer offered an> plan as a sBDstitBte. and to enfor=e 9if ne=essar>: their i@@ediate pa>@ent. .Bnifor@ naCiGation a=t. e@poHer ConGress to fra@e a naCiGation a=t. to a =o@plian=e Hith the federal treat> of =o@@er=e and a@it>. and Hhen e@plo>ed aGainst an> delinEBent state in the =onfedera=>. DBt in =ases of insBrre=tion. for the pBrposes of repellinG an> inCasion. That the LeGislatBre of ea=h state. >et posterit> @a> haCe reason to rBe the da> Hhen their politi=al Helfare depends on the de=ision of @en Hho @a> fill the pla=es of these Horthies. Ea=h state oDliGatinG the@selCes in the treat> of a@it>. "Bt hoHeCer. shoBld De sBDFe=t to heaC> extra dBties.% (nd. GiCinG ConGress fBll poHer to reGBlate the Hhole =o@@er=e of the tates6 This poHer ConGress haCe often said Has sBffi=ient to ansHer all their pBrposes. and Hith the Indian triDes. shoBld De =onsidered as aliens. That sB=h states as did not Foin the =onfedera=> of =o@@er=e and a@it>. and an> Goods DroBGht fro@ sB=h state into an> of the =onfederated states. or redB=inG an> delinEBent state Hithin the =onfedera=>. haCe alHa>s assB@ed an adCantaGe D> sa>inG. DBt thoBGh this =oBntr> is noH Dlessed Hith a )ashinGton. The =ir=Blar letter fro@ the "oston @er=hants and others. if reEBired. Coer=ion Hith so@e persons see@s the prin=ipal oDFe=t.. This poHer I a@ HillinG to pla=e a@onG the =onfederated tates. lst. than fro@ an ar@ed Dod> of @en. foBr and six >ears.

and estaDlish oBr naCiGation Bpon a @ost extensiCe Dasis. no extraordinar> expenses HoBld arise. independent of this Great DBsiness. trade and @anBfa=tBres HoBld reCiCe and floBrish. and other pBDli= 'inisters and ConsBls. 2th. HoBld disaffe=t one tate aGainst the other. se=Bres the seCeral states aGainst inCasions and insBrre=tion D> a 'ILITIA. In a Hord. to define and pBnish pira=ies. than an> other. preserCes a dBe deGree of enerG>. the Coi=e of that Dod>. in sBppressinG a late reDellion.% Hhi=h @easBres is de=lared D> the@. The treat> of a@it>. and is Detter =al=Blated to re=eiCe the approDation of the seCeral tates. . and DetHeen =itiAens of the sa@e state =lai@inG lands Bnder Grants of different states.%. in one !ederal >ste@ of =o@@er=e. and ratif>inG the sa@e. HoBld =lai@ their i@@ediate attention. =ertain dBties Bpon Goods. D> the DlessinG of $eaCen. . =ontroCersies DetHeen tHo or @ore states. enGaGe in Har. of all pBDli= @onies.-th. and proCides for the pBDli= infor@ation of re=eipts and expenditBres. pass an> Dill of attainder or ex post fa=to laH. . oBr ship DBildinG and =arr>inG trade. it pla=es Bs in a =o@plete federal state. rather than a TANDING AR'#. i@ported fro@ an> foreiGn port. Hhi=h no aDsolBte @onar=h> =an Doast. 13th April. shoBld expressl> de=lare that no tate 9HithoBt the =onsent of ConGress: shoBld enter into an> treat>. These states. And notHithstandinG the insinBations of a %s@all part>. that the Hisdo@ of ConGress =oBld deCise. A reGBlar state@ent and a==oBnt of the re=eipts and expenditBres. Hho@ the> haCe endeaCored to stiG@atiAe. DBt the Hhole. or Hhi=h shall De @ade Bnder the aBthorit> of the =onfedera=>. HoBld serCe to re@oCe all lo=al atta=h@ents. =e@ents the states D> =ertain federal restri=tions. Grant letters of @arEBe and reprisal. en=oBraGe the reDellion/>et the present General CoBrt. or de=lare pea=e. %re=o@@ends to the seCeral tates. . and treat> of a@it>. la>s restraints on aliens. pro@otes the =o@@er=e of the Hhole Bnion. island or plantation. The resolCes of ConGress. the dBties of i@post and ex=ise. =he=Is all ex post fa=to laHs. 0th. . This GoCern@ent. e@it paper @one>. or =onfedera=>. that the said naCiGation a=t. 1th. and ConGress haCinG DBt one oDFe=t to attend. shoBld De pBDlished fro@ ti@e to ti@e. all =ases affe=tinG A@Dassadors. HoBld operate eEBall> throBGhoBt the states. fro@ Hell foBnded ex=eption. are noH in a Cer> tranEBil state.% Hho are eCer DrandinG the PEOPLE Hith the @ost opproDrioBs epithets/representinG the@ as ai@inG to leCel all distin=tions. HoBld enaDle the@ to fBlfill their pBDli= enGaGe@ents Hith their foreiGn =reditors. haCe . and felonies =o@@itted on the hiGh seas. %to De a s>ste@ @ore free. HoBld De alar@ed at oBr Union. The aDoCe plan it is hB@Dl> =on=eiCed/se=Bres the internal GoCern@ent of the seCeral states. and offenses aGainst the laH of nations. and HoBld fear lest He shoBld retaliate on the@ D> la>inG restri=tions on their trade.. =onfines the FBdi=iar> poHers to national @atters. No a=ts of leGislation. 123+. . A Bpre@e <Bdi=ial CoBrt to De =onstitBted for the folloHinG federal pBrposes/to extend to all treaties @ade preCioBs to. has prodB=ed an instan=e of ENERG#. @aIe an>thinG DBt Gold and silCer =oin a tender in pa>@ent of deDts. for their assentinG to. eCer> =o@@er=ial reGBlation HoBld De Bnifor@l> adopted. to inCest the@ Hith poHers to leC> for the Bse of the United tates. The poHers of EBrope.. That it De re=o@@ended to ConGress.. hoBld He adopt this plan. and in =onseEBen=e thereof. or i@pair the oDliGations of =ontra=ts. aGreed to D> the seCeral states. allian=es. and if adopted. in parti=Blar. oBr aGri=BltBre. De sent to the LeGislatBres 9or people: of the seCeral states.

Either the neH =onstitBtion Hill De=o@e a @ere nBdB@ pa=tB@. Hhere the poHers are diCided DetHeen the General and the state GoCern@ent. And the pBDli= =redit has Deen =onstantl> appre=iatinG sin=e the present Ad@inistration. it @Bst De ad@itted. CAN AND $OULD "E LI'ITED In !ederalist No. and so apportioned to ea=h. 1233.. (+. In a =onfederated GoCern@ent. I InoH. =annot De @ade HithoBt endanGerinG the pBDli= safet>/%Bnless 9sa>s a Hriter: JAlexander $a@iltonK it =an De shoHn that the =ir=B@stan=es Hhi=h @a> affe=t the pBDli= safet> are redB=iDle Hithin =ertain deter@inate li@its. Bnless the =ontrar> of this position =an De fairl> and rationall> dispBted. and the> Hill retain the @ere for@ HithoBt an> of the poHers of GoCern@ent. it therefore folloHs. %"RUTU % replied. TaIen fro@ the 2th and 3th essa>s of %"rBtBs% in The NeH/#orI <oBrnal. D> the people. that the prote=tion and defense of the =o@@Bnit> is not intended to De entrBsted solel> into the hands of the General GoCern@ent.. To one or the other of these issBes. a =onfederate and not an entire =onsolidated GoCern@ent. and D> his oHn =onfession it oBGht not to De. . if it is adopted. <anBar> + and 15. DBt eCer> soBr=e of reCenBe is Bnder the =ontrol of ConGress. Or the aBthorit> of the indiCidBal states Hill De totall> sBpplanted. the PEOPLE of the seCeral states are =onCin=ed of the ne=essit> of adoptinG so@e !ederal Co@@er=ial Plan. aGainst pira=ies and felonies on the hiGh seas. And aDoCe all. No. that sB=h a separation of the soBr=es of reCenBe. as a ne=essar> =onseEBen=e. to dis=harGe their taxes. and aGainst . (+ CERTAIN PO)ER NECE AR# !OR T$E CO''ON DE!EN E.steadil> pBrsBed @easBres foreiGn fro@ the sBGGestions of sB=h reCilers. It is trBe this s>ste@ =o@@its to the General GoCern@ent the prote=tion and defense of the =o@@Bnit> aGainst foreiGn for=e and inCasion. and all the aBthorit> of the rBlers Bnder it De =ried doHn.: The pretended de@onstration of this Hriter Hill instantl> Canish. this neH GoCern@ent. One of tHo thinGs @Bst happen. ECer> exertion is noH @aIinG. Hill adCan=e Hith Great =elerit>.. Let Bs then De =aBtioBs hoH He distBrD this General har@on>. et=. shoBld De diCided DetHeen the@. as has happened to the present =onfedera=>. as to ansHer their respe=tiCe exiGen=ies. as far as hB@an Hisdo@ =an effe=t sB=h a diCision and apportion@ent. it =ontains in it the sBre seeds of its oHn dissolBtion.%91: 91 !ederalist. It is said. OBr =o@@er=e is eCer> da> in=reasinG D> the enterprise of oBr @er=hants. Alexander $a@ilton spoIe of the ne=essit> for an enerGeti= GoCern@ent. CANDIDU Antifederalist No.. it is essential ... that there =an De no li@itation of that aBthorit> Hhi=h is to proCide for the defense and prote=tion of the =o@@Bnit>. that if this s>ste@ is intended to De a =o@plex and not a si@ple. I thinI. HithoBt Hhi=h no GoCern@ent =an exist. Hhen it is =onsidered. No sB=h allot@ent is @ade in this =onstitBtion. that the reCenBes of the =oBntr>. (+. IndBstr> and frBGalit> preCail. .

to reCenGe priCate EBarrels. DBt to shoH that this is not the @ost i@portant. Prote=tion and defense aGainst the @Brderer. that a poHer to reEBire @one>. this is the proCin=e of the state GoCern@ents. The> @istaIe the end of GoCern@ent. The state GoCern@ents are entrBsted Hith the =are of ad@inisterinG FBsti=e a@onG its =itiAens. and in the hiGhest deGree aDsBrd. and dren=hed the earth Hith hB@an Dlood. and felt soon after its adoption. and the @anaGe@ent of other internal =on=erns. A defensiCe Har is the onl> one I thinI FBstifiaDle. "> the for@er he desolated =oBntries. the roDDer. as that in Hhi=h their =hief Glor> =onsists. e=ono@>. the attain@ent of CirtBe. or to pBnish an insBlt offered to a Hife. If a proper respe=t and sBD@ission to the laHs preCailed oCer all orders of @en in oBr =oBntr>. The> are also aBthoriAed to proCide for the ad@inistration of FBsti=e in =ertain @atters of a General =on=ern. is to De deriCed fro@ the respe=tiCe state GoCern@ents. The> therefore oBGht to haCe aBthorit> sBffi=ient to effe=t this. and it is eCident. I HoBld not Hish fro@ the@. the thief. and indBstr> inflBen=ed the people. diffBsinG a@onG the@ InoHledGe. and pointed the@ to the @eans of hB@an happiness. Hho in their =iCil institBtions hold =hiefl> in CieH. a @istress. and the HronGs done or atte@pted D> indiCidBals to ea=h other. so far as is =onsistent Hith the proCidinG for oBr internal prote=tion and defense. and if a spirit of pBDli= and priCate FBsti=e. and e=ono@>. I do not @aIe these oDserCations to proCe. and the dBe ad@inistration of laH and FBsti=e. Hho haCe Deen sBDdBed D> foreiGn inCaders. And I DelieCe histor> Hill fBrnish DBt feH exa@ples of nations Hho haCe dBl> attended to these. and happiness a@onG oBrselCes. as it relates to the GoCern@ent of the United tates. a=EBired Great Glor> D> his ar@s. Hhen the state GoCern@ents are Cested Hith poHers so essential to the pea=e and Good order of so=iet>. )e oBGht to fBrnish the Horld Hith an exa@ple of a Great people. or a faCorite. It Has desiGned to saCe @enLs liCes. The EBropean GoCern@ents are al@ost all of the@ fra@ed. The in=onCenien=ies Hhi=h resBlted fro@ the feeDleness of the present =onfederation Has dis=erned. and the BnFBst person. "Bt it oBGht to De left to the state GoCern@ents to proCide for the prote=tion and defense of the =itiAen aGainst the hand of priCate Ciolen=e. to taIe fro@ the@ the @eans of their oHn preserCation6 The idea that the poHers of =onGress in respe=t to reCenBe oBGht to De Bnli@ited. et=. that a GoCern@ent oBGht not to De aBthorised to proCide for the prote=tion and defense of a =oBntr> aGainst external ene@ies. D> =iCiliAinG his rBde and DarDaroBs sBDFe=ts. @B=h less the onl> oDFe=t of their =are. is the proper dire=tion of its internal poli=e. De=aBse Lthe =ir=B@stan=es Hhi=h @a> affe=t the pBDli= safet> are not redB=iDle to =ertain deter@inate li@itsL is noCel. The @ost i@portant end of GoCern@ent then. and DBt=herinG thoBsands of their inno=ent =itiAens. that these oBGht to De Bnder their =ontrol. and Har. Is it not then preposteroBs. DBt all this Has nothinG. He need not De Bnder an> apprehensions DBt Hhat the> HoBld De read> to repel an> inCasion that @iGht De @ade on the =oBntr>. =o@pared Hith the trBe Glor> Hhi=h he oDtained. and estaDlishinG and =BltiCatinG the arts of life. and in so@e that I thinI are not so. And @ore than this. The preserCation of internal pea=e and Good order. D> the latter he softened the fero=ioBs natBre of his people. and I pra> heaCen this =oBntr> @a> neCer De a@DitioBs of it. It Has soon dis=oCered. The happiness of a people depends infinitel> @ore on this than it does Bpon all that Glor> and respe=t Hhi=h nations a=EBire D> the @ost Drilliant @artial a=hieCe@ents. the General GoCern@ent is to proCide for the prote=tion and defense of the =o@@Bnit> aGainst foreiGn atta=Is. and ad@inistered Hith a CieH to ar@s.insBrre=tion a@onG oBrselCes. I enC> the@ not the honor. the> oBGht therefore to retain poHer adeEBate to that end. and is indeed ad@itted. Let the @onar=hs in EBrope share a@onG the@ the Glor> of depopBlatinG =oBntries. HithoBt either the . The FBst Ha> of reasoninG therefore on this sBDFe=t is this. the =heat. The =Aar Peter the Great. oBGht to De the first =are of eCer> GoCern@ent. not to destro> the@.

. It has Deen =onstantl> BrGed D> ConGress. and sin=e this period a =onsideraDle portion of the prin=ipal of the do@esti= deDt has Deen dis=harGed D> the sale of the Hestern lands.. The deDts of the seCeral states. dis=harGe the national deDt. .aBthorit> or @eans to enfor=e a =olle=tion of it. This re=o@@endation Has passed at the =on=lBsion of the Har. shoBld De of sB=h a natBre. and Has foBnded on an esti@ate of the Hhole national deDt. =oBld not De relied Bpon either to proCide for the =o@@on defense. the> Hill leaCe a portion for the state. eCer sin=e. that one @illion and an half of dollars. NoH indeed it is insisted. DBt this @Bst De a @atter of @ere Gra=e and faCor. at a ti@e Hhen He Here pressed on eCer> side D> a poHerfBl ene@>.. that the i@post Hill not prodB=e a sBffi=ient sB@ to satisf> the de@ands of the General GoCern@ent. or Hhi=h shoBld hereafter De =ontra=ted for the sBpport of the Har.. in addition to the i@post. this s>ste@ does not sBGGest an idea that it Has ne=essar> to Grant the United tates Bnli@ited aBthorit> in @atters of reCenBe. @an> s=he@es Here proposed. it HoBld haCe Deen adeEBate to eCer> exiGen=> of the Bnion. and after a lonG =onsideration of the sBDFe=t. ConGress therefore. It is said. re=o@@ended to the states to inCest the@ Hith a poHer to leC> an i@post of :fiCe per =ent ad Calore@. and HoBld De =olle=ted Hith ease and =ertaint>. and eas> of =olle=tion. The resBlt Has. so@e of Hhi=h are Bpon the FoBrnals of ConGress. I @a> De asIed to point oBt the soBr=es. that the oDFe=ts fro@ Hhi=h the General GoCern@ent shoBld haCe aBthorit> to raise a reCenBe. and proCide for their defense. to ansHer the de@ands of the Bnion. on all i@ported Goods. This sa@e sBDFe=t Has reCiCed in the Hinter and sprinG of 123+. On the =ontrar>. toGether Hith oBr =onsB@ption of foreiGn Goods. . all of the@ li@it the@ to =ertain definite oDFe=ts. that had this reCenBe Deen appropriated D> the states. It Hill De a fBnd too. . and Hith the least interferen=e . and the i@post of fiCe per =ent Has fixed Bpon for the pBrpose. This HoBld. for oBr =o@@er=e Hill GroH Hith the prodB=tions of the =oBntr>. that an Bnli@ited poHer to =olle=t taxes. Hhi=h it is aGreed. The idea then Has. to De =ontinBed Bntil the deDts shoBld De fBll> and finall> dis=harGed. This is an i@post Bpon all Goods i@ported fro@ foreiGn =oBntries. and D> indiCidBals. as earl> as !eDrBar> 1231. Hith =ertaint> and expedition. a re=o@@endation of the reCenBe s>ste@ of April 123+. dBties and ex=ises Has ne=essar> to De Cested in the United tates. and the sBpport of the GoCern@ents of the@ are to trBst to fortBne and a==ident. Do=trines liIe these HoBld not haCe Deen listened to D> an> state in the Bnion. perhaps it HoBld not. that if =ertain definite fBnds Here assiGned to the Bnion. Has a sBffi=ient sB@ to pa> the annBal interest of the deDt. as a fBnd to De appropriated to dis=harGe the deDts alread> =ontra=ted. Hhi=h Here =ertain in their natBres. of itself. It Has =o@pBted. Hho@ He are to appoint to proCide for oBr prote=tion and defense aGainst foreiGn ene@ies. De Cer> prodB=tiCe. If the Bnion shoBld not haCe o==asion for all the @one> the> =an raise. Hilt in=rease Hith oBr popBlation. Hith feH offi=ers. as it Has re=o@@ended. There is not the @ost distant idea held oBt in this a=t. it HoBld enaDle the@ to ansHer their enGaGe@ents.. or for sBpport of GoCern@ent. that the tax shoBld De raised D> si@ple laHs. and GradBall> to aDolish the prin=ipal. as the do@esti= deDt appears Bpon its DeinG adFBsted to De less than it Has =o@pBted. ECents haCe proCed that their esti@ate Has sBffi=ientl> liDeral. And these. and fix the DoBnds oCer Hhi=h the> =oBld not pass. =onstantl> in=reasinG. fro@ Hhi=h the General GoCern@ent =oBld deriCe a sBffi=ient reCenBe. and Here =alled Bpon to @aIe Greater exertions than He haCe an> reason to expe=t He shall eCer De aGain. prodB=tiCe. DBt it does not appear that an> of the@ proposed to inCest the General GoCern@ent Hith dis=retionar> poHer to raise @one>. and >et this Has a ti@e of the @ost pressinG danGer and distress. the General GoCern@ent oBGht to haCe the sole =ontrol of. that all the treasBres of the =oBntr> are to De Bnder the =ontrol of that Dod>. '> oHn opinion is. There is one soBr=e of reCenBe. Bntil latel>. . A Cariet> of a@end@ents Here proposed to this s>ste@.

I =an s=ar=el> =onte@plate a Greater =ala@it> that =oBld Defall this =oBntr>. the interest of Hhi=h Hill De eEBal to the annBal reCenBes of the =oBntr>. and the> =annot De pro=Bred D> ColBntar> enlist@ents.. to =arr> this into exe=Btion. the> @a> =reate a national deDt. either the ConGress in the exer=ise of this poHer. HoBld De as nearl> eEBal as an> that He =an expe=t to la>. The present =onfederation reEBires the assent of nine states to exer=ise this. HithoBt an> li@itation or restri=tion. and it is proper Hhen sB=h a ne=essit> arises that the poHer shoBld De exer=ised D> the General GoCern@ent. and in no other =aBse oBGht it to De. If this De a FBst re@arI. Therefore. that it Hill De proper and ne=essar> to effe=t it. The poHer to DorroH @one> is General and Bnli@ited.. The =onstitBtion shoBld therefore haCe so restri=ted the exer=ise of this poHer as to haCe rendered it Cer> diffi=Blt for the GoCern@ent to pra=ti=e it. or if the> De not. =ontend for this @ode. =annot De fBll> Bnderstood. HoBld also De of this natBre. "Bt I =annot per=eiCe the reason of the restri=tion. are those Hhi=h aBthoriAe the@ to %DorroH @one> on the =redit of the United tates. it @a> De liaDle to Hell foBnded oDFe=tions that haCe not o==Brred to @e. and the danGer that Hill arise fro@ the exer=ise of these poHers. and aBthorises the raisinG JofK for=es. "Bt it =ertainl> oBGht neCer to De exer=ised. and the states on this head. i@posts and ex=ises. . )hen the ne=essit> Has indispensaDle. and to raise and sBpport ar@ies. Of this natBre is the i@post on i@ported Goods. The next poHers Cested D> this ConstitBtion in the General GoCern@ent. and the =laBse so often Defore referred to. that @en De i@pressed fro@ the @ilitia to @aIe Bp the defi=ien=>. I do not hoHeCer. "> this @eans. in this Ha>. It @a> possiDl> happen that the safet> and Helfare of the =oBntr> @a> reEBire. it see@s eCident. than to De loaded Hith a deDt ex=eedinG their aDilit> eCer to dis=harGe. as Hell in pea=e as in Har. DBt on the @ost BrGent o==asions. to haCe @ade it ne=essar> that tHo thirds of the @e@Ders shoBld assent to DorroHinG @one>. If the General leGislatBre dee@ it for the General Helfare to raise a Dod> of troops. so larGe.. And it appears to @e that a dBt> on exports. that a tax on arti=les exported. a prin=ipal sB@. Hill render it nBGator>. and it is proDaDle. it is BnHise and i@proCident to Cest in the General GoCern@ent a poHer to DorroH at dis=retion. It HoBld =ertainl> haCe Deen a Hise proCision in this =onstitBtion. that so@e @ode is pra=ti=aDle. or the states D> resistinG the =onstitBtional aBthorit> of the General GoCern@ent. I InoH neither the ConGress nor the state leGislatBres Hill haCe aBthorit> Bnder the neH =onstitBtion to raise a reCenBe in this Ha>. this HoBld De the Dest soBr=e of reCenBe to Grant the General GoCern@ent. Bnless the> are CieHed in relation to ea=h other. the> @a> DorroH of foreiGn nations. for oBGht I =an dis=oCer. "Bt this I do =ontend for. and it =ertainl> HoBld De =olle=ted Hith @ore ease and less expense than an> dire=t tax. Hhi=h He shall =onsider.% I taIe these tHo toGether and =onne=t the@ Hith the poHer to la> and =olle=t taxes. and that li@its @Bst De @arIed DetHeen the General GoCern@ent. as a fBnd to loan @one> Bpon. that @one> De DorroHed. Hill not aBthorise the@ to i@press @en for the ar@>. and a nB@Der of other i@portant poHers of the =onfedera=>. It appears to @e eCident. )hether the =laBse Hhi=h e@poHers the ConGress to pass all laHs Hhi=h are proper and ne=essar>. ConGress @a> @ortGaGe an> or all the reCenBes of the Bnion. as to ex=eed the aDilit> of the =oBntr> eCer to sinI. Under this aBthorit>.Hith the internal poli=e of the states. aBthoriAes the passinG JofK an> laHs proper and ne=essar> to =arr> this into exe=Btion. this assent HoBld alHa>s De GiCen. dBties. The poHer to raise ar@ies is indefinite and Bnli@ited. and then He shoBld not DorroH of foreiGners if He =oBld possiDl> aCoid it. De=aBse their extent. is a EBestion Hell Horth> JofK =onsideration. Hill depriCe the state leGislatBres of the @eans of their existen=e.

it is Bnne=essar>. . Hho alHa>s pla=ed i@pli=it faith in Hhat he deliCered. Pa@phlets pp. GiCen an indentBre of @>self to serCe hi@ dBrinG life. as Hell as the poHer of the A@eri=ans are dire=tl> opposed to standinG ar@ies. a position Hhi=h has so lonG and so Generall> Deen re=eiCed D> the@ as a Iind of axio@. "Bt. A =loBd of the @ost illBstrioBs patriots of eCer> aGe and =oBntr>. tandinG ar@ies are danGeroBs to the liDerties of a people. and had Deside. thoBGh the> Hill not expressl> den>. .O"<ECTION TO A TANDING AR'# 9PART I: "RUTU The first essa> is taIen fro@ the ninth letter of %"RUTU % Hhi=h appeared in The NeH/#orI <oBrnal. Hh> is it Bnne=essar>6 "e=aBse.L O1 A =itiAen of A@eri=a JNoah )eDsterK. )ith AnsHers to the Prin=ipal ODFe=tions Raised AGainst the >ste@ 9Philadelphia. as the> do al@ost eCer> other that has Deen @aintained D> the Dest Hriters on free GoCern@ent. "Bt.These poHers taIen in =onne=tion. that standinG ar@ies in ti@es of pea=e are danGeroBs. . that he Has so@e pedanti= pedaGoGBe Hho had Deen a==Bsto@ed to deliCer his doG@as to pBpils. to proCe to the people of A@eri=a. in faCor of this s>ste@. It see@s to @e as aDsBrd. . . and Has tenant to hi@. . JIfK ne=essar>. 1233. o@e of the adCo=ates for this neH s>ste@ =ontroCert this senti@ent. a@oBnt to this: that the General GoCern@ent haCe Bnli@ited aBthorit> and =ontrol oCer all the Health and all the for=e of the Bnion. in Hhi=h this aBthor deliCers his opinions.P !ro@ the positiCe. Hhat Iind of freedo@ or independen=> is left to the state GoCern@ents. or aGainst @aIinG the Al=oran a rBle of faith. >et Foin Hith these in @aintaininG. Hhere freedo@ has Deen enFo>ed. A Hriter. as it HoBld De to sa>. if the> HoBld shoH. .:. DBt at the Hill of the ConGress. I shall noH pro=eed to exa@ine the arGB@ents the> addB=e in sBpport of their opinions. 1232:. "Bt I presB@e it HoBld De Bseless. <anBar> 12. that it is proper the General GoCern@ent shoBld De Cested Hith the poHer to do it. The adCo=ates for this s=he@e. and ansHers oDFe=tions @ade to his senti@ents/one HoBld =on=lBde. Hh> is this proCision so ridi=BloBs6 "e=aBse. that I Has free and independent. An Exa@ination Into the LeadinG Prin=iples of the !ederal ConstitBtion proposed D> the late ConCention held at Philadelphia. @iGht De addB=ed as Hitnesses in sBpport of the senti@ent. reprinted in !ord 9ed. treats this oDFe=tion as a ridi=BloBs one. Hhen I had =onCe>ed all @> propert> to another. %the prin=iples and haDits. (4/10. to enter into a laDored arGB@ent. sa>s this aBthor. . and doG@ati= @anner. $e sBpposes it HoBld De as proper to proCide aGainst the introdB=tion of TBrIish <aniAaries. Hhen the> =annot =o@@and an> part of the propert> or of the for=e of the =oBntr>. the trBth of the position @iGht De =onfir@ed D> the histor> of al@ost eCer> nation in the Horld. . and there is as little ne=essit> to GBard aGainst the@ . (. Others. Antifederalist No. . HoBld faCor the Horld Hith a neH dis=oCer>.

"Bt sB=h an idea is GroBndless and aDsBrd. Bnder the neH =onstitBtion. and endanGer the pBDli= safet>. It is a lanGBaGe =o@@on a@onG the@. $e sets oBt Hith =allinG in EBestion the =andor and inteGrit> of those Hho adCan=e the oDFe=tion. it Hill De D> the people the@selCes. is HithoBt foBndation. The idea that there is no danGer of the estaDlish@ent of a standinG ar@>. The> =ertainl> are not identi=all> the sa@e. that a standinG ar@> in ti@e of pea=e is an eCil. if done. if it is adopted. is as dire=tl> opposed to the prin=iples and haDits of the people of A@eri=a. Hho is the Doast of the adCo=ates of this neH =onstitBtion. and Hith insinBatinG. that a nB@Der of those Hho had an aGen=> in prodB=inG this s>ste@. Hhat. If to this He add. And there Hill not De HantinG a Cariet> of plaBsiDle reasons to FBstif> the raisinG one. and it =annot De dispBted. Hho are too indolent to folloH o==Bpations that Hill reEBire =are and indBstr>. De=aBse if ar@ies are Iept Bp. I asI then. there is little reason to expe=t. He =an haCe little reason to doBDt DBt that He shall haCe a larGe standinG ar@> as soon as this GoCern@ent =an find @one> to pa> the@. are aCoHedl> in faCor of standinG ar@ies. "Bt this aBthor sBpposes. . An opinion liIe this. Hh> shoBld this GoCern@ent De aBthorised to do eCil6 If the prin=iples and haDits of the people of this =oBntr> are opposed to standinG ar@ies in ti@e of pea=e. DBt it @a> and often does happen. Bnless the GoCern@ent haCe an ar@> to aHe the@ into oDedien=e. that it is their intention to @islead the people. or fro@ the EBropean proCin=es in oBr neiGhDorhood. to haCe a @ilitar> estaDlish@ent. rather than to =onCin=e the@ D> arGB@ents addressed to their BnderstandinGs. A Hriter. if the> do not =ontriDBte to the pBDli= Good. and @an> of those Hho it is proDaDle Hill haCe a prin=ipal share in the ad@inistration of the GoCern@ent Bnder it. HoBld oppose the prin=iples and haDits of the people. has taIen Great pains to shoH. as it is to the senti@ents of eCer> Hriter of repBtation on the s=ien=e of GoCern@ent. as to prohiDit the estaDlish@ent of the 'aho@etan reliGion. that the> do not possess the sa@e senti@ents or pBrsBe the sa@e interests. and therefore. D> alar@inG their passions. it is ne=essar> to sBpport the diGnit> of GoCern@ent. DBt there is eCer> reason in the Horld. DBt HoBld endanGer the pBDli= liDert> and happiness. eCen Hhen the latter are representatiCes of the for@er. if the haDits and senti@ents of the people of A@eri=a are to De relied Bpon. all restri=tions in =onstitBtions are Bnne=essar>. that an ar@> Hill afford a de=ent sBpport. Hh> rBlers shoBld De aBthorised to do. There is sBrel> a distin=tion DetHeen the people and their rBlers. as the sole se=Brit> aGainst the en=roa=h@ent of their rBlers. that no danGer is to De apprehended fro@ the exer=ise of this poHer. as it see@s to De of @an> of the adCo=ates of this neH s>ste@. that this poHer Has proper and ne=essar> to De Cested in the General GoCern@ent. that no troops shoBld De EBartered in his fa@il> D> his =onsent. than to de=lare Hho shall De aBthoriAed to exer=ise the poHers of GoCern@ent. that the interest of the people and their rBlers Hill De the sa@e. It is a Hell InoHn fa=t. and aGreeaDle e@plo>@ent to the >oBnG @en of @an> fa@ilies.D> positiCe =onstitBtions. and perhaps sooner. and aDoBt this He need not De Cer> =arefBl/for the haDits and prin=iples of the people Hill oppose eCer> aDBse of poHer. Hh> shoBld the GoCern@ent De Cested Hith the poHer6 No reason =an De GiCen.% This reasoninG sBpposes. "esides. %That no people =an De Iept in order. and repBGnant to the prin=iples of reason and =o@@on sense. that the General GoCern@ent is to De exer=ised D> the people of A@eri=a the@selCes. This I sBppose to De the senti@ents of this aBthor. I thinI I haCe shoHn Jin a preCioBs paperK that as this GoCern@ent is =onstrB=ted. to proCide aGainst it HoBld De as aDsBrd as for a @an to %pass a laH in his fa@il>. draHn fro@ the danGer He are in fro@ the Indians on oBr frontiers. nothinG @ore is reEBisite. and too poor to liCe HithoBt doinG an> DBsiness. that the> shoBld De prohiDited fro@ the exer=ise of sB=h a poHer.% It is ad@itted then.

in the first instan=e. Hhen the trBth is. Co@pare the poHer proposed to De lodGed in the leGislatBre on this head. ex=ept tHo. and one of the @ost respe=taDle states in the Bnion. $oH far this Hriter has @anifested a spirit of =andor. sin=e the pea=e. on this head. It is a=InoHledGed D> this Hriter. than of FBstif>inG it. throBGh Hhose aBthorit> it @Bst De =arried into effe=t.% NoH. This Hill. is si@ilar to that Hhi=h ConGress possess Bnder the present =onfederation. =ontrar> to the opinion and Hishes of the people. the present ConGress hold their pla=es at the Hilt and pleasBre of the leGislatBres of the states Hho send the@. and that of the proposed GoCern@ent. @Bst assent to the raisinG of troops. As little inGenBit> is @anifested in this representation as in that of the for@er. the> InoH the state leGislatBres. that the> expressl> instrB=ted their deleGates to enter a sole@n protest aGainst it on the FoBrnals of ConGress. Under the proposed =onstitBtion. I shall not BndertaIe to inEBire Hhether or not ConGress are Cested Hith a poHer to Ieep Bp a standinG ar@> in ti@e of pea=e. "esides. >oBr leGislatBre haCe no aBthorit> to raise and Ieep Bp an> for=es6 $e next tells Bs. @ore than on=e. that this oDFe=tion is fBtile and disinGenBoBs. in the leGislatBre of eCer> state in the Bnion. HithoBt interCention of an> other Dod> DetHeen the@ and the people. shall De dee@ed reEBisite to Garrison the forts ne=essar> for the defen=e of sB=h state. the leGislatBres of the respe=tiCe states HoBld not raise the@. Bnder the present GoCern@ent. and eCer> person of the least dis=ern@ent. is Cested. or the> =annot De leCied. that the General GoCern@ent had no other poHer than >oBr oHn leGislatBre haCe on this head. it has Deen a sBDFe=t Har@l> deDated in ConGress. @a> raise an> nB@Der of troops the> please. the i@partial pBDli= Hill FBdGe. there is sB=h a striIinG dissi@ilarit> DetHeen the restri=tions Bnder Hhi=h the present ConGress =an exer=ise it. oBt of thirteen. that the poHer GiCen D> this =onstitBtion. ex=ept sB=h nB@Der onl>. JifK it Has eCidentl> opposed to the pBDli= Good. If the> deter@ine to raise troops. $e first atte@pts to shoH. and are =hosen for one >ear onl>. aGainst orderinG troops to De raised. HoBld not =o@pl> Hith the reEBisition for the pBrpose. Hhose BnderstandinG is not totall> Dlinded D> preFBdi=e. as in the FBdG@ent of the United tates in ConGress asse@Dled. fro@ this =onsideration. the representatiCes of nine states. . and no troops =an De raised. in ti@e of pea=e. and the representatiCes of three states and an half in the senate. Hith the assent of the president. Under the present =onfederation. that the poHers of ConGress. shoBld the> atte@pt to exer=ise it. that no Dod> of for=es % hall De Iept Bp D> an> state. the> are oDliGed to effe=t it throBGh the aBthorit> of the state leGislatBres. Hith that Cested in the present ConGress. The ConGress Bnder the present for@ are a@enaDle to. DBt D> the assent of nine states oBt of the thirteen. De=aBse the poHer to Ieep Bp standinG ar@ies. The proposed =onstitBtion aBthoriAes the leGislatBre to =arr> their deter@inations into exe=Btion. shoBld De =arefBl that he hi@self De not GBilt> of it. Hill per=eiCe. Has it =andid and inGenBoBs to endeaCoBr to persBade the pBDli=. and has pBrsBed fair reasoninG on this sBDFe=t. in ti@e of pea=e. Bnder the present =onfederation. The present ConGress are restrained fro@ an BndBe exer=ise of this poHer. "Bt if the> shoBld Cote an ar@>. Hhen his arGB@ents pass Defore the@ in reCieH. a less nB@Der than the representatiCes of tHo states. that it is expressl> de=lared D> the present arti=les of =onfederation. in the hoBse of representatiCes. Here so fBll> =onCin=ed that the> had no sB=h poHer. the leGislatBres of the respe=tiCe states. and re@oCaDle D>. a@oBnt to little @ore than that of re=o@@endinG. "Bt shoBld it De ad@itted that the> haCe the poHer.The @an Hho reproCes another for a faBlt. NoH this is so far fro@ DeinG trBe. Bnder this =onstitBtion. that the> Dear no analoG> to ea=h other. De a @ost poHerfBl restraint Bpon the@. that the =o@parison Hill serCe rather to shoH the i@propriet> of CestinG the proposed GoCern@ent Hith the poHer.

Dloodshed. if the poHer to raise the@ De restri=ted as it is in the present =onfederation. DBt there is Great haAard. let the@ =ondB=t eCer so Dadl>. I fir@l> DelieCe. and Hho are the @ost renoHned. and I DelieCe I @a> safel> ansHer. to =onCin=e hi@. that an ar@> Hill sBDCert the for@s of the GoCern@ent. and a standinG ar@> sBpported it throBGh a sB==ession of aGes. The> are taIen fro@ the histor> of the tHo @ost poHerfBl nations that haCe eCer existed in the Horld. assisted Cro@Hell. their General. The pBDli= Hill FBdGe. Antifederalist No.The proposed =onstitBtion does not @aIe the @e@Ders of the leGislatBre a==oBntaDle to. that in "ritain. no =oBntr> in the Horld had eCer a @ore patrioti= ar@>. than the one Hhi=h so aDl> serCed this =oBntr> in the late Har. in HrestinG fro@ the people that liDert> the> had so dearl> earned. Hho Has appointed to the =o@@and D> the =onstitBtional aBthorit> of that =o@@onHealth. J@iGht haCeK in all proDaDilit> ter@inated Hith the Har. of sB=h eCents freEBentl> happeninG. and estaDlish one JrBleK a==ordinG to the pleasBre of their leaders. and BnnatBral Ci=es. The liDerties of a people are in danGer fro@ a larGe standinG ar@>. and the =onstitBtion oCer/ tBrned. fro@ the aDoCe =o@parison. and =annot De re@oCed Bntil their ti@e of serCi=e is expired.. in the faithfBl paGes of histor>. hoH FBst a =lai@ this Hriter has to that =andor he asserts to possess. D> an ar@>. that the> are Horth> of the @ost =arefBl attention of eCer> loCer of freedo@. and the other for tHo >ears. <anBar> (-. that I possess so@e share of =andor. "Bt had the General Hho =o@@anded the@ Deen possessed of the spirit of a <BliBs Caesar or a Cro@Hell. that eCer pBnished or disGra=ed hB@an natBre. or re@oCaDle D> the state leGislatBres at all. (0 O"<ECTION TO A TANDING AR'# 9PART II: !ro@ the tenth letter of %"RUTU % appearinG in The NeH/#orI <oBrnal. for the freedo@ the> enFo>ed. into that of the @ost aDsolBte despotis@. either @ean to de=eiCe >oB.. and the> are =hosen. these instan=es Hill not appl> to oBr =ase. Or Dad the> Deen @aintained. / . Hhi=h the> @a> see proper to exer=ise. I pledGe @>self to GiCe Bp all opposition to it. on the head of standinG ar@ies. and =arnaGe/the @ost deCilish. the liDerties of this =oBntr> . #oB @a> De told. 1233. A standinG ar@> effe=ted this =hanGe. $e =hanGed it fro@ a free repBDli=. Cindi=ated the liDerties of that people fro@ the en=roa=h@ents and despotis@ of a t>rant IinG. Deastl>. the one hoBse for six. not onl> De=aBse the rBlers @a> e@plo> the@ for the pBrposes of sBpportinG the@selCes in an> BsBrpations of poHer. In the @ean ti@e. The> are so re@arIaDle. that the> Hill JnotK De satisfied Hith less. or haCe not the@selCes =onsidered the sBDFe=t. and the ex=ellen=> of their =onstitBtions/I @ean Ro@e and "ritain. is still =eleDrated D> all the Horld. THo instan=es haCe Deen @entioned in a for@er paper. DBt for all Hho @aIe the oDFe=tion. . "Bt those Hho HoBld persBade >oB to DelieCe this. Jthe>K @iGht haCe =ost @ore Dlood and treasBre than Has expended in the =onfli=t Hith Great "ritain. the liDerties of the =o@@onHealth Here destro>ed. The sa@e ar@>. Hhose fa@e . and the adCo=ates for this s>ste@. Hhi=h are @arIed in the annals of histor> Hith the @ost horrid =rBelties. led D> <BliBs Caesar. Bnder Hhose aBthorit> the> are raised. In the first. )e are infor@ed. not onl> for @>self.

it Hill De ne=essar> to @aintain s@all Garrisons on the frontiers. and assB@inG the poHer to di=tate an> for@ the> please. The a@oBnt of this arGB@ent stripped of the aDBndant CerDiaGes Hith Hhi=h the aBthor has dressed it. adCisinG the@ not to part Hith their ar@s. in order to GBard aGainst the sBdden en=roa=h@ents of the Indians. this arGB@ent is Cer> liIe that spe=ies of reasoninG. HoBld do it aGain. )e shoBld in all proDaDilit> haCe seen a =onstitBtion and laHs di=tated to Bs. I =annot per=eiCe that the =on=lBsion folloHs fro@ the pre@ises. Hill haCe no inflBen=e Bpon @en in oBr =oBntr>6 B=h an idea is Hild and extraCaGant.)hen an anon>@oBs Hriter addressed the offi=ers of the ar@> at the =lose of the Har. )ere the sa@e opportBnit> aGain to offer. that the passion for po@p. It affe=ted the@ liIe an ele=tri= sho=I. The adCo=ates for poHer. enoBGh has appeared in a little ti@e past. LoGi=ians sa>. and @an> of oBr prin=ipal offi=ers had not aDandoned the =hara=ters of =itiAens. The> HoBld haCe a=EBired Great a==essions of strenGth fro@ the =oBntr>. $ad He indBlGed sB=h a delBsion. poHer. do not arise solel> fro@ the apprehension. at the head of an ar@>. ThoBGh I a@ not @B=h of a loGi=ian. to refBse to disDand. and to De prepared to repel an> en=roa=h@ents or inCasions that @a> De @ade D> pain or "ritain. Hhi=h it Hill De ne=essar> to @aintain. snat=hed fro@ Bs in a @o@ent. Bntil FBsti=e Has done the@/the effe=t it had is Hell InoHn. and Greatness. a patriot as Hell as a General. if He @ade dependen=e. . . the s=he@e proCed aDortiCe. is this: It Hill proDaDl> De ne=essar> to Ieep Bp a s@all Dod> of troops to Garrison a feH posts. that the eCils to De feared fro@ a larGe standinG ar@> in ti@e of pea=e. is to De apprehended fro@ their oCertBrninG the =onstitBtional poHers of the GoCern@ent. and the liDerties for Hhi=h He had so seCerel> strBGGled. and therefore. and perhaps Greater danGer. . as it eCer did in an> =oBntr> Bnder heaCen. in respe=t to @ilitar> estaDlish@ents in ti@e of pea=e. it is not Good reasoninG to infer a General =on=lBsion fro@ parti=Blar pre@ises. BrGe that a restraint Bpon the dis=retion of the leGislatBres. )hat the =onseEBen=es of sB=h a deter@ination HoBld haCe Deen. The ar@> Here in the fBll CiGor of health and spirits. Hhether this @easBre Has not sBGGested. it appears. to GBard aGainst the depredations of the Indians. heaCen onl> InoHs. that all Hho then reFe=ted the oCertBre. J@iGht haCeK Deen taIen. HithoBt restraint. the desperate resolBtion. He shoBld Cer> proDaDl> De Grossl> disappointed. the General GoCern@ent oBGht to De inCested Hith poHer to raise and Ieep Bp a standinG ar@> in ti@e of pea=e. that this Hill alHa>s De the =ase6 Are He so @B=h Detter than the people of other aGes and of other =oBntries. =oBntenan=ed the @easBre. HorIs as poHerfBll> in the hearts of @an> of oBr Detter sort. I =onfess. and at the point of a Da>onet. "Bt are He to expe=t. HoBld De i@proper to De i@posed. that the rBlers @a> e@plo> the@ for the pBrpose of pro@otinG their oHn a@DitioBs CieHs. De=aBse the> sa>. !ortBnatel> indeed for this =oBntr>. in sBpport of this riGht in the proposed GoCern@ent. It re@ains a se=ret. and a feH @ore offi=ers of ranI. to =onCin=e the @ost =redBloBs. D> so@e. it see@s to @e. >et to De reCealed. of hiGh ranI a@onG Bs: HoBld haCe lent the@ all their aid. and therefore. in the haDit of dis=ipline. at their dis=retion. or of the paniards and "ritish. or at least =oBntenan=ed. and possessed of all oBr @ilitar> stores and apparatBs. Hhi=h led the@ aside fro@ their dBt>. Hho haCe Dad Great inflBen=e in prodB=inG the present s>ste@. Those Hho Here disGBsted at oBr repBDli=an for@s of GoCern@ent 9for sB=h there then Here. and had the =o@@ander in =hief. $e Hrote liIe Caesar. D> assB@inG that of soldiers. !ro@ these re@arIs. that the sa@e allBre@ents of poHer and Greatness. DBt that eEBal. it had at the head of the ar@>.

in order to De prepared to resist the@. and the> @iGht. and all the poHers of eloEBen=e. "Bt to raise and Ieep Bp for=es for sB=h pBrposes and on sB=h o==asions. Hhen He saH a poHer preparinG to @aIe one. or troops of an> des=ription HhatsoeCer. It is ad@itted that to prohiDit the General GoCern@ent fro@ IeepinG Bp standinG ar@ies. and it @a> happen. Bnder the preten=e that there Has danGer of an inCasion. It is also ad@itted that an aDsolBte prohiDition aGainst raisinG troops. as it shall De dee@ed aDsolBtel> ne=essar> to hold. and fa=ilitate the trade Hith the Indians: Bnless Hhen the United tates are threatened Hith an atta=I or inCasion fro@ so@e foreiGn poHer. ex=ept in =ases of a=tBal Har. "Bt it does not then=e folloH. it is oDCioBs the> neCer entertained an idea. Ieep Bp the ar@> as lonG as the> FBdGed proper/and hen=e it is inferred. Bntil the ene@> Here Hithin oBr territor>. shall De raised or Iept Bp D> the leGislatBre. and at the sa@e ti@e to proCide a reasonaDle and =o@petent se=Brit> aGainst the eCil of a standinG ar@>/a =laBse to the folloHinG pBrpose HoBld ansHer the end: As standinG ar@ies in ti@e of pea=e ar= danGeroBs to liDert>.)hen the patriots in the parlia@ent in Great "ritain. or for Garrisons to sB=h posts on the frontiers. DBt onl> to the IeepinG the@ Bp. Defore a for@al de=laration of Har. De=aBse it @a>. it is i@possiDle to Cest the General GoCern@ent Hith the poHer of raisinG troops to Garrison the frontier posts. and to GBard arsenals. A dis=retion of sB=h latitBde HoBld GiCe roo@ to elBde the for=e of the proCision. or to De prepared to repel an atta=I. The adCo=ates for this poHer fBrther BrGe that it is ne=essar>. If indeed. or in the neiGhDorhood of poHers fro@ Hho@ the> Here in danGer of en=roa=h@ents. HoBld thereD> De prohiDited. to se=Bre the inhaDitants. is not in=lBded in the idea of IeepinG Bp standinG ar@ies in ti@es of pea=e. If the =onstitBtion prohiDited the raisinG an ar@>. De=aBse it Hill De reEBisite to raise and sBpport a s@all nB@Der of troops to Garrison the i@portant frontier posts. HoBld De i@proper. HoBld De an insBffi=ient GBard aGainst the danGer. Hhi=h in @odern ti@es has fallen into disBse. "Bt fro@ these pre@ises nothinG @ore Hill folloH than this: that the leGislatBre shoBld not De so restrained. that s@all Garrisons on their frontiers. that the GoCern@ent shoBld De e@poHered to raise and @aintain standinG ar@ies at their dis=retion as Hell in pea=e as in Har. proCided that no troops HhatsoeCer shall . that the leGislatBre shoBld haCe aBthorit> to raise and Ieep Bp an ar@> HithoBt an> restri=tion. =ontended Hith sB=h for=e of arGB@ent. aGainst IeepinG Bp standinG ar@ies in ti@e of pea=e. to GBard arsenals. then this reasoninG @iGht haCe HeiGht. that =ir=B@stan=es Hill render it reEBisite to raise an ar@> to De prepared to repel atta=Is of an ene@>. It is a thinG Cer> pra=ti=aDle to GiCe the GoCern@ent sBffi=ient aBthorit> to proCide for these =ases. it HoBld depriCe the GoCern@ent of the poHer of proCidinG for the defense of the =oBntr>. that the danGer of an atta=I fro@ a foreiGn poHer @a> De so i@@inent. Hhen sB=h exiGen=ies as are instan=ed shall arise. or GBards to taIe =are of pBDli= arsenals. and proDaDl> Hill happen. and haCe often Deen the @eans of oCertBrninG the Dest =onstitBtions of GoCern@ent. Bntil a Har a=tBall> =o@@en=ed. no standinG ar@>. in Hhi=h =ase the leGislatBre shall De aBthorised to raise an ar@> to De prepared to repel the atta=I. as to pBt it oBt of their poHer to raise an ar@>. ex=ept so @an> as shall De ne=essar> for GBards to the arsenals of the United tates. Hhile >et the> Here aBthorised to raise the@ in =ase of exiGen=>. HithoBt an> restri=tion or EBalifi=ation. HithoBt GiCinG the@ a General and indefinite aBthorit> to raise and Ieep Bp ar@ies. If the restri=tion is not to extend to the raisinG ar@ies in =ases of e@erGen=>. this HoBld leaCe the @atter to the dis=retion of the leGislatBre. DBt this has not Deen proCed nor =an it De. as to render it hiGhl> proper He shoBld raise an ar@>.

The sa@e Hriter Hho adCan=es the arGB@ents I haCe noti=ed.. of states raisinG troops for short periods in ti@es of Har or insBrre=tions. "Bt Deside. =o@plete =ontrol oCer the for@er. The representation in the proposed GoCern@ent Hill De a @ere shadoH HithoBt the sBDstan=e. At present. I a@ so =onfident that I a@ Hell foBnded in this opinion. @a> =he=I an> GoCern@ent. that it is diffi=Blt to =on=eiCe hoH the state leGislatBres =an. HithoBt the assent of tHo thirds of the @e@Ders. . The state leGislatBres =an. resolBtion. it @Bst De D> ex=itinG the people to resist =onstitBtional laHs. and =hoose others Hho Hill pBrsBe their interests. on a EBestion =on=erninG the propriet> of IeepinG Bp standinG ar@ies in ti@es of pea=e. . to preCent their aDBsinG it. If the> aDBse it. preCent or i@pede the General GoCern@ent. a nB@Der of ar@ed @en had leCied Har aGainst the aBthorit> of the state and openl> aCoHed their intention of HithdraHinG their alleGian=e fro@ it. shoHn.. @aIes a nB@Der of other oDserCations Hith a CieH to proCe that the poHer to raise and Ieep Bp ar@ies oBGht to De dis=retionar> in the General leGislatBre. . as Hhat for=e there is in it Hill hereafter re=eiCe a @ore parti=Blar exa@ination. to shoH the ne=essit> of IeepinG a standinG ar@> in ti@e of pea=e. in a =onstitBtional Ha>. or exe=BtinG it. at the expiration of Hhi=h the> Here to disDand . o@e of the@ are =BrioBs. that no danGer is to De apprehended fro@ the exer=ise of this poHer. hold a =he=I oCer the General leGislatBre. A =laBse si@ilar to this HoBld afford sBffi=ient latitBde to the leGislatBre to raise troops in all =ases that Here reall> ne=essar>. or otherHise of riGht. "Bt sB=h Iinds of =he=Is as these. Has that =o@@onHealth in a state of pea=e at that ti@e6 o far fro@ it. "RUTU ..De raised in ti@e of pea=e. I shall onl> re@arI. The latter has. It is fBrther said. in an> =ase. In this Ha> eCer> indiCidBal. If then the state leGislatBres =he=I the General leGislatBre. Hhat. this looIs Cer> little liIe a standinG ar@>. in no =ase/D> laH. or eCer> Dod> of @en. as reasons for its adoption. thoBGh the> so@eti@es =orre=t the aDBses of GoCern@ent. to aBthoriAe their rBlers to do. nineteen/tHentieths of the sensiDle @en in the Bnion HoBld reFe=t it on this a==oBnt alone. in proportion to the inflBen=e the> @a> haCe oCer the Dod> of the people. in so@e for@er nB@Ders. HoBld proCe inFBrioBs/I haCe. . and at the sa@e ti@e =o@petent se=Brit> aGainst the estaDlish@ent of that danGeroBs enGine of despotis@. To Hhat pBrpose exa@ples are DroBGht. in eCer> instan=e to Hhi=h their poHers extend. J@ore: often destro> all GoCern@ent. and their leGislatBre had for@all> de=lared that an BnnatBral reDellion existed Hithin the state. 'assa=hBsetts raised a Dod> of troops for six @onths. $e instan=es the raisinG of troops in 'assa=hBsetts and Penns>lCania.. The sitBation of Penns>lCania Has si@ilar. Bpon a fair dis=Bssion of its @erits HithoBt taIinG into =onte@plation =ir=B@stan=es extraneoBs to it. fro@ ena=tinG an> laH. Hhi=h this =onstitBtion aBthoriAes the@ to ena=t or exe=Bte. the pBDli= @Bst FBdGe. That it is BnHise in an> people.. Bnless its poHers Here =onfined to @B=h feHer oDFe=ts than it e@Dra=es. that the> Here in the @ost Ciolent =o@@otions and =ontests. it is in the poHer of the people to re@oCe the@. the least refle=tion @Bst =onCin=e eCer> =andid @ind that Doth these =ases are totall> foreiGn to his pBrpose. De=aBse it is lodGed in the hands of representatiCes of the people. that I a@ persBaded if it Has to De adopted or reFe=ted. that no danGer =an arise fro@ this poHer DeinG lodGed in the hands of the General GoCern@ent. a standinG ar@>. It is fBrther said. This is offered. De=aBse the leGislatBres Hill De a =he=I Bpon the@. =o@posinG Doth hoBses of the leGislatBre. if done.

to alter the state laHs. oppression and t>rann>6 I a@ told that foBr of the ri=hest @en in Ann/ArBndel CoBnt> J'ar>landK. "Bt it is not so in Old EnGland. the> =an. that the dBt> has not Deen paid on.. and a Great deal of eCil. to =hoose their representatiCes. or others liIe the@. and the ex=ise -s. and poHer. pla=es and @anner of holdinG ele=tions for representatiCes. and if >oB refBse the@ entran=e. Doxes. dBties. and a Great nB@Der of other arti=les. and felt the s@art. lords and @asters in fBtBre8 Are the> not all for it6 #es8 OBGht not this to pBt >oB on >oBr GBard6 Does not ri=hes DeGet poHer. Aristo=ra=>. The neH for@ of GoCern@ent GiCes ConGress liDert> at an> ti@e. The first 'onda> in April is the da> appointed D> oBr asse@Dl>. Hho are all in faCor of the neH !ederal GoCern@ent. and "alti@ore AdCertiser. or tax. for >oB to @eet and =hoose deleGates in ea=h =oBnt>. Ex=ise is a neH thinG in A@eri=a. the> are liaDle to GrieCoBs fines and forfeitBres. desIs. hoBld the> sB==eed. haCe offered the@selCes =andidates to serCe in the =onCention. @> felloHs. i@posts.Antifederalist No. The ti@e is nearl> at hand. trBnIs. "> this =laBse the> @a> =o@@and. and feH =oBntr> far@ers and planters InoH the @eaninG of it. are to haCe poHer to la> and =olle=t taxes. Hhere I haCe seen the effe=ts of it. D> resistinG the t>rann> and oppression of GeorGe the Third. And in order to DrinG >oB into their snare. and the ti@e. >oBr liDert> is Gone foreCer. and the pri=e of salt per DBshel aDoBt 1s. and rB@@aGe >oBr hoBses fro@ Dotto@ . =hests. The ex=ise offi=ers haCe poHer to enter >oBr hoBses at all ti@es. If a priCate fa@il> @aIe their oHn soap. sterlinG. D> their laHs. If >oB =hoose these @en. and =an find that He are to re=eiCe DBt little Good. It is there a dBt>. (1 T$E U E O! COERCION "# T$E NE) GO*ERN'ENT 9PART 1: %A !AR'ER AND PLANTER% had his HorI printed in The 'ar>land <oBrnal. et=. =andles. to the Dest of @> re=olle=tion. or RIC$ 'EN. Hhen >oB are =alled Bpon to render Bp that GlorioBs liDert> >oB oDtained. the people of 'ar>land to Go to GeorGia. laid Bpon al@ost eCer> ne=essar> of life and =onCenien=e. and =onsider it Hell Defore >oB a=t. DreaI open >oBr doors. and shoBld a Hriter dare to pBDlish an> pie=e aGainst it. in faCor of this neH GoCern@ent. And if the> neGle=t =allinG in an ex=ise offi=er at the ti@e of @aIinG these thinGs. and his @inisters. The ex=ise on salt in the >ear 121(. that the> haCe onl> left >oB to do one of tHo thinGs/that is either to re=eiCe or refBse it. Hho are to De >oBr onl> rBlers.1d. the> pa> an ex=ise dBt> on the@. and the people of GeorGia to Go to "oston. and >oB Hill then De nothinG Detter than a stronG ass =roB=hinG doHn DetHeen tHo DBrdens. and ex=ises. Bnder pretense of sear=hinG for ex=iseaDle Goods. I haCe done so. on eCer> Gallon of rB@ @ade Bse of. LooI roBnd >oB and oDserCe Hell the RIC$ 'EN. &inG of EnGland. ConGress. D> their laHs. he is i@@ediatel> aDBsed and Cilified. to =onsider Hell Hhat >oB are aDoBt. in EnGland. and either adopt or refBse it. sterlinG per DBshel. D> niGht or da>. Has -s. Let @e entreat >oB. or oBr fBtBre lords and @asters. is therein =on=ealed in the @ost artfBl Hrote plan that eCer Has for@ed to entrap a free people. to taIe into =onsideration the neH !ederal GoCern@ent. the> =ertainl> Hill do eCer>thinG in their poHer to adopt the neH GoCern@ent. >oB @a> dail> read neH pie=es pBDlished in the neHspapers. Read the said =onstitBtion. Let @e DeG of >oB to refle=t a @o@ent on the danGer >oB rBn. The =ontriCers of it haCe so =o@pletel> entrapped >oB. April 1. Desides a lonG train of eCils and in=onCenien=es attendinG this detestaDle ex=ise/to enB@erate parti=Blarl> HoBld fill a ColB@e. 1233. or GoCern@ent in the hands of a Cer> feH noDles. and laid their plans so sBre and se=retl>. =ider. Deer. for all that Has @ade Bse of in fa@ilies.

and a third for one shillinGLs Horth of pBn=h. raise and sBpport ar@ies. >oB Hill neCer @ore reGain it. and =at=h the pre=ioBs @o@ent as it passes. and alHa>s enGross the pla=es of honor and profit. I =on=eiCe. Ri=h @en =an liCe eas> Bnder an> GoCern@ent. to =Bt >oBr throats. Hho are the Cer> s=B@ and refBse of @anIind. and introdB=e aristo=ra=> and @onar=h>. and >oB De=o@e Good and faithfBl serCants and slaCes. and extri=ate >oBrselCes and posterit> fro@ t>rann>. There are @an> a@onG >oB that Hill not De led D> the nose D> ri=h @en. OBr Great Lords and 'asters are to la> taxes. De it eCer so t>ranni=al. @> =oBntr>@en. and @a> appropriate @one> for tHo >ears. and after hi@. for I haCe had the opportBnit> of pBttinG their CirtBe to the test. and find oBt Good @en to represent >oB in =onCention/@en of >oBr oHn profession and station in life. Hhile the Greater part of the =o@@on people are led D> the nose. at an> ti@e. . The train is laid. and noH so ta@el> to GiCe it Bp D> adoptinG this aristo=rati=al GoCern@ent6 RepresentatiCes and dire=t taxes shall De apportioned a@onG the seCeral states Hhi=h @a> De in=lBded Hithin this Bnion a==ordinG to their respe=tiCe nB@Ders. "oston. thinI >oB are i@posed Bpon D> ConGress and >oBr Great Lords and 'asters. and refBse or dela> to pa> >oBr taxes. Hill De &inG also. =onEBered and Gained >oBr liDert>/then Ieep it. or do an>thinG that the> shall thinI proper to order >oB to do. I pra> >oB. This is their trBe =hara=ter in EnGland. and Hill DreaI the@ for a shillinG. I HoBld asI >oB. and liCe in free EBarters. @an> of the@ haCinG DBt feH taxaDle D> the poll. This see@s to i@pl>. driCe aHa> >oBr =attle and horses. aDBse >oBr HiCes. and GiCinG Bs liDert>.91: B=h thinGs haCe Deen done. A !AR'ER AND PLANTER . to refBse this neHfanGled federal GoCern@ent. oppression. and if >oB shoBld. and sins of inGratitBde to hi@. his son. for the destrB=tion of the@selCes and their =lass. and the President is to haCe the =o@@and of the @ilitia. @en Hho Hill not adopt this destrB=tiCe and diaDoli=al for@ of a federal GoCern@ent. the> =an. and I haCe no doBDt Hill De done aGain. proCide a naC>. The> =o@e in for a Great share of the t>rann>. and HoBld s=orn a DriDe. aristo=rati=al or @onar=hi=al GoCern@ent. =all forth the @ilitia to exe=Bte their laHs. petti=oats and po=Iets of ladies or Gentle@en 9parti=Blarl> Hhen the> are =o@inG fro@ on Doard an East/India ship:. raCaGe and destro> >oBr plantations. to DloH Bp all >oBr liDert> and =o@@onHealth GoCern@ents. as a pre=ioBs FeHel. or an> other state or pla=e. Hhi=h is =ontrar> to oBr "ill of RiGhts. #oB laDored Bnder @an> hardships Hhile the "ritish t>ranniAed oCer >oB8 #oB foBGht. and I haCe not a doBDt DBt the> Hill. the> are to Ieep >oB in a Good hB@or. Hho CalBe not their oaths. Iill >oBr infants. send the @ilitia of Penns>lCania. and raCish >oBr daBGhters. and the> onl> Hait for >oBrselCes to pBt it to the train. "e Hise. "Bt it is possiDle that the ri=h @en. and saH tHo of the@ DreaI their oath for one GBinea. )hat do >oB thinI of a laH to let loose sB=h a set of Cile offi=ers a@onG >oB8 Do >oB expe=t the ConGress ex=ise/offi=ers Hill De an> Detter/if God. that He shall De taxed D> the poll aGain. and pa> all that the> @a> thinI proper to asI of >oB. if >oB do. after =arr>inG Bs throBGh the late Har. and despotis@ Hill folloH of =oBrse in a feH >ears. Hho are the Great land holders. Na>. seiAe it and =arr> it aHa> Hith the@. and I speaI fro@ experien=e. . . De assBred.to top. if >oB =onsent to the adoption of this neH !ederal GoCern@ent. Bntil >oB Get into a Good hB@or. De CirtBoBs. shoBld thinI it proper to pBnish Bs for oBr iGnoran=e. and if the> find an> the least arti=le that >oB =annot proCe the dBt> to De paid on. and pla>ed aDoBt D> these Cer> @en. the @at=h is on fire. Hill tax Bs in this @anner. or he that has the Greatest poHer a@onG the@. Hhi=h Hill exe@pt the@ fro@ pa>inG assess@ents on their Great Dodies of land in the old and neH parts of the United tates. sBppress insBrre=tions. the> often sear=h the =lothes. in his anGer. NoH. !oBr/>ears President Hill De in ti@e a &inG for life. TrBst it not oBt of >oBr oHn hands. De=aBse the> are the @inisters of t>rants. *ieH >oBr danGer. Hh> are all these thinGs dire=ted and pBt into their poHer6 )h>.

JNote D> %A !ar@er and Planter%. striIe off the ar@ 9Hith his sHord: of one of oBr felloH slaCes. na@el> D> the sHeat and toil of oBr Dod>. in the profBndit> of their Great politi=al InoHledGe. DBt Dodil>. =onsistinG of three different Dran=hes. enate and RepresentatiCes/=an saCe this. Nor Hill He at an> fBtBre period of ti@e eCer atte@pt to =o@plain of this oBr ro>al GoCern@ent. if possiDle. fro@ ineCitaDle destrB=tion. de=lare and @ost sole@nl> enGaGe. and =o@@ons or. and finall> ter@inate in the salCation of A@eri=a. And He fBrther de=lare that HithoBt an> eEBiCo=ation or @ental reserCation HhateCer He Hill sBpport and @aintain the sa@e a==ordinG to the Dest of oBr poHer. Ireland and Ger@an>. and. Hell Dorn. De=aBse . and. all the people of the United tates. He Hill =on=eiCe oBr =ase re@arIaDl> fortBnate if he leaCes the other ar@ on. >et oBr feelinG. haCe. that is. to their felloH slaCes s=attered throBGhoBt the Horld/GreetinG: )hereas it hath Deen represented Bnto Bs that a @ost dreadfBl disease hath for these fiCe >ears last past infe=ted. a nB@Der of sIillfBl ph>si=ians haCinG @et toGether at Philadelphia last sB@@er. dreadfBl thoBGht8 haCe Hi=Iedl> DeGBn to doBDt =on=erninG the perfe=tion of this eCanGeli=al =onstitBtion. for the @assa=re of the people in the Calle> of Glen=o. let the =onseEBen=es De Hhat the> @a>. And. for the pBrpose of explorinG. IinG. @ost ex=ellent and trBl> diCine =onstitBtion..K Antifederalist No. the hoe and the GrBDDinG ax. 1232. foBnd oBt and dis=oCered that nothinG DBt a neH GoCern@ent. in the ti@e of )illia@ the Third. oBr =oBntr>. Hhereas. pre>ed Bpon and al@ost rBined the GoCern@ent and people of this oBr =oBntr>. And. na@el>. that He Hill aDide D> oBr present deter@ination of non/ resistan=e and passiCe oDedien=e/so that He shall not dare to @olest or distBrD those @ilitar> Gentle@en in the serCi=e of oBr ro>al GoCern@ent. He aGain in the @ost sole@n @anner de=lare. Hhereas. ex=ept 155 thereaDoBts. And @oreoCer.91: ee the histor> of the =onfederate Gre=ian states/also the histor> of EnGland.% folloHinG pie=e Has pBDlished in the Independent GaAetteer. !or althoBGh oBr sensations in reGard to the @ind De not FBst so ni=e as those of the Hell Dorn. i@@ediatel> to estaDlish and =onfir@ this @ost noDle. not @entall>. re@oCinG the =aBse of this direfBl disease. Hhi=h oBr politi=al do=tors haCe de=lared to De a pana=ea. and of this @alad> He oBrselCes haCe had perfe=t de@onstration. >et. (2 T$E U E O! COERCION "# T$E NE) GO*ERN'ENT 9PART (: %<O$N $U'"LELs. =o@posed of the pBrGinGs of the Fails of Great "ritain. NoH He the loH Dorn. is as a=Bte as an> noDle@anLs in the Horld. O=toDer (4. throBGh the @ediB@ of the ploH. President. and after the @anner and =Bsto@ of all other slaCes in foreiGn =oBntries. EsE. that He Hill alloH and ad@it the said 155 Hell Dorn. it has Deen reported that seCeral of oBr loH/Dorn Drethren haCe had the horrid aBda=it> to thinI for the@selCes in reGard to this neH s>ste@ of GoCern@ent. Hhi=h 9D> inspiration: the> InoH Hill infalliDl> heal eCer> diste@per in the =onfederation. And althoBGh it appears to Bs that a standinG ar@>. lords. throBGh eCer> one of the fiCe senses. And 9Hhi=h is not i@proDaDle: shoBld an> one of those soldiers Hhen e@plo>ed on dBt> in =olle=tinG the taxes. throBGh the assistan=e of <ohn Ada@s. shall De e@plo>ed in =olle=tinG the reCenBes of this oBr IinG and GoCern@ent. do D> this oBr hB@Dle address. in the A@eri=an lanGBaGe. The hB@Dle address of the loH/Dorn of the United tates of A@eri=a.

and Hhere to De stationed6 Is this poHer fettered Hith an> one of those restri=tions. <anBar> 11. (3 T$E U E O! COERCION "# T$E NE) GO*ERN'ENT 9PART III: This essa> Has pBDlished in either the 9Philadelphia: !ree@anLs <oBrnal. aBthorit> and do@inion oCer oBr persons and properties in the hands of the Hell Dorn. and not Bpon this infernal enGine of oppression to exe=Bte their =iCil laHs6 The natBre of the de@and in itself =ontradi=ts sB=h a sBpposition. Hho Here desiGned D> ProCiden=e to GoCern. <O$N $U'"LE. Experien=e has taBGht the@ that a standinG Dod> of reGBlar for=es. It is asserted D> the @ost respe=taDle Hriters Bpon GoCern@ent. nor Hill He thinI their senten=e seCere Bnless after DeinG hanGed the> are also to De Doth Deheaded and EBartered. to DrinG sB=h atro=ioBs offenders Defore oBr federal FBdGes. as >oBr respe=tiCe GoCern@ents are to De destro>ed. ar@inG and dis=iplininG the @ilitia. GiCinG to the separate tates the appoint@ent of the offi=ers and the aBthorit> of traininG the @ilitia a==ordinG to the dis=ipline pres=riDed D> ConGress.% Let Bs inEBire Hh> the> haCe assB@ed this Great poHer. The> haCe no idea of =allinG Bpon or trBstinG to the part> aGGrieCed to sBpport and enfor=e their oHn GrieCan=es. in =onFBn=tion Hith the standinG ar@>. HheneCer the> =an De =o@pletel> introdB=ed. or. )as it to strenGthen the poHer Hhi=h is noH lodGed in >oBr hands. haCe eCer Deen =onsidered as the DBlHarI of a free people. are alHa>s effi=a=ioBs in enfor=inG their edi=ts. And in reGard to the liDert> of the press. this plainl> shoHs the> do not @ean to depend Bpon the . 1233. that a Hell reGBlated @ilitia. Hherefore in sB=h =ases He Hill Bse oBr Bt@ost endeaCors. =o@posed of the >eo@anr> of the =oBntr>. hoHeCer arDitrar>. Done on Dehalf of three @illions of loH/Dorn A@eri=an slaCes. HithoBt FBr> or trial. Hho shall haCe poHer. T>rants haCe neCer pla=ed an> =onfiden=e on a @ilitia =o@posed of free@en. e=retar> Antifederalist No. and slaCes D> profession the@selCes. and of GoCerninG the@ Hhen in the serCi=e of the United tates. The ConGress Bnder the neH ConstitBtion haCe the poHer %of orGaniAinG. He renoBn=e all =lai@ to it foreCer @ore. and for=es >oB to DelieCe that it is for none of these =aBses/DBt rather for the pBrpose of =onsolidatinG and finall> destro>inG >oBr strenGth. 9notHithstandinG the> @a> sele=t and sBDFe=t the@ to as stri=t sBDordination as reGBlar troops: Bnless the> haCe a standinG ar@> to Da=I and =o@pel the exe=Btion of their orders.He are aHare that @an> of oBr felloH slaCes shall De BnaDle to pa> their taxes. Bpon Hho@ the> @ean to exer=ise the poHers Granted in that GoCern@ent. are %nothinG loth% to DreaI doHn the Darriers of freedo@ Hith a GoBt. A@en. The> Hell InoH the i@poli=> of pBttinG or IeepinG ar@s in the hands of a nerCoBs people. and He shall in fBtBre De perfe=tl> =ontented if oBr tonGBes De left Bs to li=I the feet of oBr Hell Dorn @asters. @> felloH =itiAens. to order the said @is=reants for i@@ediate exe=Btion. The North/ A@eri=an IntelliGen=er. Hhi=h Hill shoH the> depend Bpon the @ilitia. and rel>inG Bpon >oB and >oB solel> for aid and sBpport to the =iCil poHer in the exe=Btion of all the laHs of the neH ConGress6 Is this proDaDle6 Does the =o@plexion of this neH plan =oBntenan=e sB=h a sBpposition6 )hen the> Bnpre=edentl> =lai@ the poHer of raisinG and sBpportinG ar@ies. do the> tell >oB for Hhat pBrposes the> are to De raised6 $oH the> are to De e@plo>ed6 $oH @an> the> are to =onsist of. No. And finall> He shall hen=eforth and foreCer leaCe all poHer. at a distan=e fro@ the seat of a GoCern@ent. and this in=apa=it> of theirs is a FBst =aBse of i@pea=h@ent of treason.

Hhi=h has hitherto Deen her faCorite aDode. eCen at this da>. I def> the@ to prodB=e an instan=e in an> =oBntr>.% NotHithstandinG all these oDFe=tions to this enGine of oppression. DBt this appears to @e an insBlt rather than a priCileGe. that did not resort to. do the> not pre=lBde the ne=essit> of an> standinG ar@> HhatsoeCer. in this Hestern reGion. Bntil throL the inflBen=e of an a@DitioBs priest 9Hho haCe in all =oBntries and in all aGes. %in eCer> so=iet> there is an effort =onstantl> tendinG to =onfer on one part the heiGht and to redB=e the other to the extre@e of HeaIness. and the Hhole re=ord of the transa=tions of @anIind =annot fBrnish an instan=e. )hat historians haCe asserted. for a standinG ar@> in the neH ConGress. $a@pden. after readinG this proCision for a reGBlar standinG ar@>. all the Gre=ian repBDli=s haCe Cerified. the> @a> pBt it oBt of the poHer of the free@en @ilitia of A@eri=a to assert and defend their liDerties. that standinG ar@ies are a sole=is@ in an> GoCern@ent.=itiAens of the tates alone to enfor=e their poHers. ECer> Hriter Bpon GoCern@ent// Lo=Ie.% There is no instan=e of an> GoCern@ent DeinG redB=ed to a =onfir@ed t>rann> HithoBt @ilitar> oppression. in =onseEBen=e. and indBlGe a @aliGnant pleasBre in destro>inG those priCileGes to Hhi=h the> neCer =an De ad@itted. and pain =oBld not sB==eed in the sa@e nefarioBs plan. and Dion>siBs in >ra=Bse. PeisistratBs in Gree=e. Defore the soCereiGns of EBrope dared to introdB=e the@ Bpon an> pretext HhateCer. for Hhat aCails this riGht if the> at their pleasBre @a> ar@ or disar@ all or an> part of the free@en of the United tates. so that Hhen their ar@> is sBffi=ientl> nB@eroBs. The> @ean to lean Bpon so@ethinG @ore sBDstantial and sB@@ar>. en=oBraGed and prea=hed Bp arDitrar> poHer: the> oDtained it. hate and enC> the rest of the =o@@Bnit> in Hhi=h the> are pla=ed. pretend it is ne=essar> for the respe=taDilit> of GoCern@ent. @> . and this is of itself sBffi=ient to e@plo> the peopleLs attention. hoHeCer the> @iGht De en=roa=hed Bpon D> ConGress. that no nation eCer sBpported the@. Has eCer >et sBDdBed D> @er=enar> troops. Hhere. Bnless in =ase of inCasion6 And in that =ase it HoBld De ti@e enoBGh to raise the@. The adCo=ates at the present da>. Charles in !ran=e. And the first poli=> of t>rants has Deen to annihilate all other @eans of national a=tiCit> and defense. all =loaIed their CillainoBs intentions Bnder an idea of raisinG a s@all Dod> as a GBard for their persons. the> are taBGht to feel the HeiGht of riGid dis=ipline. and $enr> in EnGland. the>. Hho first atta=Ied the =o@@onHealth Hith @ines. idne>. Hith a Hell dis=iplined @ilitia. sBppose that the> intended to appl> to the @ilitia in all =ases. The> are DroBGht Bp to oDedien=e and Bn=onditional sBD@ission. and @ore than on=e de=ided the fate of prin=es6 In short. and to rel> solel> Bpon standinG troops. Repeated Here the trials. and to pa> parti=Blar attention to @aIinG the@ the DBlHarI of this =ontinent6 And HoBld the> not De eEBal to sB=h an BndertaIinG6 Are the> not aDBndantl> aDle to GiCe se=Brit> and staDilit> to >oBr GoCern@ent as lonG as it is free6 Are the> not the onl> proper persons to do it6 Are the> not the @ost respe=taDle Dod> of >eo@anr> in that =hara=ter Bpon earth6 $aCe the> not Deen enGaGed in so@e of the @ost Drilliant a=tions in A@eri=a. Hhere the> haCe not finall> done aHa> the liDerties of the people.% 9sa>s the 'arEBis of "e==aria:. %)ithoBt a standinG ar@>. and @en are foBnd Hith feelinGs that Hin not patientl> sBD@it to arDitrar> =ontrol. 9Bnless the proposed =onstitBtion @a> De =alled part of that re=ord: Hhere the @otiCes Hhi=h =aBsed that estaDlish@ent Here not =o@pletel> disGBised. rel> Bpon. Cer> soon opened his Datteries. for no free GoCern@ent Bnder heaCen. Hith ar@s in their Dands. No Hestern historians haCe >et Deen hard> enoBGh to adCan=e prin=iples that looI a different Ha>. and a list of others haCe Bnifor@l> asserted. Hhere propert> is so CalBaDle. in the Old or NeH )orld. the> are ex=lBded fro@ the enFo>@ents Hhi=h liDert> GiCes to its Cotaries. The> haCe left the appoint@ent of offi=ers in the Dreasts of the seCeral tates. Does an>. in this =iCiliAed territor>. Hhen the> feared opposition. and =onfir@ed D> eCer> =oBntr> Hhere the ra>s of freedo@ eCer extended/>et in A@eri=a. Hhi=h are @ade D> the @ost experien=ed @en. and finall> De=o@e a pre> to the@. %Caesar.

Hhere is it6 As speedil> healed as the tra=I in the o=ean is DBried D> the sB==eedinG HaCe. and so aDBndantl> taBGht Bs to estee@ the@ pre=ioBs.% This shoHs >oB his opinion/and that he. it is ti@e to sBspe=t there is so@ethinG HronG in that GoCern@ent. is a @ere popBlar de=la@ation.felloH =oBntr>@en. A Dad aristo=ra=> is thirt> ti@es Horse than a Dad @onar=h>. the t>rann> of the @an> is to De GBarded aGainst 'ORE than that of a sinGle person. and for the diGnit> and safet> of >oBr =oBntr>. and Hho He @a> sBppose Dreathes in so@e @easBre the spirit of that Dod>/tells >oB it is for the pBrpose of for@inG =anton@ents Bpon >oBr frontiers. DBt EBrope hath foBnd the@ ne=essar> to @aintain the appearan=e of strenGth in a season of the @ost profoBnd tranEBilit>. liIe the @BsIet the> @aIe Bse of. If the people are not in General disposed to exe=Bte the poHers of GoCern@ent. 1232. at this @o@ent.% appeared in %the Penns>lCania Pa=Iet. taIinG a =hief part in exe=BtinG its laHs6 . DBt for the last it =annot De ne=essar>. )here is the standinG ar@> in the Horld that. and the senti@ents of so=iet>. Q+5 is ex=erpted fro@ T$E ADDRE AND REA ON O! DI ENT O! T$E 'INORIT# O! T$E CON*ENTION O! T$E TATE O! PENN #L*ANIA TO T$EIR CON TITUENT . and rather than e@plo> a standinG ar@>. !or. (4 O"<ECTION TO NATIONAL CONTROL O! T$E 'ILITIA %A DE'OCRATIC !EDERALI T. alloHinG ea=h to haCe a standinG ar@> as Bnrestri=ted as in the proposed =onstitBtion. tarnish the lBstre of the @ost illBstrioBs infant nation Bnder heaCen. and to oDFe=t to the@. )e haCe sB==eeded in oBr opposition to the @ost poHerfBl people Bpon the GloDe. it is =onfessedl> proper that >oB shoBld asso=iate and dHell in so=iet> fro@ =hoi=e and refle=tion. HithoBt an> EBalif>inG restraints HhateCer. "Bt I Hill not. Hhen he Goes on to tell >oB %that standinG ar@ies in ti@e of pea=e haCe alHa>s Deen a topi= of popBlar de=la@ation. and adCert to first prin=iples. @> =oBntr>@en/I =annot DelieCe >oB to De of the sa@e senti@ent. . It is Cer> trBe that LaH>er J<a@esK )ilson/@e@Der of the !ederal ConCention. Has for BneEBiCo=all> estaDlishinG the@ in ti@e of pea=e. #oB =annot help sBspe=tinG this Gentle@an J<a@es )ilsonK. the> had Detter haCe another. Antifederalist No. If t>rann> is at all feared.% O=toDer (+. it is >et @B=h too earl> to set it doHn for a fa=t. God has so separated Bs D> an extensiCe o=ean fro@ the rest of @anIind. it HoBld De i@possiDle Hhile He retain oBr inteGrit>. No @an that loCes his =oBntr> =oBld oDFe=t to their DeinG raised for the first of these =aBses. The Athenians foBnd D> sad experien=e. De=e@Der 1(. for an> nation HhateCer to sBDdBe Bs. . =ertainl> to exist so@eHhere in the DoHels of >oBr =oBntr> in ti@e of pea=e. and oBr priCate dissensions onl>. that +5 t>rants Here thirt> ti@es Horse than one. that @anIind =annot De GoCerned DBt D> for=e. folloHinG Q(4. and not De Iept toGether D> for=e and fear/>oB are @odestl> reEBested to enGraft into the =o@ponent parts of >oBr =onstitBtion a tandinG Ar@>. in @> hB@Dle opinion. . as it respe=ts foreiGn nations. 1232. the haDits. It has s=ar=el> stopped her proGress. and finall>. he hath so liDerall> endoHed Bs Hith priCileGes. hath Deen in ti@e of pea=e DriGhtened and DBrnished for the saIe onl> of @aintaininG an appearan=e of strenGth. as one of the ConCention. HithoBt DeinG pBt to a different Bse/HithoBt haCinG had a perni=ioBs inflBen=e Bpon the @orals. and the HoBnd that A@eri=a re=eiCed in the strBGGle.

)ilson sa>s. in a spee=h on the @Btin> Dill. that. that he does not InoH of an> nation in the Horld Hhi=h has not foBnd it ne=essar> to @aintain the appearan=e of strenGth in a season of the @ost profoBnd tranEBillit>. the attainted Oxford:. To this oBr >oBnG @en Hill De @ore i@@ediatel> sBDFe=ted. has =andidl> =onfessed that an ar@> is a @oral diste@per in a GoCern@ent. sensiDle that no dependen=e =oBld De pla=ed on the people for their sBpport.% And Hhat is this @ore than a threadDare ha=Ine>ed arGB@ent. And >et that nation has preserCed its freedo@ for @an> aGes.: B=h Here the spee=hes eCen of the ene@ies of liDert> Hhen "ritain had >et a riGht to De =alled free. As @ilitia the> @a> De sBDFe=ted to fines to an> a@oBnt. the> @a> De sBDFe=ted to =orporal pBnish@ents of the @ost disGra=efBl and hB@iliatinG Iind. %It is ne=essar> to @aintain the appearan=e of strenGth eCen in ti@es of the @ost profoBnd tranEBillit>. =iCil or reliGioBs natBre. The aDsolBte BnEBalified =o@@and that ConGress haCe oCer the @ilitia @a> De @ade instrB@ental to the destrB=tion of all liDert> Doth pBDli= and priCate. and Hhi=h Desides is sBrroBnded D> the @ost poHerfBl nations in EBrope. An a@DitioBs @an Hho @a> haCe the ar@> at his deCotion. @a> step Bp into the throne. liIe oBr thirteen tates. . all FealoBs of its liDert> and prosperit>. and has neCer Deen InoHn to haCe a standinG ar@>. it @a> De e@plo>ed to enfor=e the =olle=tion of the @ost oppressiCe taxes. I need onl> addB=e the exa@ple of HitAerland.$B@e. =o@posed of the@. and seiAe Bpon aDsolBte poHer. is a repBDli=. "Bt. and aGainst =oBrts @artial and a standinG ar@> in pea=e. J<a@esK )ilson. %)hile he had Dreath he HoBld speaI for the liDerties of his =oBntr>. Hhi=h has Deen ansHered oCer and oCer in different aGes. )h> shoBld He not folloH so GlorioBs an exa@ple. proDaDl> fro@ sixteen to sixt> >ears of aGe. that the GoCern@ent @Bst De exe=Bted D> for=e. @a> De @ade a fatal instrB@ent to oCertBrn the pBDli= liDerties. and to =arr> into exe=Btion the @ost arDitrar> @easBres. and does not deserCe eCen the s@allest =onsideration6 $ad He a standinG ar@> Hhen the "ritish inCaded oBr pea=efBl shores6 )as it a standinG ar@> that Gained the Dattles of LexinGton and "BnIer $ill. as danGeroBs to the ConstitBtion. D> the senten=e of a =oBrt @artial. and tooI the ill/fated "BrGo>ne6 Is not a Hell/ reGBlated @ilitia sBffi=ient for eCer> pBrpose of internal defense6 And Hhi=h of >oB. paGe -00. Hhi=h. sa>s 'r. +-4:. . and to death itself.% 9IDid. leCied in a @ilitar> @anner.. is afraid of an> inCasion fro@ foreiGn poHers that oBr DraCe @ilitia HoBld not De aDle i@@ediatel> to repel6 'r. If D> this eEBiCo=al assertion he has @eant to sa> that there is no nation in the Horld HithoBt a standinG ar@> in ti@e of pea=e. of Hhi=h it @Bst at last ineCitaDl> perish 9(d "BrGh. an aristo=rati=al Hriter. and are He less aDle to defend oBr liDert> HithoBt an ar@>. liIe Bs. The> haCe therefore @ade a proCision for this pBrpose in a per@anent standinG ar@> and a @ilitia that @a> De oDFe=ted to as stri=t dis=ipline and GoCern@ent. the personal liDert> of eCer> @an. A standinG ar@> in the hands of a GoCern@ent pla=ed so independent of the people. than that DraCe DBt s@all nation Hhi=h. DBt on the =ontrar>. @a> De destro>ed D> the poHer ConGress haCe in orGaniAinG and GoCerninG of the @ilitia. . as a sele=t @ilitia. said in the "ritish parlia@ent. Hith its @ilitia alone has hitherto defied all EBrope6 A DE'OCRATIC !EDERALI T The fra@ers of this =onstitBtion appear to haCe Deen . @> felloH =itiAens. Hith the sole help of a @ilitia. and the Earl of Oxford 9Oxford the friend of !ran=e and the Pretender. he has Deen @istaIen. Hill Dest ansHer the pBrposes of GoCern@ent. Hhose thirteen =antons. Hhether of a personal. are Bnder a federal GoCern@ent. ex=ept Hhen in a=tBal Har. !irst.

DBt in stri=t =onfor@it> Hith it. the riGhts of =ons=ien=e @a> De Ciolated. Thirdl>. the GoCern@ent. ThBs @a> the @ilitia De @ade the instrB@ents of =rBshinG the last efforts of expirinG liDert>. and as a fBrther sBpport. The @ilitia of Penns>lCania @a> De @ar=hed to NeH EnGland or *irGinia to EBell an insBrre=tion o==asioned D> the @ost GallinG oppression. nor had it an> @ethod Hithin its poHer to alter its sitBation. . +5/+1 A *IRGINIA ANTI!EDERALI T ON T$E I UE O! TA7ATION !ro@ The !ree@anLs <oBrnal. and the BnliIelihood of =ooperation in thirteen separate leGislatBres. as there is no exe@ption of those persons Hho are =ons=ientioBsl> s=rBpBloBs of hearinG ar@s. the fra@ers of oBr tate ConstitBtion @ade the @ost express and de=ided de=laration and stipBlations in faCor of the riGhts of =ons=ien=e. . It has Deen the lanGBaGe. and on one another. tax/Gatherers. At this @o@entoBs =risis. for Bnder the GBidan=e of an arDitrar> GoCern@ent. had not a shillinG in its treasBr> to enaDle it to pa> off the federal deDts. FBdGes. It =oBld @aIe treaties of =o@@er=e. deCoBrinG the hard earninGs of the indBstrioBs liIe the lo=Bsts of old. or. De=aBse eCen Hhen the distresses of the late Har and the eCident disaffe=tion of @an> =itiAens of that des=ription infla@ed oBr passions. This poHer =an De exer=ised not onl> HithoBt CiolatinG the ConstitBtion. DBt =oBld not enfor=e the oDserCan=e of the@. It Has foBnd that oBr national =hara=ter Has sinIinG in the opinion of foreiGn nations. and Hill doBDtless De exe=Bted a==ordinGl>. DBt noH. Hhen no ne=essit> exists. and that Hith an irritated CenGean=e. and it Has felt that He Here sBfferinG fro@ the restri=tions of foreiGn nations. it Hilt De the poli=> of this GoCern@ent to @Bltipl> offi=ers in eCer> depart@ent. and aided D> the standinG ar@>. Hhen oBtraGe and Ciolen=e @iGht haCe Deen expe=ted.e=ondl>. of the @ost CirtBoBs and dis=erninG @en in A@eri=a. . i@poCerishinG and desolatinG all Defore the@. The North/A@eri=an IntelliGen=er. These =o@pose a respe=taDle proportion of the =o@@Bnit> in the tate JPenns>lCaniaK. Hill sHar@ oCer the land. it is =al=Blated for this express pBrpose. =olle=tors. sin=e the pea=e. the> @a> De @ade the BnHillinG instrB@ents of t>rann>. As this GoCern@ent Hill not enFo> the =onfiden=e of the people. >et the @eaner passions of resent@ent and reCenGe Hill De in=reased. . O=toDer +1. ex=ise@en and the Hhole host of reCenBe offi=ers. DBt De exe=Bted D> for=e. the> Hill no doBDt De sB==essfBl in sBDdBinG their liDert> and independen=>. that represented the Bnion. . . it Hill De a Cer> expensiCe and DBrdenso@e GoCern@ent. The reEBisitions of ConGress Here set at naBGht. and that the selfish CieHs of so@e of the states Here liIel> to De=o@e the soBr=e of danGeroBs FealoBs>. . This is the @ore re@arIaDle. Antifederalist No. that the poHers Cested in ConGress Here inadeEBate to the pro=BrinG of the Denefits that shoBld resBlt fro@ the Bnion. 1232. Hho seeinG the Hant of enerG> in oBr federal =onstitBtion. of riCetinG the =hains of despotis@ on their felloH/=itiAens. The standinG ar@> @Bst De nB@eroBs. and these in tBrn Hill De the read> and oDedient instrB@ents of despotis@ to enslaCe the others. the riGhts of =ons=ien=e Here held sa=red. the aDsolBte =o@@and of ConGress oCer the @ilitia @a> De destrB=tiCe of pBDli= liDert>. those dearest riGhts of @en are left inse=Bre. "Bt in so doinG. althoBGh the @aGnani@it> of their @inds Hill De extinGBished. >et eCen then. and Hhen eCer> person Hho Has oDliGed to risI his oHn life @Bst haCe Deen exasperated aGainst sB=h as on an> a==oBnt Iept Da=I fro@ the =o@@on danGer. .

In Art. De a sBffi=ient se=Brit> to ConGress. indeed. Hith poHers to neH @odel the federal =onstitBtion. As it HoBld. Or. Dridled Hith ex=ise laHs and @anaGed D> ex=ise@en. (. 3. *irGinians. aDoBt to aDandon >oBr =oBntr> to the depredations of ex=ise@en. HoBld eCer haCe a Coi=e toHards ena=tinG the@6 That an> triDBnal. the> dissolCed the =onCention/after resolCinG a@onG the@selCes. sBrel>. DeleGates Here appointed D> @ost of the@. Here this not foBnd sBffi=ient.% Are >oB then. into an Bnifor@. it has noH done in the @ost BneEBiCo=al @anner. %ConGress shall haCe poHer to la> and =olle=t taxes. those instrB@ents of t>rann>. that an> other GoCern@ent DBt the General Asse@Dl> of *irGinia shoBld haCe poHer of dire=t taxation in this state6 $oH feH of >oB eCer expe=ted to see ex=ise laHs. it Has I DelieCe the General opinion. This ne=essit> =oBld not. and this HoBld fall sBffi=ientl> Bnifor@ on eCer> one. to a =onCention to De held at Annapolis in the epte@Der Defore last. Here the> foBnd to De ne=essar>. and sB=h trial shall De held in the state Hhere the =ri@e shall . if eCer it shoBld De foBnd ne=essar> to =Brse this land Hith these hatefBl ex=ise@en. and HithoBt HaitinG for the others. Bnless/that =onsiderinG the extensiCeness of the sinGle repBDli= into Hhi=h this =onstitBtion HoBld =olle=t all the others. HoBld De alloHed to taIe =oGniAan=e of dispBtes DetHeen her =itiAens and their tax Gatherers and ex=ise@en6 And that. To oDCiate these GrieCan=es. nor has it stopped here. hoH natBral the transition is fro@ one extre@e to another/ fro@ anar=h> to t>rann>. It is said in par. that neH poHers shoBld De Cested in ConGress to enaDle it. The> IneH hoH diffi=Blt it is to hit the Golden @ean. %The trial of all =ri@es ex=ept in =ases of i@pea=h@ents shall De D> FBr>. +. for those pBrposes. and ex=ises. Defore Hhi=h oBr soCereiGnt>. sBrel>. that >oB =oBld liCe to see the da>. that an> @an DBt a *irGinian. Has to Canish. se=t. arise fro@ the desire of fBrnishinG ConGress Hith a sBffi=ient reCenBe to enaDle it to exer=ise the preroGatiCes Hhi=h eCer> friend to A@eri=a HoBld Hish to see Cested in it. if an> of the@ refBsed their EBota. in for=e in >oBr =oBntr>6 "Bt Hho =oBld i@aGine. soDer pa=e. a==ordinG to his aDilit>. and thBs. GradBall>. for it has fairl> annihilated the =onstitBtion of ea=h indiCidBal state. ta@e the troBDleso@e @ettle of free@en. to appoint @e@Ders to another =onCention. DBt a felloH =itiAen. of the proposed =onstitBtion. and the pressBre of ex=ise laHs6 Did it eCer enter the @ind of an> one of >oB. In an> dispBte DetHeen >oB and the reCenBe offi=ers and ex=ise@en of ConGress. e=t. =oBld not the defi=ien=> De @ade Bp D> reEBisitions to the states6 CoBld it not haCe Deen @ade an arti=le of the federal =onstitBtion. Hho Here =o@inG on. as a state. fro@ the in=onCenient laxit> of thirteen separate GoCern@ents to the too sharp and GrindinG one. shoBld De entrBsted Hith that offi=e6 !or @> part. Hhi=h the> represented. DBt the =oBrts of *irGinia. to la> and =olle=t dBties on the i@ports of the United tates. It has proposed to >oB a hiGh preroGatiCe GoCern@ent. I =annot dis=oCer the ne=essit> there Has of alloHinG ConGress to sBDFe=t Bs to ex=ise laHs. This is Hhat the thinIinG people in A@eri=a Here apprehensiCe of. that their reEBisitions HoBld De pBn=tBall> =o@plied Hith. it is said. is to sHalloH Bp the rest. thoBGh Defore a federal triDBnal. it is trBe that it is proCided the trial shall De in the first instan=e Hithin the state. to reGBlate the =o@@er=e. that the poHers Cested in the@ Here not sBffi=ientl> extensiCe. and that the> HoBld appl> to the leGislatBres of the seCeral states. D> Bnani@oBs =onsent. and the Hell InoHn diffi=Blt> of GoCerninG larGe repBDli=s Hith har@on> and ease/it Has thoBGht expedient to Dit oBr @oBths Hith @assiCe =BrDs. liIe AaronLs serpent. i@posts. ConGress @a> De alloHed to @aIe it Bp D> an in=rease of the i@post on that parti=Blar state so refBsinG6 This HoBld. haCe the @anaGe@ent of the i@post. that. Hhi=h. it =oBld in=rease it to an> a@oBnt.had sha=Iled oBr =o@@er=e. an> one. A feH of the@ @et. in the a@plest @anner. I. +. HithoBt an> dread of re=ri@ination on oBr part. This. to DreaI Bs. dBties. art.

it is said. The Great oDFe=ts then are de=lared in this prea@Dle in General and indefinite ter@s to De to proCide for the =o@@on Helfare. and an express poHer DeinG Cested in the leGislatBre to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG into exe=Btion all the poHers Cested in the General GoCern@ent. Hith sB==ess. and haCe for@ed a fir@ phalanx. the Bpre@e CoBrt shall haCe appellate FBrisdi=tion. Hhi=h the soBthern deleGates haCe not. In the paraGraph pre=edinG the one FBst noH EBoted.% "Bt Hhere is this Bpre@e CoBrt to sit6 )ill it not De Hhere ConGress shall fix its residen=e6 Thither then >oB Hill De =arried for trial. and ConGress itself is to De a part>. on the =ontrar>. Doth as to laH and fa=t. #oB are to De depriCed of the Denefit of a FBr> fro@ >oBr Ci=inaGe.% These are the ends this GoCern@ent is to a==o@plish. the loGi= of "rBtBs =an De foBnd in a sBpre@e CoBrt de=ision of 1314. a@onG these is the poHer %to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h are ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG into exe=Btion the foreGoinG poHers and all other poHers Cested D> this =onstitBtion in the GoCern@ent of the United tates. that those reCenBe offi=ers and ex=ise@en/aGainst Hho@ free GoCern@ents haCe alHa>s FBstl> entertained a FealoBs>/shoBld De =itiAens of the state6 )as it inad@issiDle that the> shoBld De endBed Hith the DoHels of felloH =itiAens6 Are He not to expe=t that NeH EnGland Hill noH send Bs reCenBe offi=ers instead of onions and apples6 )hen >oB oDserCe that the feH pla=es alread> Bnder ConGress in this state are in the hands of stranGers. those Hho haCe serCed in ConGress =an tell >oB that the NeH EnGland deleGates to that asse@Dl> haCe alHa>s stood D> ea=h other. and those in Hhi=h a state shall De a part>. 'ar>land. the Bpre@e CoBrt shall haCe oriGinal FBrisdi=tion. +( !EDERAL TA7ATION AND T$E DOCTRINE O! I'PLIED PO)ER 9PART I: A poHerfBl reDBttal of $a@ilton. other pBDli= @inisters and =onsBls.% "Bt Hhat does this aCail. %in order to for@ a @ore perfe=t Bnion. CATO UTICEN I Antifederalist No. pro@ote the General Helfare. %In all =ases affe=tinG a@Dassadors.% It is a rBle in =onstrBinG a laH to =onsider the oDFe=ts the leGislatBre had in CieH in passinG it. >oB Hill oHn that @> sBspi=ion is not HithoBt so@e foBndation. This not onl> resBlts fro@ its natBre. The sa@e rBle Hill appl> in explaininG a =onstitBtion. Hhen an appeal Hill lie aGainst >oB to the sBpre@e federal =oBrt. DBt is expressl> de=lared in the 1th arti=le of it. The NeH/#orI <oBrnal of De=e@Der 1+. in diCidinG the latter aGainst ea=h other. or eCen fro@ >oBr state. it Hill therefore dissolCe all =ontra=ts Hhi=h @a> De in=onsistent Hith it. or in an> depart@ent or offi=er thereof. that Doast and DirthriGht of a free@an. to De. )ho are to De >oBr FBr>6 Is there an> proCision @ade that >oB shall haCe a *enire fro@ >oBr =oBnt>. TaIen fro@ %"rBtBs% fifth essa>. insBre do@esti= tranEBilit>. Hith sB=h ex=eptions and Bnder sB=h reGBlations as the ConGress shall @aIe. proCide for the =o@@on defense. that.De =o@@itted. 1232. to estaDlish FBsti=e. In all the other =ases Defore @entioned. and for Hhi=h it is inCested Hith =ertain poHers. and is intended as an oriGinal =o@pa=t. And if the first =aBse of it De reEBired. This =onstitBtion =onsiders the people of the seCeral states as one Dod> =orporate. The . hoBld it not at least haCe Deen proCided. and se=Bre the DlessinGs of liDert> to oBrselCes and posterit>. as the> please to =all it6 Not #oB are to De tried Hithin the territor> of ConGress. and to GiCe it sB=h an explanation as to pro@ote their intention. the @aneBCers of the for@er haCe Deen =o@@onl> enGaGed. The desiGn of the =onstitBtion is expressed in the prea@Dle. '=CBllo=h C.

and it Hill not De diffi=Blt to shoH that the sa@e aBthorit> is expressl> GiCen Hhi=h is sBpposed to De i@plied in the foreGoinG paraGraphs. to pass all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG this poHer into exe=Btion. and in this =laBse the poHer is in express Hords GiCen to ConGress %to proCide for the =o@@on defense. a@onG other thinGs. that the leGislatBre alone @Bst FBdGe Hhat laHs are proper and ne=essar> for the pBrpose. and General Helfare. spirits. This is far fro@ @> intention. that the sa@e poHers are sBDstantiall> Cested in the General GoCern@ent. Indeed it HoBld De a tasI far De>ond @> aDilit>. It is trBe the 4th se=tion restrains their poHer Hith respe=t to =ertain sBDFe=ts. dBties. It =o@prehends an ex=ise on all Iinds of liEBors. I shall neCertheless. and proCide for the =o@@on defense. et=. "Bt ad@ittinG the =ontrar> opinion to preCail. and to Hhi=h no one =an De =o@petent. a land tax. No ter@s =an De foBnd @ore indefinite than these. !irst. dBties. on =attle and on all Iinds of personal propert>.inferen=e is natBral that the leGislatBre Hill haCe an aBthorit> to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h the> shall FBdGe ne=essar> for the =o@@on safet>. To detail the parti=Blars =o@prehended in the General ter@s. so@e Bni@portant. Hines. It @a> De said. and pro@ote the General Helfare. DBt Foin issBe Hith those Hho sa> He are to =olle=t the idea of the poHers GiCen fro@ the express Hords of the =laBses GrantinG the@.. This a@oBnts to a poHer to @aIe laHs at dis=retion. Hhether of foreiGn or ho@e GroHth or @anBfa=tor>. In the lst arti=le. the intent of the =onstitBtion. on HindoHs and firepla=es. for the> extend to eCer> possiDle Ha> of raisinG @one>. +rd. %that ConGress shall haCe poHer to la> and =olle=t taxes. De aDle to shoH. i@posts and ex=ises. (nd. Hhether the =onstrB=tion I haCe GiCen it is not the @ost natBral and eas>. neHspapers. 3th se=tion. in order to proCide for the =o@@on defense. that the intent of it is to =onfer on the leGislatBre the poHer to la> and =olle=t taxes. and pro@ote the General Helfare. it is de=lared. and it is oDCioBs. Under this =laBse @a> De i@posed a poll tax. It extends to dBties on all Iinds of Goods to an> a@oBnt. )hat is in=lBded in this poHer to la> and =olle=t taxes.% And in the last paraGraph of the sa@e se=tion there is an express aBthorit> to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG into exe=Btion this poHer. It has Deen BrGed that the @eaninG I GiCe to this part of the =onstitBtion is not the trBe one. )hat is i@plied in the aBthorit>. HoBld reEBire a ColB@e. Hhether D> dire=t or indire=t taxation. and others not easil> Bnderstood. et=. and I shall not eCen insist Bpon this i@plied poHer. to dBties on Hritten instrB@ents. To this I HoBld repl>. It inCests the leGislatBre Hith aBthorit> to la> and =olle=t taxes. To =o@prehend the extent of this aBthorit>. and General Helfare of the United tates. Deer. i@posts and ex=ises. dBties. and to pro@ote the General Helfare. that the leGislatBre Bnder this =onstitBtion @a> pass an> laH Hhi=h the> @a> thinI proper. and indeed taIes in dBt> or ex=ise on eCer> ne=essar> or =onCenien=> of life. as I shall hereafter shoH. i@posts. al@ana=Is. He =an haCe no =on=eption of . is set to the exer=ise of this poHer D> the =onstitBtion. Bnless possessed of a @ind =apaDle of =o@prehendinG eCer> possiDle soBr=e of reCenBe. it Hill De reEBisite to exa@ine 1st. instead of a sinGle pie=e in a neHspaper. D> seCeral other arti=les in the =onstitBtion. dBties. It is therefore eCident. taxes. and ex=ises. a tax on hoBses and DBildinGs. "Bt these restri=tions are Cer> li@ited. in order to proCide for the =o@@on defense and General Helfare. In short. if an>. i@posts and ex=ises. to tonnaGe and poBndaGe on Cessels. and DooIs. that this Ha> of explaininG the =onstitBtion. so@e of the@ i@proper. is de=lared to De to proCide for the =o@@on defense. is tortBrinG and @aIinG it speaI Hhat it neCer intended. )hat li@itation. and to pass all laHs Hhi=h @a> De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG this poHer into effe=t. =ider. to pa> the deDts. that the @eaninG and intent of the =onstitBtion is to De =olle=ted fro@ the Hords of it. and I sBD@it to the pBDli=..% In the prea@Dle.

perhaps. or the sBDsisten=e of one HithoBt food. )e Hill next inEBire into Hhat is i@plied in the aBthorit> to pass all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper to =arr> this poHer into exe=Btion. the General GoCern@ent @a> repeal or arrest it in the exe=Btion. If then the oDFe=ts of this poHer =annot De =o@prehended.an> Ha> in Hhi=h a GoCern@ent =an raise @one> fro@ the people. that this poHer. and the> that haCe Doth. . for all their laHs Hill De the sBpre@e laH of the land. no soBr=e of reCenBe is therefore left in the hands LOf an> state. The Greatest GeniBses in the Horld haCe Deen for aGes e@plo>ed in the resear=h. Hith a riGht to @aIe all laHs ne=essar> and proper for draHinG forth all the resoBr=e of the =oBntr>. . and that the> shoBld preserCe not onl> the for@s of their . HithoBt the =o@@and of an> reCenBe. D> des=endinG to all the parti=Blar =ases in Hhi=h a reCenBe =an De raised. all poHer. it HoBld De eas> to shoH hoH this poHer in its operation. that the GoCern@ent Hhi=h is proper for the United tates shoBld De a =onfederated one. in fa=t. Hhi=h @a> affe=t the personal riGhts of the =itiAens of the states. e=ond. hoH is it possiDle to Bnderstand the extent of that poHer Hhi=h =an pass all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG it into exe=Btions It is trBl> in=o@prehensiDle. that no @an liCinG has. he @a> DelieCe that the state GoCern@ent =an exist. It opens a door to the appoint@ent of a sHar@ of reCenBe and ex=ise =olle=tors to pre> Bpon the honest and indBstrioBs part of the =o@@Bnit>. JandK eat Bp their sBDstan=e. There =annot De a Greater sole=is@ in politi=s than to talI of poHer in a GoCern@ent. Deen aDle to re=Ion the@ Bp. DBt the poHer to la> and =olle=t has Great latitBde. Hhi=h is not in=lBded in this poHer. HoBld totall> destro> all the poHers of the indiCidBal states. haCe eCer>thinG. expose their propert> to fines and =onfis=ation. )ere I to enter into the detail. NoH the General GoCern@ent haCinG in their =ontrol eCer> possiDle soBr=e of reCenBe. and it Hill De Bseless to sB=h as taIe thinGs Bpon trBst. "Bt this is not ne=essar> for those Hho Hill thinI for the@selCes. and extend to a Cast nB@Der of oDFe=ts. hoBld an> state atte@pt to raise @one> D> laH. as >et. It is Hell InoHn that the sBDFe=t of reCenBe is the @ost diffi=Blt and extensiCe in the s=ien=e of GoCern@ent. and as it Here infinite. HoBld haCe. dire=tl> annihilates all the poHers of the state leGislatBres. the nB@Der and Cariet> of these =ases are so endless. . so that the leGislatBre haCinG eCer> soBr=e fro@ Hhi=h @one> =an De draHn Bnder their dire=tion. it Hill lead to the passinG a Cast nB@Der of laHs. $e that has the pBrse Hill haCe the sHord. It is as aDsBrd as to talI of an ani@al HithoBt Dlood. Not onl> are these ter@s Cer> =o@prehensiCe. and the @ost nB@eroBs and exa=t proCisions of the leGislatBre. Bntil the iron hand of oppression =o@pel the@ to it. I shall onl> re@arI. shoBld this neH =onstitBtion taIe pla=e. or to fa=ilitate their =olle=tion. nothinG Hill aHaIen the@ to refle=tion. It is aGreed D> @ost of the adCo=ates of this neH s>ste@. and aBthorit> to pass an> laH the> @a> dee@ ne=essar> to draH the@ forth. Btterl> i@possiDle fBll> to define this poHer. and Hhen @anIind had sBpposed that the sBDFe=t Has exhaBsted the> haCe Deen astonished Hith the refined i@proCe@ents that haCe Deen @ade in @odern ti@es L and espe=iall> in the EnGlish nation on the sBDFe=t. It reEBires the Greatest talents of a states@an. The aBthorit> Granted in the first =laBse =an onl> De Bnderstood in its fBll extent. The =o@@and of the reCenBes LOf a state GiCes the =o@@and of eCer> thinG in it. If then an> one =an De HeaI enoBGh to DelieCe that a GoCern@ent =an exist HithoBt haCinG the aBthorit> to raise @one> to pa> a door/Ieeper to their asse@Dl>. DBt Hhat is in=lBded in one or other of these General ter@s. that the respe=tiCe states oBGht to retain a portion of their soCereiGnt>. GiCen to the federal leGislatBre. and pBt their liCes in Feopard>. It is. )e @a> sa> then that this =laBse =o@@its to the hands of the General leGislatBre eCer> =on=eiCaDle soBr=e of reCenBe Hithin the United tates. A =ase =annot De =on=eiCed of.

and there is no danGer of oppression in la>inG the@. Bnless therefore He =an sBppose the state GoCern@ents =an exist HithoBt @one> to sBpport the offi=ers Hho exe=Bte the@. to draH the line of distin=tion DetHeen the poHers of the General and state GoCern@ents on this sBDFe=t. as it respe=ts this =onstitBtion. in an> respe=t. and the =iCil estaDlish@ent of the Bnion. He need not spend @B=h ti@e on this sBDFe=t. $oH far the poHers to De retained D> the states are to extend. these in=lBde poll taxes. If the poHer of la>inG i@posts . @Bst rest in their representatiCes. and to annBl all laHs of the states Hhi=h @a> stand in the Ha> of effe=tinG it. it =ertainl> oBGht to haCe left in their hands so@e soBr=es of reCenBe. and easil> Bnderstood. if not i@possiDle.L and therefore. It is aGain oDFe=ted that it is Cer> diffi=Blt. The first in=lBdes i@post dBties on all i@ported Goods. oBGht not to exer=ise the poHer of dire=t taxation. and to dis=harGe their respe=tiCe deDts. Hhat @an> of its fra@ers and adCo=ates sa> it has. that the state GoCern@ents haCe also =ontra=ted deDts. The Great and onl> se=Brit> the people =an haCe aGainst oppression fro@ this Iind of taxes. @Bst haCe the poHer to raise the @one> ne=essar> for the pBrposes of the Bnion. . Indeed the idea of an> GoCern@ent existinG. is the EBestion. aGainst DBrdenso@e. and to do these the> oBGht to haCe aBthorit> to raise @one> adeEBate to the pBrpose. on eCer>thinG He eat. The> @a> De =olle=ted in feH pla=es. DBt also the poHer to =ondB=t =ertain internal =on=erns. The =ase is far otherHise Hith reGard to dire=t taxes. )e haCe therefore sBffi=ient se=Brit>. arisinG fro@ the natBre of the thinG. fro@ raisinG an> @one>. for the @eans of sBpportinG their GoCern@ent. the> @Bst therefore haCe dis=retionar> poHer. HithoBt an> @eans of sBpport in their oHn hands. the> are to proCide for the =o@@on defense. De=aBse if the> are laid hiGher than trade Hill Dear. . . the> Hill De se=Bre. or Hear. . this =onstitBtion has in CieH. "Bt feH offi=ers are ne=essar> to De e@plo>ed in =olle=tinG the@. as I haCe shoHn in a for@er paper. and haCe a proper reGard for the people. drinI. to se=Bre and GBarantee to the separate states the exer=ise of =ertain poHers of GoCern@ent. to pa> the deDts of the United tates. and set DoBnds oCer Hhi=h the> shoBld not pass. as an independent one. He @Bst =on=lBde the> Hill exist no lonGer than the General leGislatBres =hoose the> shoBld. It is a plain one. . or s@BGGle their Goods. . If the> are sBffi=ientl> nB@eroBs to De Hell infor@ed of the =ir=B@stan=es. dBties on Hritten instrB@ents. land taxes. If therefore. The line @a> De easil> and a==Bratel> draHn DetHeen the poHers of the tHo GoCern@ents on this head. the> reEBire @one> to sBpport their =iCil offi=ers. To this it is oDFe=ted.leGislatBres. is an aDsBrdit>. that the General GoCern@ent oBGht to haCe poHer =o@petent to the pBrposes of the Bnion. the @er=hants Hill =ease i@portinG. It shoBld haCe @arIed the line in Hhi=h the General GoCern@ent shoBld haCe raised @one>. and =o@e ho@e to eCer> @anLs hoBse and po=Iet. is not a noCel one in this =oBntr>. The first. this spe=ies of taxes it is proper shoBld De laid D> the General GoCern@ent. the> taIe hold of eCer> spe=ies of propert>. leaCinG to the separate states other @eans to raise sBpplies for the sBpport of their GoCern@ents. a =ontrol oCer the state leGislatBres as to prohiDit the@. It is =lear that the leGislatBres of the respe=tiCe states @Bst De altoGether dependent on the Hill of the General leGislatBre. The General leGislatBre. HheneCer the General leGislatBre @a> thinI proper. @an> reasons @iGht De BrGed to shoH that no danGer is to De apprehended fro@ their exer=ise of it. if the> are li@ited to =ertain oDFe=ts the reCenBe @a> fall short of a sBffi=ien=> for the pBDli= exiGen=ies. Hill not De thBs EBalified. . it is said. The distin=tion DetHeen external and internal taxes. sBpport foreiGn @inisters. ex=ises. and render the liCes of the =o@@on people a DBrden to the@. On this I oDserCe. and intoleraDle i@positions fro@ this Iind of tax. These are often so oppressiCe. and fro@ feH hands Hith =ertaint> and expedition. as to Grind the fa=e of the poor. for a GoCern@ent HithoBt poHer to raise @one> is one onl> in na@e. . The leGislatBreof the United tates Hill haCe a riGht to exhaBst eCer> soBr=e of reCenBe in eCer> state. 9the states Hill failK. if the> GiCe to the General GoCern@ent a poHer to raise @one> in eCer> Ha> in Hhi=h it =an possiDl> De raised. Hith . on this a==oBnt.

1232. and enGaGed D> oath to sBpport it. =oBrts. if the people =oBld not. dBties. in an> Ha> Hhi=h to the@ @a> appear eliGiDle. The NeH/#orI <oBrnal of De=e@Der (2.. ex=ept that the> =annot la> dBties on exports and i@ports HithoBt the =onsent of ConGress. and ex=ises.. =oBrts. Hith plenar> poHers to =olle=t the@. or De so DBrdenso@e that the> HoBld refBse to pa> the@ Doth HoBld it not De ne=essar> that the General leGislatBre shoBld sBspend the =olle=tion of the state tax6 It =ertainl> HoBld. or the tax to the General GoCern@ent =oBld not De =olle=ted. @an> @a> De sBGGested in Hhi=h their poHer @a> De a==Bratel> defined and li@ited. and ex=ises. and it shoBld fall so heaC> on the people that the> HoBld De BnaDle. =olle=tors. or HoBld not pa> Doth. dBties. The General GoCern@ent is to De Cested Hith aBthorit> to leC> and =olle=t taxes. the> @Bst De dis=harGed fro@ the tax to the state. and ex=ise@en. "Bt then the General GoCern@ent haCe sBperadded to this poHer. "RUTU Antifederalist No. ++ !EDERAL TA7ATION AND T$E DOCTRINE O! I'PLIED PO)ER 9PART II: The !ederalist Hriters apparentl> neCer responded to %"RUTU . The> Hill haCe aBthorit> to far@ the reCenBes and to Cest the far@er General. or ad@inister FBsti=e a@onG their =itiAens for an> lenGth of ti@e. that Hhen a @an =an nB@Der the@. and Hhi=h Hill introdB=e sB=h an infinite nB@Der of laHs and ordinan=es. fines and penalties. not to ex=eed a =ertain rate per =ent. )hat Hill render this poHer in ConGress effe=tBal and sBre in its operation is that the GoCern@ent Hill haCe =o@plete FBdi=ial and exe=BtiCe aBthorit> to =arr> all their laHs into effe=t. than to haCe sBrrendered eCer> Iind of resoBr=e that the =oBntr> has. Hith his sBDalterns. And the =oBrts of laH Hhi=h the> Hill De aBthoriAed to institBte. Bppose then that Doth GoCern@ents shoBld la> taxes. If this De trBe. and FBdGes. and it HoBld De @B=h Detter to GiCe the@ aBthorit> to la> and =olle=t a dBt> on exports. and Hill De =onstitBtionall> DoBnd to sBD@it to their de=isions. Hill . $ere then the tHo GoCern@ents haCe =on=Brrent FBrisdi=tion. I presB@e no one Hill pretend that the states =an exer=ise leGislatiCe aBthorit>. so@e other spe=ifi= @ode of raisinG a reCenBe shoBld haCe Deen assiGned the General GoCern@ent. The General leGislatBre Hill De e@poHered to la> an> tax the> =hoose. HithoBt DeinG aDle to raise a sBffi=ien=> to pa> those Hho ad@inister their GoCern@ents. and ex=ises. aBthorit> to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG the foreGoinG poHer into exe=Btion. the separate states haCe also poHer to i@pose taxes. The =on=lBsion therefore is ineCitaDle. dBties. . he @a> enB@erate the stars of $eaCen. to annex an> penalties the> please to the Drea=h of their reCenBe laHs. Doth @a> la> i@positions of this Iind. that the respe=tiCe state GoCern@ents Hill not haCe the poHer to raise one shillinG in an> Ha>. DBt D> the per@ission of the ConGress.Hill not De sBffi=ient. Hhi=h Hill De para@oBnt to the FBdi=ial and exe=BtiCe aBthorit> of the indiCidBal states: in Cain therefore Hill De all interferen=e of the leGislatBres.. and if the states =an raise @one> onl> D> per@ission of the General GoCern@ent. or @aGistrates of an> of the states on the sBDFe=t. !or. for the> Hill De sBDordinate to the General GoCern@ent. it folloHs that the state GoCern@ents Hill De dependent on the Hill of the General GoCern@ent for their existen=e. to the =o@plete aDolition of the state GoCern@ents.% The folloHinG %"rBtBs% arti=le Has extra=ted fro@ his sixth essa>. and to appoint as @an> offi=ers as the> @a> thinI proper to =olle=t the taxes.

Hhi=h @a>. to la> and =olle=t an ex=ise on =ider. Defore it is sold. De=aBse. or. and. Bnless the people rise Bp. HheneCer the ConGress please to do it. It HoBld De ne=essar>. it is oDCioBs. Has i@posed in that nation a feH >ears aGo. it is presB@ed. and offi=ers appointed. a Great nB@Der of offi=ers @Bst De e@plo>ed. $oH HoBld the poHer. @a> operate to dissolCe the state GoCern@ents. in order to =olle=t the ex=ise on =ider. and to se=Bre the pa>@ent of the dBt>. D> those Hho adCo=ate this s>ste@. and the offi=ers of these =oBrts Hill exe=Bte their FBdG@ents. or other Hise se=Brit> =oBld not De had for the pa>@ent of the ex=ise. ECer> DreHer> @Bst then De li=ensed. in la>inG a dBt> or ex=ise. restrain the General GoCern@ent for so@e ti@e. the reCenBe =annot De =onsideraDle. To this I HoBld onl> sa>. this @a> De essa>ed in so@e fBtBre paper. that these Iinds of taxes exist in Great "ritain. and oDliGe hi@ to GiCe Donds and se=Brit> for pa>@ent of the ex=ise. Hhi=h HoBld De oDFe=ts of this spe=ies of taxation. Hhi=h is in Cer> General Bse. and proDaDl> Hill. )e @a> therefore presB@e. Perhaps.haCe =oGniAan=e of eCer> =ase arisinG Bnder the reCenBe laHs. and the infinit> of laHs the> haCe passed respe=tinG the@. De of the nB@Der. Hhi=h are to @aIe this liEBor. There is no Ha>. of aCoidinG the destrB=tion of the state GoCern@ents. I Hill sinGle oBt a feH of the prodB=tions of oBr oHn =oBntr>. It Hill proDaDl> De said. and to taIe fro@ the@ se=Brit>. that the> Hill fix on sB=h arti=les as are of the @ost General Bse and =onsB@ption. and to pass all laHs proper and ne=essar> to =arr> it into exe=Btion. is Bsed. or. therefore. on Hhi=h the dBt> is laid. Hhi=h Hill pla=e the@ aDoCe an> apprehensions on that s=ore. if this Has not done. to =onsider the CarioBs oDFe=ts to Hhi=h this Iind of taxes extend. Hho read the histor> of the transa=tion. and it is in the @e@or> of eCer>one. an ex=lBsiCe riGht of DBildinG and IeepinG =ider/@ills. if otherHise. to taIe a==oBnt of the =ider @ade. that the arti=les Hhi=h Hill De the oDFe=t of this spe=ies of taxes Hill De either the real ne=essaries of life. The ex=ise on =ider and perr>. operate in its exer=ise6 It @iGht De ne=essar>. is =onsB@ed in Great EBantities. Hith the apprehension of danGers @erel> i@aGinar>. Bnless Great EBantities of the arti=le. in ea=h =oBnt>. and to =olle=t the dBties on it. are arti=les that HoBld proDaDl> De sBDFe=t also to an ex=ise. or ex=ise. De=aBse it is one. ale. to Grant to one @an. to a==oBnt for the ex=ise. it @iGht De ne=essar> to li=ense the @ills. that the oDserCations alread> @ade on this head. Hill De. at their =o@@and. 'an> other arti=les @iGht De na@ed. DBt I refrain fro@ enB@eratinG the@. it is i@possiDle to sa>. it leisBre Hill per@it. An ex=ise on this HoBld raise a larGe sB@ of @one> in the United tates. to taIe a==oBnt of its prodB=t. that there is not the least reason to apprehend the General leGislatBre Hill exer=ise their poHer in this @anner. and oppress the people. The fear of this Hill. resist and preCent the exe=Btion of =onstitBtional laHs. to reGBlate the @anBfa=tor> of these. and for=e. and are seCerel> felt. and Hhi=h @a> De said not to De a real ne=essar> of life. Hithin proper DoBnds. sB=h as fro@ =Bsto@ and haDit are estee@ed so. to raise @one>. Porter. Cider is an arti=le that @ost proDaDl> Hill De one of those on Hhi=h an ex=ise Hill De laid. . in order to =olle=t sB=h an ex=ise. Hhat Great tB@Blts it o==asioned. As the prin=ipal oDFe=t of the GoCern@ent. JandK the =ondB=t of all the offi=ers e@plo>ed in =olle=tinG the@. It HoBld assist Bs @B=h in for@inG a FBst opinion on this head. HoBld inCest the ConGress Hith aBthorit> to i@pose a dBt> and ex=ise on eCer> ne=essar> and =onCenien=e of life. $oH far the poHer to la> and =olle=t dBties and ex=ises. that the EBantit> @ade @iGht De as=ertained. are =al=Blated onl> to infla@e the @inds of the people. or if not those. DBt it Hill not De @an> >ears Defore the> Hill haCe a reCenBe. It Has oDserCed in @> last nB@Der. Hith a stronG hand. and all Iinds of @alt/ liEBors. in EBropean nations. Hhi=h this =oBntr> prodB=es in Great aDBndan=e. that the poHer to la> and =olle=t dBties and ex=ises.

. it Hill attend hi@ to his Ded=ha@Der. it Hill De a =onstant =o@panion of the indBstrioBs far@er in all his laDor.This poHer. the pBrposes to Hhi=h the @one> shall De appropriated are spe=ified. it Hill a==o@pan> the@ to the Dall. folloH the serCants into the parlor. To all these different =lasses of people. and Hill the> De Bnderstood in the sa@e @anner. and Hill.. a=tinG Bpon the sa@e Dod> in opposite dire=tions. nor Hill it desert the@ eCen at =hBr=h. and finall>. @axi@.. or in his store. =annot Doth of the@ De pro@otiCe of the General Helfare. that to adopt this =onstitBtion. it Hill folloH the @e=hani= to his shop. that %the idea that ConGress =an leC> taxes at pleasBre is false. and oCer=o@e the resistan=e of the HeaIer. sB=h a poHer @Bst ne=essaril>. Hhat tends to the General Helfare. or else the> Hill destro> ea=h other. et=. preside oCer the taDle. Hhi=h @anIind differ in the explanation of. or if the for=e of the one Has sBperior to that of the other. and to appl> to the sa@e =ases D> eCer>one6 No one Hill pretend the> Hill. on all o==asions. it Hill taIe =oGniAan=e of the professional @an in his offi=e. The prea@Dle to the =onstitBtion is de=larator> of the pBrposes of the JoBrK Bnion. Those Hho adCo=ate this neH =onstitBtion de=lare. .. the Dod> HoBld re@ain in a state of rest. to proCide for the =o@@on defense and General Helfare6 Are these ter@s definite. and the assB@ption of an> poHer not ne=essar> to estaDlish FBsti=e. in Hhi=h it Hill attend the@. the lanGBaGe in Hhi=h it Hill address the@. as @B=h as the> do on an> politi=al or @oral proposition that =an De proposed. Hhi=h saith. %no @an =an serCe tHo @asters. and the sHeat of his DroH. CiA. or his stBd>. the pla>. and Doth @a> profess. Hho reason thBs. and la>s hold of eCer> spe=ies of propert> the> possess. it Hill enter the hoBse of eCer> Gentle@an. "esides. To proCide for the General Helfare. the> are inflBen=ed D> a reGard to the General Helfare. those Hho oppose it. and asse@Dl>. "Bt it is said. and neither of the@ effe=t their pBrpose. and note doHn all he eats or drinIs. It @a> De =o@pared to tHo @e=hani= poHers. Hhi=h rea=hes eCer> person in the =o@@Bnit> in eCer> =on=eiCaDle =ir=B@stan=e. It Hill then De @atter of opinion. exer=ised HithoBt li@itation. and in his HorI. and in all these =ir=B@stan=es. sHalloH Bp all the poHer of the state GoCern@ents. and I haCe no doBDt DBt a nB@Der on Doth sides are honest in their professions. and in his Ded. Hat=h oCer his =ellar. oDserCe the toil of his hands... Hill De Bn=onstitBtional. the stronGer HoBld preCail.% the one poHer or the other @Bst preCail. for tHo @en. DBt the dis=retion of those Hho exer=ise it/I sa>. Hill De GI*E8 GI*E8 A poHer that has sB=h latitBde. is an aDstra=t proposition. and the sBGGestion Hholl> BnsBpported. de=lare the> are @oCed D> the sa@e prin=iple. . it Hill penetrate into the @ost oDs=Bre =ottaGe. the =onseEBen=e HoBld De. fro@ its Cer> natBre. if the poHers Here eEBal. or Dodies of @en. and Hill not leaCe the@ in an> of their do@esti= =on=erns. it Hill Go Hith the@ Hhen the> Cisit. Hait Bpon his =ooI in the Iit=hen. to haCe Bnli@ited poHer respe=tinG the sa@e oDFe=t. Hill introdB=e itself into eCer> =orner of the =it>. D> so@e of the adCo=ates of this s>ste@. and Hill haBnt hi@ in his fa@il>.%L I HoBld asI those. sit Deside the@ in their =arriaGes. it Hill Hat=h the @er=hant in the =oBntinG/hoBse. and =oBntr>/it Hill Hait Bpon the ladies at their toilet. and Hat=h hi@ Hhile he sleeps. It =ontradi=ts the . I shall add DBt one other oDserCation on this head. in the Cer> =laBse Hhi=h GiCes the poHer of leC>inG dBties and taxes. proCide for the =o@@on defense. it Hill liGht Bpon the head of eCer> person in the United tates. Hhi=h is this: It appears to @e a sole=is@. the @ost opposite @easBres @a> De pBrsBed D> different parties. that the> haCe in CieH the General Helfare and Doth sides @a> De honest in their professions. to pa> the deDts and proCide for the =o@@on defense and General Helfare. and in the field. and Hhi=h has no DoBnds set to it. or Doth @a> haCe sinister CieHs. and not to adopt it. et=. to define Hhat ideas are in=lBded Bnder the ter@s. . and >et nothinG is @ore =ertain than this. it Hill De Hith hi@ in the hoBse. and the ConGress Hill De the onl> FBdGes in the @atter.

that the opponents to the plan pro@BlGated D> the =onCention. that the GoCernors of eCer> people shoBld proCide for the =o@@on defense and General Helfare. . Hith respe=t to reCenBe. to DBild and eEBip fleets. that the poHer of the ConGress Bnder it. fro@ Hhose aGen=> the attain@ent of an> end is expe=ted. the end it has in CieH is so also. alHa>s to Hill Hhat is riGht. sa>s the Gentle@an. oBGht to exist HithoBt li@itation. the rBlers the@selCes @Bst. rBlers as Hell as others. !or eCer> @an. The @eans. @anifests a Hant of =andor. and =ertain ends D> the other. and happiness. =arries its oHn eCiden=e alonG Hith it. is li@ited in the exer=ise of his poHer. to a =orre=t and BnpreFBdi=ed @ind. . JandK to proCide for their sBpport. Hith an air of =onfiden=e. is at least =learl> de@onstrated D> the foreGoinG @ode of reasoninG. Hhat is the end of the GoCern@ent of the United tates. It is =ertainl> riGht and fit. Ad@it the proposition to De trBe. it is then ne=essar> to inEBire. that so it oBGht to De. that the poHer of ConGress is li@ited D> these General expressions %to proCide for the =o@@on safet>. it is said. in order to draH an> FBst =on=lBsions fro@ it. I hB@Dl> =on=eiCe his reasoninG Hill appear. %is one of those trBths Hhi=h. . a @ost pitifBl restri=tion. Hho ad@it. oBGht to De proportioned to the end.% that the oDFe=ts of ea=h oBGht to De pointed oBt. a =onfederate instead of a sole. had the =onstitBtion said the> shoBld haCe poHer to la> taxes. It rests Bpon axio@s as si@ple as the> are BniCersal. that it HoBld De li@ited. eCen the Greatest despot. that the poHers oBGht to De Bnli@ited as to the oDFe=t to Hhi=h the> extend.. )ere this aBthorit> GiCen. Neither the General GoCern@ent nor the state GoCern@ents oBGht to De Cested Hith all the poHers proper to De exer=ised for pro@otinG the ends of GoCern@ent. The GoCern@ent then. The poHers are diCided DetHeen the@/=ertain ends are to De attained D> the one. the persons. The GoCern@ent HoBld alHa>s sa>. in the Horld. and proCision @ade for the @anaGinG sB=h of their internal =on=erns as are allotted to the@. "Bt Hith sBD@ission to this aBthorLs Detter FBdG@ent. the state GoCern@ents are to De sBpported.It is aDsBrd to sa>. or pBrsBe an> @easBres. as for the General GoCern@ent. . .% This. their @easBres Here desiGned and =al=Blated to pro@ote the pBDli= Good. Bpon exa@ination. that Bnder it the leGislatBre =oBld not do inFBsti=e. De=aBse it is i@possiDle to foresee or define the extent and Cariet> of national exiGen=ies. and it is as ne=essar> that the state GoCern@ents shoBld possess the @eans to attain the end expe=ted fro@ the@. the poHer %to raise ar@ies. Is this end si@pl> to preserCe the General GoCern@ent. . !or Deside this. and that this position. and there DeinG no FBdGe DetHeen the@ and the people. and General Helfare. the @eans oBGht to De proportioned to the end.. at Hill and pleasBre. in pra=ti=e. This DeinG the =ase. and =ontend. There are others of the faCorers of this s>ste@. the =on=lBsion . FBdGe for the@selCes.% This sa@e Hriter insinBates.% as it HoBld De to sa>. it HoBld De foBnd. and HoBld alHa>s. taIen toGether.. It is ad@itted %that the =ir=B@stan=es of oBr =oBntr> are sB=h as to de@and a =o@poBnd instead of a si@ple. eCer> GoCern@ent. Hill exist HithoBt li@itation. and to proCide for the =o@@on defense and General Helfare of the Bnion onl>6 Certainl> not. and these. are DoBnd D> the i@@BtaDle laHs of God and reason. It is said. or the =orrespondent extent and Cariet> of the @eans Hhi=h @a> De ne=essar> to satisf> the@. in=lBde all the ends of Good GoCern@ent. and that ea=h oBGht to possess a@ple aBthorit> to exe=Bte the poHers =o@@itted to the@. it @iGht De said. therefore. DeinG =o@plex in its natBre. De=aBse he asserts. if not self/eCident. oBGht to possess the @eans D> Hhi=h it is to De attained. "Bt hoHeCer FBst this reasoninG @a> De. et=. @ore spe=ioBs than solid. in oDFe=tinG to the extent of the poHers proposed to De Cested in this GoCern@ent. GoCern@ent. DBt sB=h as Here =al=Blated to pro@ote the pBDli= Good.

)ere all the states. the se=ond thinG is A@eri=an Bnion.%% and fro@ hen=e to infer. sir. . . and. that all the soBr=es of reCenBe in the states shoBld De >ielded to the General GoCern@ent. "Bt does it then=e folloH.T$E PRO"LE' O! CONCURRENT TA7ATION The folloHinG spee=h D> Patri=I $enr> Has deliCered to the *irGinia ratif>inG =onCention. their leGislatBres and exe=BtiCes are to De sBpported. I neCer Hill GiCe Bp the poHer of dire=t taxation DBt for a s=oBrGe. that there =annot De a =learer position than this. to Foin aGainst Bs. adeEBate to the exiGen=ies of their GoCern@ents. and I hope the people of *irGinia Hill endeaCor to preserCe that Bnion. there is another alternatiCe to Hhi=h I HoBld =onsent. It is =lear then. as those =o@@itted to their =are. sBpportinG the General GoCern@ent. that %the =ir=B@stan=es that endanGer the safet> of nations are infinite. to attain the ends. the> shoBld De fBrnished Hith @eans. @ore terriDle than the @other =oBntr>. "RUTU Antifederalist No. The first thinG I haCe at heart is A@eri=an liDert>. as ne=essar> to the happiness of the =oBntr>. that is. the =ontrol of oBr =Bsto@/hoBses. nor is it proper it shoBld. +. and indeed @ore so. is not =on=lBsiCe reasoninG: for the ConGress are aBthoriAed onl> to =ontrol in General =on=erns. that the> shoBld =o@@and all the reCenBes of the United tates6 'ost =ertainl> it does not.folloHs. !or if so. . and proCision is to De @ade for the ad@inistration of FBsti=e in the respe=tiCe states. that the state GoCern@ents oBGht to haCe an Bn=ontrollaDle poHer to raise a reCenBe. The indiCidBal states haCe deDts to dis=harGe. I a@ HillinG to GiCe it =onditionall>. To appl> this reasoninG to the =ase of reCenBe. that the states shoBld haCe the =o@@and of sB=h reCenBes. Na>. and proCidinG for the defense of the Bnion. !or these oDFe=ts the General GoCern@ent has no aBthorit> to proCide. Upon the Hhole. To oDtain these ends. in =ase *irGinia shall not @aIe pBn=tBal pa>@ent. 1233. no sB=h poHer is left the@ D> this =onstitBtion. I hope *irGinia =oBld defend herself. the General GoCern@ent is =harGed Hith the =are of proCidinG for the pa>@ent of the deDts of the United tates. till *irGinia shall haCe paid the last farthinG. that ea=h shoBld De fBrnished Hith the @eans. <Bne 0. and that *irGinia shall depend on ConGress eCen for passports. sir. the dissolBtion of the Union is @ost aDhorrent to @> @ind. The pea=e and happiness of a =o@@Bnit> is as inti@atel> =onne=ted Hith the prBdent dire=tion of their do@esti= affairs. eCen that the> shoBld striIe Bs oBt of the Union. I =on=eiCe. as to ansHer the ends the> haCe to oDtain. and the Hhole reGBlation of trade. DBt. I presB@e. shall De GiCen to ConGress. To sa>. and the dBe ad@inistration of FBsti=e a@onG the@selCes. it Hill folloH. and fBrnished the last soldier. that no @eans Hill De left to attain other ends. and not reGBlate lo=al and internal ones. till He =o@pl> Hith federal reEBisitions: DBt let it depend Bpon oBr oHn pleasBre to pa> oBr @one> in the @ost eas> @anner for oBr people. I Hill do @ore. to Hhi=h the> are desiGned. as Hith a =o@petent proCision for their defense aGainst foreiGn inCaders. The in=reasinG popBlation of the oBthern tates is far Greater than that of NeH EnGland. and Hhat I hope Hill =onCin=e the @ost sIepti=al @an that I a@ a loCer of the A@eri=an Union/that. sir. and taIe aHa> fro@ Bs all federal priCileGes. after non/=o@plian=e Hith reEBisitions.

Hill prodB=e sB=h dreadfBl oppression as the people =annot possiDl> Dear. DBt I Desee=h Gentle@en. +0 !EDERAL TA7ING PO)ER 'U T "E RE TRAINED GeorGe 'ason of *irGinia opposed the ConstitBtion De=aBse it la=Ied a "ill of RiGhts. This poHer. 'r. and FBdGed D> riGhteoBs FBdGes: DBt. and @an> reasons there are to indB=e a Delief that the> Hill not. It is a fa=t that lands haCe Deen sold for fiCe shillinGs. I HoBld GiCe the Dest se=Brit> for a pBn=tBal =o@plian=e Hith reEBisitions. and De=aBse laHs are @ade D> oBr representatiCes. 1233. I @a> De told that it is safe to err on that side. haCe. >oB =annot Get redress on this side of Philadelphia or NeH #orI. The assB@ption of this poHer of la>inG dire=t taxes does. I shall therefore De an infidel on that point till the da> of @> death. haCe dared to =o@@it these oBtraGes. Bnder the Hat=hfBl e>e of oBr leGislatBre. . he pleases. and fees6 ThBs thoBsands of >oBr people Hill De @ost sha@efBll> roDDed: oBr state sheriffs. . a repeated sB==ession of laHs has Deen @ade to sBppress their iniEBitoBs spe=Blations and =rBel extortions. Hill the people Dear it6 If >oB thinI so. thBs i@@ediatel> Bnder the e>e of oBr state leGislatBre and FBdi=iar>. In this s=he@e of enerGeti= GoCern@ent. as these reGBlations @a> De @ade. I @ean that =laBse Hhi=h GiCes the first hint of the General GoCern@ent la>inG dire=t taxes. and as often has their nefarioBs inGenBit> deCised @ethods of eCadinG the for=e of those laHs: in the strBGGle the> haCe Generall> triB@phed oCer the leGislatBre. those BnfeelinG Dlood/sB=Iers. at an> ti@e. )hen these harpies are aided D> ex=ise@en. ir. the> Hill De far @ore nB@eroBs than the people of that =oBntr>. the present =laBse JArti=le 1. . of itself. This. <Bne -. and >oB Hill find this state @ore parti=Blarl> interested to sBpport A@eri=an liDert>. Hhether the ConstitBtion De Good or Dad. and Hho @a> also De in=lined to faCor their oHn offi=ers. . It has reEBired the @ost =onstant CiGilan=e of the leGislatBre to Ieep the@ fro@ totall> rBininG the people. The federal sheriff @a> =o@@it Hhat oppression.=onseEBentl>. Hhi=h Here Horth one hBndred poBnds: if sheriffs. and @ost se=ret re=esses. =o@@issions. at all haAards. so the> @a> not. for hoH are >oB to tie his hands6 $aCe >oB an> sBffi=ientl> de=ided @eans of preCentinG hi@ fro@ sB=IinG >oBr Dlood D> spe=Blations. >oB differ fro@ @e. e=tion (K =learl> dis=oCers that it is a national GoCern@ent. 'ason deliCered the folloHinG spee=h Defore the *irGinia ratif>inG =onCention. and not Dind oBr posterit> D> an i@proCident relinEBish@ent of oBr riGhts. I HoBld Grant poHer Hith a niGGardl> hand. Hhat HoBld the> not haCe done if their @asters had Deen at Philadelphia or NeH #orI6 If the> perpetrate the @ost BnHarrantaDle oBtraGe on >oBr person or propert>. )here I thoBGht there Has a possiDilit> of sB=h @is=hiefs. Hho @a> sear=h. in a short ti@e. >oBr hoBses. entirel> =hanGe the =onfederation of the states into one =onsolidated GoCern@ent. Consider this. =o@@itted the @ost horrid and DarDaroBs raCaGes on oBr people. and hoH =an >oB Get it there6 If >oBr do@esti= aCo=ations =oBld per@it >oB to Go thither. Antifederalist No. and here there is a stronG proDaDilit> that these oppressions shall a=tBall> happen. not to GiCe Bp this Bnli@ited poHer of taxation. and no lonGer a Confederation. Chair@an. it see@s to @e. the people Hill find tHo sets of taxGatherers/the state and the federal sheriffs. DeinG at dis=retion. there >oB @Bst appeal to FBdGes sHorn to sBpport this ConstitBtion. in opposition to that of an> state. and =entraliAed poHers fBrther than he felt it ne=essar>. @aIe Hhat distresses. and rBin >oB Hith i@pBnit>. De=aBse sB=h reGBlations @a> De @ade D> ConGress as shall restrain these offi=ers.

HithoBt en=oBnterinG the eCil and danGer that @iGht arise fro@ it. and the @ode of leC>inG to De fixed. The sBDFe=t of taxation differs in three foBrths. that ConGress shall not exer=ise the poHer of raisinG dire=t taxes till the states shall haCe refBsed to =o@pl> Hith the reEBisitions of ConGress. HithoBt =onsBltinG the real =ir=B@stan=es or =onCenien=e of a =oBntr>. so@eti@es fro@ an i@possiDilit> of =o@pl>inG Hith the@. na>. and for Hhi=h its @e@Ders Hill not haCe sBffi=ient infor@ation6 Is it not Hell InoHn that Hhat HoBld De a proper tax in one state HoBld De GrieCoBs in another6 The Gentle@an Hho has faCored Bs Hith a eBloGiB@ in faCor of this s>ste@ J)ilson C. shoBld He GiCe Bp this danGeroBs poHer of indiCidBal taxation6 )h> leaCe the @anner of la>inG taxes to those Hho. and the sB@s ne=essar> for the Union HoBld De then laid D> the states. )h>. so danGeroBs in its natBre. This poHer is =al=Blated to annihilate totall> the state GoCern@ents. DBt reEBisitions haCe Deen @ade Hhi=h Here i@possiDle to De =o@plied Hith/ reEBisitions for @ore Gold and silCer than Here in the United tates. in the natBre of thinGs. )h>. and HoBld it not De far @ore eliGiDle6 I =andidl> a=InoHledGe the ineffi=a=> of the Confederation. . the latter @Bst GiCe Ha> to the for@er. ReEBisitions JBnder the Arti=les of ConfederationK haCe Deen often refBsed. "Bt Hh> shall He GiCe Bp to the national GoCern@ent this poHer. An indispensaDle a@end@ent . nor a =o@@on interest Hith Bs. often fro@ that Great Cariet> of =ir=B@stan=es Hhi=h retards the =olle=tion of @one>s. )hen a =ertain sB@ =o@es to De taxed. then. in fa=t. @Bst. then. If He trBst the national GoCern@ent Hith an effe=tBal Ha> of raisinG the ne=essar> sB@s. And the =ertaint> of this =onditional poHer HoBld. . then I HoBld =heerfBll> a=EBies=e.. in foBr fifths of the states. that the sB@ raised one Ha> Hith =onCenien=e and =ase. it is sBffi=ient: eCer>thinG He do fBrther is trBstinG the happiness and riGhts of the people. ixt>/fiCe @e@Ders =annot possiDl> InoH the sitBation and =ir=B@stan=es of all the inhaDitants of this i@@ense =ontinent. and perhaps so@eti@es fro@ a HilfBl desiGn of pro=rastinatinG. The General GoCern@ent DeinG para@oBnt to. instead of GiCinG this oppressiCe poHer. after all the en=o@iB@s he has Deen pleased to DestoH Bpon it. in all hB@an proDaDilit>. is. preCent the appli=ation. then the @is=hief HoBld De aCoided.Bn=onfined. and HithoBt an> Iind of =ontrol.. and not D> those Hho @Bst ne=essaril> apportion it in sB=h @anner as shall De oppressiCe6 . The @ode of leC>inG taxes is of the Bt@ost =onseEBen=e. GiCe @e leaCe to sa>. the> Hill la> the tax on that arti=le Hhi=h Hill De @ost prodB=tiCe and easiest in the =olle=tion. the one Hill destro> the other. HoBld De Cer> oppressiCe another Ha>. )ill the people of this Great =o@@Bnit> J*irGiniaK sBD@it to De indiCidBall> taxed D> tHo different and distin=t poHers6 )ill the> sBffer the@selCes to De doBDl> harassed6 These tHo =on=Brrent poHers =annot exist lonG toGether.. and la> the@ on the inhaDitants Hith @ore propriet>. as the states =an raise the taxes Hith @ore =ase. DBt I see no reason to Grant it Bn=onditionall>. the> =annot De sBffi=ientl> a=EBainted. D> those Hho haCe a felloH/feelinG for Bs. and in eCer> respe=t @ore poHerfBl than the state GoCern@ents. Ni=holasK. If He GiCe the General GoCern@ent the poHer of de@andinG their EBotas of the states. Hith Hhi=h. On this =ondition it @a> De Granted. Hith an alternatiCe of la>inG dire=t taxes in =ase of non/ =o@plian=e. . Hhen it =an De done D> those Hho are Hell a=EBainted Hith it6 If. not leaCe this poHer to De exer=ised D> those Hho InoH the @ode @ost =onCenient for the inhaDitants. I @iGht sa> Hith trBth. . nor a felloH/feelinG for Bs. a=InoHledGe that oBr federal representatiCes @Bst De Bna=EBainted Hith the sitBation of their =onstitBents. and >et here it is to De deter@ined D> those Hho haCe neither InoHledGe of oBr sitBation. D> those Hho InoH hoH it =an Dest De raised. He GiCe the@ sB=h an effe=tBal alternatiCe as Hill ansHer the pBrpose. =annot De a=EBainted Hith the sitBation of those on Hho@ the> are to i@pose the@. than it is . The Cer> idea of =onCertinG Hhat Has for@erl> a =onfederation to a =onsolidated GoCern@ent is totall> sBDCersiCe of eCer> prin=iple Hhi=h has hitherto GoCerned Bs. @Bst =arr> eCer> thinG Defore it.

1+. ex=ises. hoBld the General GoCern@ent thinI it politi=. the taxes Hill De laid D> those Hho haCe no felloH/ feelinG or a=EBaintan=e Hith the people. I shall HithdraH @> oDFe=tions to this part of the ConstitBtion.. et=. prBdent. thoBGh Blti@atel> paid D> the =onsB@er. $is pa@phlets Here Hidel> distriDBted and reprinted in neHspapers. in this extensiCe =oBntr>. All these =ir=B@stan=es =onsidered. If ConGress hath this poHer HithoBt =ontrol. "Bt internal taxes. and offi=ers to exe=Bte the@. hoBld this poHer De restrained. DoBnds are set to the@. External taxes are i@port dBties. proDaDl>. 02. +1 REPRE ENTATION AND INTERNAL TA7ATION Ri=hard $enr> Lee Has arGBaDl> the Dest InoHn Antifederalist Hriter. taxes @ore prodB=tiCe than the i@post dBties Hill. DBt as it stands. as poll and land taxes. et=. is. i@@ediatel> operatinG Bpon the Dod> of the people. and the> =an De =arried no hiGher than trade Hill Dear. as Hill De less. "> @eans of taxes. De Hanted to sBpport the GoCern@ent. Antifederalist Nos. and internal tax laHs and federal assessors and =olle=tors spread oCer this i@@ense =oBntr>. as the =oBntr> is so Cer> extensiCe As @an> assessors and =olle=tors of federal taxes Hill De aDoCe three hBndred @iles fro@ the seat of the federal GoCern@ent. Hill proDaDl> soon defeat the operations of the state laHs and GoCern@ents.. and sB=h onl>. these @Bst =ontinBall> interfere Hith the state laHs. The internal soBr=es of taxation then @Bst De =alled into operation. It is a Cer> Great and i@portant one. in itself. Antifederalist Papers Q +1R+2 are ex=erpts fro@ his first pa@phlet. operatinG on the sa@e sBDFe=ts. -+. Internal taxation in this =oBntr> is @ore i@portant. -1. 03. the GoCern@ent Hill taIe eCer> o==asion to @Bltipl> laHs. 00. to sa> nothinG of those respe=tinG the @ilitia. HithoBt leaCinG an>thinG for the do@esti= =reditors. @a> fix the@selCes on eCer> person and spe=ies of propert> in the =o@@Bnit>. These ordinan=es alone. nB@eroBs offi=ers @Bst De e@plo>ed to assess the@. =o@@er=e. as are ne=essar> to se=Bre the dearest riGhts of the people. DBt as to internal taxes. it is an oDFe=tion so stronG in @> @ind. 01. @Bst reEBire a Great nB@Der of =onGressional ordinan=es. the> @a> De =arried to an> lenGths. Hhi=h are laid on i@ported Goods. the> @a> BsBall> De =olle=ted in a feH seaport toHns. as so@e ad@inistration 9if not all: proDaDl> Hill. I therefore DeG Gentle@en to =onsider it. =oin. to looI for a sBpport in a s>ste@ of inflBen=e. shall De aDolished.. This is @> oDFe=tion to the arti=le noH Bnder =onsideration. or . Taxes @a> De of CarioBs Iinds. it @aIes reEBisitions on the proCin=es. 14. or s@BGGlinG per@it/that in the Cer> natBre of =o@@er=e. and of a feH indiCidBals. "esides. Antifederalist No. DBt there is a stronG distin=tion DetHeen external and internal taxes. is it Hise.possiDle for the General GoCern@ent to do.. =onsiderinG these as so @an> ne=essar> props for its oHn sBpport. I Hish for sB=h a@end@ents. dBties on all Hritten instrB@ents. In the United Netherlands the General GoCern@ent has =o@plete poHers. and thereD> prodB=e disorder and General dissatisfa=tion. -(. that its a@end@ent is Hith @e a sine EBa non of its adoption. till the one s>ste@ of laHs or the other. the GoCern@ent @a> =o@@and the Hhole or an> part of the sBDFe=tLs propert>. a feH offi=ers =an =olle=t the@. and to dis=harGe foreiGn de@ands. A poHer to la> and =olle=t taxes at dis=retion. 21/22 are taIen fro@ his se=ond pa@phlet. and in proportion as the> are extended. as to external taxation. and to enfor=e the =olle=tion of the@. to la> and =olle=t taxes. of Cer> Great i@portan=e. 11. federal FBdi=iar>.. hoBld this s>ste@ of poli=> De adopted.

=o@@on in extensiCe tra=ts of =oBntr>. I a@ aHare it is said. DBt to sBppose that this Dran=h is sBffi=ientl> nB@eroBs to GBard the riGhts of the people in the ad@inistration of the GoCern@ent. as . These differen=es are not so per=eiCaDle a@onG the @e@Ders of =onGress. and opinions of three or foBr @illions of people. Hhile i@perfe=tl> orGaniAed and inadeEBate6 And to trBst to a@endinG it hereafter. as a@onG the @en Hho HoBld properl> for@ the de@o=rati= Dran=h. and @aIinG it adeEBate to this pBrpose6 It is not onl> Bnsafe DBt aDsBrd to lodGe poHer in a GoCern@ent Defore it is fitted to re=eiCe it. a@end the =onstitBtion. et=. see@s to arGBe that He haCe forGot Hhat the trBe @eaninG of representation is. leGislatBres.safe. that =onGress Hill onl> haCe poHer to @aIe reEBisitions. Hhere it at present oBGht to De. the> haCe DBt feH @oderate freeholders. I see DBt Cer> little =olor for this =onstrB=tion. in Hhi=h the pBrse and sHord is pla=ed. the oBthern states are =o@posed =hiefl> of ri=h planters and slaCes. Hho. I a@ sensiDle also. . and add to its other parts this poHer. are to De taIen into CieH. DBt that the poHers of =onGress Hill De =o@plete as to all Iinds of taxes HhateCer. feelinGs. Hhen ne=essar>. it @a> De for @an> pBrposes. DBt @an> differen=es pe=Bliar to Eastern. . to Get rid of oDFe=tions to this part of the =onstitBtion. I =an s=ar=el> DelieCe He are serioBs in proposinG to Cest the poHers of la>inG and =olle=tinG internal taxes in a GoCern@ent so i@perfe=tl> orGaniAed for sB=h pBrposes. It is =onfessed that this poHer and representation oBGht to Go toGether. to hold their dBe proportion of this poHer. not onl> distan=es and different opinions.. and not in=onsideratel> GiCen Bp. that the representation proposed D> the neH =onstitBtion is sBffi=ientl> nB@eroBs. !Brther. )hen I re=olle=t hoH latel> =onGress. . and oBthern tates. the> haCe DBt feH ri=h @en and no slaCes. )h> GiCe the poHer first6 )h> GiCe the poHer to the feH. into the GoCern@ent. and @en of General infor@ation in the states. then He shall see this poHer restinG in the states. The 'iddle states partaIe partl> of the Eastern and partl> of the oBthern =hara=ter. and =o@posed =hiefl> of @oderate freeholders. 'iddle. . @a> haCe address enoBGh to preCent the in=rease of representation6 )h> not Ieep the poHer. still the @iddle and loHer =lasses of people =oBld haCe no Great share. I haCe no idea that the interests. . If a proper representation De i@pra=ti=aDle. I haCe heard seCeral Gentle@en. leaCinG it to the states to la> and =olle=t the@. and =arefBll> HeiGhed the i@portan=e of taxation. and that it @iGht De aDBsed D> i@prBdent and desiGninG @en.. and a proper in=rease of representation at the sa@e ti@e6 Then @en Hho @a> Hant the poHer Hill De Bnder stronG indB=e@ents to let in the people. as to these. I ad@it that it is not proDaDle that an> prBdent =onGress Hill atte@pt to la> and =olle=t internal taxes. to Cest the poHers of la>inG and =olle=tinG internal taxes in the General GoCern@ent. "> this plan there =an De no doBDt. it is said. In =onsiderinG the pra=ti=aDilit> of haCinG a fBll and eEBal representation of the people fro@ all parts of the Bnion. that it is ne=essar> for the@ to haCe the poHer. in fa=t. D> their representatiCes. espe=iall> dire=t taxes: DBt this onl> proCes. @en of the eleCated =lasses in the =o@@Bnit> onl> =an De =hosen. espe=iall> toB=hinG internal taxation. =Bsto@s and CieHs. Hhi=h HoBld De aDoBt fifteen @e@Ders for Conne=ti=Bt.. that the poHer HoBld De i@properl> lodGed in =onGress. atte@pt to =onstrBe the poHers relatiCe to dire=t taxes. and the preCailinG inflBen=e in the@ is Generall> a dissipated aristo=ra=>. and. In the natBre of thinGs. and the atte@pt onl> proCes that this part of the plan =annot De defended.. Hhen possessed of it. hoBld the United tates De taxed D> a hoBse of representatiCes of tHo hBndred @e@Ders. The Eastern states are Cer> de@o=rati=. =onCentions. nine ti@es in ten. in taxation. tHent>/fiCe for 'assa=hBsetts. as those Hho oDFe=t to it HoBld haCe the@. thoBGh it =annot proDaDl> De exer=ised. that it is said that =onGress Hill not atte@pt to la> and =olle=t internal taxes. and people =ontended in the =aBse of liDert>. =an De =olle=ted in sB=h a hoBse. .

1231. Hith Hhi=h. et=. and that.. seCeral orders of @en in the =o@@Bnit> haCe Deen prepared. A General =onCention for @ere =o@@er=ial pBrposes Has @oCed for/the aBthors of this @easBre saH that the peopleLs attention Has tBrned solel> to the a@end@ent of the federal s>ste@. @erel> for CestinG in =onGress poHer to reGBlate trade Has proposed. for the pBrpose. . proDaDl> no state HoBld haCe appointed @e@Ders to the =onCention. toB=hinG paper @one>. sBspension. And this Cer> aDBse of poHer in the leGislatBres. DBrinG the Har. Has proposed to De Bnder seCeral =he=Is and li@itations. has prepared @an> honest @en for =hanGes in GoCern@ent. on the one hand. and of the respe=tiCe states. @e@Ders of =onGress BrGinG alterations in the federal s>ste@ al@ost as soon as it Has adopted. OBr GoCern@ents haCe Deen neH and Bnsettled.to internal taxes. is not HithoBt foBndation. D> @aIinG tender. haCe GiCen FBst =aBse of Bneasiness to =reditors. and the introdB=tion of paper @one>. and tender laHs. +2 !ACTION AND T$E CON TITUTION . the> are inadeEBate to the exiGen=ies of the Bnion. had the idea of a total =hanGe Deen started. to GBard aGainst BsBrpation. on the other. The idea of destro>inG Blti@atel>. )e find.. and the landed people had little or no =on=ern aDoBt it. Hhi=h in so@e =ases has Deen =harGed Bpon the de@o=rati= part of the =o@@Bnit>. This Has pleasinG to the =o@@er=ial toHns. as a ne=essar> @easBre for the pro@otinG the =olle=tion of a federal tax. it is ne=essar> not onl> to exa@ine the plan. so li@ited. infBsed in the @inds of the people CaGBe ideas respe=tinG GoCern@ent and =redit. )e expe=ted too @B=h fro@ the retBrn of pea=e. The =onfederation Has for@ed Hhen Great =onfiden=e Has pla=ed in the ColBntar> exertions of indiCidBals. to reGBlate trade. therefore. and hastil> proposed a =onCention to De held in 'a>. D> deGrees. Hhi=h is BsBall> folloHed D> a reColBtion. DBt also its histor>. the> are rapidl> effe=tinG their faCorite oDFe=t. has fBrnished aristo=rati=al @en Hith those Cer> Heapons. and paper @one> laHs. therefore.. for a =hanGe of GoCern@ent. and the oDFe=tion that the General GoCern@ent @a> sBspend a state tax. To haCe a FBst idea of the GoCern@ent Defore Bs. a Dold step Has taIen. and the politi=s of its parti=Blar friends. In epte@Der. and to shoH that a =onsolidated one is the oDFe=t in CieH. the state GoCern@ent. DBt sB=h Has InoHn to De the =aBtion of the states in partinG Hith poHer. posterit> @a> reproa=h not onl> a feH oCerDearinG. that the Cest@ent eCen of these. and for@inG one =onsolidated s>ste@. in @an> respe=ts. or a =iCil Har. and =he=Ied the poHers. =oBld not haCe Deen ad@itted/a =onCention. and Doth @a> tax the sa@e oDFe=ts in the sa@e >ear. DBt those parties in the states Hhi=h haCe @isBsed their poHers. "> these and other =aBses. the @inds of @en Here De=o@e sBffi=ientl> Bneas>. the General =onfBsion. And shoBld an oppressiCe GoCern@ent De the =onseEBen=e of the proposed =hanGe. a feH @en fro@ the @iddle states @et at Annapolis.. the state GoCern@ents Hill haCe =on=Brrent poHers Hith the General GoCern@ent. It Has earl> proposed to Cest =onGress Hith poHers to leC> an i@post. and the fra@ers of it. Bnprin=ipled @en. in Great @easBre. and those Cer> @eans. T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. and D> the se=ret instiGations of artfBl @en. Hhi=h otherHise the> HoBld not haCe thoBGht of/Hhen D> the eCils. The =ondB=t of seCeral leGislatBres. and of =oBrse He haCe Deen disappointed. that. 1232. and seCeral leGislatBres.

HithoBt endeaCorinG to a@end those parts the> per=eiCe are defe=tiCe. The Bneas> and fi=Ile part of the =o@@Bnit> @a> De prepared to re=eiCe an> for@ of GoCern@ent. et=. that He refle=t there Here @en of aDilities and inteGrit> in it. $ad the> all attended He shoBld noH see. He @Bst re=olle=t hoH disproportionatel> the de@o=rati= and aristo=rati= parts of the =o@@Bnit> Here represented. for the sole and express pBrpose of reCisinG and a@endinG the =onfederation/and. Hhi=h HoBld pass an exa@ination in =onGress. ha>ites. This Has done Defore the deleGates of 'assa=hBsetts. and after DeinG aGreed to there. . et=. and after foBr @onths =lose attention presented the neH =onstitBtion. a Detter s>ste@ presented.. $ere the faCorite @o@ent for =hanGinG the GoCern@ent Has eCidentl> dis=erned D> a feH @en. I shall eCer =onsider as a Cer> BnfortBnate eCent to the United tates. I a@ persBaded. The nonattendan=e of eiGht or nine @en. EleCen states @et in the =onCention. DBt Penns>lCania appointed prin=ipall> those @en Hho are estee@ed aristo=rati=al. and De pBt to the alternatiCe of e@DarIinG in the neH ship presented. >oB @a> dis=oCer in all the a=tions of these @en. danGeroBs to freedo@. There HoBld not haCe Deen so Great an a==B@Blation of poHers. HoBld haCe Deen @ore restrained than the> haCe Deen. DetHeen Hhi=h the honest and sBDstantial people haCe lonG foBnd the@selCes sitBated. these are =alled aristo=rats. an enliGhtened nation. Hho seiAed it Hith address. and pla=ed at the head of it the first @an in A@eri=a. DBt there is danGer in adoptinG the s>ste@ in its present for@. and the =onsolidatinG aristo=ra=>. not one @an in ten thoBsand in the United tates. the for@s of GoCern@ent in this =oBntr>. Perhaps the FBdi=ioBs friends and opposers of the neH =onstitBtion Hill aGree. . @Bst adopt it HithoBt exa@ination. and not aHare that the> Here passinG the RBDi=on.. and Hho Hant a share of the propert> of others. and destrB=tiCe of the CalBaDle prin=iples of repBDli=an GoCern@ent /is trBl> hB@iliatinG.Generall>. The other part> is =o@posed of a feH. these aCari=ioBsl> Grasp at all poHer and propert>. essentiall>. these are =alled reCellers. DBt @ore danGeroBs @en. I DelieCe. that it is Dest to let it rel> solel> on its oHn @erits. The tates. Ten other states appointed. I a@ prett> =lear that the resBlt of the =onCention HoBld not haCe had that stronG tenden=> to aristo=ra=> noH dis=erniDle in eCer> part of the plan. till Hithin these ten or tHelCe da>s. espe=iall> as to the internal poli=e of this =oBntr> in a feH hands as the =onstitBtion reported proposes to Cest in the@/the >oBnG Cisionar> @en. of a@endinG the =onfederation. an eCident disliIe to free and eEBal GoCern@ent. and thoBGh in a state of profoBnd pea=e. It is trBe there @a> De danGer in dela>. or De =onde@ned for its oHn defe=ts. . proDaDl>. and @aIinG a neH one. @onar=hists. The states still BnsBspe=tinG. and of the other states arriCed/still not a Hord Has said aDoBt destro>inG the old =onstitBtion.. )e shall CieH the =onCention Hith proper respe=t/and. $ad the> attended. or De reFe=ted. In this appoint@ent there Has a @ixtBre of politi=al =hara=ters. Hho Hant no laH. This sBDFe=t of =onsolidatinG the states is neH. *irGinia @ade a Cer> respe=taDle appoint@ent. had an idea that the old ship Has to De destro>ed. and thoL the> =hose @en prin=ipall> =onne=ted Hith =o@@er=e and the FBdi=ial depart@ent >et the> appointed @an> Good repBDli=an =hara=ters. HoBld De =onfir@ed D> all the leGislatBres. DBt I presB@e the enliGhtened and sBDstantial part Hill GiCe an> =onstitBtion presented for their adoption a =andid and thoroBGh exa@ination. And I see the danGer in either =ase Hill arise prin=ipall> fro@ the =ondB=t and CieHs of tHo Cer> Bnprin=ipled parties in the United tates/tHo fires. Hho Here appointed @e@Ders of the =onCention. to sBppose the Good sense of this =oBntr>. And De=aBse fort> or fift> @en haCe aGreed in a s>ste@. at the sa@e ti@e. BniCersall> sBpposed the =onCention HoBld report alterations in the =onfederation. One part> is =o@posed of little insBrGents. Hith their serCile dependents. and the> Hill Go s>ste@ati=all> to HorI to =hanGe. or of DeinG left in danGer of sinIinG. @en in deDt. to De adopted or reFe=ted D> the people. appointed @e@Ders to the neH =onCention. "etHeen these tHo .

the @en of @iddlinG propert>. The sensiDle and FBdi=ioBs part of the =o@@Bnit> Hill =arefBll> HeiGh all these =ir=B@stan=es. and poHer. =ooll> and deliDeratel>. The fa=t is. Hhi=h. To sa> that these =onCentions oBGht not to atte@pt. Hhi=h Hill proDaDl> De opposed or Bnited as it @a> sBit their interests and CieHs. These tHo parties. THo arti=les D> %A COUNTR#'AN% Here Hritten D> De)itt Clinton. it @Bst De a=InoHledGed that the HeiGht of respe=taDilit> Hill De in the@. and atte@pted to estaDlish GoCern@ents a==ordinG to their Hills. it @Bst De a perfe=t s>ste@. I thinI the General politi=s of these @en sBpport it. . are the sa@e @en. of a liIe nB@Der. =o@pared Hith the solid. @en not in deDt on the one hand. Here Hise and experien=ed. In 1231. "einG reCisers of the sBDFe=t. the arGB@ents 9if the> =an De so ter@ed: of @ost HeiGht. and therefore. on the other. proDaDl>. I haCe read Hith a deGree of attention seCeral pBDli=ations Hhi=h haCe latel> appeared in faCor of the neH ConstitBtion. the reCision of the s>ste@. T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. 1233. >et as the state =onCentions Hill proDaDl> =onsist of fifteen hBndred or tHo thoBsand @en of aDilities. that either of these parties. and the real friends of the proposed =onstitBtion. @a> De redB=ed to the tHo folloHinG: 1st. =olle=ted fro@ all parts of the =o@@Bnit> and fro@ all orders of @en. the reCellers. . and had the happiness of their =oBntr> at heart. as Hell as the =o@@on oDserCation a@onG the@: That the proffered plan is the Dest that =an De Got at present. and @en. inCaded the riGhts of others. 1232. =ontent Hith repBDli=an GoCern@ents. . the little insBrGents. and Cersed in the s=ien=e of GoCern@ent. in 1232. De so respe=taDle as ea=h indiCidBal in the federal =onCention. is endeaCorinG to estaDlish in a Great haste. is Cer> foolish or Cer> assB@inG. I thinI I a@ Hell foBnded in this idea. and as far as I a@ aDle to dis=ern. are reall> insiGnifi=ant. the> Hill possess pe=Bliar adCantaGes. Hhi=h are BrGed in its faCor. "Bt the @e@Ders of the =onCention @et HithoBt InoHinG the senti@ents of one @an in ten thoBsand in these states respe=tinG the neH GroBnd taIen. . and independent part of the =o@@Bnit>. and the tonGBe and the pen. a politer Iind of GoCern@ent. Their doinGs are DBt the first atte@pts in the @ost i@portant s=ene eCer opened. ThoBGh ea=h indiCidBal in the state =onCentions Hill not. these aristo=rats sBpport and hasten the adoption of the proposed =onstitBtion. Their @oCe@ents eCidentl> GaCe en=oBraGe@ent to the other part>. and not ai@inG at i@@ense fortBnes. has taIen the politi=al field. the> Hill CieH the late =onCention as a respe=taDle Dod> of @en/A@eri=a proDaDl> neCer Hill see an asse@Dl> of @en. @ore respe=taDle. and lead to so@ethinG Detter. that the> Here foBr @onths deliDeratinG on the sBDFe=t. offi=es.parties is the HeiGht of the =o@@Bnit>. free. it Hill do for a feH >ears. +3 O'E REACTION TO !EDERALI T ARGU'ENT This Has an essa> D> %"RUTU <UNIOR% Hhi=h appeared in The NeH/#orI <oBrnal on NoCe@Der 3. That the @en Hho for@ed it. that the> Here an illBstrioBs Dand of patriots. and appeared also in the NeH #orI <oBrnal on <anBar> 15 and !eDrBar> 1-. In the@ Hill De =olle=ted the solid sense and the real politi=al =hara=ter of the =oBntr>. and Hith its fashionaDle dependents. =a@e forth. or that the> =annot a@end it. @erel> De=aBse the> thinI it is a steppinG stone to their faCorite oDFe=t. It is not @> intention to sBGGest.

It oBGht to rest on its oHn intrinsi= @erit. if the> had not Deen so often BrGed in print. )e are told D> one of the@selCes 9'r. If it is Good. . that @an> of the@ are possessed of hiGh aristo=rati= ideas. inflBen=e and e@olB@ent. a GoCern@ent Hill De i@posed Bpon Bs. and a@DitioBs. As I do not find L that either Cato or the Centinel. It is readil> ad@itted that @an> indiCidBals Hho =o@posed this Dod> Here @en of the first talents and inteGrit> in the Bnion. that there Here others Hho Here >oBnG. prin=iples @iGht De introdB=ed Hhi=h HoBld render the liDerties of the people Cer> inse=Bre. Hell InoHn to eCer> @an. and Hhi=h Hill reEBire Cer> essential alterations./it Hill De readil> per=eiCed that it pre=lBdes all inCestiGation of the @erits of the proposed =onstitBtion. deter@ined to sBD@it to it HithoBt eCen readinG or InoHinG its =ontents. That if the s>ste@ De not re=eiCed. in politi=al resear=hes. fro@ a =onsideration that the> are so Hise and Good as not to De liaDle to err. that so@e of @> felloH =itiAens haCe Deen i@posed Bpon D> it. throBGh the =hannel of >oBr paper.. or an> other Hriter aGainst this =onstitBtion. eCer> honest @an Hill FBstif> a de=ent inCestiGation of =hara=ters in plain lanGBaGe. into a different =hannel. haCe BndertaIen a parti=Blar refBtation of this neH spe=ies of reasoninG. of =onsB@@ate =BnninG and @asters of intriGBe. and therefore shoBld not haCe =alled the@ in EBestion. Hill De redB=ed to a state of anar=h> and =onfBsion. it . I =onfess I thinI it of no i@portan=e Hhat are the =hara=ters of the fra@ers of this GoCern@ent. and inColCed in Dloodshed and =arnaGe. Hho@ the Har foBnd poor or in e@Darrassed =ir=B@stan=es. ardent. "Bt Hhen He are reEBired i@pli=itl> to sBD@it oBr opinions to those of others. "rBtBs. haCe. that there Here so@e of no s@all talents and of Great inflBen=e. He @a> as Hell deter@ine to a==ept it HithoBt an> inEBir> as Hith. and it is not BnreasonaDle to sBppose. and of =onseEBen=e. and in the end. A nB@Der of persons in this JNeH #orIK as Hell as the other states. and leads to an adoption of the plan HithoBt inEBirinG Hhether it De Good or Dad. that an asse@Dl> thBs =o@posed shoBld prodB=e a s>ste@ liaDle to Hell foBnded oDFe=tions. It is an inCidioBs tasI. the feH folloHinG ani@adCersions on the sBDFe=t. that there Here not a feH Hho Here GapinG for posts of honor and e@olB@ent/these He find exBltinG in the idea of a =hanGe Hhi=h Hill diCert pla=es of honor. Hhere the =onfiden=e of the people Hill not De ne=essar> to their a=EBire@ent. it then De=o@es essential in order to GiCe Calidit> to the arGB@ent. and the @ost soCereiGn =onte@pt of the =o@@on people. Hhile the> Here destitBte of experien=e . and in =onCersation. De=aBse I haCe dis=oCered. and that too in an affair Hhi=h inColCes in it the happiness of oBrselCes and oBr posterit>. It is not to De Hondered at. not the resBlt of reason and refle=tion. DBt of for=e and BsBrpation. . that in this a==o@@odation. I taIe the liDert> of offerinG to the pBDli=. It is at the sa@e ti@e. Hho is DBt @oderatel> a=EBainted Hith the =hara=ters of the @e@Ders. or the Old )hiG. )ith respe=t to the first.. . that He @a> deter@ine Hhether He =an De FBstified in pla=inG sB=h BnDoBnded =onfiden=e in the@. espe=iall> of sB=h as are pla=ed in illBstrioBs stations. !or if He are to infer the perfe=tion of this s>ste@ fro@ the =hara=ters and aDilities of the @en Hho for@ed it. "Bt sBpposinG the pre@ises fro@ Hhi=h this =on=lBsion is draHn to De FBst. Hho Hished for a GoCern@ent =orrespondinG Hith their feelinGs. and. and left Hith prin=el> fortBnes a=EBired in pBDli= e@plo>@ent. in its faCor. that not a feH Here stronGl> disposed in faCor of @onar=h>. J<a@esK )ilson of Philadelphia: the plan Has JaK @atter of a==o@@odation. this =oBntr> Hill De HithoBt an> GoCern@ent. the rather.(nd. to inEBire into the =hara=ters of those Hho =o@posed this Dod>. Bpon this prin=iple. to =all in EBestion the =hara=ters of indiCidBals.

that the neH =onstitBtion is a Cer> Dad one. he proCes too. to De prett> honest in one thinG/Hhere he sa>s. and DanishinG fro@ the =o@@Bnit>. Hhi=h is i@perfe=t or inse=Bre. IndBstr> and frBGalit> are taIinG their station. PBDliBs @eans to persBade Bs to retBrn Da=I to the old GoCern@ent. $e see@s. Those Hho are anxioBs to pre=ipitate a @easBre Hill alHa>s tell Bs that the present is the =riti=al @o@ent. to pin his faith on the sleeCe of an> @an. so I haCe =on=lBded to Hait and DB> one of his DooIs. or to a==ept of the . and propert> of indiCidBals are prote=ted. 'r. and the liCes. indeed. it oBGht not to De sBpported. Hhether 'r. %It is the natBre of @an to pBrsBe his oHn interest. And I do not per=eiCe that an> of the Hriters in faCor of it 9althoBGh so@e of the@ Bse a Cast @an> fine Hords. hoHeCer ordinar> it @a> De. I den> that He are in i@@ediate danGer of anar=h> and =o@@otions. is that it is Detter to De Bnited than diCided/that a Great @an> people are stronGer than a feH/and that =otland is Detter off sin=e the Bnion Hith EnGland than Defore. idleness and prodiGalit>. There is no reason. The onl> thinG I =an Bnderstand fro@ hi@. It is deGradinG to a free@an. T>rants haCe alHa>s @ade Bse of this plea. )e @a> se=Brel> deliDerate and propose a@end@ents and alterations. It is trBe. the aDler Hill the> De to raise ships and soldiers. "esides. J<a@esK )ilson. in an affair of sB=h @o@entoBs i@portan=e. the liDert>. The GoCern@ents of the respe=tiCe states are in the fBll exer=ise of their poHers. "Bt I do not learn that an> Dod> denies these @atters. He shall taIe =are that He =hanGe for the Detter. Cer> =learl>. he appears to haCe an e>e to so@e hiGh pla=e Bnder it. I haCe seen enoBGh to =onCin=e @e Cer> fBll>. As to 'r. Hhen the> =o@e oBt. and the present @inBte @Bst De seiAed. and shoH a Great deal of learninG: are aDle to re@oCe an> of the oDFe=tions Hhi=h are @ade aGainst it. It Hill De laDor lost. And I thinI. in preferen=e to the pBDli= Good%L/for the> tell @e he is a laH>er. and the less need for fiGhtinG. In ansHer to the se=ond arGB@ent. PBDliBs JThe !ederalistK. and seCeral @illions of the pBDli= deDt is dis=harGed D> the sale of the Hestern territor>. DBt nothinG in oBr =ir=B@stan=es =an FBstif> it. and hB@iliatinG to a rational one. noH is the ti@e. as far as I haCe read. if it is Dad. and a hBndred/fold Horse than oBr present GoCern@ent. sin=e he speaIs Hith Great pleasBre of the pla=es of honor and e@olB@ent DeinG diCerted to a neH =hannel D> this =hanGe of s>ste@. and I reall> =annot find oBt Hhat he HoBld De at. The =oBntr> is in profoBnd pea=e. NothinG DBt the passions of Hi=Ied and a@DitioBs @en Hill pBt Bs in the least danGer on this head. Indeed I a@ at a loss to InoH. I InoH it is said He =annot =hanGe for the Horse. I haCe read a Great @an> of his papers. DBt He haCe onl> his Hord for its Goodness. and He are not threatened D> inCasions fro@ an> EBarter. speaIs Cer> hiGhl> of it. All present exiGen=ies are ansHered D> the@. for it Hill De a noDle thinG for laH>ers. and his interest then @aIes hi@ for the neH GoCern@ent. $e see@s to @e as if he Has GoinG to Hrite a histor>. or that the> haCe an> thin/ to do Hith the neH =onstitBtion. Hh> He shoBld pre=ipitatel> and rashl> adopt a s>ste@. that the feHer nations there are in the Horld. DBt no i@@ediate =o@@otion Hill arise fro@ these. IndiCidBals are FBst re=oCerinG fro@ the losses and e@Darrass@ent sBstained D> the late Har. if after all oBr pains He are in no Detter =ir=B@stan=es than He Here Defore. IndiCidBals are lesseninG their priCate deDts. the =risis is arriCed. the reGBlation of trade and a =o@petent proCision for the pa>@ent of the interest of the pBDli= deDt is HantinG. hoHeCer. and nothinG is @ore natBral than for a @other to speaI Hell of her oHn DantlinG. therefore. DBt if He a=t the part of Hise @en.is =apaDle of DeinG Cindi=ated. or Dod> of @en. the feHer dispBtes JthereK Hill De aDoBt the laH of nations/and the Greater nB@Der that are Foined in one GoCern@ent. ti@e @a> De taIen for =al@ dis=Bssion and deliDerate =on=lBsions. and @aIe oBrselCes as happ> as =otland has D> its Bnion.

pBts one in @ind of so@e of the Gentle@en of the lonG roDe. and. It HoBld =ertainl>. "Bt if I de@onstrate that this parti=Blar.neH =onstitBtion. I hope the other parti=Blar poHers Hill not De ne=essar> to dHell Bpon. so far fro@ i@pl>inG the =ontinBan=e of the state soCereiGnties. in a Dad =aBse. . The> freEBentl> sa> a Great deal Hhi=h does not appl>. that it =annot exist HithoBt the@. . or PBDliBs. A COUNTR#'AN The !ederalist. @a>. and the spe=ial representation of the states in the federal senate. if Hhat he sa>s is trBe. . and @aIe the aBdien=e stare. I haCe also read seCeral other of the pie=es. taIe as their stronG GroBnd the ele=tion of senators D> the state leGislatBres. Hhen hard pBshed. perhaps. thoBGh the> see@ to thinI the@selCes @en of i@portan=e. .L . NoH 'r. sin=e he holds sB=h a Dad opinion of Bs. 1233 . $e aDBses the people Cer> @B=h. I EBestion Hhether he HoBld =o@e off Hith Hhole Dones. Therefore the> sa> that the neH s>ste@ is so far fro@ annihilatinG the state GoCern@ents. or else =orporations Hho appoint their oHn . as Hell as all the adCo=ates of the neH s>ste@. that it se=Bres the@. in his se=ond nB@Der. and D> people of little =onseEBen=e. It is trBe that this parti=Blar partaIes stronGl> of that @>ster> Hhi=h is =hara=teristi= of the s>ste@ itself. Hith a ri=h =lient. The> haCe no poHer to dire=t the senators hoH or Hhat dBties the> shall perfor@. as De ter@s hi@self. Hhere the> are all Lords and no =o@@on people. The tate leGislatBres do not =hoose senators D> leGislatiCe or soCereiGn aBthorit>. and Get all the Horld to Foin Hith Bs. to proCe that internal soCereiGnt> still re@ains Hith the tates. e@Darrass their opponent. DBt >et. Desides in=reasinG the pra=ti=e. . the> haCe neither poHer to =ensBre the senators. Caesar. sa>s He shall find @an> other instan=es Bnder the =onstitBtion Hhi=h reEBire or i@pl> the existen=e or =ontinBan=e of the soCereiGnt> and seCeralt> of the states. It is not the poHer of =hoosinG to offi=e @erel> that desiGnates soCereiGnt>. Caesar doJesK not depend so @B=h on reasoninG as Bpon DBll>inG. so as to @aIe one larGe GoCern@ent. it HoBld De as Hell for hi@ to Go Da=I aGain as to @eddle hi@self Hith oBr DBsiness. after @entioninG in a Cer> delBsor> @anner diCerse poHers Hhi=h re@ain Hith the states. De Cer> =onCenient for NoCa/ =otia and Canada. !ro@ the @anner he talIs of the people. his adCi=e Hill haCe Great HeiGht Hith the@. The !ree@an. $e. . T$E E!!ECT I NATIONAL The folloHinG ex=erpt is fro@ the essa>s of %A !AR'ER. proCes in the =learest @anner the Hant of it. Hhi=h appear to De Hrote D> so@e other little aBthors. If so. A COUNTR#'AN Antifederalist No. help to @aIe the@ forGet so@e part of the eCiden=e. . if it Hill not =onCin=e the FBdGe nor FBr>. and if he spoIe in oBr neiGhDorhood as i@pBdentl> as he Hrites in the neHspapers. he =ertainl> =annot De one of the@ hi@self. nor to sBpersede the@ for @is=ondB=t. DBt D> a poHer of @inisterial aGen=> as @ere ele=tors or Doards of appoint@ent. that the existen=e of the one is essential to the existen=e of the other.% It appeared in the Philadelphia Independent GaAetteer on April 10 and ((. for oBGht I InoH. +4 APPEARANCE AND REALIT#/T$E !OR' I !EDERAL. and taIe Bpon the@ Grand na@es sB=h as . I i@aGine he has latel> =o@e oCer fro@ so@e old =oBntr>.

it is to De paid oCer to the offi=ers of ConGress. and in @an> nations of EBrope are or haCe Deen Cested. or the liIe. DBt of =o@@andinG its oHn @ilitia. eCer> soBr=e of taxation. for. and Bse the inflBen=e of Hhi=h the> HoBld De so larGel> possessed to re@oCe it.. depriCed of the =o@@and of an> propert>. althoBGh the ne=essar> rotation of @e@Ders of ConGress has often Deen =ensBred for restraininG the state soCereiGnties too @B=h in the oDFe=ts of their =hoi=e. representinG people in a =onsolidated or national GoCern@ent. Hho is. . sB=h as the senators HoBld De. et=. or the heads of depart@ent Hho =hoose the offi=ers Bnder the@. As Hell @a> the ele=tors Hho are to Cote for the president Bnder the neH =onstitBtion. I @ean soBr=e of reCenBe or taxation. and GoCerninG in a nB@Der of internal =ases. Hhi=h. pla=e and @anner. Hhi=h @a>.. DBt not that Iind of independent soCereiGnt> Hhi=h =an =onstitBte a @e@Der of a federal repBDli=. if an> shoBld arise. The representatiCes also Cote as indiCidBals. GiCe. is Cested in the General GoCern@ent. Hith the enate. for oDCioBs =onCenien=>. @a> De =alled soCereiGns. "Bt these poHers of Hhi=h the !ree@an GiCes Bs sB=h a profBse detail. or Hhat a@oBnts to the sa@e thinG. Hho @a> ena=t laHs for raisinG reCenBe. as the tate leGislatBres in the a=t of =hoosinG senators. as Defore oDserCed. do not an> of the@ separatel>. is left Hith the seCeral tates. DBt the natBral operation of the poHers of ConGress Bnder the neH =onstitBtion. DBt Hho @a> haCe these laHs rendered nBGator>. sB=h as the poHers of offi=erinG and traininG the @ilitia. and in the exer=ise of Hhi=h the> @a> sBpport. and. DBt in =onFBn=tion Hith the federal representatiCes estaDlish their oHn HaGes. Jsi=K This is not a strained =onstrB=tion. reGBlatinG its ele=tions. De=aBse the> =an na@e @en to offi=e Hho@ the> =annot dis@iss therefro@. DBt =annot =ontrol the General GoCern@ent. I haCe often Hondered hoH an> Hriter of sense =oBld haCe the =onfiden=e to aCoH. "esides. HoBld De De>ond =ontrol. Hhen =hosen. a@oBnt to independent soCereiGnt>.offi=ers and @aIe their oHn D>/laHs. Hhen a tate is depriCed of the poHer not onl> of standinG ar@ies 9this the @e@Ders of a =onfedera=> oBGht to De:. Hhi=h =an enaDle a tate to exist Hithin itself if the General GoCern@ent shoBld =ease. that the> haCe the poHer of ele=tions aDsolBtel> Cested in the@. and the exe=Btion thereof sBperseded D> the laHs of ConGress. or pa>inG the@ their HaGes. and in des=riDinG Hhi=h De repeats the sa@e poHers Hith onl> Car>inG the ter@s. nor all taIen toGether. DBt as indiCidBals. Hill De BnprodB=tiCe of the s@allest reCenBe to the tate GoCern@ents. The senators are not eCen dependent on the tates for their HaGes. appointinG tate offi=ers. dire=tinG or sBpersedinG its representatiCes. @oreoCer. in heads of depart@ents. The senators do not Cote D> tates. i@pea=hinG. The poHer of instrB=tinG or sBpersedinG of deleGates to ConGress Bnder the existinG =onfederation has neCer Deen =o@plained of. those to Hho@ aBthorit> is deleGated. or in =orporations. the Hords %to @aIe all laHs ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG into exe=Btion the foreGoinG poHers. That the tate GoCern@ents haCe =ertain @inisterial and =onCenient poHers =ontinBed to the@ is not denied. sB=h as =o@@anders of ar@ies. or =oBld sBppose the people to De iGnorant enoBGh to DelieCe that. the> FBdGe Bpon their oHn ele=tions. nor prote=t their oHn =itiAens fro@ the exertion of =iCil or @ilitar> t>rann>/ and this @inisterial poHer Hill =ontinBe Hith the tates as lonG as tHo/ thirds of ConGress shall thinI their aGen=> ne=essar>. "Bt eCen this Hill De no lonGer than tHo/thirds of ConGress shall thinI proper to propose. The exer=ise of soCereiGnt> does not =onsist in =hoosinG @asters. The> are poHers of @ere @inisterial aGen=>. De said to De Cested Hith the soCereiGnt>. for eCer> oDFe=t of reCenBes. hereditar> Cassals of the =roHn. Hhi=h is in other Hords to sa>. Hho. DBt in the poHer of dis@issinG. ECen the poHer of @aIinG inspe=tion laHs.% et=. haCe the poHer of reGBlatinG ele=tions in ti@e.

to =onCin=e the tates that the> are =onsolidated into one national GoCern@ent. it is eCident that the =onsolidation of the tates into one national GoCern@ent 9in =ontra/ distin=tion fro@ a =onfedera=>: HoBld De the ne=essar> =onseEBen=e of the estaDlish@ent of the neH =onstitBtion. are Cested in the General GoCern@ent. "> this ar@ies are pro=Bred. soCereiGn poHer. this poHer is Hholl> to De assB@ed D> the General GoCern@ent. in the ti@e of the Har. The tate GoCern@ents are not onl> destitBte of all soCereiGn =o@@and of. all the essential =hara=teristi=s of soCereiGnt>. Doth of the internal and external Iind. or of prote=tinG their life. that @a> interfere Hith or i@pede the exer=ise of the General taxinG poHer. and not to prote=t the oppressed fro@ the oppressor. that it Has not the loCe of their =oBntr> the> had so @B=h at heart. -5 ON T$E 'OTI*ATION AND AUT$ORIT# O! T$E !OUNDING !AT$ER Anti/!ederalist Q-5 is a =o@pilation of arti=les. that HhereCer the Hhole poHer of the reCenBe or taxation is Cested. ere=tinG DridGes. operate not onl> to destro> those @inisterial poHers Hhi=h are left Hith the tates. as their oHn priCate. Here inflBen=ed D> pBre patriotis@. and the intention of its fra@ers/and that =onseEBentl> the tate soCereiGnties HoBld De eCentBall> annihilated. or pBnish@ents of their oHn @ilitia. and no @an HoBld haCe a riGht to =harGe the@ Hith DreaIinG the laH of their appoint@ent. and =onseEBentl> the seCeral tates HoBld not De possessed of an> essential poHer or effe=tiCe GBard of soCereiGnt>. or those Hho@ the> e@plo>. 'a> not the exer=ise of this poHer of ConGress. thoBGh the for@s @a> lonG re@ain as expensiCe and DBrdenso@e re@e@Dran=es of Hhat the> Here in the da>s Hhen 9althoBGh laDorinG Bnder @an> disadCantaGes: the> e@an=ipated this =oBntr> fro@ foreiGn t>rann>. Has the Great operatiCe . Hho had taIen an a=tiCe part in faCor of independen=e. All the preroGatiCes. and it HoBld not De possiDle that tHo taxinG poHers shoBld De exer=ised on the sa@e soBr=es of taxation HithoBt interferinG Hith ea=h other. DBt the> are diCested of the poHer of =o@@andinG or pres=riDinG the dBties. =BttinG =anals. or =ontrol oCer. @a> not ConGress =onstitBtionall> preCent the pa>@ent6 Certainl>. hB@Dled the pride and tarnished the Glor> of ro>alt>. It is an estaDlished @axi@. let the for@s De Hhat the> @a>. the reCenBe or an> part of it. The poHer of @aIinG treason laHs is Doth a poHer and an i@portant defense of soCereiGnt>. it is relatiCe to and inseparaDle fro@ it. propert> or =hara=ters fro@ the riGors of @artial laH. interest. or an> other oDFe=t of pBDli= i@portan=e. DBt eCen the Cer> for@s6 'a> the> not forDid the state leGislatBres to leC> a shillinG to pa> the@selCes.HithoBt doBDt. that a thirst after do@inion and poHer. ThBs I apprehend. that the> doBDted Hhether the Great @en of A@eri=a. D> this eCer> other =ontrollinG GBard is defeated. da>sL HaGes6 The tate GoCern@ents @a> =ontra=t for @aIinG roads 9ex=ept post/roads:. HaGes. It Has a =o@@on sa>inG a@onG @an> sensiDle @en in Great "ritain and Ireland. and ere=ted a triB@phant standard to liDert> and independen=e. Hhen the> thinI proper. A !AR'ER Antifederalist No. the> @a> do all this and @B=h @ore. inflBential. ECer> Dalan=e or =he=I in GoCern@ent is onl> so far effe=tiCe as it has a =ontrol oCer the reCenBe. the poHer of repellinG or forDiddinG the exe=Btion of an> tax laH HhateCer. DBt Hhen the =ontra=t is perfor@ed or the HorI done. there CirtBall> is the Hhole effe=tiCe.

serCants and retainers. that the> @iGht the@selCes De=o@e the t>rants. P$ILADELP$IEN I Does oBr soil prodB=e no @ore )ashinGtonLs6 Is there none Hho HoBld oppose the atte@pt to estaDlish a GoCern@ent D> for=e6 Can He not =all fro@ the fields. >oB haCe Deen stranGel> de=eiCed indeed. sBed and harassed for the@. This see@inGl> illiDeral senti@ent Has. Hho Hill De @Bltiplied Bpon >oB to Ieep >oB in oDedien=e. the =oBnters. and shoBld >oB adopt this neH GoCern@ent. #oBr persons haCe Deen pBt into a loathso@e prison. @> felloH =itiAens. shoH that these @enLs doBDts Here reall> Hell foBnded. the Dar. . onl> Hith a CieH to sBDstitBte the@selCes in his stead. AN A'ERICAN I reCere the =hara=ters of so@e of the Gentle@en that =o@posed the =onCention at Philadelphia. the> =oBld not Hith de=en=> re=ede. . Generall> denied D> the Hell/hearted and BnsBspe=tinG friends of A@eri=an liDert> in EBrope. . as Hell as the rest of @anIind. in=reased to sBpport their . "Bt alas8 The trBth of the senti@ent is noH indispBtaDl> =onfir@ed. as lonG as the> =oBld sta> at ho@e and send the =o@@on people into the field to fiGht their Dattles. #oB lost eiGht or ten >ears of >oBr liCes and laDor D> the last Har. or at least onl> so in part. the> had reason then to De so8 OBr liDert> then Has in dispBte Hith a @iGht> and poHerfBl t>rant. it onl> tBrns to their disGra=e. Hhen the Health> of >oBr oHn =oBntr> assisted >oB to expel the foreiGn t>rant. >es. $oH does sB=h Cillain> disGra=e hB@an natBre8 Ah. and >oB Here left at last Hith >oBr deDts and en=B@Dran=es on >oB. hoHeCer. laH>ers. and oppress the pleDeians. or persBade >oB. @> =oBntr>@en. . The neH =onstitBtion and the =ondB=t of its despoti= adCo=ates. This Has a s=he@e taIen D> the despots and their s>=ophants to Dias the pBDli= @ind in faCor of the =onstitBtion. After the Har DeGan. sa> so@e.prin=iple that indB=ed these @en to oppose "ritain so strenBoBsl>. !or the =onCention Has =o@posed of a Cariet> of =hara=ters: a@DitioBs @en. Hhose si@ilitBde to ea=h other. or @aIe >oB. and it Has for their interest to pro@ote and =arr> on the opposition. Then the @ore to their sha@e De it said. tories. i@positions. and the ri=h @en noH thinI to sBDdBe >oB D> their Hiles and arts. and so@eti@es for one tenth of its for@er and a=tBal CalBe and >oB noH pa> Cer> GrieCoBs and heaC> taxes. . The =ase is Greatl> altered noH. and ex=ises. doBDle and treDle Hhat >oB paid Defore the Har. taxes. >oBr taxes Hill De Great. Hill sBD@it to an ar@> @erel> De=aBse the> haCe =onEBered a foreiGn ene@>6 . =onsisted onl> in their deter@ination to lord it oCer their felloH =itiAens. and nB@Ders of >oB Here soon after the =lose of it.. <esBits. fa=ts are stBDDorn thinGs. Hho =oBld not sBppose that @en HoBld enGaGe in so noDle a =aBse throL sB=h Dase @otiCes. et=. liIe the Ro@ans. for@ed the @aForit>. =Brse on the Cillain Hho prote=ts CirGin inno=en=e onl> Hith a CieH that he @a> hi@self De=o@e the raCisher. . their senti@ents and deliDerations =on=entered in t>rann> alone. >et I thinI the> Here hB@an. and others of >oB haCe had >oBr propert> sold for taxes. so that if the assertion Here trBe. DBt as it happens it is not trBth. "Bt the @e@Ders of the !ederal ConCention Here @en H e Deen all tried in the field of a=tion. and sBDFe=t to i@position and error. the> Here Bnani@oBs in for@inG a GoCern@ent that shoBld raise the fortBnes and respe=taDilit> of the Hell Dorn feH. liIe the ra>s that =onCerGinG fro@ eCer> dire=tion @eet in a point. and =olle=t their dBties. Unparalleled dBpli=it>8 That @en shoBld oppose t>rann> Bnder a preten=e of patriotis@. and these set the @atter De>ond =ontroCers>. >oB =onEBered the ene@>. and @e=hani=sL shops. an> @ore Generals6 Is oBr soil exhaBsted6 And does an> one sBppose that the A@eri=ans. the> haCe foBGht for A@eri=an liDert>. to do . o@e of >oB @a> sa> the ri=h @en Here CirtBoBs in the last Har. for the sHord and ene@> Here at the Cer> entran=e of their Gates.

PATRIC& $ENR# )hat then are He to thinI of the @otiCes and desiGns of those @en Hho are BrGinG the i@pli=it and i@@ediate adoption of the proposed GoCern@ent. The> Hell InoH that open for=e Hill not sB==eed at this ti@e. are the> fearfBl. )e. I a@ sBre the> Here fBll> i@pressed Hith the ne=essit> of for@inG a Great =onsolidated GoCern@ent. Here so@e of the@ not here. Cer> striIinG. and to de@onstrate the danGers that aHaited Bs. for this pBrpose the> Here solel> deleGated. their liDert> Hill De lost. =ontriCed Hith Great art. I @Bst assert. and haCe =hosen a safer @ethod. . If the> Here of sB=h aHfBl @aGnitBde as to Harrant a proposal so extre@el> periloBs as this. and I a@ sBre. That the> ex=eeded their poHer is perfe=tl> =lear. the states6 tates are the =hara=teristi=s and the soBl of a =onfederation. sir. That this is a =onsolidated GoCern@ent is de@onstraDl> =lear. and >oB Hill De Bndone. Their ai@. A !AR'ER AND PLANTER 'aIe the Dest of this neH GoCern@ent/sa> it is =o@posed of an> thinG DBt inspiration/>oB oBGht to De extre@el> =aBtioBs. the people6 '> politi=al =Briosit>. and oBr repBDli= Hill De lost. If the states De not the aGents of this =o@pa=t. @ade noH. instead of. GiCe @e leaCe to de@and: )hat riGht had the> to sa>. sir. therefore. =onsolidated. DBt. pBt the Bt@ost =onfiden=e in the@/a =onfiden=e Hhi=h Has Hell pla=ed. that if >oB exer=ise >oBr Good sense and dis=ern@ent. for. instead of se=BrinG >oBr riGhts. and. I haCe the hiGhest Ceneration for those Gentle@en. perhaps for eCer. that this ConCention has an aDsolBte riGht to a thoroBGh dis=oCer> of eCer> =ir=B@stan=e relatiCe to this Great eCent. ex=lBsiCe of @> anxioBs soli=itBde for the pBDli= Helfare. on a for@er o==asion. . national GoCern@ent. I repeat it aGain. and Hhat are the =aBses of this proposal to =hanGe oBr GoCern@ent. A@eri=a had. I HoBld de@and the =aBse of their =ondB=t. the repBDli= @a> De lost foreCer. forGiCe the soli=itation of one BnHorth> @e@Der to InoH Hhat danGer =oBld haCe arisen Bnder the present Confederation. the oDFe=t of their @ission extended to no other =onsideration. De Hat=hfBl. is noH to destro> that liDert> Hhi=h >oB set Bp as a reHard for the Dlood and treasBre >oB expended in the pBrsBit of and estaDlish@ent of it. ECen fro@ that illBstrioBs @an Hho saCed Bs D> his Calor. "Bt. . I HoBld GiCe Bp an> thinG to the@. If a HronG step De noH @ade. and the danGer of sB=h a GoCern@ent is. that a HronG step. on this Great o==asion. the people. instead of a =onfederation. I per=eiCe. !areHell8 "e Hise. and shaded Hith oDs=Brit>. Hat=hfBl. the >oIe is /fixed on >oBr ne=Is. . . to @> @ind. leads @e to asI: )ho aBthoriAed the@ to speaI the lanGBaGe of. FealoBs of >oBr liDert>. and t>rann> @Bst and Hill arise. and re=o@@ended to >oB to adopt. I HoBld haCe a reason for his =ondB=t. )e. and I DeG Gentle@en to =onsider. it @Bst De one Great. GBard >oBrselCes aGainst the danGers that are =on=ealed in this plan of a neH !ederal GoCern@ent. The federal ConCention oBGht to haCe a@ended the old s>ste@. Hill plBnGe Bs into @iser>. And here I HoBld @aIe this inEBir> of those Horth> =hara=ters Hho =o@posed a part of the late federal ConCention. >oB Hill dis=oCer the @asEBed aristo=ra=>. of the people of all the states. their s=he@e is =o@pleted. and the> shall De disappointed. and >oBr Doasted liDert> is DBt a soBnd. If this neH GoCern@ent Hill not =o@e Bp to the expe=tation of the people. that the> are atte@ptinG to s@BGGle Bpon >oB Bnder the sBspi=ioBs GarD of repBDli=anis@6 )hen He find . I HoBld =heerfBll> =onfide in the@ as @> representatiCes. D> offerinG >oB a plan of a neH !ederal GoCern@ent. )e. and the reasons that a=tBated its @e@Ders in proposinG an entire alteration of GoCern@ent. sir. #oB @Bst. . >oB @a> lose the@ foreCer.it >oBrselCes. It Hill De ne=essar> for this J*irGinia Ratif>inGK ConCention to haCe a faithfBl histori=al detail of the fa=ts that pre=eded the session of the federal ConCention. Hhi=h if >oB do. I HoBld express so@e testi@onial of estee@ for the@. I haCe the hiGhest respe=t for those Gentle@en Hho for@ed the ConCention.

The =ir=B@stan=es attendinG this @atter. and eCer> de=eptiCe art has Deen and is pra=ti=inG to haCe this spBrioBs Drat re=eiCed as the GenBine offsprinG of heaCen/Dorn liDert>. it is trBl> astonishinG that a set of @en a@onG oBrselCes shoBld haCe the effronter> to atte@pt the destrB=tion of oBr . =ontinBed the senate. that the> haCe hBrried on its adoption. eEBal liDert>. =oBrts of FBsti=e and other oBtHard appearan=es. after sB=h torrents of Dlood and treasBre haCe Deen spent. Bn=he=Ied D> an odioBs Dill of riGhts. the ill/Dred =hBrl oDstinatel> Iept his assB@ed station. DBt =orrBpt politi=ian 'a=hiaCel. . If >oB are in doBDt aDoBt the natBre and prin=iples of the proposed GoCern@ent. . and all other offi=es and for@s of the =o@@onHealth. and >et =hanGed Ro@e fro@ the @ost free. the @ost striIinG =o@@ent. Hhat the> haCe Deen pleased to de=ree. DBt all their efforts Here BnaCailinG. the =ensors. In @an> of the states. to hB@Dle that offensiCe Bpstart. Hhi=h is ne=essar> preCioBs to their exe=Btion. the =onsBls. Hill shoH that the> haCe despised their deleGated poHer. . in the @aFest> of its assB@ed o@nipoten=e. and as despoti= in its natBre.that the prin=ipal aGents in this DBsiness are the Cer> @en Hho faDri=ated the for@ of GoCern@ent. it @iGht not De Bseless to taIe a reCieH of so@e of the@. . and in=BrrinG sB=h a deDt for the express pBrpose of assertinG the riGhts of hB@anit>. the sa@e for@alities. Hho haCe Deen AealoBsl> endeaCorinG sin=e the estaDlish@ent of their =onstitBtions. a GoCern@ent Hhere t>rann> @a> GlBt its CenGean=e on the loH/Dorn. and ter@ed the Hhole a =onfederation of the United tates. FBst as the Grand @onar=h of !ran=e reEBires the parlia@ent of Paris to reGister his edi=ts HithoBt reCision or alteration. and >et as a Dlind Bpon the BnderstandinGs of the people. haCe not eCen =ondes=ended to sBD@it the plan of the neH GoCern@ent to the =onfederation of the people. The late =onCention. are sB=h as shoBld in a pe=Bliar @anner ex=ite >oBr sBspi=ion. the> haCe =ontinBed the for@s of the parti=Blar GoCern@ents. as the *enetian aristo=ra=>. CieH the =ondB=t of its aBthors and patrons: that affords the Dest explanation. a GoCern@ent that Hill GiCe fBll s=ope to the @aGnifi=ent desiGns of the Hell/horn. . . DBt haCe =alled Bpon the@ D> their seCeral =onstitBtions. =onstitBted on the @ost BneEBal prin=iples. and the parti=Blar GoCern@ents of the seCeral tates. o fearfBl are its patrons that >oB shoBld dis=ern the i@position. Hho adCises an> one Hho HoBld =hanGe the =onstitBtion of a state to Ieep as @B=h as possiDle to the old for@s. . to Lassent to and ratif>L in toto. and their for@ of GoCern@ent. . after inColCinG oBrselCes in the distresses of an ardBoBs Har. =aBsed hi@self to De =hosen di=tator 9Hhi=h Has an an=ient offi=e:. pBrsBant to the senti@ents of that profoBnd. the trBe soBr=e of aBthorit>. its trBe featBres DeinG =arefBll> =on=ealed. and DelieCe the@selCes in possession of their old GoCern@ent. . destitBte of a==oBntaDilit> to its =onstitBents. that the> haCe entirel> annihilated the old =onfederation. After so re=ent a triB@ph oCer "ritish despots. Hhen he seiAed the Ro@an liDerties. . . . The eCil GeniBs of darIness presided at its Dirth. the triDBnes. it =ertainl> oBGht to De =on=lBsiCe eCiden=e of their inCidioBs desiGn to depriCe Bs of oBr liDerties. Hith the Greatest pre=ipitation. are insensiDle of the alteration. and instead thereof haCe estaDlished one General GoCern@ent that is to perCade the Bnion. it =a@e forth Bnder the Ceil of @>ster>. there are aristo=rati= FBntos of the Hell/horn feH. A =o@parison of the aBthorit> Bnder Hhi=h the =onCention a=ted. . to the @ost t>ranni=al GoCern@ent in the Horld. parti=Blarl> in this JPenns>lCaniaK and the northern states. and assB@ed soCereiGnt>. . for then the people seeinG the sa@e offi=ers. ThBs Caesar.

IllBstrioBs na@es. #et He =annot sBppose the@ to De infalliDle GBides. "Bt in ere=tinG this GoCern@ent. D> the expressed or i@plied assent of the people.liDerties. hoHeCer reCered. . Hith reGard to the rBles of riGht and HronG. In ere=tinG the federal GoCern@ent.% . . the> haCe presB@ed to oCerleap the BsBal Gradations to aDsolBte poHer. ea=h state @Bst De InoHn as a soCereiGn Dod>.UITE A DI!!ERENT CON IDERATION% TaIen fro@ %T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER. CENTINEL . . Bnder the dire=tion of the GoCern@ent of it. Nor do I =on=eiCe it to De . I =on=eiCe. NotHithstandinG he Hielded the sHord in defense of A@eri=an liDert>. as the Dod> or props. and Hhat oBGht to =onCin=e the people of the de=eption and ex=ite their apprehensions. It is Gra=ed Hith the na@es of a )ashinGton and a !ranIlin. that the =onstitBtion @Bst De Good. %ALL 'EN ARE "ORN !REE AND E. and Hhen this =oBld not De preCented the> haCe =onstantl> aCoided the GroBnd of arGB@ent and re=Brred to de=la@ation. and alHa>s in its =oBn=ils. liCinG Bpon the laDors of seCeral hBndreds of @iseraDle Afri=ans. is that Hith eCer> adCantaGe Hhi=h edB=ation. A federal repBDli= in itself sBpposes state or lo=al GoCern@ents to exist.. or did throBGh the Hhole of the =ontest Hith Great "ritain.UANTIT# O! PO)ER T$E UNION 'U T PO E I ONE T$ING. >et at the sa@e ti@e Has... "Bt in this enliGhtened aGe to hope to dBpe the people D> the arts the> are pra=ti=inG is still @ore extraordinar>. fBrnish the aBthors and adCo=ates of this plan Hith. fro@ the =hara=ters Hhi=h =o@posed the ConCention that fra@ed it. DBt prin=ipall> relied Bpon the @aGi= of na@es. E@Doldened D> the san=tion of the aBGBst na@e of a )ashinGton. . the> haCe fro@ its pBDli=ation exerted all their poHer and inflBen=e to preCent all dis=Bssion of the sBDFe=t. and that it =annot re@ain a @o@ent after the> =ease. @iGht =ope Hith an> @an in A@eri=a. . sophistr> and personal aDBse. as free Dorn as hi@self. .. des=ended fro@ parents Hho. @a> a==ede to the federal =o@pa=t. and haCe atte@pted to seiAe at on=e Bpon the sBpre@a=> of do@inion.UAL%. He InoH/Horth> =hara=ters in =iCil so=iet>. Another thinG the> tell Bs. on Hhi=h the federal Dead rests. T$E 'ODE O! E7ERCI ING T$E PO)ER GI*EN I . The adCo=ates of this plan haCe artfBll> atte@pted to Ceil oCer the trBe natBre and prin=iples of it Hith the na@es of those respe=taDle =hara=ters that D> =onsB@@ate =BnninG and address the> haCe preCailed Bpon to siGn it. T$E #EO'ANR# O! 'A AC$U ETT Antifederalist No. )e =annot thinI he a=ts a Cer> =onsistent part. )e do not =on=eiCe He are to De oCerDorne D> the HeiGht of an> na@es. or the people of the state. -1/-+ 9Part 1: Ri=hard $enr> Lee %T$E . the InoHledGe of histor> and sBperior talents and endoH@ents. that the> haCe prostitBted to their pBrpose. the leGislatBre of the state. )e =annot thinI the noDle General has the sa@e ideas Hith oBrselCes.. . neither >et that a @an @Bst ne=essaril> in=Br GBilt to hi@self @erel> D> dissentinG fro@ the@ in opinion. in point of propert> and diGnit> in their oHn =oBntr>. and so@e of the@ Cer> liIel>. . the s=ien=e of GoCern@ent and of laH. . and is to this da>. .

and that He experien=e disappoint@ents. and federall>. that oBr federal GoCern@ent does not possess sBffi=ient poHers to GiCe life and CiGor to the politi=al s>ste@. the> are in a Detter =ondition than the> HoBld De had =onGress alHa>s possessed the poHers of taxation noH =ontended for. D> the Har. 'en of InoHledGe and refle=tion @Bst per=eiCe it. the @ode of exer=isinG the poHers GiCen is EBite a different =onsideration/ and it is the @ode of exer=isinG the@. or oBr oHn. o@e of the eCils He feel. $ere the laHs of the Bnion operate i@@ediatel> on the Dod> of the people. I @a> Cer> safel> affir@. and @an> Bnexpe=ted disappoint@ents. Hhere i@prBdent liCinG. D> its oHn laHs and offi=ers. frBGalit>. OBr people are liIe a @an FBst re=oCerinG fro@ a seCere fit of si=Iness. and of indiCidBal and politi=al happiness. restorinG indBstr>. is three hBndred @illions of dollars. the Hisest @en in the United tates Generall> sBpposed that =ertain li@ited fBnds HoBld ansHer the pBrposes of the Bnion. The EBantit> of poHer the Bnion @Bst possess is one thinG. as sB=h. !ro@ these and CarioBs =onsiderations. @anBfa=tBres.ne=essaril> a part of a =onfedera=> of states. "Bt then. A =onfederated repBDli= DeinG orGaniAed. fBrnishes its EBota. et=. and in their operation and =onseEBen=es haCe dire=tl> opposite tenden=ies. as to its ad@inistration. as to @aIinG and exe=BtinG laHs.. pro=eeds i@@ediatel> D> its oHn laHs and offi=ers to leC> and =olle=t @onies of indiCidBals. I thinI. than an> people eCer did in a liIe ti@e6 )e @Bst FBdGe fro@ a CieH of the =oBntr> and fa=ts. if the laHs of the Bnion. I a@ not for dependinG Hholl> on reEBisitions. and a disposition to CieH eCer>thinG on the darI side. on persons and propert>. DBt =onsolidated. It Has the Har that distBrDed the =oBrse of =o@@er=e introdB=ed floods of paper @one>. haCe He not done @ore in three or foBr >ears past. and all deleGate to the Bnion poHer to @anaGe General =on=erns. haCe prodB=ed a desponden=>. The fa=t is ad@itted. et=. for@ ar@ies. to enlist @en. That is. the GoCern@ent. oBGht to De i@pBted to the defe=tiCe ad@inistration of the GoCern@ents. i@prBdent i@portations. the staGnation of =redit. >et.. and not on states. and the least He =an =o@pBte the Haste of laDor and propert> at. dBrinG that period. et=.. all Hill aGree. and assiGns to ea=h state its EBota of @en or @onies Hanted. I a@ Cer> =learl> of opinion that the eCils He sBstain @erel> on a==oBnt of the defe=ts of the =onfederation. et=. thoBGh the state leGislatBres shoBld not @eet for >ears toGether. There has Deen an entire reColBtion in the United tates Hithin thirteen >ears. To illBstrate @> idea: the Bnion @aIes a reEBisition. raisinG troops. in repairinG the inFBries of the Har. the laHs of the Bnion operate onl> on states. operate i@@ediatel> Bpon the persons and propert> of indiCidBals. and threH @an> CalBaDle @en oBt of stead> DBsiness. "Bt in the other =ase the Bnion. and a federal repBDli=. as in leC>inG and =olle=tinG taxes.. in its oHn Ha>. that @aIes one of the essential distin=tions DetHeen one entire or =onsolidated GoCern@ent. In the sa@e @anner the laHs of one entire =onsolidated GoCern@ent operate. These tHo @odes are Cer> distin=t. and thereD> la>inG the foBndation of Good GoCern@ent. D> repairinG hoBses and estates. $ere nothinG =an De done HithoBt the @eetinGs of the state leGislatBres. hoHeCer the GoCern@ent @a> De orGaniAed. and not fro@ foreiGn neHspapers. And thoBGh the states are D> no @eans in so Good a =ondition as I Hish the> Here.. ar DBt as a feather in the Dalan=e . "Bt He oBGht =arefBll> to distinGBish those Hhi=h are @erel> the =onseEBen=es of a seCere and tedioBs Har. that ea=h haCe an eEBal Coi=e in the General =oBn=ils. and seCeral in=onCenien=es. Hhi=h are printed =hiefl> in the =o@@er=ial toHns. is not federal. and till the =onCention reported. in @ost i@portant =on=erns. extend to orGaniAinG the @ilitia. fro@ those Hhi=h arise fro@ defe=ts in the federal s>ste@. !ro@ these soBr=es oBr Greatest eCils arise. $ere the state GoCern@ents stand DetHeen the Bnion and indiCidBals. ea=h state. in=e the pea=e. ea=h state @Bst retain poHers for @anaGinG its internal poli=e.. the fisheries.

aGainst a @oBntain. it oBGht to possess all poHers ne=essar> to that end. that . DBt for the @eans the> depend in =onsideraDle deGree Bpon reEBisitions @ade on the state or lo=al asse@Dlies Reason and fa=ts eCin=e. an> Hhere oBt of the prin=ipal @e@Ders of the national s>ste@. oBGht to possess the@ HithoBt li@itation. or federal head. Hhose dBt> it is t defend the pBDli=. That poHers Bnli@ited. the hands of their representatiCes. It is said. thoBGh the> haCe @ade it his dBt> to GBard the e@pire. an eCer> spe=ies of pain He feel i@pBted to the@. "Bt in a federal repBDli=. "Bt =lear it is. #et the IinG @aIes pea=e and Har. toB=hinG the federal poHers. all the @eans of doinG it =onsistent Hith the pBDli= Good. for lo=al pBrposes. free. The defe=ts of the =onfederation are extraCaGantl> @aGnified. eCen Bnder =onsideraDle li@itations. that the pBrse and sHord oBGht not to De pla=ed in the sa@e hands in a free GoCern@ent. and for @anaGinG their internal =on=erns. Hith safet>. D> one step He ar for GiCinG Bp to =onGress al@ost all poHers of an> i@portan=e HithoBt li@itation. >et sB=h @aGistrate or head neCer oBGht to possess the@ if thereD> the pBDli= liDerties shall De endanGered. the poHer to deal oBt and =ontrol the @eans. as in Great "ritain. and that happiness @en enFo> Bnder a frBGal. nor =an the> eCer De. the people for@ this Iind of GoCern@ent. DBt in GiCinG poHer to =onGress. and hen=e it is inferred. there is EBite a different orGaniAation. @ore i@@ediatel> =harGed Hith the national defense and safet>. "Bt it is D> no @eans trBe that the @an. The poHers in EBestion neCer haCe Deen. >et the haCe Hisel> pla=ed in other hands. In $olland their hiGh @iGhtiness @Bst proCide for the =o@@on defense. to possess Bnli@itedl> the poHer in EBestion. and therefore. that hoHeCer =onCenient it @iGht De for an exe=BtiCe @aGistrate. He rest all on a loGi=al inferen=e. and Bnite their states Bnder a federal head for General pBrposes. than fro@ al external ene@ies and internal =o@@otions to Hhi=h the> @iGht De exposed Therefore. the> are separated and lodGed in the prin=ipal @e@Ders of it. that as the federal head @Bst @aIe pea=e and Har. that if sB=h @en. This aBthorit> at least Goeth thBs far/ that a nation. solel>. Hell Cersed in the s=ien=e of GoCern@ent. dire=tl>. totall> in=onsistent Hith experien=e and soBnd politi=al reasoninG. De=aBse their territories are too extensiCe to ad@it of their asse@DlinG in one leGislatBre. he or the> oBGht not to possess the@. deposited. and proCide for the =o@@on defense. Generall>. CoBld he. as to De =alled into exer=ise HheneCer ne=essar> for the pBDli= safet>. This reasoninG is far @ore spe=ioBs than solid. as to the pBrse and sHord. are ne=essar> to that end. or =onGress. It is the essential =hara=teristi= of a =onfederated repBDli=. De not in a sitBation to hold the@ HithoBt danGer to liDert>. OBr Hise an=estors haCe =arefBll> separated the@/pla=ed the sHord in the hands of their IinG. to raise @en and @onies and for@ the @ilitia. as Hell as for@s of GoCern@ent And in the @ain point. or of exe=BtinG the laHs on free prin=iples Bnder one entire GoCern@ent. and @ild GoCern@ent. It is ne=essar> that these poHers so exist in the Dod> politi=. the @Bst De a total =hanGe of the prin=iples. and the pBrse in the hands of the =o@@ons alone. $eretofore He do not see@ to haCe seen danGer an> Hhere. and independentl> to possess all the @eans. It has lonG Deen thoBGht to De a Hell foBnded position. or =onGress of @en. D> nations Hise and free. or eCen in an> =onsideraDle deGree. Hhose dBt> it @ore i@@ediatel> is to proCide for the =o@@on defense. the federal head oBGht to possess the@. and it is his dBt> to proCide for the =o@@on defense of the nation. possess in hi@self independentl>. "Bt the people o EnGland InoH that their liDerties and happiness HoBld De in infinitel> Great danGer fro@ the IinGLs Bnli@ited possession of these poHers. it @iGht De =onCenient. The> ConCene in their lo=al asse@Dlies. and HithoBt exa@ininG the extent of the eCils to De re@edied. does not =on=eiCe it to De ne=essar> or expedient for the @an entrBsted Hith the =o@@on defense and General tranEBilit>. and noH no Hhere DBt in =onGress HantinG poHers. =o@pared Hith those Hhi=h HoBld infalliDl> De the resBlt of the loss of General liDert>. )here these for@ one entire GoCern@ent.

in addition to the other poHers the Bnion @Bst ne=essaril> haCe. The state GoCern@ents are noH aDoBt foBr ti@es as expensiCe as that of the Bnion. in appl>inG the re@ed>. He @Bst De GoCerned D> reason and fa=ts. and it is De=aBse. the people Hill haCe DBt the shadoH of representation. "> the proposed s>ste@ the federal head Hill possess. and Hill natBrall> and ne=essaril> heaCe off an> BndBe DBrdens laid Bpon it. and Hhen He are sBre He haCe GiCen enoBGh for ordinar> exiGen=ies. that if =onGress possess onl> aBthorit> to raise taxes D> i@posts. and Hhen Bnder one General s>ste@ of reGBlations. and a==ordinGl> li@ited. Hill =arr> ex=ises and dire=t taxes to an BnreasonaDle extent. if not restrained D> so@e existinG =o@pa=t.. and that the> haCe a riGht. in these alone. He oBGht to GiCe poHer to the Bnion. =ontrar> to oBr expe=tations. I Hish not to ex=Blpate the states for their i@proper neGle=ts in not pa>inG their EBotas of reEBisitions. and spe=ifi=all> enB@erated. Hhile in it. in its exer=ise. )hen He haCe orGaniAed the GoCern@ent. to insBre safet>. He Cer> BniCersall> see. and also Bnli@ited poHer to raise @onies D> ex=ises and dire=t taxes. the people =an De sBDstantiall> asse@Dled or represented. and =onseEBentl> to deter@ine Hhen their @easBres are reasonaDle or not. or to endanGer liDert>. Hhat poHers shall there De deleGated to the federal head. It Hill not De denied that the people haCe a riGht to =hanGe the GoCern@ent Hhen the @aForit> =hoose it. if =onGress alone possess the i@post. He GiCe it an extensiCe aBthorit>. D> reason. and @an> other Hell foBnded =onsiderations. therefore. the safe GroBnd is =aBtioBsl> to Cest poHer in it. !Brther. tend to =hanGe the GoCern@ent. "> GiCinG the Bnion poHer to reGBlate =o@@er=e. that it is in a deGree. than Get Da=I those He @a> noH i@prBdentl> GiCe. as Hell as enerG>. that the> haCe a riGht to displa=e their rBlers. a EBestion arises. the diCision of representation. hoBld fBtBre =ir=B@stan=es. and fa=ts. in =onfoBndinG the prin=iples of GoCern@ents in the@selCes totall> distin=t. and of Cer> Bn=ertain effe=t in Bn=o@@on ones. I need not @ention. that trade Generall> finds its oHn leCel. reEBires a =orrespondent diCision and deposit of poHers. Indeed the representation proposed Hill hardl> FBstif> GiCinG to =onGress Bnli@ited poHers to raise taxes D> i@posts. and =o@posed of nB@eroBs @e@Ders. Hhi=h. and their seCeral state deDts added toGether.this head De dependent on. The s>ste@ proposed is Bntried. )ise @en Hill alHa>s pla=e the =ontrollinG poHer Hhere the people are sBDstantiall> =olle=ted D> their representatiCes. !ro@ all these. al@ost eCer> spe=ies of poHer that =an. and to leC> and =olle=t taxes D> i@posts. and DBt the shadoH of se=Brit> for their riGhts and liDerties. the proDaDilit> is that those dBties Hill De Cer> =onsideraDl> in=reased. reEBire that fBrther poHers De transferred to the Bnion. in =o@@on =ases. the =onGressional poHers pla=ed in a feH hands. are nearl> as larGe as that of the Bnion. to De extre@el> =arefBl hoH He deleGate poHers. there @Bst De @B=h @ore danGer that tHo taxinG poHers. and the taxes of the Bnion De foBnd inadeEBate to an> Bn=o@@on exiGen=ies. Brel> then. OBr i@post dBties sin=e the pea=e haCe Deen al@ost as prodB=tiCe as the other soBr=es of taxation. et=. in the GoCern@ent6 I thinI there is a safe and proper @ediB@ pointed oBt D> experien=e. Hith a reasonaDle reGard to ti@e to =o@e. I thinI it has Deen fBll> shoHn. in fa=t. in its natBre. It is. so far onl> as experien=e and present =ir=B@stan=es shall dire=t. HithoBt li@itation. Candid adCo=ates and opposers ad@it. trade proDaDl> Hill De oCerDBrdened Hith taxes. espe=iall> as these haCe not the . "Bt. a @ere experi@ent. @Bst ne=essaril> De Bseless or aDBsed. as ex=ises and dire=t taxes =an De @ade to the present de@ands of the separate states. and Iept Hithin li@ited DoBnds D> the lo=al GoCern@ents. It is said. and the lo=al asse@Dlies stronG and Hell GBarded. relatiCe to taxes and @ilitar> =on=erns. He =an do it far @ore easil>. at an> ti@e. And I thinI the plan offered stands EBite alone. To this He @a> oDserCe. in this Iind of GoCern@ent. I DelieCe EBite as adeEBate to present de@ands of the Bnion. and per@anent prodB=tiCe fBnds. to pBt a stop to those @easBres the> @a> dee@ preFBdi=ial to the@. the Bnion and states. and that its orGaniAation is HeaI and i@perfe=t. In a =onfederated repBDli=. D> sB=h for@s and neGatiCes as the> @a> see fit to proCide.

)e oBGht alHa>s to re=olle=t that the eCil to De GBarded aGainst is foBnd D> oBr oHn experien=e. and in the Hhole. or so@e parti=Blar interests. there is no instan=e to De foBnd in a federal repBDli=. "> this federal plan. and that a Dare @aForit> of the federal representatiCes @a> freEBentl> De of the aristo=ra=>. D> reEBirinG that =ertain i@portant laHs of the federal head/as a reEBisition or a laH for raisinG @onies D> ex=ise/ shall De laid Defore the state leGislatBres. ex=ept Hhere a state shall neGle=t. or in expellinG @e@Ders. in the senate. dependent as to the assessinG and =olle=tinG federal taxes solel> Bpon the Bnion.natBral DoBndaries taxes on trade haCe. as in =hoosinG a president D> the hoBse. to pa> its EBota of a reEBisition. and the experien=e of others. There are tHo Ha>s fBrther of raisinG =he=Is. He oBGht to proCide that the Bnion render an exa=t a==oBnt of all @onies raised D> i@posts and other taxes HheneCer @onies shall De Hanted for the pBrposes of the Bnion De>ond the pro=eeds of the i@post dBties. a GiCen ti@e. in alterinG the =onstitBtion. The last exists in the United Netherlands. to reEBire the =onsent of tHo/thirds or three/ foBrths of the @e@Ders present. exe=Bted in the DoHels of the states D> @an> thoBsand offi=ers. perhaps fro@ a feH states. DBt in a @B=h Greater extent. the laH shall haCe no effe=t. . Nor do I =on=eiCe. to pa> its EBota. D> the aGen=> of the state GoCern@ents in all =ases. . in these i@portant =ases. are indispensaDl> ne=essar>. and in appropriatinG @onies for the sBpport of the @ilitar>/to reEBire the attendan=e of a larGe proportion of the federal representatiCes. then. . or parties in . =onne=tions. and I a@ fBll> =onfident neCer =an De. and in de=idinG on i@pea=h@ents. $oHeCer. Hhi=h neCer >et =oBld De. fBrther =he=Is. reEBisitions shall De @ade on the states for the @onies so Hanted. that these i@portant @easBres @a>. Hill not onl> proDaDl> aDBse it. and Hill exist in so@e @easBre in the plan proposed. sa> D> as @an> of the@ as represent a @aForit> of the people. Hith this ex=eption @entioned. and He aCoid also a =ir=B@stan=e. The first exists sBDstantiall> in the =onfederation. The first is foBnded on this prin=iple. Hhere the =onGressional poHers eCer extended Generall> to =olle=tinG @onies D> dire=t taxes or ex=ises. to De @ere neGle=t in the states to pa> their EBotas. in their next session after the sa@e De laid Defore the@. for an BnreasonaDle ti@e. Hill afford sBffi=ient se=Brit>. and GBardinG aGainst /BndBe =o@Dinations and inflBen=e in a federal s>ste@. A GoCern@ent possessed of @ore poHer than its =onstitBent parts Hill FBstif>. CreatinG all these restri=tions. so@eti@es. @Bst De =olle=ted prin=ipall> in the lo=al asse@Dlies. it is not @> oDFe=t to propose to ex=lBde =onGress fro@ raisinG @onies D> internal taxes. )e haCe seen the@ Doth exist in =onfederated repBDli=s. or either of these =he=Is. and poHer in the Bnion to leC> and =olle=t the neGle=tinG statesL EBotas Hith interest. shall for@all> deter@ine an ex=ise laH or reEBisition is i@proper. is fBll> adeEBate to the eCil. ex=ept in stri=t =onfor@it> to the federal plan. De adopted D> a Dare EBorB@ of @e@Ders. and the =onfiden=e of the people. it @a> as soon De destro>ed D> the pressBre of poHer. as tHo/thirds or three/foBrths of the@. as lanGBish and perish for Hant of it. On eCer> prin=iple. raisinG and IeepinG Bp ar@ies. ad@itted in a free federal repBDli=/I @ean a per@anent and =ontinBed s>ste@ of tax laHs of the Bnion. I Hill not BndertaIe to deter@ine. in @> @ind. in @aIinG treaties. The first is/in leC>inG taxes. The strenGth of the GoCern@ent. and that the poHer of la>inG and =olle=tinG shall neCer De exer=ised. in for@inG plans for the @ilitia. and I DelieCe. and aCoid the eCil of atte@ptinG to =o@pel or =oer=e a state. The se=ond is. and if disapproCed of D> a GiCen nB@Der of the@. )hether it HoBld De adCisaDle to adopt Doth. in DBildinG naCies. still the poHers of the Bnion in @atters of taxation Hill De too Bnli@ited. This @ode see@s to De stronGl> pointed oBt D> the reason of the =ase. He se=Bre the @eans of =olle=tinG the taxes D> the BsBal pro=ess of laH. and spirit of the GoCern@ent. and neCer Hhere so @an> of the state leGislatBres as represent a @aForit> of the people. DBt De BneEBal to Dear its oHn DBrden. that is. ex=ept in =ases Hhere a state shall neGle=t. that as fBll a representation as is pra=ti=aDle in the federal GoCern@ent. and in passinG laHs.

"Bt in a =onfederated repBDli=. and lo=al GoCern@ents. There HoBld De less danGer in this poHer to raise troops. This @Bst De on the prin=iple that the Bnion =annot defend all parts of the repBDli=. "> Art. Hhere the orGaniAation =onsists of a federal head.. Hhi=h is to disar@ the state GoCern@ents. et=. DBt D> leGislatiCe a=ts annBall> passed D> =onGress. "Bt after all the pre=aBtions He =an taIe. to raise the@ D> reEBisitions EBalified . e=t. and it @a> De i@proCed.UANTIT# O! PO)ER T$E UNION 'U T PO E I ONE T$ING. HithoBt eCidentl> fetterinG the Bnion too @B=h. . and the reasons for sB=h =he=Is in the United tates appear to De @B=h stronGer. and safel> lodGed. and no appropriation of @onies for their sBpport shall De for a lonGer ter@ than one >ear. shall Ieep troops. Hhi=h. and sBGGests an idea Cer> repBGnant to the General tenden=> of the s>ste@ proposed. and for sB=h fBrther troops as @a> De Hanted. or D> dire=t taxes. )e @a> also reEBire that these a=ts De passed D> a spe=ial @aForit>. to raise the stateLs EBota that @a> neGle=t. In the present state of @anIind.555 in a ti@e of Har. The EBestion is. 15. lodGe the@ in no one @e@Der of the GoCern@ent alone. or ships of Har. and GoCerned D> @otiCes. 1. no land for=es shall De Iept Bp. 3.as Defore @entioned.% It see@s fit the Bnion shoBld dire=t the raisinG of troops. as in Great/"ritain. . not ex=eedinG a GiCen nB@Der. and safest. -1/-+ 9Part II: 9Ri=hard $enr> Lee: %T$E . sa> (555 in ti@e of pea=e. Hhere the people asse@Dle D> their representatiCes in one leGislatBre. This is the =onstitBtional pra=ti=e in Great "ritain.. and Hhi=h see@s to De foBnded in the trBe spirit of a federal s>ste@: it see@s proper to diCide those poHers He =an Hith safet>.% et=. onl> in their state or lo=al asse@Dlies. D> GiCinG the Bnion poHer. "> Art. in ti@e of pea=e/this =learl> i@plies it @a> do it in ti@e of Har.. the> oBGht to haCe Blti@atel> a =onstitBtional =ontrol oCer sB=h interestinG @easBres. %no state. The first is @ost =onfor@aDle to the federal plan. D> its oHn laHs and offi=ers. I. the GoCern@ent of eCer> nation @Bst haCe poHer to raise and Ieep Bp reGBlar troops. and D> GiCinG a fixed EBorB@ of the state leGislatBres poHer to disapproCe the reEBisition.the =o@@Bnit>. There is another @ode still @ore GBarded. I thinI @a> De added Hith Great propriet>/that is. %=onGress shall haCe poHer to raise and sBpport ar@ies. "> the aDoCe re=ited =laBse no state shall Ieep troops. and the Bnion @a> do it in tHo Ha>s: D> reEBisitions on the states. there is no one part in Hhi=h it =an De solel>. HithoBt the =onsent of =onGress. as Defore @entioned. T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. and to insBre dBration to the GoCern@ent D> @odif>inG the exer=ise of the@/it is to e@poHer =onGress to raise troops D> dire=t leCies. This =laBse Has =opied fro@ the . and of =ondB=tinG Har. and 1(. and to =harGe it Hith the expense. e=t. There is one =he=I. >et sBDstantiall> to preserCe their Bse. it is of =oBrse properl> lodGed in that leGislatBre. and in=linations not =o@patiDle Hith the General interest.. there is no diffi=Blt>. and that.. He @Bst GiCe a larGe a==B@Blation of poHers to it. A state in a lonG Har @a> =olle=t for=es sBffi=ient to taIe the field aGainst the neiGhDorinG states.UITE A DI!!ERENT CON IDERATION% . in ti@e of pea=e. T$E 'ODE O! E7ERCI ING T$E PO)ER GI*EN I . The last is foBnded on this prin=iple. that the people Hill De sBDstantiall> represented. therefore. in these and other respe=ts. that their prin=ipal se=Brit> @Bst De foBnd in the@. CieHs. =oBld the state GoCern@ents Ieep a proper =ontrol oCer the pBrse and oCer the @ilitia. hoH shall this poHer De lodGed6 In an entire GoCern@ent.

"> GiCinG this poHer to the Bnion. The =onstitBtion proCides that =onGress shall haCe the sole and ex=lBsiCe GoCern@ent of Hhat is =alled the federal =it>. HheneCer . Jalread>K too larGe HithoBt it. respe=tinG =redit. is aDoBt foBr ti@es as larGe as London. and in the Bse of it. and the @ode of @aIinG @enLs propert> liaDle for pa>inG their deDts. =onGress shall haCe poHer to estaDlish Bnifor@ laHs on the sBDFe=t of DanIrBpt=ies throBGhoBt the United tates. "Bt if pra=ti=aDle. =ontaininG a hBndred sEBare @iles. et=. It is a poHer that Hill i@@ediatel> and extensiCel> interfere Hith the internal poli=e of the separate states. There are @en./JindeedK. A federal. =ities. respe=tinG Hhi=h. and the Cer> different ideas of the different parts in it. De=aBse Bnder this the separate states. and =astles of defense. and. I DelieCe this is a noCel Iind of proCision in a federal repBDli=. And it is not i@proDaDle that the sBdden retreat of =onGress fro@ Philadelphia first GaCe rise to it. it is not i@proDaDle. DBt Hhen on=e =eded. )ith this apprehension. . Hhi=h are often fond of HithdraHinG fro@ the GoCern@ent of the@. or Hhether the> and the Bnion Hill haCe =on=Brrent FBrisdi=tion or not. =onGress =annot haCe the@ Bnless the state leGislatBres =ede the@. an a==B@Blation of poHers. and other needfBl DBildinGs. eCen thoBGh the Bnion shoBld neGle=t or find it i@pra=ti=aDle to estaDlish Bnifor@ DanIrBpt laHs. DeinG laHs of the Bnion . Hill petition to De =eded for the pBrposes @entioned in the proCision. He @a>. This arti=le of poHer too.. that so@e =onsideraDle toHns or pla=es. on fBrther refle=tion. of @aIinG DanIrBpt/laHs. "Bt no Hords are Bsed D> the =onstitBtion to ex=lBde the FBrisdi=tion of the seCeral states. @aGaAines. I DelieCe. and =annot leGislate at all on the sBDFe=t. and fro@ the natBre of the sBDFe=t. If the poHer. )hen He =onsider the extent of the =oBntr>. )e @Bst De sensiDle hoH =aBtioBs He oBGht to De in extendinG Bnne=essaril> the FBrisdi=tion of those =oBrts for reasons I need not repeat. He Greatl> extend the FBrisdi=tion of the federal FBdi=iar>. the GoCern@ent of the Bnion shall haCe se=lBded pla=es. @ilitia laHs. as all EBestions arisinG on DanIrBpt laHs. to oDtain the@. =onGress @a> possess a nB@Der of pla=es or toHns in ea=h state. it opens to CieH s=enes al@ost HithoBt DoBnds. and laHs in so@e other =ases. in Hhi=h it Has of @ore i@portan=e than in the plan proposed. Hill GiCe the Bnion poHer to leGislate. do=I/>ards. arsenals. that the separate states haCe eCer Deen in possession of the poHer. so@e of a federal and so@e of an Bnfederal natBre. and Hhether the> Hill De ex=lBded or not. I thinI Hith so@e deGree of =ertaint>. al@ost all =iCil =aBses/@a> De draHn into those =oBrts. is in its natBre indiCisiDle. And thoBGh the General te@per of the leGislatBres @a> De aCerse to sB=h =essions. @Bst De deter@ined D> inferen=e. and for forts. or rather a national =it>. and @Bst De foBnded in an apprehension of a hostile disposition DetHeen the federal head and the state GoCern@ents. in so@e inte@perate @o@ents. the> neCer =an De re=oCered. that the Bnion oBGht to haCe the poHer. He proCide. et=. $oH far the Bnion Hill find it pra=ti=aDle to do this. do=I >ards. ti@e onl> =an fBll> deter@ine. for instan=e. Hhi=h no state laHs HhateCer shall inCade. it does not appear to @e. it is repBGnant to the spirit of sB=h a GoCern@ent. se=tion 3. =on=lBde that the Bnion neCer Hill De aDle to estaDlish sB=h laHs. Hhen adopted. Hill =onsideraDl> in=rease. a pla=e not ex=eedinG ten @iles sEBare. the neH =onstitBtion. to @aIe Bnifor@ laHs on the sBDFe=t of DanIrBpt=ies.=onfederation. in the hands of the Bnion. It is to De oDserCed. ten @iles sEBare. in the Dest repBDli=s. and eCen toHns. and of all pla=es =eded for forts. or inflBen=ed D> anti/repBDli=an prin=iples. It does not appear to @e to De a poHer properl> in=idental to a federal head. "> Arti=le I. proDaDl>. >et @an> opportBnities and adCantaGes @a> De taIen of parti=Blar ti@es and =ir=B@stan=es of =o@pl>inG asse@Dlies. no one eCer possessed it.. Hill haCe DBt s@all reCenBes. )hen He attentiCel> exa@ine this proCision in all its =onseEBen=es. or in=apaDle of DeinG exer=ised D> tHo leGislatBres independentl>. and of parti=Blar parties. then the states are ex=lBded. espe=iall> Hith their ad@inisterinG FBsti=e a@onG their oHn =itiAens. or D> one in aid of the other. . It is trBe.

All EBestions. and De no part of an> state. it oBGht to De a s@all one. the laHs of =onGress. The =ase is still stronGer. arisinG on the laHs of these pla=es. all EBestions that @a>. The =oBrts in Great "ritain haCe a=EBired their poHers. =an the separate states de@and an> a==oBnt of =onGress. Hill haCe =o@plete and sBpre@e FBrisdi=tion to all federal pBrposes. Hill De as @B=h exe@pt fro@ the laHs and =ontrol of the state GoCern@ents... eCer> sBit in Hhi=h it @a> De alleGed and not denied. and exe=Bted a==ordinGl>. De Cer> allBrinG and pleasinG to those anti/ repBDli=an @en Hho prefer a pla=e Bnder the HinGs of =oBrts. that the inhaDitants of this =it>. on eCer> in=h of GroBnd in the United tates. that the stipBlations of a state. and all the pla=es in Hhi=h the Bnion shall haCe this ex=lBsiCe FBrisdi=tion. "> a Cer> =o@@on leGal fi=tion. @a>. a state. @a> De DroBGht into these =oBrts. de=idinG EBestions of propert> arisinG Hithin the@ on state laHs. et=. and this D> the hiGhest aBthorit>. @a> De a part> or parties. re=oCerinG deDts. or a sea port toHn as a do=I>ard: the laHs of the Bnion. an> personal =ontra=t @a> De sBpposed to haCe Deen @ade in an> pla=e. al@ost all FBdi=ial DBsiness. and all federal oDFe=ts. federal distri=ts. =arefBll> enB@erated and estaDlished D> the =onstitBtion. or an> of these pla=es. =onstitBtionall> @ade. De sBpposed to arise Hithin this =it>. as to @ere state pBrpose for instan=e. also. Bppose ten a=res at )est/ Point shall De Bsed as a fort of the Bnion. it is trBe. =ri@es of propert>. If the proCision in EBestion holds oBt allBre@ents to atte@pt to HithdraH. Hill extend to the@. the people of a state @Bst eCer De sBDFe=t to state as Hell as federal taxes. The prin=iples oBGht to De estaDlished D> the federal =onstitBtion. If I Bnderstand the =onstitBtion. ECer> sBit in Hhi=h an inhaDitant of a federal distri=t @a> De a part>. for the =olle=tion of state taxes in the@. I apprehend @a> De =arried into the federal =oBrts. DBt in no eCent =an there De an> need of so larGe a =it> and pla=es for forts. . in those pla=es. et=. and extended Cer> Greatl> their FBrisdi=tions D> . shall De GoCerned D> laHs foBnded on prin=iples of freedo@. DBt the federal =it> and pla=es Hill De sBDFe=t onl> to the latter. @a> stipBlate that the laHs and GoCern@ent of =onGress in the@ shall alHa>s De for@ed on sB=h prin=iples. and ex=lBsiCe FBrisdi=tion on the hiGh seas. the operation of state laHs. @Bst preCail. Hill De i@@ediatel> Bnder one entire GoCern@ent. and also. the states. and =onseEBentl> no part of the United tates. The inhaDitants of the federal =it> and pla=es. and the GoCern@ent of it fixed on repBDli=an and =o@@on laH prin=iples. and offenses =o@@itted in the@ D> @ere =itiAens aGainst the state laH. . =itiAens of different states in fa=t. . for=es of the Bnion. The =it>. Hhen the> shall =ede pla=es. the =onsent of the people. And thBs. the @ilitia. on other a==oBnts. the Bnion. Hhi=h @Bst De the laHs of =onGress. also. as the people of Canada or NoCa =otia Hill De. If a federal toHn De ne=essar> for the residen=e of =onGress and the pBDli= offi=ers. or of the inhaDitants of the pla=e =eded.o==asion shall present. =an De of DBt little aCail aGainst the poHer and GradBal en=roa=h@ents of the Bnion. And I =an dis=ern no one reason for ex=lBdinG fro@ these pla=es. Nor of the taxes raised in the@. or D> reasonaDle leGal fi=tions. totall> exe@pted fro@ the laHs and FBrisdi=tions of the state GoCern@ents. A =ontra=t @ade in GeorGia @a> De sBpposed to haCe Deen @ade in the federal =it>. trespasses. HithoBt essentiall> departinG fro@ the BsBal =oBrse of FBdi=ial pro=eedinGs. to Hhi=h all states are parties. @Bst De de=ided in the federal =oBrts. "Bt it is eas> to dis=ern. theft. D> @eans of DanIrBpt laHs. Neither the laHs of the states respe=tinG taxes. D> state laHs. D> sB=h FBdi=ial fi=tions as these =oBrts @a> =onsider reasonaDle. =iCil and =ri@inal. eCer> sBit to Hhi=h a foreiGn state or sBDFe=t. and these pla=es. of =oBrse @a> De institBted in the federal =oBrts. that a part> in it is an inhaDitant of sB=h a distri=t. and to the@ D> no fixed proportion. pBnishinG. that of the federal head. nor is there a sinGle stipBlation in the =onstitBtion. respe=tinG the naC>. the =oBrts Hill ad@it the fi=tion. De noti=ed D> all FBdGes and offi=ers. These doors opened for HithdraHinG fro@ the state GoCern@ents entirel>.

=arr>inG sixpenn> =aBses into the federal =oBrts. The =onstitBtion. @Bst indBDitaDl> taIe their tone fro@ the =hara=ters of the @en. and no federal =it> or toHn/ex=ept perhaps a s@all toHn. and fi=tions. Hill De totall> distin=t fro@ an> state. )e @Bst oDserCe that the =itiAens of a state Hill De sBDFe=t to state as Hell as federal taxes. and to aCoid the BndBe and Bnne=essar> extension of the federal FBdi=ial poHers. The diffi=Blties and danGers I haCe sBpposed Hill resBlt fro@ so larGe a federal =it>. And He oBGht to oDserCe. I find. a feH of Hhi=h I Hill @ention. =onGress. Hho fro@ the natBre of its sitBation and institBtion @Bst =olle=t there. and al@ost hidden =ases. and the prin=iples of the =o@@on laH.sB=h :fi=tion and sBppositions as I haCe @entioned. at least. to De Dotto@ed on Detter prin=iples. oBGht to De institBted in federal =oBrts. et=. Can the Bnion Hant. Bnless the =aBse De of Cer> =onsideraDle i@portan=e. and @an> sensiDle @en. This =it> Hill not De estaDlished for prodB=tiCe laDor. and propert>. and federal distri=ts. Hhi=h @a> Bnfold and in ti@e exhiDit =onseEBen=es He hardl> thinI of. DBt for the residen=e of GoCern@ent. its offi=ers and attendants. I =an see no reason HhateCer. =ertainl> inColCes in it prin=iples. and the GoCern@ent of it. D> an> =itiAen or foreiGner. on these points. Hhen CieHed in =onne=tion Hith the FBdi=ial poHers and =ases. in @> @ind. =lai@inG the Denefits of the laHs. for Cer> oDCioBs reasons. DetHeen =itiAens of the sa@e state. and the inhaDitants of the federal =it> and distri=ts onl> to sB=h taxes as =onGress @a> la>. in order to DrinG =aBses Hithin their =oGniAan=e6 !Brther. I still thinI that no a=tions oBGht to De alloHed to De DroBGht in the federal =oBrts. This =it>. Gentle@en of fortBne and pleasBre. in the federal =oBrts6 I haCe @> doBDts. in =o@@on a==eptation/@a> not a =oBrt alloH the plaintiff to sa>. are not. in Hhi=h the GoCern@ent shall De repBDli=an. the Bnion Hill haCe =o@plete FBrisdi=tion oCer the@ of =oBrse an> Hhere. And in order to GiCe the federal =oBrts FBrisdi=tion of an a=tion. To aCoid @an> of these intri=a=ies and diffi=Blties. and to ad@inister FBsti=e Detter than the federal =oBrts. and a =itiAen of a state Hill not of =oBrse De sBDFe=t of an> of the@. as the> haCe Deen =arried D> the =oBrts of &inGLs "en=h and Ex=heEBer. The poHer of natBraliAation. fro@ the extension of the federal FBdi=ial poHers. at least. I thinI perni=ioBs politi=al =onseEBen=es Hill folloH fro@ the@. Hith its appendaGes/the exe=BtiCe. and the defendant a =itiAen of another HithoBt =arr>inG leGal fi=tions so far. @Bst he not De natBraliAed D> =onGress in the@6 And @a> not =onGress @aIe an> proportion of the =itiAens of the states natBraliAed sBDFe=ts of the federal =it> and distri=ts. and serCants in it6 As to all federal oDFe=ts. DBt proDaDle. I =onfess. @erel> possiDle. he is a =itiAen of one state. its oHn @e@Ders. in all =ases. DBt in Hhi=h =onGress shall haCe no FBrisdi=tion oCer the inhaDitants of the states. haCe their doBDts. And that no a=tion aGainst a state GoCern@ent. or @e=hani= indBstr>. and eCer> Hhere. for @er=antile. and thereD> entitle the@ to sBe or defend. If hereafter it shoBld eCer De=o@e a pla=e of trade and indBstr>. I =on=eiCe. an> thinG @ore than a riGht to the soil to Hhi=h it @a> set its DBildinGs. to the General pBrposes of institBtinG sBits. in these points. J>etK in the earl> periods of its existen=e. and fro@ the federal =it> espe=iall>. it appears to @e that no federal distri=ts oBGht to De alloHed. And to aCail hi@self of the priCileGes and i@@Bnities of the@. Bnless it De of Cer> =onsideraDle i@portan=e. in Hhi=h a foreiGn sBDFe=t is part>. et=. and no a=tion. the> @Bst De settled in the =oBrts of laH. Hhen its laHs and GoCern@ent @Bst re=eiCe their fixed tone. "> the =onstitBtion itself. Hith . distin=tions. I thinI the state =oBrts Hill De foBnd D> experien=e. the federal =it> and distri=ts. the =itiAens of ea=h state Hill De natBraliAed =itiAens of eCer> state. the laH =oBrts. D> an> @eans. DetHeen =itiAens of different states. D> their rBles. is. it @Bst De a @ere =oBrt. oBGht to De alloHed. offi=ers. and extensiCe FBrisdi=tion oCer the federal DBildinGs. )e are not to sBppose all oBr people are atta=hed to free GoCern@ent. of Cer> doBDtfBl extent. in sB=h a toHn. or for =itiAens of different states. for a foreiGner. DBt that @an> thoBsands of the@ Hill prefer a =it> GoCerned not on repBDli=an prin=iples.

and the> Hill De poisonoBs or pBre. Hhen the> haCe it in their poHer to for@ one pBre and =haste. seCeral states. and not a =onfedera=> of soCereiGn independent states. or. $oHeCer Drilliant and honoraDle this =olle=tion @a> De. freEBentl> @entioned in the =onstitBtion. And this is an arGB@ent that their separate soCereiGnt> and independen=e =annot De endanGered8 $e has enB@erated a Cariet> of @atters Hhi=h. if the> shall neGle=t to do. This earl> =olle=tion Hill draH to it @en fro@ all parts of the =oBntr>. is entirel> GroBndless. I apprehend he is a little @istaIen. =ontaininG a hBndred sEBare @iles.% This is not stri=tl> trBe. and it @Bst De a=InoHledGed that he has adCo=ated this =aBse Hith as @B=h shoH of reason. "Bt not to dHell on a sBDFe=t that @Bst GiCe pain to the CirtBoBs friends of freedo@. ConGress Hill haCe =onstitBtional poHers to proCide for. attendants.% In this DBsiness. Hhi=h. %ConGress =annot train the @ilitia. and daAAlinG =entre. The North/A@eri=an IntelliGen=er. and dis=iplininG% the@. )e see the@ looIinG toHards the pla=e alread>. A Hriter in the Penns>lCania Pa=Iet. The> shall haCe poHer to de=lare Hhat des=ription of persons shall =o@pose the @ilitia. Bnder Hhat penalties the> shall thinI proper. Hhether Hhen =alled for into a=tBal serCi=e. =onGress =annot do. He @Bst assBredl> de=eiCe oBrselCes. so prone to =orrBption and slaCer>. =an a free and enliGhtened people =reate a =o@@on head so extensiCe. the CisiDle. he sa>s. ar@inG. he oDserCes. 1. and thoL the respe=tiCe states are said to haCe the aBthorit> of traininG the @ilitia.)$AT CONGRE TATE CAN NOT CAN DO. and Hhi=h the states. In so@e of these. hoHeCer. D> an> other @eans the> shall thinI proper. to =o@pel personal attendan=e. it @Bst De %a==ordinG to the dis=ipline pres=riDed D> ConGress. HithoBt reGard to s=rBples of =ons=ien=e or an> other . Hhi=h is dear to the laDorioBs part of a free people. if He expe=t it Hill haCe an> sin=ere atta=h@ents to si@ple and frBGal repBDli=anis@. !eDrBar> (5. to appoint the stated ti@es and pla=es for exer=isinG the@. therefore. or toHn. @Bst or @a> do. and Bnited states are. as this =it> proDaDl> Hill De. )$AT A %DELI"ERATOR% appeared in The !ree@anLs <oBrnal. to exe=Bte their orders. B=h a =it>. as the sBDFe=t Hill ad@it. I Hill onl> add. and then=e infers their soCereiGnt> and independen=e. in their indiCidBal =apa=it>. There @a> De a free or sha=Iled press in this =it>. Bnder the siGnatBre of A !ree@an. Parti=Blarl> he has endeaCored to shoH that oBr apprehensions of this plan of GoCern@ent DeinG a =onsolidation of the United tates into one GoCern@ent. expe=tants and dependents on the Hhole. has latel> entered the lists as another =ha@pion for the proposed =onstitBtion. perhaps. or on other o==asions. of a liIe politi=al des=ription.all the offi=ers. -. @Bst soon De the Great. the> Hill De no other than sBDalterns Bnder ConGress. to that liDert> and @ild GoCern@ent. 1233. and the strea@s Hhi=h @a> issBe fro@ it @a> oCer floH the =oBntr>. and the foBntain of politi=s. frBGal and repBDli=an6 T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. as the foBntain @a> De =orrBpt or not. the @istress of fashions. sBitors. The Hords states. !or D> the 1st Arti=le the> are e@poHered %to proCide for orGaniAinG.

% Neither is this stri=tl> trBe. the @aIinG or reGBlation of roads. D> a @an Hho. 1. or a @atter in Hhi=h the> @a> De Doth =on=erned. till the retBrn of the periodi=al ele=tion at the expiration of the foBr >ears for Hhi=h the for@er president Has =hosen. this proposition also fails.% This. D> the (d arti=le.% . ferr>. an>thinG in the =onstitBtion or laHs of an> state to the =ontrar> notHithstandinG. and it is not Cer> liIel> that so@e of the states Hill eCer asI this faCor. as Hell as all others. %ConGress =annot interfere Hith the openinG of riCers and =anals. or inaDilit> to dis=harGe the dBties of the said offi=e..% 0. -. DBt it is expressl> de=lared. DBt alas. %@Bst De Bnifor@ throBGhoBt the United tates. =anal.% In one =ase. perhaps. or a president shall De ele=ted. Doth of the President and *i=e President. is not trBe. %ConGress =annot ena=t laHs for the inspe=tion of the prodB=e of the =oBntr>. %The ele=tions of the President. !or if the riCer. *i=e President. Their poHer %to reGBlate =o@@er=e Hith foreiGn nations and a@onG the seCeral states. in the lst arti=le. or of his death. Their exe=BtiCe offi=er @a> @ar=h and =oBnter@ar=h the@ fro@ one extre@it> of the state to the other/and all this HithoBt so @B=h as =onsBltinG the leGislatBre of the parti=Blar states to Hhi=h the> DelonG8 )here then is that Doasted se=Brit> aGainst the annihilation of the state GoCern@ents. that %all sB=h laHs shall De sBDFe=t to the reCision and =ontrol of the ConGress.% +.=onsideration. !or. sin=e it is de=lared in the =onstitBtion that %no state shall.% "Bt no sB=h ele=tion is proCided for D> the =onstitBtion. for >ears toGether. and sB=h offi=er shall a=t a==ordinGl>. %HithoBt the =onsent of ConGress. neCer had one Cote of the people for an> offi=e of GoCern@ent in his life. road. Hill for@ a Dran=h of their reCenBe.% Na>. arisinG fro@ %the poHerfBl @ilitar> sBpport% the> Hill haCe fro@ their @ilitia6 (. DBildinG liGhthoBses. death. senators and representatiCes are ex=lBsiCel> in the hands of the states/eCen as to fillinG Ca=an=ies.. DBildinG DridGes. in one i@portant part. Hith hoH little trBth/sin=e it is de=lared in the 1th arti=le that %this =onstitBtion and the laHs of the United tates Hhi=h shall De @ade in pBrsBan=e thereof. resiGnation. De =o@@on to tHo states.% ConGress therefore =annot =onsent that one state shoBld i@pose an additional dBt> on this arti=le of =o@@er=e. et=. And thBs @a> the Great poHers of this sBpre@e @aGistrate of the United tates De exer=ised. Hhi=h @a> Cer> freEBentl> happen. and =onseEBentl> @Bst Doth =on=Br. and eCer> state shall De DoBnd thereD>. Bntil the disaDilit> De re@oCed. %in =ase of the re@oCal of the President fro@ offi=e. ex=ept post roads. DridGe. et=. et=.% This has Deen often said. not eCen this =an the> do. enter into an> aGree@ent or =o@pa=t Hith another state.% as is expressl> de=lared in the =lose of the lst arti=le. and all treaties. de=larinG Hhat offi=er shall then a=t as president. and the ConGress @a> D> laH proCide for the =ase of re@oCal. ere=tinG ferries. then the interferen=e and =onsent of ConGress De=o@es aDsolBtel> ne=essar>.. %The seCeral states =an prohiDit or i@pose dBties on the i@portation of slaCes into their oHn ports.% @ost =ertainl> extends to the ena=tinG of inspe=tion laHs. the sa@e shall deColCe on the *i=e President. et=. and it is proDaDle Hill la> on the i@portation of slaCes. and to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG this poHer 9a@onG others Cested in the@ D> the =onstitBtion: into exe=Btion. "Bt this i@post. shall De the sBpre@e laH of the land. HithoBt the =onsent of ConGress. %ConGress =annot interfere Hith the =onstitBtion of an> state. Bnless all other states shoBld do the sa@e. The parti=Blar states @a> indeed propose sB=h laHs to the@. The dBt> Hhi=h ConGress @a>.

trial D> a FBr> of the Ci=inaGe is not se=Bred D> the =onstitBtion. I HoBld therefore DeG leaCe in so@e @easBre. of Hhi=h the poorest taxaDle in the state @Bst pa> as @B=h as the ri=hest. ConGress @a>. as shall effe=tBall> preCent all ne=essar> infor@ation to the people throBGh these BsefBl =hannels of intelliGen=e. ConGress @a>. in Penns>lCania. ConGress @a> order the ele=tions for @e@Ders of their oHn Dod>. at the =it> of Philadelphia. 2. and if in an>thinG I shoBld appear to De @istaIen I hope he Hill taIe the sa@e liDert> Hith @e that I haCe done Hith hi@/he Hill =orre=t @> @istaIe. not onl> the e@iGration of foreiGners into oBr =oBntr>. the> @a> order the ele=tions to De held in the @iddle of Hinter. and eCen in =ri@inal =ases. and haCe a==ordinGl> taIen pla=e in al@ost all the other =oBntries in the Horld. and death itself not ex=epted. raise an ar@> of 155. do and of Hhat the states @a> not do. And after a feH >ears the> @a> prohiDit altoGether. ConGress @a> Hithhold. 0. Upon the inhaDitants of an> state proCinG refra=tor> to the Hill of ConGress. 15.% estaDlish an Bnifor@it> in reliGion throBGhoBt the United tates. D> Hhi=h @eans the inhaDitants of nine/tenths of the state Hill De effe=tBall> 9thoL =onstitBtionall>: depriCed of the exer=ise of their riGht of sBffraGe. at . and. in order to serCe as ne=essar> instrB@ents in exe=BtinG their de=rees. eCen in ti@e of pea=e. it is ne=essar> also to taIe a CieH of Hhat ConGress @a>. 11. HithoBt pa>. ConGress @a>. in order to for@ a proper FBdG@ent of the proDaDle effe=ts of this plan of General GoCern@ent on the soCereiGnties of the seCeral states. after it shall haCe depre=iated in the hands of the people. in Hhat pla=es. =onstitBtionall>. ConGress @a>. Hho@ the> @a> =anton throBGh the seCeral states. aDolish trial D> FBr> in =iCil =ases altoGether. (. to Hhat a@oBnt the> shall thinI proper. ConGress @a> leC> and =olle=t a =apitation or poll tax. Bnder the san=tion of that =laBse in the =onstitBtion Hhi=h e@poHers the@ to reGBlate =o@@er=e. all infor@ation respe=tinG their pro=eedinGs fro@ the people. sir. =orporal pBnish@ent. 1. aBthoriAe the i@portation of slaCes. the aDoCe Hriter has thoBGht proper to pass oCer in silen=e. @a>. ConGress @a>. =he=I the proGress of its popBlation. and Dillet oBt on the inhaDitants."Bt. -. >et =ertain it is. ConGress @a>. sBDFe=t to the Bt@ost riGor of @ilitar> dis=ipline. that ConGress @a> e@it paper @one>. This @atter. A =ri@e =o@@itted at !ort Pitt @a> De tried D> a FBr> of the =itiAens of Philadelphia. to De held at Hhat ti@es. as lonG as the> thinI proper. B=h estaDlish@ents haCe Deen thoBGht ne=essar>. ThBs. ConGress @a> =an oBt eCen all the @ilitia of as @an> states as the> thinI proper. +. ThoBGh I DelieCe it is not Generall> so Bnderstood. D> i@posinG a dBt> on foreiGners =o@inG into the =oBntr>. 4. and eCen @aIe it a leGal tender throBGhoBt the United tates. in the seCeral states. 3. and in Hhat @anner the> shall thinI proper. or Bpon an> other pretense HhatsoeCer. Hhat is still Horse. eCen into those states Hhere this iniEBitoBs trade is or @a> De prohiDited D> their laHs or =onstitBtions.555 @en. to sBppl> this o@ission. as lonG as the> please. =all it in D> taxes. DBt also that of oBr oHn =itiAens to an> other =oBntr>. Bnder the san=tion of that =laBse Hhi=h e@poHers the@ to la> and =olle=t dBties 9as distin=t fro@ i@posts and ex=ises: i@pose so heaC> a sta@p dBt> on neHspapers and other periodi=al pBDli=ations. hoHeCer. in their =oBrts of FBdi=atBre. if the> shall thinI it for the %General Helfare. and Ieep the@ in a=tBal serCi=e. and Hill no doBDt De thoBGht eEBall> ne=essar> in this. 1.

DELI"ERATOR Antifederalist No. hoHeCer. that is. $e De=a@e an Antifederalist leader. 1+. or pass an> laH i@pairinG the oDliGation of =ontra=ts. On the other hand. Under the no@e de plB@e % >dne>% he Hrote in the NeH #orI Dail> Patrioti= ReGister. fro@ those Iind of pillars. and enaDle Bs to deter@ine Hhether the re@aininG poHers Hill. AlthoBGh a Cariet> of oDFe=tions to the proposed neH =onstitBtion for the GoCern@ent of the United tates haCe Deen laid Defore the pBDli= D> @en of the Dest aDilities. haCe no poHer to in=rease the nB@Der of representatiCes. The nB@Der of representatiCes Hhi=h shall =o@pose the prin=ipal Dran=h of ConGress is so s@all as to o==asion General =o@plaint. no state =an =all forth its @ilitia eCen to sBppress an> insBrre=tion or do@esti= Ciolen=e Hhi=h @a> taIe pla=e a@onG its oHn =itiAens. a deleGate to the 1232 =onCention fro@ NeH #orI. ThBs a <erse>/@an Hill De BnaDle to re=oCer the pri=e of a tBrIe> sold in the Philadelphia @arIet. NE) #OR& A AN E7A'PLE RoDert #ates. No state =an GiCe relief to insolCent deDtors. 1(. 10. TO T$E CITI?EN O! T$E TATE O! NE) #OR&. D> =o@parinG it Hith the =onstitBtion of the tate of NeH #orI. <Bne 1+ and 1-. The folloHinG =ontrast is therefore sBD@itted to the pBDli=. ConGress. Cested in ConGress. if the pBr=haser shall De in=lined to dispBte. left on <Bl> 15. D> the =onstitBtion. No state =an =o@pel one of its oHn =itiAens to pa> a deDt dBe to a =itiAen of a neiGhDorinG state. 11. 1232. I a@ led to DelieCe that representinG it in a point of CieH Hhi=h has es=aped their oDserCation @a> De of Bse. 1233. No state =an en=oBraGe its oHn @anBfa=tBres either D> prohiDitinG or eCen la>inG a dBt> on the i@portation of foreiGn arti=les. >et the ConGress the@selCes are Bnder no =onstitBtional restraints on these points. and the parti=Blar states are expressl> prohiDited fro@ passinG an> laH i@pairinG the oDliGation of =ontra=ts. DBt @a> redB=e it eCen to one fifth part of the present arranGe@ent.% . This poHer is. sin=e ConGress Hill haCe the ex=lBsiCe riGht of estaDlishinG Bnifor@ laHs on the sBDFe=t of DanIrBpt=ies throBGhoBt the United tates. !or thoBGh no state =an e@it Dills of =redit. -0 PO)ER O! NATIONAL GO*ERN'ENT DANGEROU TO TATE GO*ERN'ENT . in haCinG pre=isel> @arIed oBt the poHer of the GoCern@ent and the riGhts of the people. hoHeCer distressinG their sitBation @a> De. 1-. De =apaDle of sBpportinG the @Btilated faDri= of a GoCern@ent Hhi=h eCen the adCo=ates for the neH =onstitBtion ad@it ex=els %the Doasted @odels of Gree=e or Ro@e.an> rate of depre=iation 9=o@pared Hith Gold and silCer: Hhi=h the> @a> thinI proper. and those of all other nations. HithoBt =o@@en=inG an a=tion in one of the federal =oBrts. to shoH in Hhat instan=es the poHers of the state GoCern@ent Hill De either totall> or partiall> aDsorDed.

. )hat haCe He reasonaDl> to expe=t Hill De their =ondB=t Ji. Nor is there a poHer on earth to tell the@. He =an s=ar=el> entertain a doBDt DBt that a plan has lonG sin=e Deen fra@ed to sBDCert the =onfederation. in Hhi=h all aGree. or dee@ed Calid. operations/Hhat is to li@it the oppression of the General GoCern@ent6 )here are the riGhts. It is . He oBGht deliDeratel> to tra=e the extent and tenden=> of the trBst He are aDoBt to repose. deter@ines. and possessinG poHers of Hhi=h the> @a> De depriCed HheneCer the General GoCern@ent is disposed so to do. those Hhi=h are in a Great @easBre enerCated. . "eside Hhi=h the @ode and period of their DeinG ele=ted tends to taIe aHa> their responsiDilit> to the people oCer Hho@ the> @a>. if not i@pra=ti=aDle. . . Hill enerCate their leGislatiCe riGhts. that poHer Has eCen then Cested in the rBlers Hith the Greatest =aBtion. eCident that this state. and not the real reasons of its fra@ers. and the traders to De flee=ed D> iniEBitoBs i@positions. and totall> sBrrender into the hands of ConGress the @anaGe@ent and reGBlation of the Indian trade to an i@proper GoCern@ent. and a@onG the seCeral states. that that plan has Deen @atBred Hith the @ost perseCerinG indBstr> and Bnre@itted attention. )hat dost thoB6 or.It @a> De proper to pre@ise that the pressBre of ne=essit> and distress 9and not =orrBption: had a prin=ipal tenden=> to indB=e the adoption of the state =onstitBtions and the existinG =onfederation. . to la> an> %i@posts or dBties on i@ports. Bnder the =onCi=tion that a reassB@ption of that trBst Hill at least De diffi=Blt. . . DBt sB=h as shall De deriCed fro@ and Granted D> the@. and no express de=laration is =ontained in it. and that the oDFe=ts expressed in the prea@Dle to the =onstitBtion. existinG solel> D> its toleration. %That no pBr=hases or =ontra=ts for the sale of lands Hith or of the Indians Hithin the li@its of this state. Hhi=h are de=lared to De in=apaDle of Ciolation6 And Hhat se=Brit> haCe people aGainst the Hanton oppression of Bnprin=ipled GoCernors6 No =onstitBtional redress is pointed oBt. that is %to pro@ote the General Helfare and se=Bre the DlessinGs of liDert> to oBrselCes and oBr posterit>. and onl> differ as to the @ode/ Hhether it Hill De effe=ted D> a rapid proGression. Hhi=h are rendered nBGator> D> the latter.. exe=BtiCe. HithoBt the =onsent of ConGress. and sB=h as are in the dis=retion of the General GoCern@ent to per@it or not.% and if the> do the> shall De for the Bse of the TreasBr> of the United tates/and all sB=h laHs sBDFe=t to the reCision and =ontrol of ConGress. )h> dost thoB so6 I shall noH pro=eed to =o@pare the =onstitBtion of the state of NeH #orI Hith the proposed federal GoCern@ent.. . distinGBishinG the paraGraphs in the for@er. If then the poHers of the state GoCern@ents are to De totall> aDsorDed. and their laHs the sBpre@e laHs of the land. operatinG at one and the sa@e ti@e as a @onopol> and a poll/tax. .. and FBdi=ial poHers. D> adoptinG the neH GoCern@ent. DBt sloHer. . And Hhen the states are prohiDited. shall De DindinG on the Indians. . and Hith the Indian triDes. as fro@ eCer> =ir=B@stan=e He haCe reason to infer that the DeH =onstitBtion does not oriGinate fro@ a pBre soBr=e. or D> as =ertain.e. . Bnless @ade Bnder the aBthorit> and Hith the =onsent of the leGislatBre of this state. . . .% Hhen the> are ar@ed Hith leGislatiCe.% Here @erel> the ostensiDle. to li@it the DoBndaries of their rBlers. and de=lares that no aBthorit> shall on an> preten=e HhateCer De exer=ised oCer the people or the @e@Ders of this tate.% . D> the poHer of the pBrse and the sHord. Jthe neH =onstitBtionK as @ere dependen=ies.. the neH national GoCern@entK Hhen possessed of the poHers %to reGBlate =o@@er=e Hith foreiGn nations. If He taIe a retrospe=tiCe CieH of the @easBres of ConGress. do@ineer at dis=retion. 1 S +2 The 1st %Ordains.% The +2th. The state GoCern@ents are =onsidered in . and that.

shall De the sBpre@e laH of the land. . 3th se=t.% et=. and enFo> the sa@e priCileGes. and tested in the na@e of the =han=ellor or the =hief FBdGe fro@ Hhen=e the> shall issBe. . and the FBdGes in eCer> state shall De DoBnd thereD>. the =han=ellor and FBdGes of the sBpre@e =oBrt. shall De DoBnd D> oath or affir@ation to sBpport this =onstitBtion.% The +rd proCides aGainst laHs that @a> De hastil> and inadCertentl> passed. The +1st des=riDes eCen the st>le of laHs/that the st>le of alt laHs shall De as folloHs: %"e it ena=ted D> the people of the state of NeH #orI represented in senate and asse@Dl>.% The 4th proCides %that the asse@Dl> shall De the FBdGe of their oHn @e@Ders. oBGht to De GBaranteed to ea=h state D> the United tates. Doth of the United tates and of the seCeral states. and this is eCiden=ed D> 1st art.% Those Hho are fBll of faith. Hhi=h shall De @ade in pBrsBan=e thereof.% The 1(th proCides %that the senate shall. Hho toGether shall for@ the leGislatBre.% and that all Hrits and pro=eedinGs shall rBn in the na@e of the people of the state of NeH #orI.. .. De FBdGes of their oHn @e@Ders. as it Has first reported D> the =o@@ittee of the Hhole hoBse. D> the leGislatBre. the> Hill find that their restri=tiCe =onstrB=tion is BnaCailinG. i@posts and ex=ises. to pa> the deDts. . and all exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial offi=ers. and se=Bre the approDation of Doth. Can there at the sa@e ti@e and pla=e De and operate tHo sBpre@e leGislatBres. . in liIe @anner. that %this =onstitBtion and the laHs of the United tates. to Hit. for the proposed neH GoCern@ent de=lares that %all leGislatiCe poHers therein Granted shall De Cested in a =onGress of the United tates. Hhere this GoCern@ent has a poHer %to la> and =olle=t all taxes. . and proCide for the =o@@on defense and General Helfare of the United tates.% . an>thinG in the =onstitBtion or laHs of an> state to the =ontrar> notHithstandinG. or Hhi=h shalt De @ade Bnder the aBthorit> of the United tates. it appears to @e as i@possiDle that these poHers in the state =onstitBtion and those in the General GoCern@ent =an exist and operate toGether. as it HoBld De for a @an to serCe tHo @asters Hhose interests =lash. in=onsistent Hith the spirit of the =onstitBtion and the pBDli= Good. The poHers Cested in the leGislatBre of this state D> these paraGraphs Hill De HeaIened. . and all treaties @ade. To =on=lBde @> oDserCation on this head. or se=Bre the estaDlish@ent and retention of state riGhts6 If this GBarantee had re@ained. dBties. DBt the =hanGinG the Hord =onstitBtion into the Hord for@ Dears no faCoraDle appearan=e. or in an> depart@ent or offi=e thereof.The (nd proCides %that the sBpre@e leGislatiCe poHer Hithin this state shall De Cested in tHo separate and distin=t Dodies of @en.% and also %to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG into exe=Btion the foreGoinG poHers Cested D> this =onstitBtion in the GoCern@ent of the United tates. and FBdi=ials6 )ill a %GBarantee of a repBDli=an for@ of GoCern@ent to eCer> state in the Bnion% De of an> aCail. the one to De =alled the asse@Dl>. sBppose that the Hords %in pBrsBan=e thereof% are restri=tiCe. and the @e@Ders of the seCeral state leGislatBres. DBt if the> refle=t a @o@ent and taIe into =onsideration the =o@prehensiCe expressions of the instrB@ent. and pro=eed in doinG DBsiness in liIe @anner as the asse@Dl> of the =olon> of NeH #orI of riGht for@erl> did. and the other to De =alled the senate of the state of NeH #orI.% and it fBrther pres=riDes. shall reCise all Dills aDoBt to De passed into laHs.% it HoBld haCe Deen sBDstantial. Hhi=h shall =onsist of a senate and a hoBse of representatiCes. and its existinG laHs. and that %the GoCernor. %that a repBDli=an =onstitBtion. exe=BtiCes.

(2. Nor Hill it solCe an> diffi=Blties. or depriCed of an> of the riGhts or priCileGes se=Bred to the sBDFe=ts of the tate D> the =onstitBtion. +0. D> leaCinG oBt these Hords the FBrisprBden=e of ea=h state is left to the @er=> of the neH GoCern@ent. et=. ar@inG and dis=iplininG the @ilitia.% "> the 13th he is =o@@ander/ in/=hief of the @ilitia and ad@iral of the naC> of the tate. 1220.BaIers shall De ex=Bsed.. Doth in pea=e and Har. and that a @aGaAine of HarliIe stores De foreCer Iept at the expense of the tate. )hoeCer =onsiders the folloHinG poHers Cested in the JnationalK GoCern@ent. And I do not eCen thinI it Bn=haritaDle to sBppose that it Has desiGnedl> done. @a> Grant pardons to all persons =onCi=ted of =ri@es. @aintained. 10th. There =an De no doBDt that if the neH GoCern@ent De adopted in all its latitBde.% He @a> De alloHed the for@ and not the sBDstan=e.. "> the 1st art.. The -1st proCides %that the trial D> FBr> re@ain inCiolate foreCer. and has a =astinG Cote and the =o@@issioninG of all offi=ers. in Hhat @anner the . to proCide for orGaniAinG. and that it Has so intended Hill appear fro@ the =hanGinG the Hord =onstitBtion to the Hord for@ and the o@ission of the Hords. The -5th paraGraph orders that the @ilitia at all ti@es. The (5th and (1st paraGraphs GiCe the lieBtenant/GoCernor. . (5. if the United tates GBarantee %to eCer> state in the Bnion a repBDli=an for@ of GoCern@ent. 14. sBppress insBrre=tions and repel inCasions. ConGress Hill De e@poHered to =all forth the @ilitia to exe=Bte the laHs of the Bnion. all the poHers of a GoCernor. and Iept in readiness. Bnder =ertain ex=eptions and @odifi=ations. and =o@pares the@ Hith the aDoCe. for the GoCerninG sB=h part of the@ as @a> De e@plo>ed in the serCi=e of the United tates. the statBte laH of EnGland and Great "ritain. 3th se=. shall De ar@ed and dis=iplined. and its existinG laHs. the =o@@on laH of EnGland. 11th and 12th =laBses. And that the leGislatBre shall at no ti@e hereafter institBte an> neH =oBrts DBt sB=h as shall pro=eed a==ordinG to the =oBrse of the =o@@on laH. "> the 14th paraGraph he is to see that the laHs and resolBtions of the leGislatBre De faithfBll> exe=Bted. 13. @Bst readil> per=eiCe the> are either all enerCated or annihilated.. that no a=ts of attainder shall De passed D> the leGislatBre of this tate for =ri@es other than those =o@@itted Defore the ter@ination of the present Har. on the death. @aGaAines. 12. resiGnation. or FBdG@ent of its peers. and the a=ts of the leGislatBre of the =olon>. or i@pea=h@ent of the GoCernor. and for the ere=tion of forts. -1 "> the 1+th paraGraph %no @e@Der of this tate shall De disfran=hised. DBt Hhether it Has so or not. he @a> sBspend the exe=Btion of the senten=e in treason or @Brder. and =ontinBed in eCer> =oBnt> in the tate. estaDlished. Bnless D> the laH of the land. re@oCal fro@ offi=e. "> the (2th he Jthe GoCernorK is president of the =oBn=il of appoint@ent.. eCer> one of these paraGraphs Hill De=o@e a dead letter.1+. -5 The 12th orders %That the sBpre@e exe=BtiCe poHer and aBthorit> of this tate shall De Cested in a GoCernor. and D> a=t of the leGislatBre.% The +0th adopts. Hhi=h toGether for@ed the laH on the 14th of April. (1.

exe=BtiCe. and to =o@@and the @ilitia. and all the exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial offi=ers. . ex=ept in =ases of i@pea=h@ent. -0 PO)ER O! NATIONAL GO*ERN'ENT DANGEROU TO TATE GO*ERN'ENT . and the @ost triflinG do@esti= =on=erns of eCer> state. Doth of the United tates.% The 1st art. and of the seCeral states.And D> the (nd art. And D> the -th art.. In a Hord.. D> possessinG a poHer of passinG laHs %to proCide for the General Helfare of the United tates. Hill GiCe the president a@ple @eans to enfor=e the sBpre@e laHs of the land. that the DBrdens and expense of sBpportinG a state estaDlish@ent Hill De perpetBated. Hhen =o@pletel> orGaniAed. GiCe to the neH GoCern@ent poHer to estaDlish a Bnifor@ rBle of natBraliAation. -th =laBse. %The @e@Ders of the seCeral state leGislatBres.. !ro@ these poHers lodGed in ConGress and the poHers Cested in the states. Delenda Cit A@eri=a.. and if adopted He @a> 9in i@itation of the CarthaGenians: sa>.. NE) #OR& A AN E7A'PLE . and of the @ilitia of the seCeral tates Hhen =alled into a=tBal serCi=e of the United tates.% And D> the 1th art. . tHo leGislatiCe.% Can this oath De taIen D> those Hho haCe alread> taIen one Bnder the =onstitBtion of this state6 . liDert> and propert> in eCer> @odifi=ation the> @a> thinI expedient.. 3th se=. %The president shall De =o@@ander/ in/=hief of the ar@> and naC> of the United tates. (nd se=. The poHer of raisinG an ar@> in ti@e of pea=e. for the poHer of the first Hill De all in all. and Bnrestrained D> a de=laration of an> of those riGhts Hhi=h the Hisdo@ and prBden=e of A@eri=a in the >ear 1221 held oBGht to De at all eCents prote=ted fro@ Ciolation.% HhereD> the =laBse is rendered entirel> nBGator>. the General GoCern@ent arroGatinG to itself the riGht of interferinG in the @ost @inBte oDFe=ts of internal poli=e. . . it is =lear that there @Bst De a GoCern@ent Hithin a GoCern@ent.. and of the latter a @ere shadoH and for@ HithoBt sBDstan=e.% Hhi=h @a> affe=t life. %the =itiAens of ea=h state shall De entitled to all the priCileGes and i@@Bnities of =itiAens in the seCeral states. DBt its operations to ensBre or =ontriDBte to an> essential @easBres pro@otiCe of the happiness of the people @a> De totall> prostrated. (nd se=.. and destro> the riGhts and liDerties of the people. -( This paraGraph proCides %that it shalt De in the dis=retion of the leGislatBre to natBraliAe all sB=h persons and in sB=h @anner as the> shall thinI proper. Bn=he=Ied D> =aBtionar> reserCations. . !ro@ this =ontrast it appears that the General GoCern@ent. .. shall De DoBnd D> oath or affir@ation to sBpport the =onstitBtion. #DNE# Antifederalist No. the neH =onstitBtion Hill proCe finall> to dissolCe all the poHer of the seCeral state leGislatBres. and FBdi=ial poHers. Hill aDsorD all those poHers of the state Hhi=h the fra@ers of its =onstitBtion had de=lared shoBld De onl> exer=ised D> the representatiCes of the people of the state.

Bnder the =onCi=tion that a reassB@ption of that trBst Hill at least De diffi=Blt... If He taIe a retrospe=tiCe CieH of the @easBres of ConGress. AlthoBGh a Cariet> of oDFe=tions to the proposed neH =onstitBtion for the GoCern@ent of the United tates haCe Deen laid Defore the pBDli= D> @en of the Dest aDilities. The folloHinG =ontrast is therefore sBD@itted to the pBDli=. The state GoCern@ents are =onsidered in . and no express de=laration is =ontained in it. that that plan has Deen @atBred Hith the @ost perseCerinG indBstr> and Bnre@itted attention. Hhi=h are de=lared to De in=apaDle of Ciolation6 And Hhat se=Brit> haCe people aGainst the Hanton oppression of Bnprin=ipled GoCernors6 No =onstitBtional redress is pointed oBt. He =an s=ar=el> entertain a doBDt DBt that a plan has lonG sin=e Deen fra@ed to sBDCert the =onfederation. existinG solel> D> its toleration.RoDert #ates. to shoH in Hhat instan=es the poHers of the state GoCern@ent Hill De either totall> or partiall> aDsorDed.% It @a> De proper to pre@ise that the pressBre of ne=essit> and distress 9and not =orrBption: had a prin=ipal tenden=> to indB=e the adoption of the state =onstitBtions and the existinG =onfederation. in haCinG pre=isel> @arIed oBt the poHer of the GoCern@ent and the riGhts of the people. $e De=a@e an Antifederalist leader. 1233. left on <Bl> 15. or D> as =ertain.. If then the poHers of the state GoCern@ents are to De totall> aDsorDed. Nor is there a poHer on earth to tell the@. "eside Hhi=h the @ode and period of their DeinG ele=ted tends to taIe aHa> their responsiDilit> to the people oCer Hho@ the> @a>. D> =o@parinG it Hith the =onstitBtion of the tate of NeH #orI. those Hhi=h are in a Great @easBre enerCated. and sB=h as are in the dis=retion of the General GoCern@ent to per@it or not. 1232. that is. . a deleGate to the 1232 =onCention fro@ NeH #orI. De =apaDle of sBpportinG the @Btilated faDri= of a GoCern@ent Hhi=h eCen the adCo=ates for the neH =onstitBtion ad@it ex=els %the Doasted @odels of Gree=e or Ro@e. )hat dost thoB6 or. that poHer Has eCen then Cested in the rBlers Hith the Greatest =aBtion. and not the real reasons of its fra@ers. Hhi=h are rendered nBGator> D> the latter. in Hhi=h all aGree. and possessinG poHers of Hhi=h the> @a> De depriCed HheneCer the General GoCern@ent is disposed so to do. . D> the poHer of the pBrse and the sHord. as fro@ eCer> =ir=B@stan=e He haCe reason to infer that the DeH =onstitBtion does not oriGinate fro@ a pBre soBr=e. operations/Hhat is to li@it the oppression of the General GoCern@ent6 )here are the riGhts. DBt sloHer. to li@it the DoBndaries of their rBlers. . Under the no@e de plB@e % >dne>% he Hrote in the NeH #orI Dail> Patrioti= ReGister. and those of all other nations. distinGBishinG the paraGraphs in the for@er. . and enaDle Bs to deter@ine Hhether the re@aininG poHers Hill. and that. )h> dost thoB so6 I shall noH pro=eed to =o@pare the =onstitBtion of the state of NeH #orI Hith the proposed federal GoCern@ent. . if not i@pra=ti=aDle. 1 S +2 .% Here @erel> the ostensiDle. Jthe neH =onstitBtionK as @ere dependen=ies. . <Bne 1+ and 1-. . and onl> differ as to the @ode/ Hhether it Hill De effe=ted D> a rapid proGression. that is %to pro@ote the General Helfare and se=Bre the DlessinGs of liDert> to oBrselCes and oBr posterit>. TO T$E CITI?EN O! T$E TATE O! NE) #OR&. do@ineer at dis=retion. and that the oDFe=ts expressed in the prea@Dle to the =onstitBtion. fro@ those Iind of pillars. He oBGht deliDeratel> to tra=e the extent and tenden=> of the trBst He are aDoBt to repose. I a@ led to DelieCe that representinG it in a point of CieH Hhi=h has es=aped their oDserCation @a> De of Bse.

and their laHs the sBpre@e laHs of the land. )hat haCe He reasonaDl> to expe=t Hill De their =ondB=t Ji. . the one to De =alled the asse@Dl>. deter@ines. and tested in the na@e of the =han=ellor or the =hief FBdGe fro@ Hhen=e the> shall issBe. D> the leGislatBre. Hhi=h shall De @ade in pBrsBan=e thereof. and FBdi=ial poHers. . Hho toGether shall for@ the leGislatBre.% and that all Hrits and pro=eedinGs shall rBn in the na@e of the people of the state of NeH #orI. The +1st des=riDes eCen the st>le of laHs/that the st>le of alt laHs shall De as folloHs: %"e it ena=ted D> the people of the state of NeH #orI represented in senate and asse@Dl>. . and the FBdGes in eCer> state shall De DoBnd thereD>. exe=BtiCe.% The +rd proCides aGainst laHs that @a> De hastil> and inadCertentl> passed. %That no pBr=hases or =ontra=ts for the sale of lands Hith or of the Indians Hithin the li@its of this state. Doth of the United tates and of the seCeral states.% and if the> do the> shall De for the Bse of the TreasBr> of the United tates/and all sB=h laHs sBDFe=t to the reCision and =ontrol of ConGress. and the traders to De flee=ed D> iniEBitoBs i@positions. The (nd proCides %that the sBpre@e leGislatiCe poHer Hithin this state shall De Cested in tHo separate and distin=t Dodies of @en.e. in=onsistent Hith the spirit of the =onstitBtion and the pBDli= Good. the =han=ellor and FBdGes of the sBpre@e =oBrt.% and it fBrther pres=riDes. and Hith the Indian triDes.The 1st %Ordains. for the proposed neH GoCern@ent de=lares that %all leGislatiCe poHers therein Granted shall De Cested in a =onGress of the United tates. or dee@ed Calid.% The 4th proCides %that the asse@Dl> shall De the FBdGe of their oHn @e@Ders.% . Hhi=h shall =onsist of a senate and a hoBse of representatiCes. or Hhi=h shalt De @ade Bnder the aBthorit> of the United tates.% Hhen the> are ar@ed Hith leGislatiCe. shall De the sBpre@e laH of the land. And Hhen the states are prohiDited. . that %this =onstitBtion and the laHs of the United tates. and a@onG the seCeral states.. HithoBt the =onsent of ConGress. and the other to De =alled the senate of the state of NeH #orI. Hill enerCate their leGislatiCe riGhts. operatinG at one and the sa@e ti@e as a @onopol> and a poll/tax. . and pro=eed in doinG DBsiness in liIe @anner as the asse@Dl> of the =olon> of NeH #orI of riGht for@erl> did. D> adoptinG the neH GoCern@ent. and enFo> the sa@e priCileGes. and totall> sBrrender into the hands of ConGress the @anaGe@ent and reGBlation of the Indian trade to an i@proper GoCern@ent. eCident that this state. shall reCise all Dills aDoBt to De passed into laHs. and all treaties @ade. The poHers Cested in the leGislatBre of this state D> these paraGraphs Hill De HeaIened. in liIe @anner. . Bnless @ade Bnder the aBthorit> and Hith the =onsent of the leGislatBre of this state. to la> an> %i@posts or dBties on i@ports. and the @e@Ders of the seCeral state leGislatBres.% . It is .% The 1(th proCides %that the senate shall. DBt sB=h as shall De deriCed fro@ and Granted D> the@. De FBdGes of their oHn @e@Ders. and that %the GoCernor. shall De DindinG on the Indians. .% The +2th. shall De DoBnd D> oath or affir@ation to sBpport this =onstitBtion. and de=lares that no aBthorit> shall on an> preten=e HhateCer De exer=ised oCer the people or the @e@Ders of this tate. and all exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial offi=ers.% et=. an>thinG in the =onstitBtion or laHs of an> state to the =ontrar> notHithstandinG. the neH national GoCern@entK Hhen possessed of the poHers %to reGBlate =o@@er=e Hith foreiGn nations.

or se=Bre the estaDlish@ent and retention of state riGhts6 If this GBarantee had re@ained.% . the statBte laH of EnGland and Great "ritain. to Hit. .. 12. the> Hill find that their restri=tiCe =onstrB=tion is BnaCailinG. that no a=ts of attainder shall De passed D> the leGislatBre of this tate for =ri@es other than those =o@@itted Defore the ter@ination of the present Har. sBppose that the Hords %in pBrsBan=e thereof% are restri=tiCe. 3th se=t. as it Has first reported D> the =o@@ittee of the Hhole hoBse. . 1220.. or FBdG@ent of its peers. and FBdi=ials6 )ill a %GBarantee of a repBDli=an for@ of GoCern@ent to eCer> state in the Bnion% De of an> aCail.Those Hho are fBll of faith. And that the leGislatBre shall at no ti@e hereafter institBte an> neH =oBrts DBt sB=h as shall pro=eed a==ordinG to the =oBrse of the =o@@on laH. i@posts and ex=ises. exe=BtiCes. DBt if the> refle=t a @o@ent and taIe into =onsideration the =o@prehensiCe expressions of the instrB@ent. +0.. to pa> the deDts. 14. Nor Hill it solCe an> diffi=Blties. . (5. if the United tates GBarantee %to eCer> state in the Bnion a repBDli=an for@ of GoCern@ent. The -1st proCides %that the trial D> FBr> re@ain inCiolate foreCer.% "> the 13th he is =o@@ander/ in/=hief of the @ilitia and ad@iral of the naC> of the tate. and the a=ts of the leGislatBre of the =olon>. DBt the =hanGinG the Hord =onstitBtion into the Hord for@ Dears no faCoraDle appearan=e. or depriCed of an> of the riGhts or priCileGes se=Bred to the sBDFe=ts of the tate D> the =onstitBtion. -5 The 12th orders %That the sBpre@e exe=BtiCe poHer and aBthorit> of this tate shall De Cested in a GoCernor. @a> Grant pardons to all persons =onCi=ted of =ri@es. he @a> sBspend the exe=Btion of the senten=e in treason or @Brder. dBties. . -1 "> the 1+th paraGraph %no @e@Der of this tate shall De disfran=hised. (2. as it HoBld De for a @an to serCe tHo @asters Hhose interests =lash. D> leaCinG oBt these Hords the FBrisprBden=e of ea=h state is left to the @er=> of the neH GoCern@ent. and that it Has so intended Hill appear fro@ the =hanGinG the Hord =onstitBtion to the Hord for@ and the o@ission of the Hords. and its existinG laHs. Hhi=h toGether for@ed the laH on the 14th of April. and its existinG laHs. Can there at the sa@e ti@e and pla=e De and operate tHo sBpre@e leGislatBres.% He @a> De alloHed the for@ and not the sBDstan=e.. 1+. To =on=lBde @> oDserCation on this head. it appears to @e as i@possiDle that these poHers in the state =onstitBtion and those in the General GoCern@ent =an exist and operate toGether. the =o@@on laH of EnGland.% The +0th adopts. There =an De no doBDt that if the neH GoCern@ent De adopted in all its latitBde.% it HoBld haCe Deen sBDstantial. DBt Hhether it Has so or not. Bnder =ertain ex=eptions and @odifi=ations. . and this is eCiden=ed D> 1st art. eCer> one of these paraGraphs Hill De=o@e a dead letter. or in an> depart@ent or offi=e thereof.. and proCide for the =o@@on defense and General Helfare of the United tates. and se=Bre the approDation of Doth. .% and also %to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG into exe=Btion the foreGoinG poHers Cested D> this =onstitBtion in the GoCern@ent of the United tates. Hhere this GoCern@ent has a poHer %to la> and =olle=t all taxes. Bnless D> the laH of the land. . 13. oBGht to De GBaranteed to ea=h state D> the United tates. (1. And I do not eCen thinI it Bn=haritaDle to sBppose that it Has desiGnedl> done. %that a repBDli=an =onstitBtion.

and the @ost triflinG do@esti= =on=erns of eCer> state. et=. The poHer of raisinG an ar@> in ti@e of pea=e. and Iept in readiness. (nd se=. all the poHers of a GoCernor. %The president shall De =o@@ander/ in/=hief of the ar@> and naC> of the United tates. and that a @aGaAine of HarliIe stores De foreCer Iept at the expense of the tate. to proCide for orGaniAinG. it is =lear that there @Bst De a GoCern@ent Hithin a GoCern@ent. shall De DoBnd D> oath or affir@ation to sBpport the =onstitBtion. sBppress insBrre=tions and repel inCasions. and =o@pares the@ Hith the aDoCe. and to =o@@and the @ilitia. or i@pea=h@ent of the GoCernor. for the GoCerninG sB=h part of the@ as @a> De e@plo>ed in the serCi=e of the United tates. 10th. @aGaAines. shall De ar@ed and dis=iplined. and all the exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial offi=ers. @Bst readil> per=eiCe the> are either all enerCated or annihilated...BaIers shall De ex=Bsed.% The 1st art. tHo leGislatiCe. Hill GiCe the president a@ple @eans to enfor=e the sBpre@e laHs of the land.. 11th and 12th =laBses. and FBdi=ial poHers. the General GoCern@ent arroGatinG to itself the riGht of interferinG in the @ost @inBte oDFe=ts of internal poli=e.. Hill aDsorD all those poHers of the state Hhi=h the fra@ers of its =onstitBtion had de=lared shoBld De onl> exer=ised D> the representatiCes of the people of the state. -( This paraGraph proCides %that it shalt De in the dis=retion of the leGislatBre to natBraliAe all sB=h persons and in sB=h @anner as the> shall thinI proper. The -5th paraGraph orders that the @ilitia at all ti@es. Hhen =o@pletel> orGaniAed. and D> a=t of the leGislatBre. "> the (2th he Jthe GoCernorK is president of the =oBn=il of appoint@ent.. ex=ept in =ases of i@pea=h@ent.% And D> the 1th art. ConGress Hill De e@poHered to =all forth the @ilitia to exe=Bte the laHs of the Bnion. ar@inG and dis=iplininG the @ilitia. And D> the -th art.. re@oCal fro@ offi=e. !ro@ this =ontrast it appears that the General GoCern@ent. estaDlished.. and has a =astinG Cote and the =o@@issioninG of all offi=ers. D> possessinG a poHer of passinG laHs %to proCide for the General Helfare of the United . and for the ere=tion of forts."> the 14th paraGraph he is to see that the laHs and resolBtions of the leGislatBre De faithfBll> exe=Bted. . (nd se=. .. Doth of the United tates. exe=BtiCe. -th =laBse. resiGnation. "> the 1st art. !ro@ these poHers lodGed in ConGress and the poHers Cested in the states. and =ontinBed in eCer> =oBnt> in the tate. 3th se=. that the DBrdens and expense of sBpportinG a state estaDlish@ent Hill De perpetBated. on the death.. DBt its operations to ensBre or =ontriDBte to an> essential @easBres pro@otiCe of the happiness of the people @a> De totall> prostrated. GiCe to the neH GoCern@ent poHer to estaDlish a Bnifor@ rBle of natBraliAation. . in Hhat @anner the .. .% Can this oath De taIen D> those Hho haCe alread> taIen one Bnder the =onstitBtion of this state6 . and of the @ilitia of the seCeral tates Hhen =alled into a=tBal serCi=e of the United tates.. 3th se=. )hoeCer =onsiders the folloHinG poHers Cested in the JnationalK GoCern@ent. And D> the (nd art. . The (5th and (1st paraGraphs GiCe the lieBtenant/GoCernor. %the =itiAens of ea=h state shall De entitled to all the priCileGes and i@@Bnities of =itiAens in the seCeral states. and of the seCeral states.% HhereD> the =laBse is rendered entirel> nBGator>. %The @e@Ders of the seCeral state leGislatBres. @aintained. . Doth in pea=e and Har.

and ex=ises. do=I/>ards. to fix the rBle for natBraliAation and the laHs of DanIrBpt=>. Hhi=h pretends to define those poHers. Hhi=h treats of the leGislatiCe poHers of ConGress.% Hhi=h @a> affe=t life. In a Hord. shall haCe the poHer to la> and =olle=t taxes. -1 %)$ERE T$EN I T$E RE TRAINT6% This essa> D> %AN OLD )$IG% 9see A!P QLs Nos. in other Hords. the neH =onstitBtion Hill proCe finall> to dissolCe all the poHer of the seCeral state leGislatBres.tates. and Bnrestrained D> a de=laration of an> of those riGhts Hhi=h the Hisdo@ and prBden=e of A@eri=a in the >ear 1221 held oBGht to De at all eCents prote=ted fro@ Ciolation. to DorroH @one>. and 25: appeared in the 'ar>land GaAette and "alti@ore AdCertiser on NoC. to reGBlate =o@@er=e. and of the latter a @ere shadoH and for@ HithoBt sBDstan=e. to orGaniAe. and to the eiGhth se=tion. and all other poHers Cested D> this =onstitBtion in the GoCern@ent of the United tates. and destro> the riGhts and liDerties of the people. to proCide and sBpport a naC>. or =ontrol the@. to exer=ise aDsolBte poHer oCer a distri=t ten @iles sEBare. ar@ and dis=ipline the @ilitia. to =all forth the @ilitia. This is a short aDstra=t of the poHers GiCen to ConGress. 05. liDert> and propert> in eCer> @odifi=ation the> @a> thinI expedient. to define and pBnish pira=ies. or in an> depart@ent or offi=es thereof. DBt I shall not sta> at present to inEBire Hhether these express poHers Here ne=essar> to De GiCen to ConGress6 )hether the> are too Great or too s@all6 '> oDFe=t is to =onsider that Bndefined. !or sBrel> it =annot De . either internal or external. to se=Bre =op> riGhts to aBthors. to =oin @one>. is one of those =ala@ities Hhi=h eCer> Good @an HoBld Hish his =oBntr> at all ti@es to De deliCered fro@. and its BsBal =on=o@itants. Bn=he=Ied D> =aBtionar> reserCations. These poHers are Cer> extensiCe. and for=e. to =onstitBte triDBnals. )e find here that the ConGress in its leGislatiCe =apa=it>. to estaDlish post offi=es and post roads. "Bt to the EBestion / HithoBt for=e Hhat =an restrain the ConGress fro@ @aIinG sB=h laHs as the> please6 )hat li@its are there to their aBthorit>6 I fear none at all. to preCent all of Bs fro@ HishinG to see an> @ore of it/all ex=ept those Hho @aIe a trade of Har. to @aIe all sB=h laHs Hhi=h the ConGress shall thinI ne=essar> and proper / for Hho shalt FBdGe for the leGislatBre Hhat is ne=essar> and proper6 )ho shall set the@selCes aDoCe the soCereiGn6 )hat inferior leGislatBre shall set itself aDoCe the sBpre@e leGislatBre6 To @e it appears that no other poHer on earth =an di=tate to the@. dBties. arsenals. and other needfBl DBildinGs thereBnto DelonGinG. 1233. #DNE# Antifederalist No. This Generation in A@eri=a haCe seen enoBGh of Har. to de=lare Har.% Under sB=h a =laBse as this. for the poHer of the first Hill De all in all. (. @aGaAines. and if adopted He @a> 9in i@itation of the CarthaGenians: sa>. Delenda Cit A@eri=a. Let Bs looI to the first arti=le of the proposed neH =onstitBtion. to raise and sBpport ar@ies. Bnless D> for=e. =an an>thinG De said to De reserCed and Iept Da=I fro@ ConGress6 Can it De said that the ConGress haCe no poHer DBt Hhat is expressed6 %To @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper% / or. to pBnish =oBnterfeiters. -4. independent of all the tate leGislatBres. 13/(5. and to De aliIe aDsolBte oCer all forts. BnDoBnded and i@@ense poHer Hhi=h is =o@prised in the folloHinG =laBse / %And to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG into exe=Btion the foreGoinG poHers.

is DBt too FBst. This reasoninG. D> the sixth arti=le of the ConstitBtion it is de=lared that %this ConstitBtion and the laHs of the United tates Hhi=h shall De @ade in pBrsBan=e thereof. et=. or of the =ontrar> =hara=ter Antifederalist No. the @e@Ders of ConGress Hill De Hise and Good @en. for Hho =an oCerrBle their pretensions6 No one. )here then is the restraint6 $oH are ConGress DoBnd doHn to the poHers expressl> GiCen6 )hat is reserCed. As if it Here deter@ined that no doBDt shoBld re@ain. or =an De reserCed6 #et eCen this is not all. an> thinG in the ConstitBtions or laHs of an> tate to the =ontrar> notHithstandinG. or onl> pretend to thinI so. or pretend to dee@ it so. that eCen the "ritish Parlia@ent neither =oBld nor HoBld pass an> laH in an> =ase in Hhi=h the> did not either dee@ it ne=essar> and proper to @aIe sB=h a laH. . !or it is as trBe as a @axi@. The "ritish a=t of Parlia@ent. the> @Bst ne=essaril> De the FBdGes Hhat laHs are ne=essar> and proper.. And in sB=h =ases it is not of a farthinG =onseEBen=e Hhether the> reall> are of opinion that the laH is ne=essar> and proper. TaIen fro@ The Independent GaAetteer. HithoBt =ontrol. -2 %"ALANCE% O! DEPART'ENT NOT AC$IE*ED UNDER NE) CON TITUTION This essa> is @ade Bp of of ex=erpts fro@ %CENTINELLs. if an> @an shoBld doBDt the trBth of it. sB=h Bnli@ited poHers.FBstl> said that the> haCe no poHer DBt Hhat is expressl> GiCen to the@. to Hhi=h He @iGht appeal and Bnder Hhi=h He @iGht =ontend aGainst an> assB@ption of BndBe poHer. and all treaties @ade. Has there no ne=essit> of a "ill of RiGhts. shalt De the sBpre@e laH of the land. And >et. and the FBdGes in eCer> state shall De DoBnd thereD>. or Hhi=h shall De @ade. I fear. et=. Hhen D> the Cer> ter@s of their =reation the> are Cested Hith the poHers of @aIinG laHs in all =ases /ne=essar> and proper.:6 )as it thoBGht that the foreGoinG poHers @iGht perhaps ad@it of so@e restraint. In GiCinG sB=h i@@ense. and appeal to the FBdi=ial Dran=h of the GoCern@ent to prote=t Bs D> their FBdG@ents. de=larinG the poHer of Parlia@ent to @aIe laHs to Dind A@eri=a in all =ases HhatsoeCer. in their =onstrB=tion as to Hhat Has ne=essar> and proper to =arr> the@ into exe=Btion6 Or Has it dee@ed riGht to add still fBrther that the> shoBld not De restrained to the poHers alread> na@ed6 "esides the poHers alread> @entioned. and in all other =ases/in short. other poHers @a> De assB@ed hereafter as =ontained D> i@pli=ation in this =onstitBtion. Bnless He had a "ill of RiGhts. let @e asI hi@ one other EBestion: )hat is the @eaninG of the latter part of the =laBse Hhi=h Cests the ConGress Hith the aBthorit> of @aIinG all laHs Hhi=h shall De ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG into exe=Btion all other poHers 9Desides the foreGoinG poHers Cested. in all =ases HhatsoeCer.% letters of O=toDer 0 and (-.% The ConGress are therefore Cested Hith the sBpre@e leGislatiCe poHer. Has not @ore extensiCe. Hhen fro@ the natBre of their poHer. to se=Bre to the people their liDerties6 Is it not eCident that He are left Hholl> dependent on the Hisdo@ and CirtBe of the @en Hho shall fro@ ti@e to ti@e De the @e@Ders of ConGress6 And Hho shall De aDle to sa> seCen >ears hen=e. The ConGress shall FBdGe of Hhat is ne=essar> and proper in all these =ases. 1232. Bnder the aBthorit> of the United tates.

Hisdo@ and indBstr> of @anIind. althoBGh he has tra=ed the =onstitBtion of eCer> for@ of GoCern@ent that eCer existed. for Hant of that perfe=t eEBalit> of poHer and distin=tion of interests in the three orders of GoCern@ent. the Dest =al=Blated for free@en. haCe @isled so@e Hell desiGninG @e@Ders of the late ConCention. that the =onstrB=tion of the proposed plan of GoCern@ent is infinitel> @ore extraCaGant. 'r. as far as histor> affords @aterials. hoH lonG HoBld it =ontinBe6 Not a da>/for there is so Great a disparit> in the talents.I a@ fearfBl that the prin=iples of GoCern@ent in=Bl=ated in 'r. $e indeed sa>s that the "ritish =onstitBtion is sB=h in theor>. DBt this is rather a =onfir@ation that his prin=iples are =hi@eri=al and not to De redB=ed to pra=ti=e. 'r. the people Hill De perplexed and diCided in their senti@ent aDoBt the soBr=e of aDBses or @is=ondB=t. "Bt it Hill appear in the seEBel. the> exist DBt in na@e. =an onl> exist Hhere the Dod> of the people are CirtBoBs. Hill eCer De a=tBated D> CieHs of priCate interest and a@Dition. This h>pothesis sBpposes hB@an Hisdo@ =o@petent to the tasI of institBtinG three =o/eEBal orders in GoCern@ent. that therefore the onl> effe=tBal @ethod to se=Bre the riGhts of the people and pro@ote their Helfare. There the> haCe a poHerfBl hereditar> noDilit>. ere this. haCe taIen Bp the pen to expose the fBtilit>. and an aristo=ra=>. is the sense of the people at larGe. and real distin=tions of ranI and interests. I haCe Deen anxioBsl> expe=tinG that so@e enliGhtened patriot HoBld. Ada@s. Ada@sL sine EBa non of a Good GoCern@ent is three Dalan=inG poHers. @onar=h> or despotis@ Hill rise on its rBin. The state of so=iet> in EnGland is @B=h @ore faCoraDle to sB=h a s=he@e of GoCern@ent than that of A@eri=a. as different orders in GoCern@ent Hill not prodB=e the Good of the Hhole. and a =orrespondinG HeiGht in the =o@@Bnit> to enaDle the@ respe=tiCel> to exer=ise their seCeral parts. and Dalan=ed D> those of a third. The hiGhest responsiDilit> is to De attained in a si@ple strB=tBre of GoCern@ent. DBt eCen there. and Hhose CieHs and interests shoBld De so distin=t as to preCent a =oalition of an> tHo of the@ for the destrB=tion of the third. the natBre of the GoCern@ent is =hanGed. and Hith eCer> a==ession of poHer the @eans of fBrther in=rease HoBld De Greatl> extended. Bppose a GoCern@ent =oBld De for@ed and sBpported on sB=h prin=iples. HoBld it ansHer the Great pBrposes of =iCil so=iet>6 If the ad@inistrators of eCer> GoCern@ent are a=tBated D> CieHs of priCate interest and a@Dition. In sB=h a GoCern@ent the people are the soCereiGn and their sense or opinion is the =riterion of eCer> pBDli= @easBre. so@e Hill i@pBte it to the . to the preFBdi=e of the pBDli= Good. A repBDli=an. has not Deen aDle to addB=e a sinGle instan=e of sB=h a GoCern@ent. and thereD> pro@ote the happiness of the Hhole =o@@Bnit>. I DelieCe it Hill De foBnd that the for@ of GoCern@ent. The onl> operatiCe and effi=ient =he=I Bpon the =ondB=t of ad@inistration. that the s=ale HoBld presentl> preponderate to one or the other Dod>. and Hhere propert> is prett> eEBall> diCided. Hhi=h holds those entrBsted Hith poHer in the Greatest responsiDilit> to their =onstitBents. hoH is the Helfare and happiness of the =o@@Bnit> to De the resBlt of sB=h FarrinG adCerse interests6 Therefore. If sB=h an orGaniAation of poHer Here pra=ti=aDle. and enfor=ed in the nB@eroBs essa>s and paraGraphs in the neHspapers. in the exer=ise of the poHers of GoCern@ent. $e asserts that the ad@inistrators of eCer> GoCern@ent. and =oBntera=t the DanefBl tenden=> of sB=h prin=iples. and for Hant of dBe infor@ation are liaDle to De i@posed on. Hhose repellinG EBalities are to prodB=e an eEBiliDriB@ of interests. If >oB =o@pli=ate the plan D> CarioBs orders. !or Hhen this =eases to De the =ase. J<ohnK Ada@sL treatise JDefen=e of the ConstitBtions of GoCern@ent of the United tates of A@eri=aK. is to =reate an opposition of interests DetHeen the @e@Ders of tHo distin=t Dodies. for the Great Dod> of the people neCer steadil> attend to the operations of GoCern@ent. He @Bst re=Br to other prin=iples. or free GoCern@ent.

and that too @a> De the @ost in=onCenient. And fro@ his poHer of GrantinG pardons. >oB Cest all the leGislatiCe poHer in one Dod> of @en 9separatinG the exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial: ele=ted for a short period. D> orderinG the representatiCes of a Hhole tate. J<a@esK )ilson asserts that neCer Has =harGe @ade Hith less reason.L In @> first nB@Der. I shall noH pro=eed to the exa@ination of the proposed plan of GoCern@ent. he @iGht s=reen fro@ pBnish@ent the @ost treasonaDle atte@pts on the liDerties of the people. The terin and @ode of its appoint@ent Hill lead to per@anen=>. >oB Hill =reate the @ost perfe=t responsiDilit>. and Hill appl> the re@ed> Hith =ertaint> and effe=t. either to =o@@Bni=ate the reEBisite infor@ation of the Hants.. that the @e@Ders DeinG appointed for the lonG ter@ of six >ears. in the exer=ise of sB=h Great poHers. Ada@s and atte@pted in the "ritish =onstitBtion.. and as there is no ex=lBsion D> rotation. others to the hoBse of representatiCes. that it has none of the essential reEBisites of a free GoCern@ent. "Bt on the =ontrar>. The nB@Der of the representatiCes 9DeinG onl> one for eCer> +5.. the> @a> De =ontinBed for life. has a Cer> =onsideraDle share in the exe=BtiCe. or its @inion. the> @a> GoCern the =hoi=e. I stated that this Dod> HoBld De a Cer> BneEBal representation of the seCeral tates. dis=ardinG the@ at the next ele=tion. Hhen instiGated D> the senate. HoBld either De=o@e the Dead of the aristo=rati= FBnto in that Dod>. Hho I sBppose Hill De =o@posed of the Detter sort. their inflBen=e DeinG the @ost predo@inant. and the @ode and pla=es of their ele=tion not sBffi=ientl> as=ertained. the @ode is Bnder the =ontrol of ConGress. Desides its leGislatiCe fBn=tions. HheneCer the people feel a GrieCan=e. the Hell Dorn. that the interposition of the people @a> De rendered i@perfe=t or perhaps Hholl> aDortiCe. 'r. The s@allest tate in the Union has eEBal HeiGht Hith the Great tates of *irGinia. and there DeinG no ex=lBsion D> rotation. that it is neither foBnded on those Dalan=inG restraininG poHers. and so on. et=.. that the Horld has eCer Hitnessed. is the onl> effe=tBal se=Brit> for the liDerties and happiness of the people. or Penns>lCania. Bnless he =oin=ides Hith the CieHs of the senate. too lonG to preserCe a dBe dependen=e and a==oBntaDilit> to their =onstitBents. the Great effi=ient Dod> in this plan of GoCern@ent. none of the prin=ipal appoint@ents to offi=e =an De @ade HithoBt its adCi=e and =onsent. the ter@ for Hhi=h the> are to De =hosen. to De ele=ted in one pla=e. the> =annot @istaIe the aBthors. fro@ their extensiCe @eans of inflBen=e. or to preCent =orrBption and BndBe inflBen=e.senate. and I trBst. and Hill the Dest se=Bre the riGhts of the people. is =onstitBted on the @ost BneEBal prin=iples. shall @aIe it appear to the @eanest =apa=it>.555 inhaDitants: appears to De too feH. and GBarded fro@ pre=ipitan=> and sBrprise D> dela>s i@posed on its pro=eedinGs. Hho HoBld De a @ere paGeant of tate. in @> opinion. for as ConGress haCe the =ontrol oCer Doth. 'assa=hBsetts. than that Hhi=h predi=ts the institBtion of a DanefBl aristo=ra=> in the federal enate. !or then.. Desides. Hhi=h. and ne=essaril> ex=lBded D> rotation fro@ per@anen=>. HoBld folloH of =oBrse. The senate. ThBs He see. lo=al =ir=B@stan=es and senti@ents of so extensiCe an e@pire. The senate. i@itatinG the =onstitBtion of Penns>lCania. Hhi=h. Hhi=h HoBld folloH of =oBrse fro@ their extensiCe @eans of inflBen=e. This tie of responsiDilit> Hill oDCiate all the danGers apprehended fro@ a sinGle leGislatBre. and that possessinG a =onsideraDle share in the exe=BtiCe as Hell as the . that it is a @ost darinG atte@pt to estaDlish a despoti= aristo=ra=> a@onG free@en. =oBld the Dest se=Bre his re/ele=tion to offi=e. The President. "Bt if. The @e@Ders are =hosen for six >ears. or possessed of that responsiDilit> to its =onstitBents. $aCinG pre@ised this @B=h. re=o@@ended D> 'r. the hoBse of representatiCes are on the part of the people to Dalan=e the senate.. the> @iGht De =ontinBed for life.

In its leGislatiCe =hara=ter it =an effe=t no pBrpose. or The North/A@eri=an IntelliGen=er on <Bl> +5. enFo>s DBt in na@e the preroGatiCe of a neGatiCe Bpon the parlia@ent. and that too the @ost in=onCenient.leGislatiCe. the President and enate haCe all the exe=BtiCe and tHo thirds of the LeGislatiCe poHer. and sHalloH Bp the other orders in the GoCern@ent. in possession of the Hhole exe=BtiCe poHer. and in its exe=BtiCe =hara=ter it =an a==o@plish no oDFe=t HithoBt the =on=Brren=e of the president. Na>. Is it proDaDle. has not dared to exer=ise it for near a =entBr> past. I do not InoH an> a=t Hhi=h the senate =an of itself perfor@.% fro@ London. The IinG of EnGland is a =onstitBent part in the leGislatBre. and an i@@ense reCenBe. the rBlinG poHers @a> GoCern the =hoi=e. and either The !ree@anLs <oBrnal. )ilson sa>s. ThBs fettered. and Hill De inoperatiCe. DBt althoBGh an hereditar> @onar=h. This @ixtBre of the leGislatiCe and exe=BtiCe @oreoCer hiGhl> tends to =orrBption. and thBs De=o@e the head of the aristo=rati= FBnto. ECen the IinG of EnGland. -3 NO EPARATION O! DEPART'ENT RE ULT IN NO RE PON I"ILIT# %LEONIDA . DBt HithoBt operation. The =he=I of the hoBse of representatiCes Bpon the senate Hill liIeHise De rendered nBGator> for Hant of dBe HeiGht in the de@o=rati= Dran=h. pla=inG the leGislatiCe in different hands fro@ those Hhi=h hold the exe=BtiCe. Hill fBll> de@onstrate. %the senate Dran=hes into tHo =hara=ters. Hill either haCe the fir@ness or in=lination to exer=ise his preroGatiCe of a =onditional =ontrol Bpon the pro=eedinGs of that Dod>. the one leGislatiCe and the other exe=BtiCe. in=lBdinG the Bnrestrained appoint@ent to offi=es. there =an De no liDert>. in appoint@ents to offi=e. Hhere the poHers of GoCern@ent haCe Deen inFBdi=ioBsl> pla=ed. "Bt his HorIs Here Hel=o@ed in the London Ti@es. DBt experien=e de@onstrates that =he=Is in GoCern@ent. Antifederalist No. and sB=h dependen=e ne=essaril> pre=lBdes eCer> idea of inflBen=e and sBperiorit>. 1233.% CENTINEL Antifederalist No. in @odern ti@es. proCe @erel> no@inal. Bnless a==o@panied Hith adeEBate poHer and independentl> pla=ed. till the se@Dlan=e of =he=Is @a> re@ain. and thBs the hoBse of representatiCes @a> De =o@posed of the =reatBres of the senate. that the President of the United tates.% This I =onfess is Cer> spe=ioBs. D> orderinG the representatiCes of a Hhole state to De ele=ted at one pla=e. The =hief i@proCe@ent in GoCern@ent. %)hen the leGislatiCe and exe=BtiCe poHers 9sa>s 'ontesEBieB: are Bnited in the sa@e person or in the sa@e Dod> of @aGistrates. =ir=B@stan=ed as he is. and fro@ their =onstitBtion the> @a> De=o@e so independent of the people as to De indifferent of its interests. a InoHledGe of the histor> of other nations. In the neH =onstitBtion for the fBtBre GoCern@ent of the thirteen United tates of A@eri=a. and dependent on the Hill of the senate. as ConGress HoBld haCe the =ontrol oCer the @ode and pla=e of their ele=tion. 'r. That these fears are not i@aGinar>. hoHeCer inFBrioBs the> @a> De to the pBDli= Helfare6 It Hill De his interest to =oin=ide Hith the CieHs of the senate. HithoBt the =o/operation of the hoBse of representatiCes. li@ited as he is in poHer. . oDCioBsl> did not Bnderstand Arti=le II e=tion I of the proposed neH ConstitBtion. and aGain seCerinG the FBdi=ial part fro@ the ordinar> ad@inistratiCe. it HoBld De=o@e a per@anent aristo=ra=>. has Deen the =o@plete separation of the Great distin=tions of poHer.

"> the neH =onstitBtion of A@eri=a this Bnion of the exe=BtiCe and leGislatiCe Dodies operates in the @ost HeiGht> @atters of the state. This is a poHer =o/extensiCe Hith eCer> possiDle oDFe=t of hB@an leGislation. the> Fointl> tr> all i@pea=h@ents. no residBB@ of hB@an priCileGes. stronGl> dis=oBntenan=ed in =iCil =ases. The onl> =he=I in faCor of the de@o=rati= prin=iple is the hoBse of representatiCes. and as in the =hoi=e of presidents. "Bt it is in trBth. no =harter of riGhts. for to the @e@Ders of the senate it is =lear. the freedo@ of the press. In this for@idaDle =o@Dination of poHer. for it =annot De denied that this =onstitBtion is. the> Fointl> appoint all offi=ers =iCil and @ilitar>. There it is fair to infer. of all GoCern@ents. This DeinG the DeGinninG of A@eri=an freedo@. the Horst. that trial D> i@pea=h@ent is nothinG DBt parade. LEONIDA . and ea=h of the thirteen states has one Cote at his ele=tion. The trial in =ri@inal =ases is not D> tHelCe @en of the Ci=inaGe. is. DBt its s@allness of nB@Der. !ro@ sB=h an Bnion in GoCern@ents. and. render that hoBse of little effe=t to pro@ote Good or restrain Dad GoCern@ent. or of the =oBnt>. for Hhi=h the> foBGht Hith Bs. the trial shall De D> FBr>. for this neH s>ste@ GiCes the sBpre@e =oBrt in @atters of appeal. The poHer GiCen to this ill/ =onstrB=ted senate is. as fro@ the terror of i@pea=h@ent. not intended to De GiCen Bp to so=iet>. that. and in all Good GoCern@ents it shoBld De a fBnda@ental @axi@. Hhi=h Cote is not of the people. that as in =ri@inal =ases it has Deen @ateriall> i@paired. On =iCil =ases it is silent. that @onar=h> or aristo=ra=> @Bst De Generated. that a GoCern@ent ad@inistered D> a feH. and perhaps of the @ost GrieCoBs Iind. and Great =o@paratiCe disparit> of poHer. Trial D> FBr> has Deen alread> @ateriall> inFBred. and the leGislatiCe and exe=BtiCe poHers shoBld De separate. #et there is no restraint. hiGhl> and danGeroBsl> oliGar=hi=al. the different Dran=hes of the leGislatBre shoBld De Bn=onne=ted. either of their oHn @e@Ders. or the offi=ers appointed D> the@selCes. to GiCe a proper Dalan=e to the politi=al s>ste@.This is a @aterial deCiation fro@ those prin=iples of the EnGlish =onstitBtion. DBt of the state. and trial D> FBr>. in its first prin=iples. it is Cer> =lear the endinG Hill De slaCer>. The> Fointl> @aIe all treaties. to FBdGe of Hhat @a> De for the General Helfare. in =iCil =ases it @a> De altoGether o@itted. The riGhts of =ons=ien=e. the larGest state has DBt one Cote. NoH this shoHs. that responsiDilit> is as little to De apprehended fro@ a@enaDilit> to =onstitBents. and sB=h enGaGe@ents. And Hhere there is poHer HithoBt responsiDilit>. and the states are fro@ fift> to seCen hBndred @iles in extent8 In =ri@inal =ases this neH s>ste@ sa>s. it reEBires no Great depth of politi=al InoHledGe to prophes>. so it is in the =hoi=e of senators. DBt of ele=tors tHo deGrees fro@ the people. there is no responsiDilit>. FBrisdi=tion Doth of laH and fa=t. are at the @er=> of this senate. De=o@e the sBpre@e laHs of the land. and it is eCer> Hhere aGreed. Hhen @ade the a=ts of ConGress. hoH =an there De liDert>6 The president of the United tates is ele=ted for foBr >ears. The senate is a Dod> of six >ears dBration.

DBt onl> of indiCidBals. all that exist a@onG the people Hho @aIe the =o@pa=t6 And is it not =lear that ConGress haCe the riGht 9D> the =onstitBtion:. as states. DBt the> Hho ratif> the@.. the people @a> @aIe the oriGinal. as states. onl> in =onseEBen=e of @ere re=o@@endation..% et=.Antifederalist No. or D> CirtBe of so@e sBDordinate aBthorit>6 If not. . . and pBrposes the DeGinninG of one neH so=iet>. To sa> that no line =oBld De draHn. not of the states DBt of the people. that shoBld the neH =onstitBtion De re=eiCed as it stands. if ConGress see fit. )here is then an> independent state aBthorit> re=oGniAed in the plan6 And if there is no independent state aBthorit>. and the effe=t thereof. one neH GoCern@ent in all @atters. pro=eedinGs. i. or an> pBDli= DBsiness De done. or that the seCeral states @Bst of ne=essit> exist Hith separate GoCern@ents6 )ho that Bnderstands the sBDFe=t Hill DelieCe either6 . DBt the people haCe no riGht to alter it. Hh> the leGislatBres of the seCeral states =annot do this DBsiness6 I Hish to De infor@ed Hhere to find the reGBlar exer=ise and leGal san=tion of state poHer.% and is taIen fro@ The NeH/#orI <oBrnal of NoCe@Der (2. . To =on=lBde. Not the> Hho dreH Bp the a@end@ents 9shoBld an> De @ade:. to @aIe General laHs for proCinG all a=ts. %)e the people of the United tates. D> a @ere =onCention. as the> are noH =alled. !or Hhat =an De @ore aDsBrd than to sa>. As no state a=t =an exist independent of the sBpre@e aBthorit> of the state. %)e the people of the United tates. 1233. De=aBse there is no sB=h aBthorit> re=oGniAed either in the for@ of it. is eCident fro@ these =onsiderations. HithoBt the dire=tion and san=tion of ConGress. and Hhat HoBld of riGht =o@e Bnder the =ontrol of the poHers ordained in a Bnion of states.. the =onstitBtion @aIes no =onsistent. . is GiCinG @e the arGB@ent. in Hhat are noH =alled the states6 Is it possiDle after this that an> state a=t =an exist. That the neH =onstitBtion =annot @aIe a Bnion of states.% and is reprinted fro@ The 'assa=hBsetts GaAette of <anBar> (4. the se=ond part Has Hritten D> %AN OLD )$IG. and this aBthorit> is oBt of the EBestion in the ratifi=ation of the neH =onstitBtion. it =learl> folloHs that the ratif>inG of it. and not of the people as @en DBt as propert>. @a> ratif> a@end@ents/that is. ne=essaril> i@pl> the existen=e of separate state poHers6 AGain. Three foBrths of the leGislatBres of the seCeral states. It sa>s. CiA: It @arIs no line of distin=tion DetHeen separate state @atters. adeEBate proCision for a@end@ents to De @ade to it D> states. re=ords. =annot ratif> the oriGinal6 I @ean. $aCe the people so@e other =onstitBtional @eans D> Hhi=h the> =an GiCe their Bnited Coi=e in state affairs6 This leads @e to oDserCe. or in the @ode fixed Bpon for its ratifi=ation. The plan does not a=InoHledGe an> =onstitBtional state aBthorit> as ne=essar> in the ratifi=ation of it.e. @Bst De =onsidered as @aIinG the@. ConGress @a> order this @atter FBst as the> please. if the leGislatiCe aBthorit> of the state is set aside. is no proper state DBsiness. This HorI is to De done D> a @ere =onCention. DBt does this phrase. Hhi=h does D> no @eans a@oBnt to a proper state a=t. that states are Bnited Hhere a General poHer is estaDlished that extends to all oDFe=ts of GoCern@ent. @aIe this =onstitBtion. hoH in the natBre of thinGs =an there De a Bnion of states6 Does not the BnitinG of states. DBt not HithoBt. and =onseEBentl> haCe Hho@ the> please ele=ted for GoCernors or representatiCes. -4 ON CON TITUTIONAL CON*ENTION 9PART 1: The folloHinG essa> is in tHo parts: the first is D> %'A AC$U ETTEN I . 1232..% proCe that the people are a=tinG in state =hara=ter. hoH =an there De a Bnion of states6 "Bt is it not a EBestion of i@portan=e Hh> the states in their present =apa=it>. it =an neCer De proCed that it oriGinated fro@ an> proper state aBthorit>.

and aGain =hanGe it at oBr pleasBre. or the leGislatBres of tHo thirds of the seCeral states shall @aIe appli=ation to ConGress for the =allinG a =onCention for proposinG a@end@ents / Hhi=h a@end@ents shall not De Calid Bntil the> are ratified D> the leGislatBres of three foBrths of the seCeral states. as He do those of =onstaDles. DBt the =onditions Bpon Hhi=h an alteration =an taIe pla=e. The different leGislatBres Hill haCe no =o@@Bni=ation Hith one . People on=e possessed of poHer are alHa>s loathe to part Hith it. Hill De totall> forGotten. The Greater the aDBse of poHer. "Bt if it shoBld happen. @ade the@ sHear that the> HoBld @aIe no alterations in the@ Bntil he shoBld retBrn fro@ a FoBrne> Hhi=h he Has then aDoBt to BndertaIe. )e need not expe=t tHo thirds of the@ eCer to interfere in so @o@entoBs a EBestion as that of =allinG a =ontinental =onCention. so that Hhether it is a Good =onstitBtion or a Dad =onstitBtion. And after the =onstitBtion is on=e ratified. as soon as the> =an hBrr> throBGh a laH or tHo for repairinG hiGhHa>s. it is too eCident that He shall De oDliGed to fill Bp the offi=es of asse@Dl>@en and =oBn=illors. The people Here @ade to DelieCe that the> =oBld @aIe trial of his laHs for a feH @onths or >ears. as one or the other @ode of ratifi=ation @a> De proposed D> ConGress. that the> @a> retBrn to their oHn DBsiness. and He shall neCer find tHo thirds of a ConGress CotinG or proposinG an>thinG Hhi=h shall deroGate fro@ their oHn aBthorit> and i@portan=e. it is if possiDle still @ore re@ote. it Hill re@ain foreCer Bna@ended. THo thirds of Doth hoBses of =onGress. as the> thinI riGht. and as soon as he retBrned the> =oBld =ontinBe to oDserCe the@ or reFe=t at pleasBre. Their heads Hill not De perplexed Hith the Great affairs of state. ThBs this =eleDrated repBDli= Has in realit> estaDlished D> a tri=I. If the prin=iples of liDert> are not fir@l> fixed and estaDlished in the present =onstitBtion. D> appointinG @en to serCe Hhether the> Hill or not. L>=BrGBs. or aGreeinG to GiCe Da=I to the people an> part of those priCileGes Hhi=h the> haCe on=e parted Hith/so far fro@ it. The =onCentions of the seCeral states =annot propose an> alterations/the> are onl> to GiCe their assent and ratifi=ation. Hhen he pro@BlGated his laHs to the partans. and it Hill De the heiGht of arroGan=e and presB@ption in the@. I sa>. This appears to @e to De onl> a =BnninG Ha> of sa>inG that no alteration shall eCer De @ade. to tBrn their thoBGhts to sB=h hiGh sBDFe=ts. This Hill proDaDl> neCer happen. The =onseEBen=e Hill De that Hhen the =onstitBtion is on=e estaDlished it neCer =an De altered or a@ended HithoBt so@e Ciolent =onCBlsion or =iCil Har. The @e@Ders thBs appointed. After this =onstitBtion is on=e estaDlished. In liIe @anner the proposed =onstitBtion holds oBt a prospe=t of DeinG sBDFe=t to De =hanGed if it De foBnd ne=essar> or =onCenient to =hanGe it. As to an> expe=tation of tHo thirds of the leGislatBres =on=BrrinG in sB=h a reEBest.'A AC$U ETTEN I It appears to @e that I Has @istaIen in sBpposinG that He =oBld so Cer> easil> @aIe trial of this =onstitBtion. and therefore no alteration =oBld De @ade in his laHs. that the Greater o==asion there @a> De for a refor@ation. @Bst aGree in desirinG a =onCention to De =alled. "efore all this laD>rinth =an De tra=ed to a =on=lBsion. aGes Hill reColCe. Hill =on=lBde the DBsiness of their sessions as sBddenl> as possiDle. appear to @e to De sB=h as neCer Hill exist. $e =hose neCer to retBrn. or the leGislatBres of tHo thirds of the states. The =onditions. and fininG the@ if the> refBse. dBrinG his aDsen=e. then the =onCention @a> aGree to the a@end@ents or not. it @Bst re@ain fixed Bntil tHo thirds of Doth the hoBses of ConGress shall dee@ it ne=essar> to propose a@end@ents. and after all three foBrths of the states @Bst ratif> the a@end@ents. or D> =onCentions in three foBrths thereof. The leGislatBres of the states Hill De DBt for@s and shadoHs. the @ore oDstinatel> is it alHa>s persisted in. are sB=h as in all proDaDilit> Hill neCer exist. Bpon Hhi=h an> alterations =an taIe pla=e. in Cain @a> He hope for retrieCinG the@ hereafter. or i@poBndinG =attle. and perhaps the Great prin=iples Bpon Hhi=h oBr late GlorioBs reColBtion Has foBnded. the less liIelihood Hill there De of a==o@plishinG it.

if the people in the different states haCe a riGht to De =onsBlted in the neH for@ of =ontinental GoCern@ent. the EBestion re=Brs. liIe the son of Apollo.another. It is trBe that the Continental ConCention haCe dire=ted their proposed =onstitBtion to De laid Defore a ConCention of DeleGates to De =hosen in ea=h state %for their assent and ratifi=ation. eCen a@onG the adCo=ates for the proposed ConstitBtion. ConGress Hill De the Great fo=Bs of poHer as Hell as the Great and onl> @ediB@ of =o@@Bni=ation fro@ one state to another. DBt these still re=oGniAe the aBthorit> of the people. )hat haCe the> done6 The> haCe @ade a neH ConstitBtion for the United tates. or to forDid the@ to adopt sB=h for@ of GoCern@ent. Then I asI. I Hill not sa> that in doinG so the> haCe ex=eeded their aBthorit>. The> had the san=tion of ConGress. =an possiDl> =ontroCert this riGht. I CentBre to sa> that no @an. !or Hhat6 To =onsider Hhat alterations Here ne=essar> to De @ade in the arti=les of Confederation. that the> shoBld leaCe these @atters to their sBperiors. that the> are not fit for it. This. . and the> @a> exer=ise this =hoi=e either D> the@selCes or their deleGates leGall> =hosen in the state ConCention. on the other hand. eCen of reFe=tinG the plan proposed if the> shoBld disapproCe of it. reasoninG Bpon ReColBtion prin=iples. there is no pretense for sa>inG that this riGht Has eCer @eant to De sBrrendered Bp into the hands of the late Continental ConCention. DBt. The people haCe an BndoBDted riGht to FBdGe of eCer> part of the GoCern@ent Hhi=h is offered to the@. The late ConCention Here =hosen D> the General Asse@Dl> of ea=h state. Hhat aBthorit> the late ConCention had to Dind the people of the United tates to an> parti=Blar for@ of GoCern@ent..% is fro@ either The !ree@anLs <oBrnal or The North/ A@eri=an IntelliGen=er. the> Hill steadil> pBrsBe the a=EBisition of @ore and @ore poHer to the@selCes and their adherents. the> Hill oppose all =hanGes in faCor of liDert>. No poHer on earth has a riGht to pre=lBde the@. AN OLD )$IG Antifederalist No. indeed. as the> shoBld thinI fit. The Great and the Hise and the @iGht> Hill De in possession of pla=es and offi=es.. hoHeCer. or =oBld do. I InoH it is a lanGBaGe freEBent in the @oBths of so@e heaCen/Dorn Phaetons a@onG Bs/Hho. is not the lanGBaGe of @en of real BnderstandinG.% Hhi=h see@s to pre=lBde the idea of an> poHer in the seCeral ConCentions of proposinG an> alterations. or.. 1232. and Hill ad@it. 05 ON CON TITUTIONAL CON*ENTION 9PART (: Antifederalists soBGht a se=ond =onstitBtional =onCention i@@ediatel> after =on=lBsion of the first. I trBst that no @an of BnderstandinG a@onG the@ Hill pretend to sa> that an>thinG the> did. Has of the least aCail to lessen the riGht of the people to FBdGe for the@selCes in the last resort. thinI the@selCes entitled to GBide the =hariot of the sBn/that =o@@on people haCe no riGht to FBdGe of the affairs of GoCern@ent. DBt. of NoCe@Der (3. that the people haCe a riGht to De =onsBlted. at all eCents. This essa> D> %AN OLD )$IG. This riGht is perhaps BnalienaDle. at least in Hords. till. hoHeCer. fro@ the ti@e of the neH =onstitBtion DeinG ratified to the end of the Horld. Hhat aBthorit> =oBld the late ConCention haCe to pre=lBde the@ fro@ proposinG a@end@ents to the plan the> shoBld offer6 $ad the ConCention an> riGht to Dind the people to the for@ of GoCern@ent the> shoBld propose6 Let Bs =onsider this @atter.

"Bt He are told the thinG is i@pra=ti=aDle. o far fro@ these oDFe=tions and a@end@ents =lashinG Hith ea=h other in irre=on=ilaDle dis=ord. and eCen De pronoBn=ed D> oBr fBtBre representatiCes as of no i@portan=e 9Hhi=h I trBst the> Hill not:. or re=eiCe a Horse one than the present. let Bs aGree to aDide D> their de=ision. as it has too often Deen sBGGested the> HoBld do. than in the hBrr> and sBrprise in Hhi=h He haCe Deen inColCed on this sBDFe=t. @iGht possiDl> De a Cer> Bnhapp> one. these are Cer> Iind Gentle@en Hho insist Bpon doinG so @B=h Good for Bs. that if He DeGin to propose a@end@ents there Hill De no end to the@.Indeed. Hhether He Hill or not. It HoBld De a @ost deliGhtfBl sBrprise to find oBrselCes all of one opinion at last. It is past a doBDt that eCer> Good =itiAen of A@eri=a pants for an effi=ient federal GoCern@ent. in Cer> different parts of the =ontinent. The reason I sa> so is that aDoBt the sa@e ti@e. otherHise than D> sBGGestinG their fears that D> opposinG the =onstitBtion at present proposed. A =ontest DetHeen the patients and their do=tors. that He oBGht therefore to adopt this at on=e HithoBt alteration or a@end@ent. Hhi=h are @ad or Hhi=h are fools. that He shall neCer Bnite in an> plan. "Bt if the ex=eptions Hhi=h are @ade at present shall De @atBrel> =onsidered. He shall either haCe a Horse one or none at all. and reCise the proposed =onstitBtion. He @iGht De disappointed of an> federal GoCern@ent. If a neH =onCention of the United tates shoBld @eet. @ore =onsideration than it has >et re=eiCed. NoH. I hope at least that He shall De aDle to settle this i@portant DBsiness HithoBt so preposteroBs a dispBte. Hho I Ceril> DelieCe InoH nothinG at all of ea=h other and Here Cer> far fro@ a=tinG D> a pre@editated =on=ert. He shalt find oBrselCes @B=h @ore nearl> aGreed. that fro@ Hhat has Deen hitherto pBDlished in the different states in opposition to the proposed =onstitBtion He haCe a riGht to expe=t that the> Hill har@oniAe in a Cer> Great deGree. and pledGinG the@selCes to aDide D> HhateCer de=ision shall De @ade D> sB=h fBtBre =onCention on the sBDFe=t Hhether it De to a@end the proposed =onstitBtion or to reFe=t an> alterations. and adFoBrn. that if He reFe=t this. perhaps. )hen the =onCentions haCe stated these oDFe=tions and a@end@ents. haCe appeared to a=t and speaI in perfe=t Bnison Hith those oDFe=tions and a@end@ents. the Cer> sa@e senti@ents see@ to haCe Deen e=hoed fro@ the different parts of the =ontinent D> the opposers of the proposed =onstitBtion. He eCer sBffered oBrselCes to i@aGine. parti=Blarl> in the arti=le of a Dill of riGhts. )hat then HoBld >oB haCe Bs do. T haCe no doBDt He shall =on=Br at last in so@e plan of =ontinental GoCern@ent. And these senti@ents haCe Deen Cer> little =ontradi=ted D> its friends. is a EBestion Hhi=h deserCes. pra>inG that =onGress Hill dire=t another =onCention to De =alled fro@ the different states. Let the =onCentions of ea=h state. (. Idiots and @ania=s oBGht =ertainl> to De restrained fro@ doinG the@selCes @is=hief. and the Cer> sa@e alterations proposed D> different Hriters. eCen if @an> people =oBld i@aGine ex=eptions to it. let the@ trans@it the@ to =onGress. to =onsider of these oDFe=tions and a@end@ents. the Cer> sa@e oDFe=tions haCe Deen @ade. and that others Hho haCe not appeared as Hriters in the neHspapers in the different states. And I =annot forDear hopinG that Hhen He =o@e fairl> to =o@pare oBr senti@ents. that the seCeral states Hill neCer aGree in their a@end@ents. +. after =onsiderinG the proposed =onstitBtion. and ratif> it as it stands. Cer> feH Go so far as to =ontroCert the riGht of the people to propose a@end@ents. that in short. state their oDFe=tions and propose their a@end@ents. as the> @eet. eCen in that . it @a> De asIed6 )oBld >oB haCe Bs adopt the proposed =onstitBtion or reFe=t it6 The @ethod I HoBld propose is this: 1. )hether the people of A@eri=a are to De =onsidered in this liGht and treated a==ordinGl>. and oBGht to De =o@pelled to that Hhi=h is for their oHn Good.

Has a presB@ption too darinG to es=ape resent@ent. and @an> to oDe>. rather than none. And HheneCer it De=o@es ne=essar> to de=ide Bpon this point one. I =onfess. 1233: The present is an a=tiCe period. If. is. 01 DO C$EC& AND "ALANCE REALL# ECURE T$E RIG$T O! T$E PEOPLE6 This satire is fro@ a pa@phlet of %ARI TOCROTI . Hho @et in Philadelphia last 'a>. I expe=ted the sBperior =hara=ter of the =onCention HoBld haCe se=Bred it fro@ profane sallies of a pleDeianLs pen. and =alls aloBd for the prBninG Inife. and that too Hith Darefa=ed arGB@ents. Hhi=h Hhen estaDlished. I Has so s@itten Hith the =hara=ter of the @e@Ders. as =lear as an axio@. A =ons=ioBsness of this. the estaDlish@ent of so@e proper plan of dis=ipline. then let the =onCentions of the seCeral states aGain asse@Dle and at last de=ide the Great sole@n EBestion.. or inCestiGate its properties. to find so@e of the people Bnder different siGnatBres/sB=h as Centinel. Hhether He shall adopt the =onstitBtion noH proposed or reFe=t it. AN OLD )$IG Antifederalist No. PA. A@eri=a is in a si@ilar state. another =ontinental =onCention shoBld fail to @eet. EBrope is in a fer@ent DreaIinG their =onstitBtions.% Hhat the Grand =onCention pres=riDed to the@. is a striIinG proof of oBr feeDle GoCern@ents. in the depth of their Bnited Hisdo@ hath pres=riDed. And I @aIe no doBDt DBt eCer> Good repBDli=an did so too. or to sBppose a Dod>. This the =onCention. et=. It Has too Great an a=t of =ondes=ension to per@it the people. the =aBse Hhi=h sti@Blates the people to oppose it Hith so @B=h Cehe@en=e. Hhen it appeared Hith sB=h a CeneraDle train of na@es annexed to its tail.=ase I haCe no doBDt that al@ost eCer> @an Hill GiCe Bp his oHn priCate opinion and =on=Br in that de=ision. "Bt hoH Great Has @> sBrprise. =onsistinG of sB=h as ex=elled in Hisdo@ and InoHledGe.e. that I had assented to their prodB=tion. and indeed I a@ not afraid of a Horse. D> their state =onCentions. Hho enGrossed the Hhole Hisdo@ of the =ontinent. "rBtBs. DBt to inEBire into its prin=iples. at least. %to assent and ratif>. @aIinG a =onstitBtion. !or this CalBaDle pBrpose a =onCention Has appointed. This is =ertainl> a pie=e of the @ost extraCaGant i@pBden=e to presB@e to =ontradi=t the =olle=ted Hisdo@ of the United tates. oDstinate reason and stBDDorn trBth. thoBGh. I =oBld easil> i@aGine so@e other for@ of =onfederation Hhi=h I shoBld thinI Detter entitled to @> heart> approDation. Hhile it Has >et in e@Dr>o. Old )hiG. D> an> @eans.% The GoCern@ent of NatBre Delineated. Hill =on=Br in adoptinG and sBpportinG this =onstitBtion. Hho fro@ the DeGinninG has Deen inCariaDl> anxioBs for the liDert> and independen=e of this =oBntr>. and its inherent infalliDilit> deDarred the interferen=e of i@pertinent reason or trBth. !or @> oHn part. no doBDt. and leaCe the affairs of GoCern@ent to those Hho@ natBre hath destined to rBle. i. that natBre hath pla=ed proper deGrees and sBDordinations a@onGst @anIind and ordained a feH91: to rBle. I sa> natBre. the> =annot endBre the thoBGht of DeinG oDliGed to @ind their oHn DBsiness. / darinG to oppose it. The> depre=ate the idea of DeinG =onfined Hithin their proper sphere. B=h li=entioBs =ondB=t pra=tised D> the people. Hill =ertainl> pBt a stop to the GroHinG eCil. for it is a fBnda@ental prin=iple. Or An Exa=t Pi=tBre of the NeH !ederal ConstitBtion 9Carlisle. Has =apaDle of errinG. I a@ not oDliGed to proCe . -.

"Bt Hith all dBe sBD@ission to the infalliDle Hisdo@ of the Grand =onCention. instin=t hath taBGht those @en that aBthorit> is their natBral riGht. EBite aGreeaDle to natBre and $oBse of RepresentatiCes%/not EBite so riGht. I HoBld refer sB=h to natBre herself for infor@ation. and @Bst soon prodB=e fatal and perni=ioBs =onseEBen=es. to De fond of sHa>. . DBt i@patient of =ontrol. "Bt in se=tion . Here it not =ir=B@s=riDed and poised D> proper =he=Is and Dalan=es. he hath heaped her faCors and laCished her Gifts Bpon those Cer> persons Hho@ natBre deliGhteth to honor. and all the rest of @anIind as tHo leGGed DrBtes. so fatal to enerG>. DBt =o@pl> Hith disGBst. to oDserCe . and therefore the> Grasp at it Hith an eaGerness DorderinG on rapa=it>.it is proCided that =onGress D> laH @a> alter and @aIe sB=h reGBlations Hith respe=t to the ti@es. There is a s@all thrBst GiCen to it in the Dod> of the =onCe>an=e itself. and so as not to GiCe the raDDle needless disGBst. Let the@ oDserCe her Ha>s and De Hise. the> @a> appoint the @ost =entral pla=e for that pBrpose. pla=es. Let the@ =onsider those Hho@ she hath taBGht to =o@@and Hith aBthorit>. )ith sB=h a prBdent restri=tion as this the> are EBite har@less: no eCil =an arise fro@ the@ if =onGress haCe onl> the saGa=it> and fortitBde to aCail the@selCes of the poHer the> possess D> this se=tion. it is de=lared that %all leGislatiCe poHers herein Granted shall De Cested in a ConGress of the United tates Hhi=h shall =onsist of a enate%/ Cer> riGht. . the haBGht> =oBntenan=e. for it HoBld De Dlasphe@> aGainst her sBpre@e hiGhness to sBppose that she =onfers her Gifts in Cain. sB=h as the di=tatorial air. This Hill De the DBsiness of the senate. to =onsider the@selCes as Gods. of the neH plan. !ortBne hath also distinGBished those Bpon Hho@ natBre hath i@printed the linea@ents of aBthorit>. the> haCe inCested and Darri=aded it so =losel> as Hill =ertainl> depriCe it of its DanefBl inflBen=e and preCent its BsBal en=roa=h@ents. In arti=le first. 91: If an> person is so stBpidl> dBll as not to dis=ern Hho these feH are. that the> Hill =ertainl>. if nothinG @ore than this Here done. the i@perioBs tone. and @anner of holdinG ele=tions. This is a palpaDle =o@plian=e Hith the hB@ors and =orrBpt pra=ti=es of the ti@es. =onGress @a> appoint JtheK next ele=tion to De held in one pla=e in ea=h state. The ter@ of holdinG ele=tions is eCer> tHo >ears. This is =ertainl> a Cer> salBtar> proCision. this is @B=h Detter than the detestaDle @ode of annBal ele=tions. @ost ex=ellentl> adapted to =oBnterDalan=e the Great and apparentl> danGeroBs =on=essions @ade to the pleDeians in the first and se=ond se=tions. "Bt in this is displa>ed the Bnparalleled saGa=it> of the aBGBst =onCention: that Hhen sB=h DBlHarIs of preFBdi=e sBrroBnded the eCil. it HoBld still re@ain an insBpportaDle in=onCenien=e. The> =an neCer De at a loss for an ostensiDle reason to Car> and shift fro@ pla=e to pla=e Bntil the> @a> fix it at an> extre@it> of the state it sBits. the @aFesti= @ien. let @e presB@e to exa@ine Hhether the> haCe not. the loft> looI. inCiolaDl> adhered to this sBpre@e prin=iple.% This is a @ost danGeroBs poHer. !or Hhen the stated ter@ 9for Hhi=h the pri@ar> @e@Ders Has ele=ted: is niGh expired. NoH it is eCident that the possessors of these diCine EBalities @Bst haCe Deen ordained D> natBre to do@inion and e@pire. se=tion first. $oHeCer. . Indeed. as to the@ see@eth fit and proper.this prin=iple De=aBse it HoBld De @adness in the extre@e to atte@pt to proCe a self/ eCident trBth. entirel> redB=e and de@olish this oDnoxioBs pra=ti=e of popBlar ele=tion. in the neH plan of GoCern@ent. The> haCe liIeHise stationed their @iners and sappers so FBdi=ioBsl>. "Bt Hhat folloHs in se=tion ( is still Horse: %The $oBse of RepresentatiCes shall De =o@posed of @e@Ders =hosen eCer> se=ond >ear D> the people of the seCeral states. the @aGisterial Coi=e. Let the@ @arI those @en Hho@ she hath endBed Hith the ne=essar> EBalifi=ations of aBthorit>. so as to render it Doth diffi=Blt and danGeroBs to atta=I it D> assaBlt and stor@. in pro=ess of ti@e.

and =ertainl> the> are the proper FBdGes Hhen to exert that poHer. and pBts it in the poHer of =onGress. !or D> pBttinG the ti@e of ele=tion in the hands of =onGress the> haCe thereD> GiCen the@ a poHer to perpetBate the@selCes Hhen the> shall find it safe and =onCenient to @aIe the experi@ent. The next oDFe=t that presents itself is the poHer Hhi=h the neH =onstitBtion GiCes to =onGress to reGBlate the @anner of ele=tions. Hhere their inflBen=e is @ost extensiCe. Hhi=h is @ost aGreeaDle to the institBtions of natBre. . nor does he eCer pretend to BsBrp his eleCated station. Hho in all her HorIs. The lla@a. Therefore this @ode @Bst De speedil> altered for that CiCa Co=e. see@ fBll> satisfied Hith the station assiGned the@ D> natBre.the parti=Blar pla=es in ea=h state. And it is DBt a Cer> short and eas> transition fro@ this to hereditar> sB==ession. e@Blation. The =o@@on pra=ti=e of CotinG at present is D> Dallot. A GoCern@ent foBnded aGreeaDle to natBre @Bst De entirel> independent. and inCerts her order. Therefore this @ode @Bst De speedil> altered for that CiCa Co=e. he alone spBrns at her institBtions. 9(: This is onl> to De Bnderstood of the inferior =lass of @anIind. . Hhi=h @aIes it their dBt> to perseCere in the pBrsBit of Gratif>inG these refined passions. et=. This se=tion is inGenioBsl> =al=Blated. for the =onstitBtion in express ter@s pBts the ti@e of holdinG ele=tions in their poHer. in the sa@e a=tions. . The next oDFe=t that presents itself is the poHer Hhi=h the neH =onstitBtion GiCes to =onGress to reGBlate the @anner of ele=tions. it @Bst De De>ond the rea=h of anno>an=e or =ontrol fro@ eCer> poHer on earth. and @Bst haCe Deen intended D> the =onCention.L $e alone repines at his sitBation. sB=h @e@Ders Hill De retBrned to the hoBse of representatiCes 9as it is =alled: as the president and senate shall De pleased to re=o@@end. is eCer> Ha> in=o@petent to perfor@ the offi=es of the elephant. its extent Hill soon De rendered =oeCal Hith the life of @an. The =o@@on pra=ti=e of CotinG at present is D> Dallot. thoBGh BsefBl enoBGh for the pBrposes for Hhi=h he Has intended D> natBre. seCeral thinGs are ne=essar>. %that representatiCes shall De =hosen for tHo >ears. 9Hhen so@e faCoraDle FBn=tBre interCenes: to alter the ti@e to foBr and tHelCe >ears. Hho @a> De possessed of a Cote. ECer> spe=ies of DeinGs. nor assB@es the e@plo>@ent of the spriGhtl> HarliIe steed. The sBperior order haCe aspirinG feelinGs GiCen the@ D> natBre. hath ordained the des=endant of eCer> spe=ies of DeinGs to sB==eed its i@@ediate proGenitor. De=aBse he Dears so@e rese@Dlan=e to the defBn=t in his fiGBre and natBre. and there appoint the ele=tions to De held.. "> this @eans.% >et this =laBse DeinG sBDseEBent annBls the for@er. "Bt perCerse. !or thoBGh a pre=edinG =laBse sa>s. This Hill ansHer a Good end Hhile ele=tioneerinG exists. The indefatiGaDle laDorioBs ass neCer aspires to the honors. oDstinate @an. and Hhere the inhaDitants are @ost oDseEBioBs to the Hill of their sBperiors. Hhi=h Hill se=Bre to a ri=h @an all the Cotes of his nB@eroBs dependents and friends and their dependents. and endeaCors to BsBrp the station of his sBperiors. ends and order. and the> no doBDt Hill re=o@@end sB=h Gentle@en onl> as are distinGBished D> so@e pe=Bliar federal featBre/so that Bnani@it> and =on=ord Hill shine =onspi=BoBs throBGh eCer> Dran=h of GoCern@ent. "> this @ode it is i@possiDle for a Gentle@an to InoH hoH he is serCed D> his dependent. and Hill liIeHise =ontriDBte so@ethinG toHards its destrB=tion. NoH in order to render it thBs. . to exter@inate ele=tioneerinG entirel>. This =annot De dee@ed an Bn=onstitBtional stret=h of poHer. that is. "> this @ode it is i@possiDle for a Gentle@an to InoH hoH he is serCed D> his dependent. Hho @a> De possessed of a Cote. sB=h as a@Dition. ThBs D> doBDlinG the period fro@ ti@e to ti@e. Hhi=h he pleases to set Bp for. and senators for six >ears. "Bt this diGression has led @e fro@ the sBDFe=t in hand. ani@ate and inani@ate. "> this @eans he @a> =o@@and an> offi=e in the Gift of the people. nor does he eCer pretend that it is his riGht to sB==eed hi@ in all his offi=es and diGnities.

for the =onCention has so happil> Horded the@selCes. DBt for this the> HoBld De in a Great @easBre Bseless. "Bt it is Cer> proDaDle that the exer=ise of this poHer @a> De opposed D> the refra=tor> pleDeians. of i@pea=hinG the offi=ers of GoCern@ent. !or then the people @iGht =ontend that the poHer Has inherent in the@. Hhen it is =onsidered that the senate hath the prin=ipal sa> in appointinG these offi=ers. (dl>. and that the> are the sole FBdGes of all i@pea=h@ents. The neH GoCern@ent Hill haCe enerG> sBffi=ient to =o@pel i@@ediate pa>@ent. It Hill =reate and diffBse a spirit of indBstr> a@onG the people. seCeral thinGs are ne=essar>. o that if the reiGninG . This is the se=ond thinG ne=essar> to render GoCern@ent independent. i@posts.Hhi=h Hill se=Bre to a ri=h @an all the Cotes of his nB@eroBs dependents and friends and their dependents. $e is to De =hosen D> ele=tors appointed in sB=h @anner as the state leGislators shall dire=t. and if none haCe this @aForit>. that is. $aCinG no riGhts of their oHn to =are for. "> this @eans the =onGress Hill alHa>s haCe the @aIinG of the president after the first ele=tion. The> Hill then De oDliGed to laDor for @one> to pa> their taxes. as is done noH. and HithoBt this the> =oBld not exist. "Bt this I den>. NoH it HoBld De aDsBrd to sBppose that the> HoBld re@oCe their oHn serCants for perfor@inG their se=ret orders. I thinI it is eCident. Hill De a restraint Bpon the@. "Bt noH the> =annot. or no @eaninG at all. . +dl>. A GoCern@ent foBnded aGreeaDle to natBre @Bst De entirel> independent. "Bt to preCent all in=onCenien=e fro@ this EBarter the =onGress haCe poHer to raise and sBpport ar@ies. The =reatBres Hho =o@pose these ar@ies are a spe=ies of ani@als. nor is it proper the> shoBld Bnderstand. that the Grand =onCention hath dexteroBsl> proCided for the re@oCal of eCer> thinG that hath eCer operated as a restraint Bpon GoCern@ent in an> pla=e or aGe of the Horld. in raisinG the reCenBe. Hholl> at the disposal of GoCern@ent. the> De=o@e natBrall> FealoBs and enCioBs of those possessed D> others. !ro@ these re@arIs. !or the interest of rBlers and the rBled Hill then De tHo distin=t thinGs. Hhi=h he pleases to set Bp for. . and pBt their Cer> liCes in the poHer of their @asters. @ost Hisel> =al=Blated to render hi@ the oDseEBioBs @a=hine of =onGress. . . as it is D> this the> are sBpported. Hho 9sB=h is the perCerseness of their natBres: often refBse to =o@pl> Hith Hhat is @anifestl> for their adCantaGe. HithoBt he has the @aForit> of all the ele=tors. it @Bst De De>ond the rea=h of anno>an=e or =ontrol fro@ eCer> poHer on earth. "Bt the =apital DBsiness of these ar@ies Hill De to assist the =olle=tors of taxes. that eCer> part of this =onstitBtion either Dears doBDle @eaninG. This Hill ansHer a Good end Hhile ele=tioneerinG exists. and not De daDDlinG in politi=s / thinGs the> are entirel> iGnorant of. and ex=ise. Perhaps so@e people @a> thinI that poHer Hhi=h the hoBse of representatiCes possesses. The @ode of ele=tinG the president is another ex=ellent reGBlation. "Bt then the hiGhest in Cotes =annot De president. "Bt this entirel> Canishes. it is effe=tBall> =an=elled in another/so that in fa=t this =onstitBtion is @B=h Detter and GiCes @ore s=ope to the rBlers than the> dBrst safel> taIe if there Has no =onstitBtion at all. There Hill De no triflinG fro@ ti@e to ti@e. This Hill @aIe the people attend to their oHn DBsiness. "Bt perhaps so@e HeaI heads @a> thinI that the =onstitBtion itself Hill De a =he=I Bpon the neH =onGress. then the =onGress is to =hoose the president oBt of the fiCe hiGhest on the retBrn. for eCer> thinG is expressl> GiCen aHa> to GoCern@ent in this plan. Hhat others =all their natBral riGhts the> resiGn into the hands of their sBperiors/eCen the riGht of self/preserCation 9so pre=ioBs to all other DeinGs: the> entirel> sBrrender. The> are therefore proper instrB@ents in the hands of GoCern@ent to diCest the people of their BsBrped riGhts. and Hill liIeHise =ontriDBte so@ethinG toHards its destrB=tion. and if an> =on=essions are @ade to the people in one pla=e. and this the> Hill perfor@ Hith the Greatest ala=rit>. . . and that the> had @ade so@e i@plied reserCes in the oriGinal Grant. NoH in order to render it thBs. "> this @eans he @a> =o@@and an> offi=e in the Gift of the people.

Not. Hill =ertainl> =o@@and dread and respe=t aDroad. that the Grand =onCention Has infalliDle. Hhen she ariseth to shaIe the nations. 9-: "ritain on=e the sBpre@e rBler of this =oBntr>. for thoBGh the =onGress @a> not haCe inflBen=e enoBGh to pro=Bre hi@ the @aForit> of the Cotes of the ele=toral =olleGe. Hill then resB@e their natBral e@phasis. The =onGress haCinG thBs disentanGled the@selCes fro@ all popBlar =he=Is and =hoi=es. Persian. and taIe CenGean=e on all Hho dare oppose her. 'a=edonian and Ro@an Greatness Hill then De totall> e=lipsed D> the radiant DlaAe of this GlorioBs Hestern lB@inar>8 These DeaBtifBl expressions. and treaties of =onGress shall De the sBpre@e laH of the land. DBt her aBthorit> Has reFe=ted. ARI TOCROTI 9+: That is. Bpon Hhi=h the popBlar odiB@ hath fixed derision and =onte@pt. so that the> @a> haCe the appointinG of hi@ the@selCes. The Glor> of "ritain 9-: shall fall liIe liGhtninG Defore her pBissant ar@. and DeinG sBpported D> a Hell dis=iplined ar@> and a=tiCe @ilitia. for Hhi=h the> Here pri@aril> destined D> natBre. Hho@ the> haCe redB=ed to that state of CassalaGe and serCile sBD@ission. All these Hise reGBlations. proCe to a de@onstration.president pleases his @asters.. De=aBse her =lai@s Here t>ranni=al and oppressiCe. their sBDFe=ts. oDedien=e and sBD@ission at ho@e. Hho@ natBre had EBalified to rBle.% et=. DBt De=aBse her do@inion ex=lBded those fro@ @onopoliAinG the GoCern@ent into their oHn hands. It is =ertainl> no @ore than the natBral riGht of rBlers %to Dind their sBDFe=ts. and that Hhi=h sa>s %the =onstitBtion. and her inCin=iDle ar@ies oCertBrn the thrones of prin=es. and to haCe hi@ retBrned a@onG the fiCe hiGhest. if He @a> =redit the proGnosti=ations Hith Hhi=h oBr federal neHs/papers and pa@phlets dail> tee@. he need De Bnder no apprehensions of DeinG tBrned oBt for an> seCerities Bsed to the people. A@eri=a Hill then De Great a@onGst the nations9+: and prin=ess a@onGst the proCin=es. than a poHer to Dind the natBral rBlers as Hell as sBDFe=ts. as a Great @an> DelieCe. an> thinG in the =onstitBtions or laHs of an> of the states to the =ontrar> notHithstandinG. and anti=ipate th> fBtBre Glor>8 $app> th> serCants8 happ> th> Cassals8 and happ> th> slaCes. >et the> Hill alHa>s De aDle to preCent an> other fro@ haCinG sB=h a @aForit>. laHs. $er fleets Hill =oCer the deserts of the o=ean and =onCert it into a popBlar =it>. Hhi=h fit Bnder the shade of th> o@nipotent aBthorit>. aristo=ra=>. and no @ore perCerted or aDBsed. and oliGar=h>. their GenBine siGnifi=ation Hill De perfe=tl> Bnderstood. O8 thoB @ost CeneraDle and aBGBst =onGress8 Hith Hhat astonishinG ideas @> @ind is raCished8 Hhen I =onte@plate th> risinG GrandeBr. in all =ases HhatsoeCer. The> Hill then looI doHn Hith aHfBl diGnit> and tre@endoBs @aFest> fro@ the pinna=le of Glor> to Hhi=h fortBne has raised the@ Bpon the insiGnifi=ant =reatBres.% "Bt nothinG less HoBld satisf> "ritain.% This poHer is perfe=tl> s>non>@oBs Hith that =laBse in the =onstitBtion Hhi=h inCests =onGress Hith poHer to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De %ne=essar> and proper for =arr>inG into exe=Btion the foreGoinG poHers and all other poHers. and Dehold the Glor> of th> @aFest>8 for sB=h a state Hho HoBld not part Hith ideal DlessinGs of liDert>6 Hho HoBld not =heerfBll> resiGn the no@inal adCantaGes of freedo@6 the daAAlinG splendor of Ass>rian. .

and oBr =onstitBents in parti=Blar. !or althoBGh it is said. and hoH far the> =oin=ide Hith those si@ple and oriGinal notions of GoCern@ent Defore @entioned. pla=es and @anner of holdinG ele=tions for senators and representatiCes. saCinG the aDDath. as dire=t taxes are to De apportioned a==ordinG to the nB@Ders in ea=h state. And therefore. D> the people of the seCeral states. that He shoBld haCe reFe=ted the =onstitBtion @erel> on a==oBnt of the Diennial ele=tions of the representatiCes/had He Deen sBre that the people haCe an> se=Brit> eCen of this. and their Dodies fro@ Ciolen=e and Dloodshed. and to enter into an inEBir>. Hhether. DBt in fa=t a sBDCersion of it. 1233. He =on=eiCe @Bst of ne=essit> prodB=e the folloHinG =onseEBen=e: That eCer> =onstitBtion or s>ste@. that ele=tions shoBld De annBal. so the Hhole. Dla=Is as Hell as Hhites. Has to preserCe @enLs properties fro@ rapine. of the ne=essit> of a fir@. ConseEBentl>. Hhi=h does not EBadrate Hith this oriGinal desiGn. as tHo/ fifths of the slaCes in the soBthern states are to De left oBt of the nB@eration. 0( ON T$E GUARANTEE O! CONGRE IONAL "IENNIAL ELECTION The folloHinG essa> Has siGned D> Consider Ar@s. and as 'assa=hBsetts has none in it DBt Hhat are de=lared free @en. =oBld He at the sa@e ti@e Deen happ> to haCe seen the liDerties of the people and the riGhts of @anIind properl> GBarded and se=Bred. throBGh the =hannel of >oBr paper. Hho did not assent to the ratifi=ation of the federal =onstitBtion.. Bpon Hhi=h the> are alloHed to Get so@ethinG for their oHn sBpport. Hhi=h e@poHers ConGress at an> . Neither =an He see an> Good reason Hh> this Has =onsented to on the part of oBr deleGates. Hho HorI eCer> da> in the HeeI for their @asters. )e the sBDs=riDers DeinG of the nB@Der. )e =on=eiCe that the Cer> notion of GoCern@ent =arries alonG Hith it the idea of FBsti=e and eEBit>. and that %the ti@es. In the first pla=e. and that the Hhole desiGn of institBtinG GoCern@ent in the Horld.% et=. to Hhi=h He Here =alled D> the sBffraGes of the =orporations to Hhi=h He respe=tiCel> DelonG/DeG leaCe. and a@Bel !ield.Antifederalist No. !Bll> =onCin=ed. >et as the ele=tions in oBr oHn state GoCern@ent are so. eCer sin=e the late reColBtion. @ost =ordiall> haCe done it.% >et all this is Hholel> sBperseded D> a sBDseEBent proCision. that %the $oBse of RepresentatiCes shall De =hosen eCer> se=ond >ear. 'ali=hi 'a>nard. "Bt this He =oBld not find. and the prin=iples Hhi=h GoCerned Bs in oBr de=ision of this i@portant EBestion. three 'assa=hBsetts infants Hill in=rease the tax eEBal to fiCe stBrd> fBll/GroHn NeGroes of theirs. )e sBppose it next to i@possiDle that eCer> indiCidBal in this Cast =ontinental Bnion. It Has taIen fro@ The $a@pshire GaAette of April 4. to la> Defore the pBDli= in General. althoBGh He thinI it 'ore aGreeaDle to the prin=iples of repBDli=anis@. shall De pres=riDed in ea=h state D> the leGislatBre thereof. enerGeti= GoCern@ent. )e =an see no FBsti=e in this Ha> of apportioninG taxes. He shoBld haCe reFoi=ed in an opportBnit> to haCe GiCen oBr assent to sB=h a one. These propositions DeinG estaDlished. the reasons of oBr dissent. is not GoCern@ent. @Bst De nB@Dered. He pro=eed to @ention so@e thinGs in this =onstitBtion to Hhi=h He oDFe=t. held at "oston. shoBld haCe his Hish Hith reGard to eCer> sinGle arti=le =o@posinG a fra@e of GoCern@ent. this @Bst therefore operate aGainst Bs. and shoBld in the present =ase. $aCinG pre@ised thBs @B=h. Bnder =onsideration in the late state =onCention. He did not CieH it so danGeroBs to the liDerties of the people.

in order to a==o@plish their oHn sinister and aCari=ioBs desiGns. to expe=t that He shall De Dlessed Hith i@pe==aDle rBlers6 )e thinI not an>. or at )illia@stoHn. it @a> De possiDle. )e =oBld not. that De=aBse people are @an> ti@es GBilt> of =ri@es and deserCinG of pBnish@ent. illBstrated D> exa@ples fro@ histor>. He thinI the> oBGht =arefBll> to GBard aGainst GiCinG so @B=h as Hill enaDle those rBlers. Hill Harrant Bs to sa>. it is ne=essar> that =ertain poHers shoBld De deleGated to the rBlers fro@ the people. This He thinI is the =ase Hith the for@ of GoCern@ent latel> sBD@itted to oBr =onsideration. The> =an alter the pla=e of holdinG ele=tions. that it fro@ then=e folloHs the aBthorit> oBGht to haCe poHer to pBnish the@ Hhen the> are not GBilt>. The> HoBld haCe re=oBrse to the Blti@a ratio. or to pBnish the inno=ent Hith the GBilt> HithoBt dis=ri@ination. Or. ConseEBentl>. at on=e. and eCen haCe BsBrped Bpon the@. He =onfess. Does not the experien=e of past aGes lea=h. And if this shoBld De thoBGht a @easBre faCoraDle to their reele=tion. that all the ele=tions of oBr representatiCes shall De @ade at 'e=hias. that the =onGress @a> De =o@posed of @en. therefore. %it is not liIel> this Hill eCer happen. HheneCer the> thoBGht the> =oBld do it Hith i@pBnit>6 This He presB@e Hill not De denied. in the late =onCention at "oston. Hill not their inCentions De frBitfBl enoBGh to deCise o==asions for postponinG the ele=tions6 And if the> =an do this on=e. Hho Hill Hish to DBrden and oppress the people. HhateCer the leGislatBre of this state @a> order to the =ontrar>. At the sa@e ti@e. In sB=h =ase. !or the =onGress. that in order to the dBe ad@inistration of GoCern@ent. )e =oBld not then and He still =annot see. D> CirtBe of this neH for@ of GoCern@ent. The depraCit> of hB@an natBre. to render the@selCes aDsolBte and despoti=. the dernier resort of the oppressed/the sHord. ex=ept as to the pla=es of =hoosinG senators. HhereD> sB=h reGBlations @a> De altered. "Bt this He thinI in fa=t to De the =ase as to this federal =onstitBtion.ti@e to ena=t a laH. and in ti@e redB=ed to a state of as aDFe=t CassalaGe as an> people Here Bnder the =ontrol of the @ost @er=enar> despot that eCer tarnished the paGes of histor>. the> =an thri=e. "Bt these arGB@ents. or the ele=tion of so@e tool for their @er=enar> pBrposes. or eCen in pro=ess of ti@e. D> that @eans. and =onCert that Hhi=h Has =onsidered and intended to De the palladiB@ of the liDerties of the people/the Grand DBlHarI aGainst an> inCasion Bpon the@/into a for@idaDle enGine. so D> deGrees render the@selCes aDsolBte and perpetBal. "Bt sa>s the adCo=ates for the =onstitBtion. "Bt it Has pled D> so@e of the aDlest adCo=ates of the =onstitBtion.% "Bt Hhat reason haCe He @ore than past aGes. $ere He =on=eiCe the people @a> De Cer> @ateriall> inFBred. >et He haCe no reason to thinI the> GroH Detter and Detter. pro=eeded Bpon the plan of riGhteoBsness in those Hho are to rBle oCer Bs. if the> =hoose. nine/ tenths of the people Hill neCer Cote. . if the> =an tHi=e. that if =onGress shoBld exer=ise sB=h poHers to the preFBdi=e of the people 9and the> did not den> DBt the> =oBld if the> shoBld De disposed: the> 9the people: HoBld not sBffer it. Hhi=h a@oBnts to the sa@e thinG. and thBs inColCe the@ in the depth of @iser> and distress. He doBDt not it Hill De thBs ordered. that @en haCe Generall> exer=ised all the poHers the> had GiCen the@. the> haCe another expedient. GiCe oBr assent Bnto it. )e are sensiDle. =onsBltinG oBr oHn Good and the Good of oBr =onstitBents. He are not to expe=t oBr rBlers Hill eCer pro=eed to a Hanton exer=ise of the poHers GiCen the@. And therefore the proDaDilit> lies Bpon the darI side. AlthoBGh it has Deen said that eCer> Generation GroHs Hiser and Hiser. Hhether the> haCe proCo=ation or not. if not proDaDle. And it appeared to Bs that the arGB@ents @ade Bse of D> the faCorers of the =onstitBtion. Hhile He FBdGe the@ to De foBnded altoGether Bpon a slipper> perhaps. the> =an tHi=e. =oBld haCe no HeiGht Hith Bs. a=tinG BpriGhtl>. =an at an> ti@e order the ele=tions in an> or all the states to De =ondB=ted in sB=h @anner as Hholel> to defeat and render entirel> nBGator> the intention of those ele=tions. D> Hhi=h to oCerthroH the@ all. The> =an sa>.

Neither =an He thinI these sBGGestions @erel> =hi@eri=al. Hhose onl> Hish @a> De to aGGrandiAe the@selCes and fa@ilies/to HalloH in lBxBr> and eCer> spe=ies of dissipation. "Bt if the> haCe an> sinister desiGns. ABGBst (3. I @entioned in a paraGraph Hhi=h Has pBDlished in one of the CharlestoHn papers. Hith a naC> at =o@@and on one side."Bt it appeared to Bs a pie=e of sBperlatiCe in=onGrBit> indeed. As the persons appointed are @eant to a=t for the Denefit of the appointees. and riot Bpon the spoils of the =o@@Bnit>. fortified and replenished Hith all Iinds of @ilitar> stores and eCer> i@ple@ent. so Cer> liDeral in the disposal of the@. that the> @a> at on=e De redB=ed to the sad alternatiCe of >ieldinG the@selCes Cassals into the hands of a Cenal and =orrBpt ad@inistration. CiA: That the leGislatBres of the respe=tiCe states @a> re=all their senators. Hhen He CieH the@ thBs possessed of the sHord in one hand and the pBrse strinGs of the people in the other. that it @a> De part of the =har@s of eloEBen=e to extenBate. foreseeinG that their ele=tors Hill displa=e the@ as soon as the> DeGin to a=t =ontrar> to their interest. the>. that it HoBld De a=tinG Hisel> in the for@ation of a =onstitBtion for a free GoCern@ent. He @a> CentBre to aBGBr Hill @ore fir@l> riCet their sha=Iles and end in the entail@ent of CassalaGe to their posterit>. that the ele=tors shoBld re=all their representatiCes Hhen the> thoBGht proper. DBt Hhat @a> pro=eed fro@ the Dare possiDilit> that this sBpre@e aBthorit> of the nation @a> De possessed of CirtBe and inteGrit> sBffi=ient to inflBen=e the@ in the ad@inistration of eEBal FBsti=e and eEBit> a@onG those Hho@ the> shall GoCern. the> Hill =ertainl> oppose it. if the> @ean to a=t for their @BtBal Denefit. o@e ti@e Defore a ConCention of the United tates Has held. althoBGh the> shoBld De =hosen for a =ertain ter@ of >ears. CON IDER AR' 'ALIC$I 'A#NARD A'UEL !IELD Antifederalist No. or taIe Bp the sHord and inColCe their =oBntr> in all the horrors of a =iCil Har/the =onseEBen=es of Hhi=h. neither >et fro@ an illpla=ed detestation of aristo=ra=>. and ele=t others in their stead. I Hish . to serCe the re@ainder of the ti@e for Hhi=h the senators so re=alled Here appointed. "Bt Hh> shoBld He ColBntaril> =hoose to trBst oBr all Bpon so pre=arioBs a tenBre as this6 )e =onfess it GiCes Bs pain to anti=ipate the fBtBre s=ene: a s=ene presentinG to CieH @iseries so =o@pli=ated and extre@e. o Hret=hed indeed. as Hell as the@selCes. as =onseEBentl> to pla=e the@selCes in a predi=a@ent @iseraDle to an extre@e. DBt fro@ the apparent danGer the people are in D> estaDlishinG this =onstitBtion. to ena=t. He =an see no se=Brit> left for the@ in the enFo>@ent of their liDerties. 1233. )hen He taIe a forHard CieH of the proposed =onGress/seated in the federal =it>. I a@ therefore Glad to find that the state of NeH #orI has proposed an a@end@ent of this Iind to the federal =onstitBtion. as a riGht to appoint 9Hhere the riGht of appointinG oriGinates Hith the appointees: i@plies a riGht to re=all. and a land ar@> on the other/He sa>. )e thinI this D> no @eans =an fall Hithin the des=ription of GoCern@ent Defore @entioned. =an haCe no oDFe=tion to a proposal of this Iind. He thinI. shoBld De so Cer> profBse. or either of the@. 0+ A PLEA !OR T$E RIG$T O! RECALL %A'ICU % appeared in the ColB@Dian $erald. that the people. or the poHer of art to re@oCe. Hhilst in the fBll and indefeasiDle possession of their liDerties and priCileGes. or that the> pro=eed fro@ an oCerheated enthBsias@ in faCor of repBDli=anis@. ten @iles sEBare.

@ore than if the> folloHed the instrB=tions GiCen the@. on Hhi=h a==oBnt He shoBld alHa>s =hoose @en of inteGrit>.this had Deen extended to the representatiCes in Doth hoBses. than Hhat the ne=essit> of the =ase reEBires. rather than re=all hi@ and pBt a real friend of his =oBntr>. pBrsBe their oHn Hill and in=linations. than a reCo=aDle one. the se=Brit> of ea=h state @a> De al@ost said to rest on it. and shall perhaps so@eti@es Hish 9Hhen He @eet Hith a person of an extra Horth> =hara=ter and aDilities: that He =oBld Ieep hi@ in poHer for life. and a trBl> honest @an in his pla=e. o@e persons as oDFe=t to this a@end@ent. I fear. He shoBld insist on their a=tinG and CotinG =onfor@aDle to oBr dire=tions. for a =ertain ter@ of >ears. of so@e a@onG Bs:. the> shoBld haCe a riGht to deliCer to the hoBses of representatiCes of Hhi=h the> Here @e@Ders. appears to @e to De aDsolBtel> ne=essar>. To preserCe Hhi=h. as the> are oBr representatiCes and aGents. I Hish for nothinG @ore than a Good GoCern@ent and a =onstitBtion Bnder Hhi=h oBr liDerties Hill De perfe=tl> safe. althoBGh He saH the> Here ex=eedinG their poHers. he had no thoBGhts of doinG. Hhen =hosen. and Here Dent on @aIinG Bs @iseraDle and the@selCes. althoBGh the> shoBld haCe @et toGether in a Dod> for the pBrpose of instrB=tinG or sendinG the@ instrB=tions on a @atter on Hhi=h the salCation of the state depends. !or @> oHn part. and Hhi=h HoBld @aIe his =o@pl>inG Hith oBr Hill hiGhl> i@prBdent. "Bt Hhen He did instrB=t the@. and that it is riGht to let a representatiCe rBin Bs. Hhi=h Defore he Has inCested Hith it. their oHn priCate senti@ents so that if their priCate senti@ents =ontained =oGent reasons for a=tinG =ontrar> to the instrB=tions GiCen the@/the other @e@Ders of said hoBses Hho HoBld not De . On the other hand. He shall dis@iss fro@ oBr e@plo> as soon as possiDle. as it is as prBdent to haCe a =he=I oCer the @e@Ders of one hoBse as of the other. He shoBld leaCe the@ to a=t aGreeaDle to their oHn FBdG@ent. on=e in a hBndred ti@es. to re=all oBr representatiCes. and has @ade @an> a @an do BnHarrantaDle a=tions. or D> the ele=tors that =hose the@. that the> HoBld if the> =oBld. a feH persons a@onG Bs. the> @a> perhaps. and not Hantonl> and in=onsideratel> GiCe Bp a Greater share of oBr liDerties Hith a CieH of =ontriDBtinG to the pBDli= Good. that it is safer to GiCe a @an an irreCo=aDle poHer of attorne>. I hope D> Hhat I haCe said I shall not De thoBGht to =ast eCen the shadoH of a refle=tion on the prin=iples of either of the @e@Ders of the federal =onCention/it is far fro@ DeinG @> intention. !or oBr oHn saIes He shall Ieep in poHer those persons Hhose =ondB=t pleases Bs as lonG as He =an. D> the leGislatBre of this or an> other state. I thinI the Hisest =ondB=t Hill De to Ieep the staff of poHer in oBr oHn hands as @B=h as possiDle. a=t for the interest of those the> represent. and at the sa@e ti@e pBt it oBt of oBr poHer. if He Here @ade a=EBainted Hith it. so Hise in their oHn e>es. B=h persons see@ to sa>. or sBll> his honor and repBtation. honor and aDilities to represent Bs. or sent to the@ afterHards. Hho HoBld rather sBffer ten thoBsand deaths than inFBre his =oBntr>. Hhi=h the state of NeH #orI has proposed. I HoBld rather that this a@end@ent shoBld taIe pla=e and GiCe the neH GoCern@ent Bnli@ited poHers to a=t for the pBDli= Good. and also that He are not safe in trBstinG oBr oHn leGislatBre Hith the poHer of re=allinG sB=h senators as Hill not aDide D> sB=h instrB=tions / as shall De either GiCen the@. In eCer> GoCern@ent @atter. That He shoBld insist on the a@end@ent respe=tinG this @atter taIinG pla=e. !or there are. I fear. on Hhi=h oBr representatiCes Here not instrB=ted. in fa=t sa>. in opposition to the instrB=tions of their =onstitBents. Hhi=h he IneH HoBld alter oBr senti@ents. than GiCe the@ li@ited poHers. that poHer oBGht not to oriGinate Hith the people 9Hhi=h is the Hish. sB=h persons as do not =onsBlt oBr interest and Hill not folloH oBr instrB=tions. "Bt as the> HoBld ea=h of the@ De a @e@Der of the =o@@Bnit>. !or poHer is a Cer> intoxi=atinG thinG. "Bt I Hish that He HoBld neCer sBffer an> person to =ontinBe oBr representatiCe that oDe>ed not oBr instrB=tions. Bnless so@ethinG Bnforeseen and BnInoHn D> Bs tBrned Bp. In so doinG. D> @eans of a standinG ar@>/a perpetBal and aDsolBte GoCern@ent.

%RepresentatiCes and dire=t taxes shall De apportioned a@onG the seCeral tates.% "Bt it has neCer Deen alleGed that those Hho are not free aGents =an. this Hill GiCe the@ an BnreasonaDle HeiGht in the GoCern@ent. Hhi=h @a> De in=lBded in this Union. If the> haCe no share in GoCern@ent. haCe an>thinG to do in GoCern@ent. three/fifths of all other persons. FBsti=e and reliGion. and for all these slaCes the> Hill De entitled to a proportionate share in the leGislatBre. in Hhi=h =ase. that these tates are to De per@itted to =ontinBe the inhB@an traffi= of .DoBnd D> said instrB=tions. 12. %In a free tate.APPORTION'ENT AND LA*ER#: NORT$ERN AND OUT$ERN *IE) This foBr part essa> shoHs Doth northern and soBthern dissatisfa=tion Hith %the Great Co@pro@ise% The first is taIen fro@ the third essa> of %"RUTU .% The foBrth: fro@ an essa> D> %A GEORGIAN. Hhi=h =an deriCe no additional strenGth. oBGht to De represented/for a Great share of propert> in so@e of the@ =onsists in these ani@als. %all other persons. nor defense fro@ the slaCes.% )hat a stranGe and Bnne=essar> a==B@Blation of Hords are here Bsed to =on=eal fro@ the pBDli= e>e Hhat @iGht haCe Deen expressed in the folloHinG =on=ise @anner: RepresentatiCes are to De proportioned a@onG the tates respe=tiCel>. HoBld De GBided D> the@.% appearinG in The GaAette of the tate of GeorGia on NoCe@Der 10. in=lBdinG those DoBnd to serCi=e for a ter@ of >ears. Hho is sBpposed to De a free aGent. Hhi=h oBGht to De the Hish of all of Bs. Bpon an> rational prin=iple. in so@e of the oBthern tates the slaCes are nearl> eEBal in nB@Der to the free @en. the representatiCes of the different parts of the Union Hill De extre@el> BneEBal.% The se=ond: fro@ the spee=hes of RaHlins LoHndes to the oBth Carolina ratif>inG =onCention on <anBar> 11. Hh> is the nB@Der of @e@Ders in the asse@Dl> to De in=reased on their a==oBnt6 Is it De=aBse in so@e of the tates. Hho are intended to De des=riDed in the aDoCe re=ited =laBse. a==ordinG to their respe=tiCe nB@Ders. The third: fro@ the sixth essa> D> %CATO. Hho are held in DondaGe. a =onsideraDle part of the propert> of the inhaDitants =onsists in a nB@Der of their felloH/@en. =oBntinG fiCe slaCes for three free@en. that HoBld taIe pla=e Hhi=h HoBld De @ost for the pBDli= Good. %eCer> @an. either D> the@selCes or others. Hhi=h shall De deter@ined D> addinG to the Hhole nB@Der of free persons.% "> this @ode of apportion@ent. and =ontrar> to all the prin=iples of liDert> Hhi=h haCe Deen pBDli=l> aCoHed in the late GlorioBs ReColBtion6 If this De a FBst GroBnd for representation. the horses in so@e of the tates. therefore the leGislatBre shoBld reside in the Hhole Dod> of the people. 1232.% sa>s the =eleDrated 'ontesEBieB. and 13. shoBld the> De represented6 )hat adds to the eCil is. and the> haCe as @B=h =ontrol oCer their oHn a=tions as these poor Bnhapp> =reatBres. 1233. a==ordinG to the nB@Der of free@en and slaCes inhaDitinG the@. prote=tion. in defian=e of eCer> idea of DeneColen=e. D> the Hords. 0. then. and the oxen in others. )h>. DBt the =ontrar>. A'ICU Antifederalist No. and ex=lBdinG Indians not taxed. oBGht to De =on=erned in his oHn GoCern@ent. or their representatiCes.

@Bst fall Bpon the =onsB@er. six of the Eastern tates for@ed a @aForit> in the $oBse of RepresentatiCes. and FBsti=e. and therefore Hant to ex=lBde Bs fro@ this Great adCantaGe. or rather Hh> li@it Bs at all6 !or his part. and he =ited an expression that fell fro@ General Pin=Ine> on a for@er deDate.. this state HoBld deGenerate into one of the @ost =onte@ptiDle in the Union. fro@ their shippinG. that Hhilst there re@ained one a=re of sHa@pland in oBth Carolina. possessed as @B=h inteGrit>. In the first pla=e. to pa> a dBt> not ex=eedinG ten dollars. and open their ports. "Bt the> donLt liIe oBr slaCes. A Great nB@Der of Gentle@en Here =aptiCated Hith this neH ConstitBtion.i@portinG slaCes Bntil the >ear 1353/and for eCer> =arGo of these Bnhapp> people Hhi=h BnfeelinG. the> are to De reHarded D> haCinG an in=rease of @e@Ders in the General Asse@Dl>. . Bnprin=ipled. then.. NoH. . and drain Bs of Hhat He had8 The Eastern tates dreH their @eans of sBDsisten=e. De=aBse those Hho Here in deDt HoBld De =o@pelled to pa>. HheneCer there Has a . in addition to this. =are had Deen taIen to @aIe Bs pa> for this indBlGen=e. on i@portation. friends and tender =onne=tions. )e had a laH prohiDitinG the i@portation of NeGroes for three >ears. that the> Here to pa> fiCe per =ent i@post. DBt those Here s@all adCantaGes. that He had the s@allest =han=e of re=eiCinG adeEBate adCantaGes6 Certainl> not. and he also DelieCed that the> had done eCer> thinG in their poHer to pro=Bre for Bs a proportionate share in this neH GoCern@ent. and DrinG into those tates. $e DelieCed the Gentle@en that Hent fro@ this state. and stood as hiGh in point of =hara=ter. >et Dehold hoH oBr Iind friends in the north Here deter@ined soon to tie Bp oBr hands. Has it =onsonant Hith reason. not eCen the for@ of =learinG oBt: all ports Here free and open to the@8 )h>.. to represent Bs in ConCention. and in=lBded Penns>lCania. on that head. others pleased the@selCes Hith the refle=tion that no @ore =onfis=ation laHs HoBld De passed. HithoBt the =onsent of nine states6 . . the> Here liaDle to a =apitation tax. Hith poli=>. . oBr onl> natBral resoBr=e. Hhi=h tooI all fro@ one part>. and. DBt there Has no reason offered Hh> the oBthern tates @iGht not find it ne=essar> to alter their =ondB=t. ECen in GrantinG the i@portation for tHent> >ears. He DeinG the =onsB@ers. Hith Hisdo@. Has fBlfillinG eCer> part of these prin=iples. and. no. LO)NDE proCed. and. =all this a re=ipro=al DarGain. NeGroes Here oBr Health. the> had Deen parti=Blarl> =arefBl not to alloH of an> DBrdens: the> Here not to pa> tonnaGe or dBties. )ithoBt NeGroes. a laH he Greatl> approCed of. . )h> shoBld the oBthern tates alloH of this. in a Great @easBre. in a leGislatBre Hhere a @aForit> of persons sat Hhose interests Here Greatl> different fro@ oBrs. to DestoH it on the other8 'aFor JPier=eK "UTLER oDserCed. De=aBse the> haCe none the@selCes. 'r. The> are to De the =arriers. therefore all expenses HoBld fall Bpon Bs. for =ertainl> to translate a set of hB@an DeinGs fro@ a Dad =oBntr> to a Detter. Hhat =aBse Has there for FealoBs> of oBr i@portinG NeGroes6 )h> =onfine Bs to tHent> >ears. In the enB@eration he passed Rhode Island. as an> Gentle@en that =oBld haCe Deen sele=ted. hB@anit>. DarDaroBs and aCari=ioBs Hret=hes @a> tear fro@ their =oBntr>. "RUTU . he thoBGht this trade =oBld De FBstified on the prin=iples of reliGion. This. to sBppose. DBt the Cer> little the> had Gained proCed Hhat He @a> expe=t in fBtBre/that the interest of the Northern tates HoBld so predo@inate as to diCest Bs of an> pretensions to the title of a repBDli=. ea=h neGro DeinG liaDle. he shoBld raise his Coi=e aGainst restri=tinG the i@portation of NeGroes. in proportion to the eCils that @iGht De apprehended fro@ the laHs that @iGht De passed D> ConGress.

or in their defense6 )hat @otiCes. or those Hho Here not sBi FBris. diCide the states into distri=ts Hhi=h shall =hoose the representatiCes.@aForit> of representatiCes fro@ the Eastern tates. 9sBpposinG -3 at the hiGhest =al=Blation: and espe=iall> in the soBthern states. D> Hhi=h eCer> part of a state Hill haCe an eEBal =han=e. DBt too @an> =he=Is in a politi=al @a=hine @Bst prodB=e the sa@e @is=hief as in a @e=hani=al one/that of throHinG all into =onfBsion. for Hhat =han=e of eEBalit> a==ordinG to the =onstitBtion in EBestion. an enB@eration shall taIe pla=e. as it Hill De a==o@@odatinG the idea of eEBalit>. soil. Bnder the neH ConstitBtion. as Hell as senator. )oBld it not therefore De Detter to in=rease the nB@Der of representatiCes. @et Hith the free @e@Ders of the =o@@Bnit> to deliDerate on pBDli= @easBres. in the earl> da>s of leGislation. in order to apportion the representatiCes. in their deliDeration.. and slaCes. therefore. hen=e is deriCed this @axi@ in free GoCern@ents. the @ode of leGislation in the infan=> of free =o@@Bnities Has D> the =olle=tiCe Dod>. as it @entions no other @ode DBt in =hoosinG the president:. . and at that rate there HoBld alHa>s De an eEBalit> in the EBota of tax as Hell as representation.. HithoBt DeinG liaDle to parties or fa=tions6 hoBld it De said it Hill in=rease the expense. and prodB=e. itself in=lBded6 Or. then the nB@Der of @e@Ders HoBld in=rease Hith the proportion of tax. Hhi=h shoBld eCer De oDserCed in a repBDli=an for@ of GoCern@ent. HoBld it not De @ore eEBal still6 At an> rate I HoBld strenBoBsl> re=o@@end to Cote D> states. in ConGress. Hhat aid =an the =o@@Bnit> deriCe fro@ the assistan=e Ho@en. and others. "Bt. And. so@e little Glea@s of =o@fort resBlted fro@ a hope of DeinG aDle to resort to an i@partial triDBnal for redress. Hho Here GoCerned D> preFBdi=es and ideas extre@el> different fro@ oBrs. and to in=rease or di@inish the representation to the ratio of the in=rease or di@inBtion of ele=tors. this prin=iple >oBr oHn state =onstitBtion.555 for the states north of *irGinia. =an a state haCe that has onl> one or tHo Cotes. if it Has in proportion to the EBotas of the states. This arti=le I DelieCe to De inad@issaDle. In the reColCinG on @isfortBne. not DeinG =apaDle of that popBlation as in the northern states. se=ondl>. . their =li@ate.555 soBth of the said state. infants and slaCes. DBt pra> Hhat reason Has there for expe=tan=> that. or those Hhose aGe ad@itted the@ to the riGht of @anIind and =itiAenship.. Hhose sex @ade the@ =apaDle of prote=tinG the state. =oBld the =onCention haCe in departinG fro@ FBst and rational prin=iple of representation. and this =onsisted of free persons. Great stress Has laid on the ad@iraDle =he=Is Hhi=h GBarded Bs. haCe oDserCed in the estaDlish@ent of a fBtBre =ensBs. the nB@Der of representatiCes not to ex=eed one @e@Der for eCer> +5. and Hhose Dirth @a> De deno@inated !ree "orn. and not indiCidBall>. fro@ the en=roa=h@ents of t>rann>. This se=tion @entions that.555. and one for eCer> 10. is @eant to haCe a Cote. . se=tion (. Hhen others haCe eiGht or ten. sa> one @e@Der for eCer> (5. =hildren. . it affords to s@all a representation. !irst. as rated in taxation. Or. that representation oBGht to Dear a proportion to the nB@Der of free inhaDitants in a =o@@Bnit>. Hhi=h is the GoCerninG prin=e of this state and of all A@eri=a6 CATO Arti=le 1. 9for it is eCident that ea=h representatiCe. thirdl>. . sBpposinG the CotinG in the hoBse of representatiCes Has =ontinBed as heretofore D> states. and as it is . . and the @ore so if He retain the pa>inG the@ oBt of oBr oHn Dands. Hhat proDaDilit> had He of relief6 *er> little indeed. it Hill De @one> Hell laid oBt. "Bt sBpposinG He =onsidered oBrselCes so @B=h aGGrieCed as to redB=e Bs to the ne=essit> of insistinG on redress. and no tra=es =an De foBnd that eCer Ho@en. the interest of fiCe oBthern tates HoBld De =onsidered in a preferaDle point of CieH to the nine Eastern ones6 . Hithin three >ears after the first @eetinG of the ConGress of the United tates.

feelinGs. all the Horld Desides. >oB Hill not expe=t @e to estaDlish @> positions Hith @athe@ati=al =ertaint>. it @Bst prodB=e differen=es in senti@ents. and. the nB@Der of @e@Ders north of *irGinia the first three >ears is -(. a disposition to s>@pathiAe Hith the people. and sB=h as are Hell foBnded in the @ind of the Hriter. and no one that has re=eiCed so i@perfe=t a =onsideration D> politi=al Hriters.. nor the one I for@erl> adCan=ed. in sB=h @anner as the> HoBld De Here the people all asse@Dled. the latter in=lBded for@s the soBthern6 This prodB=es a Hide differen=e in =li@ate. no one has Deen less Bnderstood. as also @an> other points. that there is no sBDstantial representation of the people proCided for in a GoCern@ent. in sB=h dispBte. (+.. The ephori in parta. also in popBlation. 00 )ILL T$E $OU E O! REPRE ENTATI*E "E GENUINEL# REPRE ENTATI*E6 9PART 1: !olloHinG are foBr essa>s D> %T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER% . and to propose =ertain a@end@ents as to the representatiCe Dran=h. the> @Bst ele=t leGislators. It @Bst possess the =onfiden=e. that Cer> Great i@proCe@ents in representation @a> De @ade. perhaps. I a@ in a field Hhere do=tors disaGree. and as to GenBine representation. opinions and CieHs of the people are =olle=ted. natBre itself DeinG the Great oDsta=le.. and the soBthern. It DeinG i@pra=ti=aDle for the people to asse@Dle to @aIe laHs. the northern as far as *irGinia. and assiGn @en to the different depart@ents of the GoCern@ent. I thinI these positions Hill not De =ontroCerted. Is hB@an natBre aDoCe self interest6 If the northern states do not horde the soBthern in taxation. seCeral i@portant =onsiderations @Bst De attended to. I =on=eiCe.. Here DBt the shadoH. and a =apa=it> and in=lination to @aIe laHs =onGenial to their =ir=B@stan=es and =ondition. eCen as to the internal poli=e of the =oBntr>. CiA. In for@inG this Dran=h. In @atters Hhere there is @B=h roo@ for opinion. than. it HoBld appear then reall> that the> are @ore disinterested @en than He InoH of. the representation in Great "ritain is BneEBal and inse=Bre. are proposed to De lodGed. thoBGh no featBre in GoCern@ent =an De @ore i@portant.. In A@eri=a He haCe done @ore in estaDlishinG this i@portant Dran=h on its trBe prin=iples.Generall> alloHed that the United tates are diCided into tHo natBral diCisions. >oB @Bst onl> expe=t @> oDserCations to De =andid. to Hhi=h it is Hell oDserCed the latter is not so faCoraDle as the for@er.. and the nB@Der of representatiCes and for@s of ele=tion . It @Bst possess aDilities to dis=ern the sitBation of the people and of pBDli= affairs. And Hhen taxation is in aGitation.. and the triDBnes in Ro@e. and in it to find al@ost entirel> the for=e of persBasion. I shall pro=eed to =onsider fBrther @> prin=ipal position. In fixinG this Dran=h. #et eCen here. and haCe the ColBntar> sBpport of the people.. In the representatiCe Dran=h He @Bst expe=t =hiefl> to =olle=t the =onfiden=e of the people. $aCinG @ade these General oDserCations. soil. and the prodB=e of the land. =orrBption and inflBen=e. The representation is insBDstantial and oBGht to De in=reased. as Hell as trade. hoH is it liIel> to De de=ided6 A==ordinG to the @ode of CotinG. the sitBation of the people @Bst De sBrCe>ed. @anners of liCinG. in Hhi=h the @ost essential poHers. Antifederalist No. that a fair and eEBal representation is that in Hhi=h the interests. It @Bst afford se=Brit> aGainst interest =o@Dinations. perhaps. therefore. =Bsto@s. and neCer =an nor Hill De. *irGinia in=lBded..

Hho =o@Dine toGether and @aIe their oDFe=t their priCate interests and aGGrandiAe@ent. are de=reased. or their representatiCes. Hhi=h others @a> pla=e on the other. It is the first of all a@onG the politi=al Dalan=es.% It is extre@el> =lear that these Hriters had in CieH the seCeral orders of @en in so=iet>. The se=ond is an aristo=rati= fa=tion. possessinG eEBalit>. and GenBinel> liIe the@selCes. The existen=e of this des=ription is @erel> a==idental. it is i@perfe=t. Bnder aGe. the others. The first =lass is the aristo=rati=al. it is proDaDle the> Hill Generall> De fitted to the national =hara=ter and =ir=B@stan=es. the intent of Good laHs is to oppose this effort. a@onG Hhi=h the ele=ted @Bst De. The third is the natBral aristo=ra=>. )e @a> pla=e @en on one side of this line. $oHeCer the people @a> De ele=tors. )hen He find a nB@eroBs people settled in a fertile and extensiCe =oBntr>. )e talI of Dalan=es in the leGislatBre. it oBGht to De the anxioBs =are of the =onstitBtion and laHs. A CirtBoBs people @aIe FBst laHs. )here the people. He oBGht to =arr> the@ to the Dod> of the people. A CirtBoBs and happ> people D> laHs Bn=onGenial to their =hara=ters. )e are not onl> to Dalan=e these natBral efforts. a==ordinG to hi@. disposed to @aIe to eleCate the@selCes and oppress others. Bnless the representation De partial. and to diffBse their inflBen=e BniCersall> and eEBall>. Hho alone are the =onstitBtional ele=tors and ele=ted. exists in ea=h of the United tates. @e=hani=s et=. Hhi=h He =all aristo=rati=al. fro@ interested and a@DitioBs CieHs. and Good laHs tend to preserCe Bn=hanGed a CirtBoBs people. and to preserCe the@ in their happ> =ondition. and feH or none of the@ oppressed Hith ri=hes or Hants. as all =onCi=ted of =ri@es. Hho is sBpposed to De a free aGent. are ex=lBded an> share in the GoCern@ent. this ter@ He Bse to desiGnate a respe=taDle order of @en. to arrest the@ fro@ national depraCit>. or their representatiCes. it is trBe. de@o=rati=al. the leGislatiCe shoBld reside in the Hhole Dod> of the people. a FBnto of Bnprin=ipled @en. DBt parti=Blarl> to De GBarded aGainst. and to redB=e the others to the extre@e of HeaIness and @iser>. There are three Iinds of aristo=ra=> spoIen of in this =oBntr>/the first is a =onstitBtional one. To set this @atter in a proper point of CieH. in=e I adCan=ed the idea of Dalan=inG the seCeral orders of @en in a =o@@Bnit>. This. if the representation De so for@ed as to GiCe one or @ore of the natBral =lasses of @en in so=iet> an BndBe as=endan=> oCer others. as the> @a> De diCided D> o==Bpation and politi=all>. aGe. in the natBre of thinGs. for Hant of propert>. the line DetHeen Hho@ and the natBral de@o=ra=> is in so@e deGree arDitrar>. oBGht to De =on=erned in his oHn GoCern@ent: therefore. oDserCes that Hhere part of the persons in a so=iet>. and a@onG the depart@ents of GoCern@ent. to preserCe in its proper station ea=h of these =lasses.. or not possessed of =ertain propert>. that %in a free state eCer> @an. and =an =hoose their leGislators. and the i@perfe=t sBDstitBte of the people. =hoose @en fro@ a@onG the@selCes. and in all dispBtes DetHeen . and seen that idea =onsidered as =hi@eri=al. It is de=eiCinG a people to tell the@ the> are ele=tors. Hhi=h does not exist in the United tates in oBr =o@@on a==eptation of the Hord. This senten=e Has EBoted D> ConGress in 122-. DBt He are also to GBard aGainst a==idental =o@Dinations. 'ontesEBieB. if the> =annot. often distinGBished for their Health or aDilities. @er=antile. Doth eCils Hhi=h are in=reased in proportion as the nB@Der of @en. and the latter slaCes. Hhere a =onsideraDle nB@Der of persons. I haCe Deen sensiDl> strB=I Hith a senten=e in the 'arEBis "e==ariaLs treatise. in for@inG a GenBine representation. @aIe the laHs. I Hish >oB to taIe another idea alonG Hith >oB. and is as folloHs:/%In eCer> so=iet> there is an effort =ontinBall> tendinG to =onfer on one part the heiGht of poHer and happiness. and per=eiCed the efforts the> are =onstantl>. Ea=h order @Bst haCe a share in the DBsiness of leGislation a=tBall> and effi=ientl>. are ex=lBded an> share in the GoCern@ent. =o@Dinations foBnded in the =onne=tions of offi=es and priCate interests.apportioned to that sitBation. or @oral =hara=ter. the for@er Hill GradBall> De=o@e @asters. @a> easil> De GradBall> =hanGed into serCile and depraCed =reatBres. He @Bst for@ so@e General ideas and des=riptions of the different =lasses of @en. for@ this aristo=ra=>.% Add to this 'ontesEBieBLs opinion.

DBt other interests and parties also. and the latter are often aGitated Hith the passions of FealoBs> and enC>. @er=hants. et=. that the @er=hants alone HoBld neCer fail to @aIe laHs faCoraDle to the@selCes and oppressiCe to the far@ers. and those =lasses Hhi=h haCe not their =entinels in the GoCern@ent. that frBGal indBstrioBs @er=hants are Generall> adCo=ates for liDert>. De the @aForit>. 'en Hho liCe D> fees and salaries endeaCor to raise the@. espe=iall> respe=tinG pBDli= and priCate expenses. haCe senti@ents Hidel> different. salaries. I in=lBde aDoBt foBr or fiCe thoBsand @en. and a@onG these I re=Ion those Hho haCe Deen pla=ed in the offi=es of GoCernors. Hhi=h do not alHa>s oppress ea=h other @erel> for Hant of poHer. the for@er HoBld tax the land. indBstrioBs pBrsBits. The >eo@anr> possess a larGe share of propert> and strenGth. GiCe a=tiCit> to GoCern@ent. Hell foBnded. =iCil and @ilitar>. HeiGht and strenGth. possess aDilities. and in all the transa=tions of @en. It is an oDserCation.. in eCer> period of so=iet>. all their passions in tBrn are enlisted in politi=al =ontroCersies. endeaCor to loHer the@. proDaDl> for@ aDoBt a foBrth part of the people. He see parties Cerif>inG the oDserCation @ade D> the 'arEBis. DBt the @ore the representatiCes are in=reased. and the people at larGe to lessen the@. or oBGht to De. and a larGer share of honest>. and sellers to raise the@. in the prin=ipal offi=ers of the ar@> and @ilitia. perhaps. I DelieCe. The other persons and orders in the =o@@Bnit> for@ the natBral de@o=ra=>. 'en. eleCated in so=iet>.. et=. and @en of larGe propert>. are often disGBsted Hith the =hanGeaDleness of the de@o=ra=>. in proportion to Hhat the> haCe to Gain or lose. @an> of the @er=hants and professional @en. @e=hani=s and traders. and partl> of the =hanGeaDleness of the @e=hani= interest. ThBs. Hith CieHs eEBall> honest. the aristo=rati=al and de@o=rati=al. the> are in=onsideraDle for nB@Ders. Hhile that of the for@er is prin=ipall> on the e@olB@ents of larGe estates. the leGal =hara=ters Hill often. As to @er=hants and traders. are nerCoBs and fir@ in their opinions and haDits. their dependen=e is prin=ipall> on @iddlinG and s@all estates. the @e=hani=s of toHns are ardent and =hanGeaDle/honest and =redBloBs. @BtBall> depend on ea=h other. Gentle@en of the laH. and hard laDor. the fisher@en. >et their politi=al inflBen=e. taxes. the pBDli= =reditors to aBG@ent the taxes. If He @a> FBdGe fro@ the appoint@ents to ConGress. that the s=hools prodB=e DBt feH adCo=ates for repBDli=an for@s of GoCern@ent. a@Dition. is eEBal to that of all the other des=riptions of @en. the latter the trade. and of the =hief offi=es of GoCern@ent.the feH and the @an>. Not onl> the efforts of these tHo Great parties are to De Dalan=ed. In @> idea of oBr natBral aristo=ra=> in the United tates. the >eo@anr>. It has Deen oDserCed D> an aDle Hriter. the> are oBr aGents in al@ost all @one> transa=tions. thoBGh the>. the @ost e@inent professional @en. @en of the se=ond =lass are not so @B=h Bsed to =o@DininG Great oDFe=ts. DB>ers @aIe eCer> exertion to loHer pri=es. The> =ontend for ranI and distin=tions. The far@ers alone HoBld a=t on liIe prin=iples. and the part of the people Hho pa> the@. and possess a =onsideraDle share of inflBen=e in it. and General InoHledGe. It is eas> to per=eiCe that @en of these tHo =lasses. #et sB=h are their General CieHs. a =onsideraDle nB@Der are HaCerinG and Bn=ertain the@selCes on Hhi=h side the> are. et=. haCe a hiGh sense of honor. the> possess less a@Dition. of @e@Ders of ConGress.. 'en of the first =lass asso=iate @ore extensiCel>. and for fear of the =onseEBen=es. the sBDordinate offi=ers. Efforts a@onG parties are not @erel> =onfined to propert>. The @anBfa=tBrers are often disposed to =ontend for @onopolies. the @ore of the far@ers. . ph>si=. Hill De foBnd to De DroBGht into the GoCern@ent. in fa=t. @Bst infalliDl> De rBined. not alHa>s sBffi=ientl> staDle for sBpportinG free GoCern@ents. the sBperior FBdGes. in a s@all representation. this in=lBdes in General. et=. and state senators Generall>. diCinit>. the fishinG interest partaIes partl> of the strenGth and staDilit> of the landed.

The t>rann> of the one. are. he Hill also re=eiCe i@pressions faCoraDle to their pBrposes parti=Blarl>. . and hoH far the people Hill haCe =onfiden=e in the@. it appears to @e. or DBt feH =o@@Bni=ations. Hith toleraDle =onCenien=e. infor@ation and inter=oBrse DetHeen the representatiCes and the people. and in @ost other =oBntries in faCor onl> of a feH inflBential @en6 The reasons. )e @a> not onl> so Bnite and Dalan=e these as to preCent a =hanGe in the GoCern@ent D> the GradBal exaltation of one part to the depression of others. In EnGland. or the li=entioBsness of the @BltitBde. A s@all representation =an neCer De Hell infor@ed as to the =ir=B@stan=es of the people. are oDCioBs. In EnGland the people haCe Deen sBDstantiall> represented in @an> respe=ts. the aristo=rati= part of that nation Has sBDstantiall> represented D> a Cer> larGe nB@Der of noDles. DBt He @a> deriCe @an> other adCantaGes fro@ the =o@Dination and fBll representation. Perhaps a s@all deGree of attention to a feH si@ple fa=ts Hill illBstrate this. @aIe InoHn their Hants.. CoBld He Get oCer all oBr diffi=Blties respe=tinG a Dalan=e of interests and part> efforts.. the proCin=e of 'aine. in @> @ind. . hoH far inflBen=ed D> expe=tations of appoint@ents and offi=es. opinions. and the General s=ope of @> ideas. fro@ the oppressions of the Nor@an &inGs to the reColBtion in 1133. =o@pared Hith the fa=tions of the feH..555 or -5. and then there @Bst De a Cer> Great distan=e DetHeen the representatiCes and the people in General represented. in the other =oBntries it has not Deen so. Hhen I =ontend for BnitinG and Dalan=inG their interests. in @> @ind. to s>@pathiAe Hith the@. the EnGlish liDerties Here as=ertained and estaDlished. he =an onl> @ix and De a=EBainted Hith a feH respe=taDle =hara=ters a@onG his =onstitBents. he Hill Get the Dest infor@ation and ideas fro@ the@. Hill haCe one representatiCe ea=h. I @ean the =onstant liaDilit> of a s@all nB@Der of representatiCes to priCate =o@Dinations. T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. and CieHs in the leGislatBre. hoH far this hoBse of representatiCes Hill De liaDle to De for@ed into priCate FBntos. ECen doBDle the General representation. eEBal laHs.555 inhaDitants.. and too feH to =o@@Bni=ate Hith the@. )here there is DBt one representatiCe to +5. . There =an De DBt little personal InoHledGe. and the =o@@on riGhts of the people. and opinions to their representatiCes. The @e@Ders of it @Bst De too far re@oCed fro@ the people. the Hant of s>@path>. )h> in EnGland haCe the reColBtions alHa>s ended in stipBlations in faCor of General liDert>. and Hhere the =onstitBents in tBrn =annot. It is a =onsideration Hell Horth pBrsBinG. On the proposed plan. the =it> of Philadelphia. DBt s@all eCils. the state of DelaHare. . the =oBnt> of BffolI in 'assa=hBsetts.These General oDserCations Hill enaDle >oB to dis=ern Hhat I intend D> different =lasses. feelinGs. in General. to raise so@e and oppress others. an insBperaDle diffi=Blt> Hill still re@ain. It has Deen oDserCed that @ixinG onl> Hith the respe=taDle @en.. =ir=B@stan=es. the state of Rhode Island. hoH far liaDle to De @anaGed D> the president and senate. A representation @Bst De extre@el> i@perfe=t Hhere the representatiCes are not =ir=B@stan=ed to @aIe the proper =o@@Bni=ations to their =onstitBents. 01 )ILL T$E $OU E O! REPRE ENTATI*E "E GENUINEL# REPRE ENTATI*E6 9PART (: . DetHeen hi@ and the people at larGe of either of those distri=ts. dBrinG Hhi=h period of tHo or three hBndred >ears..

the =ondB=t of the "ritish =o@@ons. I thinI the nB@Der of triDBnes annBall> =hosen neCer ex=eeded ten. The Coi=e of a feH. Has their sole oDFe=t. Here represented D> aDoBt fiCe hBndred representatiCes. and as it @iGht haCe Deen ne=essar> to serCe their pBrposes. feelinGs. and the people of that island Deen =alled Bpon to ele=t fort>/fiCe senators. DetHeen Hho@ and the noDle fa@ilies there Has onl> the shadoH> differen=e of leGal distin=tion. and do an> thinG properl> the@selCes. CieHs and =ir=B@stan=es. Has not proportionall> so nB@eroBs as the representation proposed in the neH plan. aDoBt foBr or fiCe @illions. De Lol@e. the dBpes of artifi=e. senators. There Here =onsBls in Ro@e annBall> ele=ted to exe=Bte the laHs. DBt the differen=e Hill not appear to De so Great. EEBal liDert> preCails in EnGland. Hhen it shall De re=olle=ted.possessinG si@ilar interests and feelinGs Hith those the> represented. Their interests HoBld haCe Deen neGle=ted. perhaps. DBt liIe the Great patri=ian fa@ilies. In Ro@e the people Here @iseraDle. liIe senators and Great offi=ers of state. felt and saH. and in =ontendinG for General liDert>. and the IinG Hith the Hhole. then @ostl> a frBGal landed people. aDoBt the proportion He propose to estaDlish. speaIinG of the "ritish representation. The Dod> of the people. as in @ost other =oBntries. and that the people of Ital> Hho ele=ted the triDBnes Here a lonG Hhile. the Darons stipBlated Hith the =o@@on people. The Hhole =o@@Bnit>. to Get into Hhi=h it Has eCident D> their =ondB=t. to estaDlish it. in fa=t and realit>. seCeral hBndred senators represented the Great fa@ilies. A@onG all the triDBnes the people =hose for seCeral =entBries. and the @anner of doinG it. Contests and =on=iliations. and the Dalan=e lost. if not alHa>s. and triDBnes. the> had s=ar=el> fiCe real friends to their interests. et=. o far fro@ estaDlishinG the riGhts of the people. and to oppose @inisters and senators.. EEBal liDert> neCer preCailed in Ro@e De=aBse there Has DBt the shadoH of a representation. and of the Ro@an triDBnes. Here represented D> seCen or eiGht hBndred @en. and that Has all. and proDaDl> not a sinGle stipBlation @ade in their faCor. and the Dod> of the people HoBld not haCe had s=ar=el> a sinGle sin=ere adCo=ate. De=aBse the> and their leaders or representatiCes haCe Deen stri=tl> Bnited in interests. the Dod> of the people annBall> =hose triDBnes fro@ a@onG the@selCes to defend the@ and to se=Bre their riGhts. the people at larGe HoBld haCe Deen flattered or threatened. not liIe the people. thoBGh the> Dad three orders. These triDBnes often talIed aDoBt the riGhts and preroGatiCes of the people. and approCed the laHs. and one hBndred and tHent> representatiCes. It is diffi=Blt for the people to defend the@selCes aGainst the arts and intriGBes of the Great. the> sBffered the senate. proDaDl>. DBt D> sele=tinG a sBitaDle nB@Der of @en fixed to their interests to represent the@. Great =o@@oners. . their Hhole leGislatBre eCidentl> HoBld haCe Deen of the natBral aristo=ra=>. and all for Hant of a GenBine representation. @ilitar> =o@@ands. taIen not fro@ the order of @en Hhi=h for@ed the aristo=ra=>. To De =onCin=ed of this. DBt fro@ the Dod> of the people. HoBld haCe Deen @erel> a@onG the feH. to the ex=lBsion of the people. expressl> foBnds all his reasons on this Bnion. those ex=ellent and al@ost onl> real Heapons of . not @ore than tHo/fifths @ore nB@eroBs than He noH are. The people Here too nB@eroBs to asse@Dle. $ere He see a GenBine Dalan=e foBnded in the a=tBal state of thinGs. to enGross the poHers of taxation. General and eEBal liDert> forGot. )hat Has the =onseEBen=e of this triflinG representation6 The people of Ro@e alHa>s ele=ted for their triDBnes @en =onspi=BoBs for their ri=hes. . a s@all people =o@pared Hith the people of the United tates. He need onl> attend to the reason of the =ase. that these triDBnes Here =hosen annBall>. for the> neCer eCen atte@pted to estaDlish eEBal liDert>. professional popBlarit>. Has =alled the Coi=e of the people. This representation. . the =onsBls. J'B=hK depends on the nB@Der of the @en sele=ted. that the Great patri=ian fa@ilies Here not ad@itted to these offi=es of triDBnes. $e oDserCes the EnGlish haCe preserCed their liDerties. These triDBnes liCed. and possessed of the sa@e interests and feelinGs. this si@ilitBde of interests. $ad the leGal distin=tion DetHeen lords and =o@@ons Deen DroIen doHn. De=aBse there Has a representation of the people.

A Great e@pire =ontains the a@ities and ani@osities of a Horld Hithin itself. The feH @Bst De Hat=hed. feelinGs. DriCe it fro@ IinGs and it flies to senators. DBt the fa=t is. in the earl> period of the repBDli=. I haCe often latel> heard it oDserCed that it Hill do Cer> Hell for a people to @aIe a =onstitBtion and ordain that at stated periods the> Hill =hoose. DBt the>. And in the United tates. and of triflinG i@portan=e to the people at larGe. @en Hill De GoCerned D> the @otiCes and te@ptations that sBrroBnd their sitBation. =onfined to a feH eleCated =o@@oners. hoHeCer it @a> do for a s@all repBDli=/as Conne=ti=Bt. The EnGlish. and @ore lost to felloH feelinGs. EEBal liDert> neCer >et foBnd @an> adCo=ates a@onG the Great. The> De=o@e hardened in =ertain @axi@s. and often resisted. Hho had tasted the sHeets of eEBal laHs. =he=Ied. This do=trine. )e are dispersed. to di=tators. are liaDle to De =orrBpted D> sloH deGrees. )e @a> a@Bse oBrselCes Hith na@es. serCinG as a =o@@on =entre of liDert> and Bnion. ex=ept Hhen ne=essar> to ansHer priCate pBrposes. T>rann> has eCer shoHn a predile=tion to De in =lose a@it> Hith the@. to de=e@Ciri. GiCinG the people in these the @eans of opposinG heaC> internal taxes and oppressiCe @easBres in the proper staGes. and not in the na@e of patri=ian or pleDeian. into the noDle fa@ilies. he has laid the foBndation of one. and GenBine senti@ents of the people the@selCes / =an neCer De ad@itted in an extensiCe . a GiCen nB@Der of senators and representatiCes. and thoBGh the> restored their IinG. TrBe liDert> stands in need of a fosterinG Dand. and let the@ haCe all poHer to do as the> please. DBt in the for@s of a federal repBDli=. to popBlar leaders. 'en in hiGh pBDli= offi=es are in stations Hhere the> GradBall> lose siGht of the people. laHs Hhi=h Here to De eEBal to all are soon Harped to the priCate interests of the ad@inistrators. the> =arefBll> deleGated to parlia@ent the adCo=ates of freedo@. I a@ fBll> persBaded JitK =an De pla=ed no Hhere. these representatiCes HoBld haCe for@ed an honest respe=taDle asse@Dl>. =apaDle of =o@DininG in the@ the CieHs and exertions of the people and their respe=taDilit> HoBld haCe pro=Bred the@ honest and aDle leaders. these Here adCantaGes in their natBre. It is a disaGreeaDle trBth that poHer perCerts @enLs CieHs in a Greater deGree than pBDli= e@plo>@ents infor@ their BnderstandinGs. e@phati=all> fro@ a@onG the@selCes. sele=ted >earl> or Dienniall>. and @arr>. if the> pleased. to triDBnes. De Lol@e Hell oDserCes. foBr or fiCe hBndred of their Dest infor@ed @en. for instan=e. 'en @a> alHa>s De too =aBtioBs to =o@@it alar@inG and GlarinG iniEBities.defense eCen the people of EnGland possess. )e are not liIe the people of EnGland. DBt eCen aGainst Hhat the> @a> do. <BniBs Hell oDserCes. is >et a EBestion. Nearl> the sa@e oDserCations @a> De @ade as to the ephori of parta. Hith a Great =it> filled Hith frBGal @er=hants. and He shoBld haCe seen eEBal liDert> estaDlished. The triDBnes oDtained that the people shoBld De eliGiDle to so@e of the Great offi=es of state. in a =ertain @anner. to @ilitar> =hiefs. Here aHare of this. $ad the people of Ital>. et=. a first @aGistrate. Hhere He =an diCide and pla=e it in seCeral state or distri=t leGislatBres. or the one @an. Politi=al eCils to De GBarded aGainst are in the hB@an =hara=ter. The Dod> of the people @Bst haCe this trBe representatiCe se=Brit> pla=ed so@e Hhere in the nation. one people =o@pa=tl> settled on a s@all island. JrepresentinGK in an e@inent deGree. He are not onl> to GBard aGainst Hhat @en Hill do. the CieHs. and it is i@pra=ti=aDle for an> DBt the feH to asse@Dle in one pla=e./ fro@ the da>s of Ada@ she has foBnd DBt one te@ple to dHell in se=Brel>. perhaps her last in A@eri=a. or in an> extended e@pire. that in so=ieties. and @ade to defend the BsBrpations of a feH. and do not often thinI of attendinG to the@. Hhere the people @a> =hoose so @an> senators and representatiCes to asse@Dle in the leGislatBre. Hhether this is to De =o@pleted and haCe dBration. the interests. as Hell as s>ste@s.

@ade HithoBt dBe attention to fa=ts and the state of the =o@@Bnit>. so to open and enlarGe the representation as to let in a dBe proportion of the third =lass Hith those of the first.% Exa@ine the s>ste@/is it pra=ti=aDle for the@ to ele=t fit and proper representatiCes Hhere the nB@Der is so s@all6 %"Bt the people @a> =hoose Hho@ the> please. (. that the Dest pra=ti=al representation. $en=e it is. In DelaHare the> are =o@pa=t. DBt respe=taDle ranI in priCate =on=erns. after all the parade of Hords and for@s. I DelieCe. hoH =an the ele=tions in . =oBrts/@artial are so for@ed as to ad@it sBDaltern offi=ers into the@. and a deGree nearer the @ass of the people. a@onG the feH. et=. that the representation proposed is so s@all as that ordinaril> Cer> feH or none of the@ =an De ele=ted.. Hho dis=ern and FBdGe Hell. and ea=h of the Great =oBnties in 'assa=hBsetts. NoH. and has no te@ptation. . Hho hold not a splendid.. the> often haCe so@e aDilities.555 inhaDitants. fareK HithoBt prin=iple. DBt fro@ DeinG Generall> silent in pBDli= asse@Dlies are often oCerlooIed. and as representatiCes are onl> DroBGht to a leCel Hith a @ore nB@eroBs part of the =o@@Bnit>. "Bt %the people @Bst ele=t Good @en. the spirit of popBlar leaders. therefore. as Defore defined. )e @a> ranI the@ in three =lasses. of Rhode Island. and rather @ore than one Hhen the representatiCes shall De in=reased to one for ea=h +5. are raised aDoCe the @aForit> of the people. The @en Hho for@ the natBral aristo=ra=>. in the ProCin=e of 'aine dispersed. ECen in ar@ies. And Hhen this poHer is lodGed in the hands of a feH. In a nB@eroBs representation the aDBse of poHer is a =o@@on inFBr>. the aDBse of poHer @a> often operate to the priCate e@olB@ent of those Hho aDBse it. HoBld haCe one @e@Der. @Bst De seCeral deGrees @ore aristo=rati=al than the Dod> of the people. that the state of DelaHare. @> opinion is. In so@e distri=ts the people are @ore dispersed and BneEBal than in others. is in @> opinion.% This is an oDserCation. +. . PopBlar de@aGoGBes/these @en also are often politi=all> eleCated. I oDserCed in a for@er letter. The> are the @ost sBDstantial and Dest infor@ed @en in the seCeral toHns. A representation so for@ed as to ad@it DBt feH or none of the third =lass. and their i@@ediate =onne=tions. the @iddle orders. eCen the>. or so@ethinG Horse. To explain @> @eaninG. toHns and s@all distri=ts in the Bnion. so as to De seen D> the people throBGh the extent of larGe distri=ts. T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. And. 02 )ILL T$E $OU E O! REPRE ENTATI*E "E GENUINEL# REPRE ENTATI*E6 9PART +: . the GoCern@ent @Bst possess the soBl of aristo=ra=>. 1. not deserCinG of the na@e. et=. eCen in a s@all state. The trBe idea is. I Hill =onsider the des=riptions of @en =o@@onl> presented to the people as =andidates for the offi=es of representatiCes. and rise into noti=e D> their noise and arts.=oBntr>. Hho o==asionall> fill the @iddle Grades of offi=es. . the ProCin=e of 'aine. not to li@it the feH is DBt one step short of GiCinG aDsolBte poHer to one @an. The sBDstantial and respe=taDle part of the de@o=ra=>/ the> are a nB@eroBs and CalBaDle set of @en. These @en are extensiCel> diffBsed throBGh all the =oBnties.

it is asIed Hh> so @an> respe=taDle @en adCo=ate the adoption of the proposed s>ste@. The =r> Has GiCe the@/De federal. NothinG =an De a stronGer eCiden=e of the natBre of this s>ste@. @Bst GoCern the ele=tions as in the =hoi=e of the GoCernors. the> thinI so@ethinG @Bst De done. =onsistinG of aDoBt 1. "Bt if I a@ riGht. "Bt the proper distin=tion DetHeen the =ases that prodB=e this disposition. The Dod> of the people haCe a=EBired larGe poHers and sBDstantial inflBen=e D> the reColBtion. and to pla=e the@ in the hiGher orders and feHer hands. and @iser>. is @atter of opinion in so@e deGree. Call Bpon the people of either of those distri=ts to =hoose a GoCernor. On the other hand. The> feel there is so@ethinG in this s>ste@ adCantaGeoBs to the@. has not the Hisdo@ of the =onCention foBnd the @ediB@6 Perhaps not. the> haCe an aCersion to de@o=rati= repBDli=s. the proper nB@Der of federal representatiCes. haCe asIed for @oderate additional poHers. of their Cotes on so@e Cer> =onspi=BoBs or Cer> popBlar =hara=ter. that Hhen He =all on thirt> or fort> thoBsand inhaDitants to Bnite in GiCinG their Cotes for one @an it Hill De Bnifor@l> i@pra=ti=aDle for the@ to Bnite in an> @en. He shoBld readil> pronoBn=e a federal representation as nB@eroBs as those of the seCeral states. the =oin. It Hill De foBnd totall> i@pra=ti=aDle for @en in the priCate HalIs of life. no Honder then that all those of and aDoBt these orders are atta=hed to it. that notHithstandinG the parade of Hords and for@s. On the other hand. In the Bnsettled state of thinGs. )e shoBld readil> pronoBn=e a representatiCe Dran=h of 10 @e@Ders s@all in a federal GoCern@ent. or the Greatest nB@Der. )e haCe seen so@e of oBr state representations too nB@eroBs and HithoBt exa@ininG a @ediB@ He rBn to the opposite extre@e. their nB@eroBs representatiCes. to De=o@e =onspi=BoBs enoBGh to attra=t the noti=e of so @an> ele=tors and haCe their sBffraGes. On the Hhole it appears to @e to De al@ost a self/ eCident position. insiGnifi=an=e. the AealoBs adCo=ates for=e a relB=tant =onsent.055 representatiCes. haCinG =o@plete poHers as to taxes. The =onCention Has diCided on this point of . eCeral reasons @a> De GiCen. !Brther. and the s>ste@ proposed. heretofore. noH in the Dod> of the people in realit>. DBt there are extre@es Hhi=h He i@@ediatel> per=eiCe. )ithoBt s=rBtiniAinG into the parti=Blars of the proposed s>ste@. and to redB=e the latter to HeaIness. =o@@er=e. the> see a s>ste@ presented. and haCe indB=ed @an> Good @en sBddenl> to adopt ideas BnfaCoraDle to sB=h repBDli=s. et=. ConGress. @isBsed their poHers. It is trBe. the Dod> of the people eCidentl> feel there is so@ethinG HronG and disadCantaGeoBs to the@. the sa@e Bn=ontrollaDle =ir=B@stan=es. eCen the respe=taDle part of the de@o=ra=> haCe neCer >et Deen aDle to distinGBish =learl> Hhere the falla=> lies. and Hhi=h ideas the> Hill dis=ard on refle=tion. has not Deen fairl> @ade and seen in all its =onseEBen=es. ex=ept in the profession of the laH. It is asIed. BnHield> and totall> i@proper. in so@e instan=es. The parts taIen Generall> D> the@ proCes @> position. ex=ept those feH Hho haCe De=o@e e@inent for their =iCil or @ilitar> ranI. @a> De EBite BnInoHn a@onG thirt> or fort> thoBsand. The> find there are defe=ts in the =onfederation. 'an> of oBr Gentle@en are atta=hed to the prin=iples of @onar=h> and aristo=ra=>. than the General sense of the seCeral orders in the =o@@Bnit> respe=tinG its tenden=>. He i@@ediatel> per=eiCe that its General tenden=> is to =olle=t the poHers of GoCern@ent. the GoCern@ent @Bst possess the soBl of aristo=ra=>. and it Hill proDaDl> neCer happen that the> Hill not DestoH a @aFor part. or their popBlar leGal aDilities.either of those distri=ts De reGBlated so that a @an of the third =lass =an De ele=ted6 Exa=tl> the sa@e prin=iples and @otiCes. The people eCidentl> feel all this thoBGh the> Hant expressions to =onCe> their ideas. A @an that is InoHn a@onG a feH thoBsands of people. "oth des=riptions per=eiCe there is so@ethinG tendinG to DestoH on the for@er the heiGht of poHer and happiness. and. @ilitar> @atters. Hhile their @inds are in sBspense. and others Hhi=h He =learl> dis=oCer on exa@ination.

it Has pBt at. altoGether falla=ioBs. is =lear/to doBDle it at least. And this He @a> eCidentl> do and approa=h a==ordinGl> toHards safet> and perfe=tion HithoBt en=oBnterinG an> in=onCenien=es. eCen these senators are =onsidered as so far re@oCed fro@ the people. and >et saCe enoBGh D> the redB=tion nearl> to sBpport ex=eedinG Hell the Hhole federal representation I propose. and GiCe it as a reason. and adopt @easBres to indB=e an attendan=e. the expense and diffi=Blt> in GettinG the @e@Ders to attend. Their pa>. then the pa> of the federal representation Hill a@oBnt to for tHent> >ears.. is aGainst an> federal GoCern@ent. If. (1. >earl>. and. In this extensiCe =oBntr> it is diffi=Blt to Get a representation sBffi=ientl> nB@eroBs. "Bt this sa=rifi=e oBGht to De as little as possiDle. it is said the @e@Ders of =onGress @Bst retBrn ho@e. $oH far He oBGht to in=rease the representation I Hill not pretend to sa>. @aIinG fBll alloHan=es for the state representations. ThBs He @a> leaCe the state representations sBffi=ient larGe. Hill oDliGe Bs to sa=rifi=e in so@e deGree the trBe GenBine prin=iples of representation. I DelieCe that a dBe proportion of 1+5 or 1-5 @e@Ders @a> De indB=ed to attend. that He expend three ti@es this sB@ eCer> >ear Bpon Bseless inferior offi=es and Cer> triflinG =on=erns. It is also a fa=t Hhi=h =an De shoHn that the United tates in the late Har sBffered @ore D> a fa=tion in the federal GoCern@ent. I DelieCe.(55 dollars/JaK differen=e JofK (1. The first =annot De i@portant. therefore. -+. essentiall>. Ne=essit>. Hill De far @ore than Dalan=ed D> opposite @otiCes and opposite interests. on a . RedB=e the state representatiCes fro@ 1. priCate @otiCes Hill indB=e the@ to @aIe @ild laHs. A sinGle =o@pan> of soldiers HoBld =ost this sB@. as proposed D> the =onCention.055 doHn to 1. Hhi=h @a> =oin=ide Hith the riGhts and interests of the people. on exa@ination. There are CarioBs reasons for the non/attendan=e of the @e@Ders of the present =onGress. )e find D> experien=e that aDoBt tHo/thirds of the @e@Ders of representatiCe asse@Dlies BsBall> attend. At least so@e of its aDlest @e@Ders BrGed. that instead of 10 representatiCes there oBGht to De 1+5 in the first instan=e. at foBr dollars a da> ea=h 9Hhi=h is pBttinG it hiGh enoBGh: Hill a@oBnt to. not ex=eedinG one for ea=h +5. Brel> He /neCer =an De so BnHise as to sa=rifi=e. and share in the DBrdens the> @a> i@pose. that He DelieCe onl> a feH @e@Ders Hill De indB=ed to attend6 )e oBGht =ertainl> to estaDlish an adeEBate representatiCe Dran=h. As to the attendan=e/=an He De so BnHise as to estaDlish an Bnsafe and inadeEBate representatiCe Dran=h. The> fixed one representatiCe for ea=h -5. that the =onCention Hent on no fixed data. aDoBt fort>/fiCe @e@Ders proDaDl> Hill attend. This DrinGs Bs to a @ere EBestion of interest Bnder this head. sa> three @onths in a >ear. aDoBt 45 Hill proDaDl> attend. As to the expense. I @ention these fa=ts to shoH. in the state senators. I presB@e the hoBse of representatiCes Hill not De in sessions @ore than foBr @onths in the >ear. of the representation proposed D> the =onCention. I thinI these oDserCations Hill appear.. It is Hith Great diffi=Blt> the people =an Bnite these different interests and CieHs eCen toleraDl>. at one dollar and a EBarter a da> ea=h JHoBld a@oBnt toK +2.1(0 dollars.nB@Ders. in one =ase. De=aBse this indiCidBal interest.155 dollars. the last.155 dollars. DoBDlinG their nB@Der.555 and thereD> saCe the attendan=e of tHo/thirds of the 055. and ease the DBrdens of the people. it is to De presB@ed that these Hill not exist Bnder the neH s>ste@. therefore.155 dollars a >ear for the United tates. the president sBGGested that the representation appeared to De too s@all and HithoBt deDate. It is a fa=t that =an easil> De shoHn. in the other =ase. The prin=ipal oDFe=tions @ade to the in=rease of the representation are. to sBpport liDert>. that the> are not alloHed i@@ediatel> to hold their pBrse strinGs.555 inhaDitants. the all/ i@portant prin=iples of representation for so s@all a sB@ as (1. Hho are @ore than tHi=e as nB@eroBs as the federal representatiCes. DBt that He oBGht to in=rease it Cer> =onsideraDl>. and at the =lose of the HorI.555. In the se=ond pla=e. if foBnded.

D> in=reasinG salaries. aGainst interested =o@Dinations. He find a larGe proportion of those offi=es assiGned to those Hho Here or had Deen @e@Ders of =onGress. instead of retBrninG to priCate life. "Bt this s=ar=el> Hill effe=t the Dias arisinG fro@ the hopes and expe=tations of offi=e. ex=ept those Hho haCe or shall appear as @e@Ders of =onGress.fair =al=Blation. and Great danGers too @a> attend these =onfedera=ies. in=rease their oHn share of the@. I thinI the experi@ent Horth @aIinG. I thinI the s>ste@ proposed =apaDle of Cer> =onsideraDle deGrees of perfe=tion. in a tenfold proportion. PossiDl> He neCer @a> De aDle to do it in this i@@ense =oBntr>. and e@olB@ents. )e @Bst ai@ at a Dalan=e of efforts and strenGth. so as to =o@plete and perpetBate the te@ple of eEBal laHs and eEBal liDert>6 Perhaps He neCer =an do it. perhaps afterHards. and often do. as there noH are Bnder the =onfederation in the sa@e ter@ of ti@e. "Bt it is asIed hoH shall He re@ed> the eCil. ConGress. If it shall appear the @e@Ders of =onGress Hill haCe these te@ptations Defore the@. DBt feH Hill De to the president and senate. To oDtain this He @Bst GBard aGainst the Dias of interest and passions. in its present for@. D> in=reasinG the representation He lessen the prospe=ts of ea=h @e@Der of =onGress DeinG proCided for in pBDli= offi=es. The> Hill CieH the a==oBnt. and not onl> the @e@Ders. The states @a> noH =hoose >earl> ninet>/one @e@Ders of =onGress. in the =oBrse of ten >ears toGether. Therefore. Bnder the neH =onstitBtion the> Hill haCe it in their poHer to =hoose exa=tl> the sa@e nB@Der. "Bt feH @en are InoHn to =onGress in this extensiCe =oBntr>. the states haCe foBGht and Dled in a =o@@on =aBse. and to so@e feH offi=es the> =annot De ele=ted till the ti@e shall De expired for Hhi=h the> Here ele=ted @e@Ders.. and oppressiCe to others. DBt these @Bst De =hosen on=e in tHo and six >ears. not @ore than tHo/thirds so @an> @e@Ders of =onGress Hill De ele=ted and DroBGht into CieH. These offi=es Hill De in the =onstitBtional disposition of the president and senate. @an> of the@ haCe Deen proCided for. that @e@Ders =hosen to offi=es @Bst leaCe their seats in =onGress.. and D> @aIinG offi=es. Clear it is. at present. in the =iCil or @ilitar> depart@ent. It is trBe. and to separate =onfedera=ies. haCe DBt feH offi=es to dispose of Horth the attention of the @e@Ders. he is interested in their adoption. for@inG ar@ies and naCies. a @an Hill Gain @ore D> @easBres oppressiCe to others than he Hill lose D> the@. and De indB=ed =ontinBall> to @aIe efforts adCantaGeoBs to the@selCes and =onne=tions. friends. one hBndred and :fifteen. Bnder an> one s>ste@ of laHs hoHeCer @odified. if not ten ti@es. espe=iall> the inflBential ones. as there are Bnder the =onfederation. or of @en of the aristo=ra=>. and thoBGh the states =hoose annBall> sixt> or seCent> @e@Ders. =orrBption oBt of the EBestion. D> in=reasinG the pBDli= DBrdens. and. Hill De proCided for Hith lB=ratiCe offi=es. that those Hho GoCern Generall>. #et fro@ 122. Hhat Iind of se=Brit> =an He expe=t in a representation so @an> of the @e@Ders of Hhi=h @a> rationall> feel the@selCes =andidates for these offi=es6 Let =o@@on sense de=ide. in=rease their salaries. )e proportionaDl> lessen offi=ial inflBen=e. if He pBrsBe first prin=iples. se=ret or open. DBt D> this in=rease the> @a>. I do not thinI that De Lol@e. o that. DBt @an> of their sons. and . as @an> offi=es and pla=es Horth> of the attention of the @e@Ders. fees. the arGB@ent is on @> side. and =onne=tions. "Bt at least there Hill De fiCe. proDaDl>. Bnder the neH =onstitBtion. and eEBal laHs diffBsinG their inflBen=e a@onG all orders of @en. )e @Bst exa@ine fa=ts. that a Cer> Great proportion of the @e@Ders of =onGress. or an> Hriter I haCe seen. It is oBr tasI to do this in A@eri=a. He @a> fairl> presB@e. NeCertheless. It is trBe.. or those Hho@ the @e@Ders @a> DrinG forHard. and.to this ti@e. has sBffi=ientl> pBrsBed the proper inEBiries and effi=ient @eans for @aIinG representation and Dalan=es in GoCern@ent @ore perfe=t. I feel an aCersion to the disBnion of the states. OBr oDFe=t is eEBal liDert>.

possess poHer. sBppl> the Hants of the Bnion. and the state GoCern@ents prin=ipall> in the hands of the de@o=ra=>. It is =ertainl> inadCisaDle to lodGe in 10 representatiCes. To palliate for the s@allness of the representation. @Bltipl> infor@ation. that the federal GoCern@ent Hill De prin=ipall> in the hands of the natBral aristo=ra=>. the> appear to @e too triflinG and loose to deserCe a serioBs ansHer. @eaninG. perhaps. )e diffBse the@ @ore extensiCel> a@onG the Dod> of the people. propert>. ConGress @a> ar@ on eCer> point. that the oDFe=ts of ea=h state Hill De @an> and lo=al. therefore. ne=essaril> for@ a part of the s>ste@. of oDtaininG in so@e deGree the se=Brit> He Hant. Hith the priCileGe of @aIinG a noise Hhen hBrt. )e oBGht to inEBire if the =onCention haCe @ade the proper Bse of these essential parts. and all this =onstitBtionall>. and =onseEBentl> sBpport the laHs on eEBal and free prin=iples. This is no @ore than indiCidBals @a> do. D> petition to =onGress. and the state GoCern@ents =an do no @ore than an indiCidBal. it is oDserCed. or the people asse@Dled in the state leGislatBres. He are told. and. I =on=eiCe the position to De BndeniaDle. DBt ar@less and helpless. that the Dod> of the people =an taIe =are of the@selCes. and haCe a neGatiCe Bpon all laHs. It has Deen often @entioned that the oDFe=ts of =onGress Hill De feH and national. "> in=reasinG the representation He @aIe it @ore diffi=Blt to =orrBpt and inflBen=e the @e@Ders. and reEBire a s@all representation. and striIe oBt a neH @ediB@ so as to GiCe effi=a=> to the Hhole s>ste@. D> ex=lBdinG @ore extensiCel> the @e@Ders fro@ DeinG appointed to offi=es. strenGthen the =onfiden=e of the people. perfe=t the Dalan=e. )e @Bst >ield to =ir=B@stan=es and depart so@ethinG fro@ this plan. There are tHo other Ha>s. parti=Blar proCision in the =onstitBtion for their se=Brit> @a> not De essential. 03 )ILL T$E $OU E O! REPRE ENTATI*E "E GENUINEL# REPRE ENTATI*E6 9PART -: It is said that oBr people haCe a hiGh sense of freedo@. Bnli@ited poHer to . and (1 senators. that the state GoCern@ents in Hhi=h the people are fBll> represented.strenGthen his prospe=ts of De=o@inG a priCate =itiAen. Hill stand DetHeen the arDitrar> exer=ise of poHer and the people. Does the =onstitBtion proCide a sinGle =he=I for a sinGle @easBre D> Hhi=h the state GoCern@ents =an =onstitBtionall> and reGBlarl> =he=I the arDitrar> @easBres of =onGress6 ConGress @a> raise i@@ediatel> fift> thoBsand @en and tHent> @illions of dollars in taxes. the one is. This idea oBGht to De fBll> exa@ined. I presB@e. This =ir=B@stan=e has not the HeiGht of a feather in @> @ind. the representatiCes of the Dod> of the people. )hen I =o@e to exa@ine these oDserCations. and reEBire a nB@eroBs representation. and leaCe the seCeral states. I thinI. HithoBt the =o@pensation of the e@olB@ents of offi=e. and aHe their rBlers. @odel the @ilitia. D> li@itinG so@e of their poHers.. the other is. These tHo I shall exa@ine hereafter. T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. TrBe the> @a>. and the stronG ar@. sBGGest their @easBres are alar@inG and not riGht. DBild a naC>. the @eans of defense. sBDFe=t to the =o@@on DBrdens. The state GoCern@ents then. et=. These representatiCes in Great "ritain hold the pBrse.

and all De @ade =onfor@aDle to the =ondition of the seCeral orders of the people. oBGht to De lodGed in a feH hands. and DeinG the de@o=rati= on oBGht to De nB@eroBs. Therefore. It is not @erel> the EBantit> of infor@ation I =ontend for. $oHeCer. the dernier resort BnInoHn to the =onstitBtion. The first is the =ase Hith the =onfederation. that ea=h Dran=h @a> De =onCenientl> @ade =onfor@aDle to the natBre of the DBsiness assiGned it. It is also said that the =onstitBtion GiCes no @ore poHer to =onGress than the =onfederation. HithoBt sB=h poHers. the poHers of the Bnion @Bst De Cer> extensiCe. and 115 senators. These feH =onsiderations DrinG Bs to the Cer> stronG distin=tion DetHeen the plan that operates on federal prin=iples. to appoint @ilitia offi=ers. =onGress. a=ts of resistan=e. . and to asse@Dle 1055 state representatiCes. the affairs of the =o@@Bnit>. and not the exer=ise of an> =onstitBtional poHer to stop or =he=I a @easBre Defore @atBred. properl> speaIinG. I thinI @B=h @ore @a> De said in defense of the leadinG prin=iples of the =onfederation. respe=tinG @one> and @ilitar> @atters. Bpon the @easBres of =onGress. the soCereiGnt> of the state @a> De represented. in the last none at all. et=. that the present =onGress is prin=ipall> an exe=BtiCe Dod>. the> @a> re@onstrate and =oBntera=t. @odel the @ilitia. Hant of safet> and BnaCoidaDle hast> @easBres oBt of the EBestion. exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial. Hhi=h oBGht not to De nB@eroBs. naCies. are lodGed in a sinGle asse@Dl>. I ad@it the for=e of the oDserCation that all the federal poHers. . ConGress =an i@@ediatel> enlist soldiers. I do not oDFe=t to the EBalifi=ations of the ele=tors of representatiCes. . in the natBre of thinGs. the soCereiGnt> of the nation =annot prodB=e the oDFe=t in CieH. . . the defense and tranEBilit> of the Hhole. it @a> De oDserCed. The exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial poHers. that =onGress Bnder the =onfederation. a=ts of soCereiGn poHer. the ad@inistration of FBsti=e DetHeen @an and @an. or the people of it. D> passinG laHs to prohiDit the =olle=tion of =onGressional taxes. that the states haCe Hell foBnded =he=Is for se=BrinG their liDerties. @a> reEBire @en and @onies to an> a@oBnt. It is one of the Greatest adCantaGes of a GoCern@ent of different Dran=hes. I disliIe the present =onGress/a sinGle asse@Dl>/De=aBse it is i@possiDle to fit it to re=eiCe those poHers. not federal Hhen it leaCes the statesL GoCern@ents oBt of the EBestion. In fa=t the =onstitBtion proCides for the states no =he=I. and operates i@@ediatel> Bpon the persons and propert> of the =itiAens. THo taxinG poHers @a> De in=onCenient. liIe the senate of Ro@e. totall>. the> neCer =an all De lodGed in one asse@Dl> properl>/it. and the states are DoBnd to =o@pl>. A =he=I properl> is the stoppinG. DBt. and I fBll> aGree that the people oBGht to ele=t one Dran=h. This is Generall> trBe. A plan @a> De federal or not as to its operation/federal Hhen it reEBires @en and @onies of the states. In the first the state GoCern@ents @a> De JaK =he=I. the se=ond Hith the neH plan. . ar@ies. I thinI . and the plan that operates on =onsolidated prin=iples. and to do eCer> thinG that @a> essentiall> tend soon to =hanGe. and appl> to the po=Iets of the people. in its Cer> for@ation. @Bst i@pl> a =ontradi=tion. )hen the poHer is aDBsed. D> the =onfederation. and the states as sB=h @aIe the laHs for raisinG the @en and @onies. After all the possiDle =he=Is and li@itations He =an deCise. !Brther. Hill haCe taxinG poHers. to @aIe fen=e laHs and laHs to reGBlate the des=ent and =onCe>an=e of propert>. D> one Dran=h in the sa@e leGislatBre. so @a> the state GoCern@ents. DBt the point is. the leGislatBre in @an> hands. that the hoBse of representatiCes Hill De a @ere leGislatiCe Dran=h. A plan @a> De federal or not as to its orGaniAation ea=h state @a> retain its Cote or not. and the people no =he=I. a @easBre proposed D> the other in it. "Bt these Hill De a=ts of the people.estaDlish s>ste@s of taxation. the people @a> =o@plain and GroH anGr>. a=ts operatinG in terrorB@.

In the first pla=e. In the se=ond pla=e. The @ost respe=taDle asse@Dlies He haCe an> InoHledGe of and the Hisest. I thinI I @a>. the oDserCation is triflinG. that @B=h @ore =an De perfor@ed. . It is not sBpposed that =onGress Hill a=t the t>rant i@@ediatel>. )hen the representation shall De=o@e too nB@eroBs. the @e@Ders Hill De GoCerned D> all those @otiCes Hhi=h GoCern the =ondB=t of @en. that =onGress Hill haCe no te@ptations to do HronG. et=. that =onGress Hill not haCe it in their poHer to oppress or enslaCe the people. The @en Hho Hill haCe these CieHs Hill not De HithoBt their aGents and sBpporters. and sBpported JitK so far. Reason and experien=e do not sBpport this oDserCation. DBt GradBall> prepare the @inds of the people for one spe=ioBs =hanGe after another. and fit to oBr present =ondition. In the third pla=e. )e oBGht. and fixed the state GoCern@ents as the Darriers DetHeen =onGress and the pi=Iets of the people. InoHinG that thereD> the GoCern@ent Hill De=o@e @ore free and de@o=rati=. It is added. and in la>inG adeEBate taxes. it has also Deen oDserCed that it is diffi=Blt to asse@Dle a hBndred @en or @ore HithoBt @aIinG the tB@BltBoBs and a @ere @oD. Hhat Great proGress has Deen @ade in less than seCen >ears to DreaI doHn those Darriers. Another oDserCation is. that on the proposed plan the hoBse of representatiCes in fift> or a hBndred >ears Hill =onsist of seCeral hBndred @e@Ders. et=. of *eni=e. for this plain reason/that all that =o@Dination of interests and inflBen=e Hhi=h has prodB=ed this plan. ea=h of Hhi=h =onsisted of seCeral hBndred @e@Ders / as the senate of Ro@e. till the final oDFe=t shall De . noH to fix the GoCern@ent on proper prin=iples. and haCe Defore the@ all the allBre@ents of offi=es and te@ptations to estaDlish BneEBal DBrdens. Hill find it for their interests to Ieep Bp larGe ar@ies. . Or He @a> noH @aIe proCision. "Bt it is =onfidentl> added. the GoCern@ent is in a =onsideraDle @easBre to taIe its tone fro@ its earl> @oCe@ents. haCe Deen those. and in the fa=e of da>liGht. therefore. as the less nB@eroBs ones.. There @Bst De also a Cer> Great differen=e DetHeen the =hara=ters of tHo or three hBndred @en asse@Dled fro@ a sinGle state. the> and their friends. first of the sBDstan=e. Hill =onstantl> oppose the in=rease of the representation. naCies. salaries. that the people Hill not Dear it. espe=iall> after the adoption of the =onstitBtion. GradBall> to ex=lBde the Dod> of the people fro@ an> share in the GoCern@ent. fro@ reason or experien=e. and as @B=h order. Hhen the feH Hill De so @B=h Detter ar@ed Hith poHer and inflBen=e. and He haCe no =ertaint> that the nB@Der eCer Hill in=rease. after a feH >ears. proDaDl>. The @en that @aIe it @Bst De Cer> Bninfor@ed. or sBppose the> are talIinG to =hildren. and then of the for@s. espe=iall> those Hhi=h @a> tend to alar@ or prodB=e opposition. He haCe no Good GroBnds to presB@e. and the =hara=ters of that nB@Der or half the nB@Der asse@Dled fro@ all the Bnited states. or at least so far as to De in=apaDle of eCer DeinG re=oCered. HithoBt haAardinG @B=h. the "ritish Parlia@ent. that Hhen the representation shall De in=reased to a GiCen nB@Der. et=. to =ontinBe the strBGGle6 ProDaDl> the> Hill De Hise enoBGh neCer to alar@. and essentiall> to =hanGe the prin=iples of oBr GoCern@ents. It is not sBpposed =onGress Hill adopt i@portant @easBres HithoBt plaBsiDle pretenses. Defore des=riDed. "Bt ad@ittinG. that it Hill De aGreeaDle to their =hara=ters or CieHs. that the Dod> of the people shoBld =ontinBe to haCe poHer effe=tBall> to interfere in the affairs of GoCern@ent. eCen D> the ar@less feH/is it =hi@eri=al to sBppose that in fifteen or tHent> >ears to =o@e. Get @oCed fro@ its Dasis. that a feH >ears aGo He estaDlished de@o=rati= repBDli=s.In oDFe=tion to in=reasinG the representation. . alter it. The plan Hill DeGin Hith sixt>/fiCe. affir@ that oBr @ore nB@eroBs state asse@Dlies and =onCentions haCe BniCersall> dis=oCered @ore Hisdo@. there Hill De a @e@Der for ea=h +5. )hen He refle=t. )e are to =onsider the natBral proGress of thinGs/that @en Bnfriendl> to repBDli=an eEBalit> Hill Go s>ste@ati=all> to HorI.555 inhaDitants. that then there shall De one for ea=h GiCen nB@Der of inhaDitants. and D> @eans of a s@all representation it @a> in half of 05 or 155 >ears. of CarthaGe.

04 T$E DANGER O! CONGRE CONTROL O! ELECTION IONAL Alexander $a@ilton.% "Bt this proCision is D> no @eans sBffi=ient to preCent an eCil of that natBre. This essa> Has Hritten anon>@oBsl> D> %*O7 POPULI.% and appeared in The 'assa=hBsetts GaAette on O=toDer +5. shall De pres=riDed in ea=h state D> the leGislatBre thereof. neCer sBit a @anl> people Hho haCe =ontended noDl> for liDert>. so lonG as the> possess the haDits of free@en. =an an> person sBppose. are so =orrBpt as to DreaI throL that GoCern@ent Hhi=h the> haCe for@ed. !or Hill an> reasonaDle @an sBppose/that Hhen the leGislatBre of an> state. addresses this sa@e topi= fro@ an opposinG CieHpoint. I trBst. and =an. The> are proDaDilities a Hise people oBGht to GBard aGainst. to preCent a partial representation of the seCeral states in ConGress. the> @Bst re=eiCe so@e other for@s of GoCern@ent. @aIe or alter sB=h reGBlations ex=ept as to the pla=es of =hoosinG senators. DBt the ConGress @a>. or eCen refBse. "Bt as the sBDFe=t is open for dis=Bssion. pla=es and @anner of holdinG ele=tions. a> the adCo=ates.oDtained. and =onseEBentl> the federal GoCern@ent HeaIened. =onfir@ @> opinion. . T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. )hat national adCantaGe is there to De a=EBired D> GiCinG the@ sB=h a poHer6 The onl> adCantaGe Hhi=h I haCe heard proposed D> it is. the ti@e. D> laH. And. and the @eans to preCent the@. Hho are annBall> =hosen. I a@ D> no @eans =apaDle of sa>inG. %for if the ti@e. To this I shall onl> oDserCe. and de=lared to the Horld the> Hill De free. and the address @ade Bse of to Ieep the eCils oBt of siGht. @anner and pla=e Here left Hholl> in the hands of the state leGislatBres. pla=e and @anner of =hoosinG representatiCes is Hholl> at the disposal of ConGress. "Bt to oDCiate all oDFe=tions to the proposed plan in the last resort. first. I shall @aIe a little free inEBir> into the @atter. in Hhi=h =ase there =oBld De no ele=tion. and refBse to appoint ti@e. it is proDaDle the> HoBld not @aIe proCision D> appointinG ti@e. or Hh> the Good people of this =o@@onHealth J'assa=hBsettsK shoBld deleGate sB=h a poHer to the@. 1232.% "> this =laBse. I DeG leaCe to <a> Defore the =andid pBDli= the first =laBse in the foBrth se=tion of the first arti=le of the proposed ConstitBtion: %The ti@es. pla=e and @anner of =hoosinG representatiCes/I sa>. is no less hard to deter@ine. that a state so =orrBpt HoBld not De fBll as liIel> to neGle=t. and Hhen the> lose the@. that this is Cer> hB@iliatinG lanGBaGe. it is said oBr people Hill De free. )h> the ConCention Hho for@ed the proposed ConstitBtion Hished to inCest ConGress Hith sB=h a poHer. to =hoose representatiCes at the ti@e and pla=e and in the @anner pres=riDed D> ConGress6 Brel> the> . in !ederalist Q04. @anner and pla=e for an ele=tion. these are onl> possiDilities. at an> ti@e. for senators and representatiCes. .

15 )ILL T$E CON TITUTION PRO'OTE T$E INTERE T O! !A*ORITE CLA E 6 <ohn !. 9!ro@ the EttinG Colle=tion of the $istori=al o=iet> of Penns>lCania. )hat. that the ele=tions shoBld De held at the north/Hest. DBt at an> ti@e an> state @iGht DreaI throBGh the national =o@pa=t. Hhi=h BnalteraDl> separatinG the interests and CieHs. soBth/Hest. @anner and pla=e.: )e haCe not that per@anent and fixed distin=tion of ranIs or orders of @en a@onG Bs. )e Hill noH pro=eed. that the representatiCes of this =o@@onHealth shoBld De =hosen all in one toHn. Hhether the said =laBse in the foBrth se=tion of the first arti=le =an ansHer the onl> pBrposes for Hhi=h it is said to haCe Deen proCided. that ConGress =oBld possiDl> De in an> @easBre as Good FBdGes of the ti@e. *O7 POPULI Antifederalist No. pla=e and @anner of ele=tions as the leGislatBres of the seCeral respe=tiCe states. No one proposes that it HoBld De an> adCantaGe to the people of this state. ConGress =oBld not =olle=t an> tax the> @iGht thinI proper to leC>. and I haCe not heard an> other national adCantaGe proposed thereD>.HoBld. dissolCe the federal =onstitBtion. to inCest ConGress Hith poHer to leC> sB=h a fine as the> @iGht thinI proper on states not =hoosinG representatiCes. therefore. sB=h a fine of a delinEBent state. Hhether or not it HoBld not De @ore =ondB=iCe. taIen fro@ his testi@on> to @e@Ders of the ratif>inG =onCentions of NeH #orI and *irGinia. 'er=er of 'ar>land Has the aBthor of this essa>. or an> other Hhi=h Hill proCe an> adCantaGe either to the nation or state. nor exe=Bte an> order HhateCer. to preCent a partial representation. or at least. These as oDFe=tions I =oBld Hish to see oDCiated. It is oDFe=ted D> so@e. If that is the =ase. Therefore. the last da> of 'ar=h6 $oH @an> ele=tors HoBld there attend the DBsiness6 And it is a little re@arIaDle. it @Bst De =onsidered as a @atter of indifferen=e. 9"oston. I =on=eiCe it oBGht to De disapproDated. or north/ east part of the state. and set the Hhole strB=tBre afloat on the o=ean of =haos. prodB=es that diCision in pBrsBits Hhi=h is the . in the next pla=e. to =onsider Hh> the people of this =o@@onHealth shoBld Cest ConGress Hith sB=h a poHer. BpposinG ConGress shoBld dire=t. shall noH De the sBDFe=t of oBr inEBir>. proposed to the pBDli= to =onsider. 1233. )hether there is danGer of its operatinG to the Good peopleLs disadCantaGe. for instan=e: on the first da> of 'ar=h / HoBld not that De a Cer> inFBrioBs institBtion to the Good people of this =o@@onHealth6 )oBld not there De at least nine/tenths of the landed interest of this =o@@onHealth entirel> Bnrepresented6 Brel> one @a> reasonaDl> i@aGine there HoBld. =oBld not =olle=t. It is. And I =oBld Hish the pBDli= inEBir> @iGht extend to a =onsideration. HoBld De the =ase if ConGress shoBld thinI proper to dire=t. o it =oBld ansHer no Good national pBrpose on that a==oBnt. that ConGress =oBld not leC>. that an> Gentle@an shoBld sBppose. ex=ept there is an opportBnit> for its operatinG to their disadCantaGe/in Hhi=h =ase. than D> GiCinG the@ this poHer of appointinG ti@e. then.

)e Cainl> plB@e oBrselCes on the safeGBard alone of representation. And. Hhi=h the> @a> not assB@e Bnder this ConstitBtion. . Bnder the GoCern@ent of "ritain and Bnder their oHn ConstitBtion.Great se=Brit> of the @ixed GoCern@ent He separated fro@ and Hhi=h He noH see@ so anxioBsl> to =op>. for the histor> of @anIind estaDlishes the trBth of this politi=al adaGe/that in GoCern@ent Hhat @a> De done Hill De done. are fixed on an i@@oCeaDle foBndation and =learl> defined and as=ertained D> their 'aGna Charta. their Petition of RiGhts. and the laHs @ade Bnder it. And. The> are those Hhi=h te@pt the aCari=e and a@Dition of @en to a Ciolation of the riGhts of their felloH =itiAens. in proportion as poHer =on=entratinG in the hands of the feH. And eCen the RepresentatiCe Dod> itself . it HoBld see@ to De at the @er=> of the General GoCern@ent. and li@itinG D> the@ the extent of the exer=ise. !or all GoCern@ents tend to =orrBption. The @ost Dlind ad@irer of this ConstitBtion @Bst in his heart =onfess that it is as far inferior to the "ritish ConstitBtion. . are not sBffi=ientl> nB@eroBs to se=Bre the@ fro@ =orrBption. And this ConstitBtion. or an hereditar> noDilit> on the other. that it is DBt a delBsiCe shadoH of representation. The =he=I of the President oCer a "od>. haCe the> not a @ost danGeroBs poHer of interestinG foreiGn nations D> Treat> JtoK sBpport Their CieHs6/for instan=e. . the people haCe a riGht to De se=Bred D> a sa=red De=laration. the pri@ar> oDFe=t of the so=ial =o@pa=t. If Bnder the proposed ConstitBtion the tates exer=ise an> poHer. and the> Hill De s=reened Bnder the san=tion of an Bndefined and Bnli@ited aBthorit>. If the neH enate of the United tates Hill De reall> opposite in their pBrsBits and CieHs fro@ the RepresentatiCes. 'oreoCer those Cer> poHers. Doth . In this neH ConstitBtion a =o@pli=ated s>ste@ sets responsiDilit> at defian=e and the riGhts of @en neGle=ted and Bndefined are left at the @er=> of eCents. re=o@@ends it. tenders the@ oDFe=ts of =orrBption to !oreiGn Nations and a@onG the@selCes. and freEBent interferen=e and =ontrol of the people the@selCes on one side. if not sBpersede the ConstitBtion of the United tates itself. and DeinG the sBpre@e laH. Hhi=h are to De expressl> Cested in the neH ConGress. That GoCern@ent Hhi=h per@its the aDBse of poHer. the line shoBld De definitel> draHn. and their effe=tiCe ad@inistration D> ostensiDle 'inisters se=Bres responsiDilit>. Jthe enateK @Bst of =oBrse =ontrol the national leGislatBre. . Hhere the> @Bst not De ne=essaril> relinEBished for the Helfare of the Union. their "ill of RiGhts. . i@@ediate sBperintenden=e. AGainst the aDBse and i@proper exer=ise of these spe=ial poHers. GoCern@ent D> representation 9Bnless =onfir@ed in its CieHs and =ondB=t D> the =onstant inspe=tion. !or these and @an> other reasons He are for preserCinG the riGhts of the tate GoCern@ents. Hith Hhi=h he @Bst a=t in =on=ert/or his inflBen=e and poHer De al@ost annihilated/=an proCe no Great =onstitBtional se=Brit>. are de=lared para@oBnt eCen to the BnalienaDle riGhts Hhi=h haCe heretofore Deen se=Bred to the =itiAens of these tates D> their =onstitBtional =o@pa=ts. is left oBt in the neH ConstitBtion. after all. !or it is re@arIaDle that the =laBse se=BrinG to the@ those riGhts not expressl> relinEBished in the old Confederation. are of a natBre @ost liaDle to aDBse. and Hill deserCedl> experien=e the t>rann> Hhi=h it aBthoriAes. the relinEBish@ent of the naCiGation of JtheK 'ississippi/and >et Hhere Treaties are expressl> de=lared para@oBnt to the ConstitBtions of the seCeral tates. profferinG in theor> Hhat =an neCer De fairl> redB=ed to pra=ti=e. forGettinG that it Hill De a representation on prin=iples in=onsistent Hith trBe and FBst representation. of Hhi=h it is an i@perfe=t i@itation. In the "ritish ConstitBtion the riGhts of @en. as darIness is to liGht. Hhere so relinEBished. And He =on=eiCe that there is no poHer Hhi=h ConGress @a> thinI ne=essar> to exer=ise for the General Helfare. defininG the riGhts of the indiCidBal. The people Here se=Bred aGainst the aDBse of those poHers D> fBnda@ental laHs and a "ill of RiGhts.

He =onstantl> see neH leGislatBres @odif>inG . tHo i@portant tates. on a Cer> Droad Dasis.of Hhi=h orders haCe fixed and per@anent CieHs: is reall> onl> as one of perpetBal rapine and =onfBsion. and haCinG Deen. ri=h or poor. and BpHards. . that all persons (0 >ears of aGe. )hen He see a GoCern@ent so eCer> Ha> inferior to that He Here Dorn Bnder. proposed as the reHard of oBr sBfferinGs in an eiGht >ears =ala@itoBs Har. that in repBDli=an GoCern@ents the for@s of ele=tions are fBnda@ental. and the ele=tors haCe a riGht to =hoose the@. and not haCinG Deen seCen >ears a =itiAen of the United tates. or the prin=iples of the@. 'aho@etans. "Bt still the resistan=e of either of these tates in the present te@per of A@eri=a 9for the late =ondB=t of the part> here J'ar>landK @Bst open the e>es of the people in 'assa=hBsetts Hith respe=t to the fate of their a@end@ent: Hill se=Bre all that He @ean to =ontend for/the natBral and BnalienaDle riGhts of @en in a =onstitBtional @anner. inhaDitants of the state. as to the ele=ted. It is Hell oDserCed D> 'ontesEBieB. at an> period or periods. thoBGh these Car> so@e in the seCeral states the ele=tors are fixed and desiGnated. . The =lear inferen=e is. The =hief se=Brit> of a Confedera=> of RepBDli=s Has Doldl> disreGarded. He tooI Bp ar@s in the late ReColBtion. The> haCe a riGht to De ele=ted D> the =onstitBtion. to as=ertain D> Hho@. At the distant appearan=e of danGer to these. seCen >ears =itiAens of the United tates. se=Bre and free. that the> are of an> =olor. . He Here happ>. =an De ele=ted. ECen Hith the Dest =he=Is it has failed in all the GoCern@ents of EBrope. 11 . ex=ept that of EnGland. and =hanGinG the spirit of the GoCern@ent to ansHer partial pBrposes. Hhen. that the> are Christians. . JtheirK oHn for@. Hho =annot De ele=tors. It =an De no oDFe=tion to the ele=ted. PaGans. D> reEBirinG 4 instead of 1+ Coi=es to alter the ConstitBtion. $en=e @an> @en @a> De ele=ted. or <eHs. . to Hho@. not an inhaDitant of the state. The EBalifi=ations of the representatiCes are also fixed and desiGnated. for ex=lBdinG fro@ DeinG . and no person Bnder (0 >ears of aGe. of Hhi=h it Has on=e the Dasis. )hereCer He find the reGBlation of ele=tions haCe not Deen =arefBll> fixed D> the =onstitBtion. @a> De ele=ted representatiCes. and the Confederation Ciolated. sBffraGes are to De GiCen. and in Hhat @anner. He Dehold Hith @anl> indiGnation that oBr Dlood and treasBre haCe Deen Hasted to estaDlish a GoCern@ent in Hhi=h the interest of the feH is preferred to the riGhts of the @an>.UE TION AND CO''ENT ON T$E CON TITUTIONAL PRO*I ION REGARDING T$E ELECTION O! CONGRE 'EN . )hen He tBrn oBr e>es Da=I to the Aones of Dlood and desolation Hhi=h He haCe Haded throBGh to separate fro@ Great "ritain. oBr astonish@ent is onl> eEBaled D> oBr resent@ent. =onCi=t or not. Gentle@en Hho haCe =o@@ented so larGel> Bpon the Hisdo@ of the =onstitBtion. the preserCation of liDert> in a Great @easBre depends. Antifederalist No. and that it is an essential part of the so=ial =o@pa=t. On the =ondB=t of *irGinia and NeH #orI. "> the proposed plan it is /fixed. that the EBalifi=ations of the ele=tors of the federal representatiCes shall De the sa@e as those of the ele=tors of state representatiCes. And @a> He neCer haCe =aBse to looI Da=I Hith reGret on that period Hhen =onne=ted Hith the E@pire of Great "ritain. This is fixinG the federal representation.

Hill that De a =hoi=e Hithin the @eaninG of the =onstitBtion6 'Bst the =hoi=e De D> plBralit> of Cotes. I DelieCe a @aForit> of the states =hoose D> plBralities. He @a> oDserCe. of =ertain propert>. Hho attend and GiCe their Cotes. an inhaDitant of a parti=Blar =oBnt> or distri=t in the state. "Bt I see nothinG in the =onstitBtion D> Hhi=h to de=ide. that representatiCes are to De =hosen D> the people of the state. to GiCe their Cotes. that GiCes eCer> @an fair pla> in the Ga@e of inflBen=e and =orrBption. D> =ertain des=riptions. the adCo=ates see@ to thinI the> oDtain a Ci=tor> of no s@all Glor> and i@portan=e.ele=ted >oBnG @en Bnder a =ertain aGe. et=. for reGBlatinG ele=tions @Bst De @ade on the Droad Dasis of the =onstitBtion. The partialities and i@proprieties attendinG the for@er @ode @a> De illBstrated D> a =ase that . a@onG other thinGs. He @Bst taIe the -th e=t. and eliGiDilit> of the ele=ted. )hen He sa> a representatiCe shall De =hosen D> the people. Hhether the =hoi=e shall De D> a plBralit> or a @aForit> of Cotes. . and @anner of holdinG ele=tions. And Hhile He are al@ost se=Bre of FBdi=ioBs BnDiased ele=tions D> @aForities in sB=h distri=ts. fro@ DeinG ele=ted. HoBld haCe done Hell to haCe re=olle=ted. the ele=tors of different toHns and distri=ts in the state @a> De asse@Dled in different pla=es.. He haCe no se=Brit> aGainst de=eptions. thoBGh afterHards =onCi=ted.. the> @iGht in another De =onfined to =hoose a @an of a parti=Blar reliGion. DBt Hhen so asse@Dled. All laHs. DBt =onGress @a> @aIe or alter sB=h reGBlations. It is eas> to per=eiCe that there is an essential differen=e DetHeen ele=tions D> plBralities and D> @aForities. it see@s to i@pl> that he shall De =hosen D> a @aForit> of the@. Hhen the> =an shoH. Next. an inhaDitant of the state. Hhere it is said the state leGislatBres shall pres=riDe the ti@es. that the eCil is rather a possiDilit> than a proDaDilit>. and thereD> half of the persons @ade eliGiDle D> the =onstitBtion De ex=lBded. )hat is a =hoi=e D> the people of the state6 If ea=h GiCen distri=t in it =hoose one. This. inflBen=e and =orrBption in states or larGe distri=ts in ele=tinG D> plBralities. DetHeen =hoosinG a @an in a s@all or li@ited distri=t. eliGiDle. De restrained fro@ GiCinG their Cotes for an> @an an inhaDitant of the state. in @> @ind. that neither the state leGislatBres nor =onGress =an estaDlish distri=t ele=tions. @a> De ele=ted. NoH it HoBld De narroHinG the riGht of the people to =onfine the@ in their =hoi=e to a @an. or =onGress. therefore. NoH a @an (0 >ears old. shall De eliGiDle. the sa@e of a DeGGar. I DelieCe that not @B=h stress Has laid Bpon the oDFe=tion that =onGress @a> asse@Dle the ele=tors at so@e oBt of the Ha> pla=e. it is often @ade D> a Cer> s@all part of the ele=tors. pra=ti=e Doth Ha>s. The riGht of the ele=tors. the> =annot De narroHed D> the state leGislatBres. neCer D> so feH as one half of the@. $en=e it folloHs. Art I. I sBppose. and haCinG Deen a =itiAen of the states seCen >ears. diCide the state into distri=ts. and all not thBs ex=lBded are =learl> ad@itted. D> =onGress or the state leGislatBres. and EBalified as to aGe. It is estaDlished. I thinI it proDaDle. A @an Hho has the @ost Cotes is =hosen in Great "ritain. that a @an DeinG 9a@onG other EBalifi=ations: an inhaDitant of the state. that is. =onCi=ts. that it positiCel> @aIes paGans. Hith so@e deGree of =olor. and =hoosinG a nB@Der of @en pro@is=BoBsl> D> the people of a larGe state. that the federal hoBse of representatiCes Hill de=ide that a =hoi=e of its @e@Ders D> plBralities is =onstitBtional. and. the> ex=lBde a feH persons. "> this =laBse. It is this. pla=es. $oHeCer. De=aBse not Hithin an> of the ex=lBdinG =laBses. and =onfine the ele=tors of ea=h distri=t to the =hoi=e of a @an resident in it. et=. is D> far the @ost i@portant EBestion in the DBsiness of ele=tions. Hhen D> a @aForit>. an aDsentee. DeinG fixed D> the people. If the ele=tors =oBld De thBs li@ited in one respe=t. DBt states Hhi=h Bse the sa@e phraseoloG> in this respe=t. or a @aForit>6 In =onne=tion Hith these EBestions.. D> another =laBse the> =annot. )hen a =hoi=e is @ade D> a plBralit> of Cotes. et=. .. The people @aIe the =onstitBtion. and haCinG Deen a =itiAen the ti@e reEBired.

and to proCe that @an> eCils attend the =ontrar> pra=ti=e. ThoBGh seCeral hBndred ele=tors Coted. Hho had a faCorite list to =arr>. Clear it is. I see no Ha> to fix ele=tions on a proper footinG. and dire=tinG the ele=tors of ea=h distri=t to the =hoi=e. or @ore than half of all the Cotes. of so@e @en haCinG a per@anent interest and residen=e in it. The Cotes Generall> Here s=attered. if no @an haCe a @aForit> or @ore than half of all the Cotes the first ti@e. I DelieCe.latel> happened in one of the @iddle states. that is. the Cotes of the ele=tors Hill ninet>/nine ti@es in a hBndred. @en on that list Here =hosen Hho had onl> -0. HithoBt essentiall> in=reasinG the federal representation. @ore than an> other persons. he has +25. a@onG Hho@ there Here foBr or fiCe thoBsand Coters. for the Detter. he is entitled to eiGht representatiCes. and a =hoi=e D> a @aForit>. eCeral representatiCes Here to De =hosen D> a larGe nB@Der of inhaDitants =o@pa=tl> settled. I speaI of a representation toleraDl> eEBal. or haCe an> =onsideraDle deGree of inflBen=e oCer the@. To proCide for the peopleLs HanderinG . so@e of Hho@ Here Cer> disaGreeaDle to a larGe @aForit> of the ele=tors. and those Hho @ade eCen a feeDle =o@Dination sB==eeded in pla=inG hiGhest Bpon the list seCeral Cer> BnthoBGht of and Cer> BnpopBlar @en. --. the Coters @a> exa@ine the =hara=ters of those DroBGht forHard. Perhaps this @iGht De effe=ted prett> Generall>. De=aBse I a@ still of opinion. to diCide and distra=t the Coters in General. and pro=eed to repeat their Cotes till so@e one shall haCe that @aForit>. and to render toleraDl> eEBal and se=Bre the federal representation.555 to one representatiCe. ADoBt half a doAen @en of so@e inflBen=e. that the @an on Hho@ thBs DBt a s@all part of the Cotes are DestoHed =annot possess the =onfiden=e of the people. and aGreed to hand it aDoBt a@onG all Hho =oBld proDaDl> De indB=ed to adopt it. D> a @aForit>. and =hoose D> a @aForit>.555 inhaDitants. "Bt as partial. ea=h of Hho@ haCe a @aForit> of the Cotes. sBspe=tinG nothinG. This. I thinI. as liaDle to se=ret inflBen=e. to diCide the@. and at one ti@e. and adoptinG the prin=iple of distri=t ele=tions. D> fixinG one representatiCe for ea=h tHelCe thoBsand inhaDitants. and pro=eed to the =hoi=e of a representatiCe. DBt D> in=reasinG the representation. PreCioBs to the ti@e of ele=tion a nB@Der of lists of =andidates Here pBDlished. the prin=iples and for@s of ele=tions. De so s=attered that on =olle=tinG the Cotes fro@ the seCeral toHns or pla=es. If the ele=tions De so held that the ele=tors throBGhoBt the state @eet in their seCeral toHns or pla=es. and thereD> render it @ore nerCoBs and enerGeti=. that it is i@pra=ti=aDle in this extensiCe =oBntr> to haCe a federal representation sBffi=ientl> de@o=rati=. and =orrBption as the =hoi=e D> plBralities @a> De.. "> thBs in=reasinG the representation He not onl> @aIe it @ore de@o=rati=al and se=Bre. strenGthen the =onfiden=e of the people in it. or fixinG the prin=iples for diCidinG the states into proper distri=ts. Cotes ea=h. or sBDstantiall> draHn fro@ the Dod> of the people. @et seCeral ti@es. diCidinG.. and seCeral hBndred ele=tors. Hhen. He =annot aCoid it. and that is.. for instan=e. and therefore the ele=tion Hill not De @ade . attended and pBt in their Cotes.. and at one ti@e. et=.. et=. taIe 'assa=hBsetts. Hhere distri=ts are for@ed of sB=h @oderate extent that the ele=tors in ea=h =an =onCenientl> @eet in one pla=e. I @iGht add @an> other oDserCations to eCin=e the sBperiorit> and solid adCantaGes of proper distri=t ele=tions. The list of the half doAen Has =arried. The> had a plBralit>. and ea=h ele=tor pBts in his Cote for eiGht representatiCes. The prin=iples FBst @entioned @a> De the Dest pra=ti=al ones He =an expe=t to estaDlish. =annot De a =ase Bnder the =onstitBtion proposed in its present for@. fixed their list. The poll Has opened. There is DBt one =ase in Hhi=h the =hoi=e D> the @aForit> is pra=ti=aDle. To explain @> ideas. DBt it Hill also enaDle the people essentiall> to =hanGe. This eCil neCer =oBld haCe happened in a toHn Hhere all the Coters @eet in one pla=e. aDoBt -1. These eCils He @Bst en=oBnter as the =onstitBtion noH stands. no @en Hill De foBnd. a==o@@odate. and to =ir=Blate the other lists a@onG their opponents. and =onsider no @an as ele=ted Bnless he haCe a @aForit>. and @en Here foBnd to De =hosen. so as to haCe one representatiCe for ea=h distri=t in Hhi=h the ele=tors @a> =onCenientl> @eet in one pla=e. -+.

The ter@ for Hhi=h the senate are to De =hosen. Deen nine >ears a =itiAen of the United tates. and Hho is not at the ti@e he is ele=ted an inhaDitant of the tate for Hhi=h he is ele=ted. and to haCe @arIed Hith sBffi=ient pre=ision the line DetHeen the@ and the General GoCern@ent. and no proCision DeinG @ade for a rotation Hill. on the plan of a =onsolidated GoCern@ent.. It Has oDtained after a CiGoroBs strBGGle of that part of the ConCention Hho Here in faCor of preserCinG the state GoCern@ents. than D> =onfininG the@ to distri=ts. one third at the expiration of foBr >ears. after Hhi=h this rotation is to De preserCed. DBt is proper on the s>ste@ of =onfederation / on this prin=iple I approCe of it. +d. the exe=BtiCe is aBthorised to @aIe te@porar> appoint@ents Bntil the next @eetinG of the leGislatBre. "> estaDlishinG distri=t ele=tions. (d. T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. dBrinG the re=ess of the leGislatBre of an> tate. DetHeen the representatiCe and his =onstitBents. DBt is eEBal. This has Deen lonG the =ase in Great "ritain. -. is in @> FBdG@ent too lonG. in @> @ind. It is to De reGretted that the> Here not aDle to haCe infBsed other prin=iples into the plan. No person =an De a senator Hho had not arriCed to the aGe of thirt> >ears. is of far @ore i@portan=e than Drilliant talents/I @ean a sa@eness. The> are to serCe for six >ears. 1( ON T$E ORGANI?ATION AND PO)ER O! T$E ENATE 9PART 1: TaIen fro@ the 11th essa> of %"rBtBs% fro@ The NeH #orI <oBrnal of April 15. it is the =ase in seCeral states. This. ex=ept that one third of those first =hosen are to Go oBt of offi=e at the expiration of tHo >ears. is BneEBal and i@proper. De of danGeroBs =onseEBen=e. or D> a =o@Dination of so@e parti=Blar des=ription of @en a@onG the@. or the i@portan=e of the tates. The folloHinG thinGs @a> De oDserCed Hith respe=t to the =onstitBtion of the enate. and He fix Hhat. and one third at the expiration of six >ears. nor do I thinI that sB=h perni=ioBs pra=ti=es Hill De @erel> possiDle in oBr federal =on=erns. and ea=h tate is to De represented D> an eEBal nB@Der. DBt still eCer> @e@Der Hill serCe for the ter@ of six >ears. DBt hiGhl> proDaDle. DBt a@DitioBs and intriGBinG. And D> the ele=tion D> a @aForit>. or D> a fa=tion. The> are to De ele=ted D> the leGislatBres of the tates and not D> the people.. as to residen=e and interests. DBt Generall> this latitBde Hill De Bsed to perni=ioBs pBrposes. I =on=eiCe. and D> a s@all part of the@. 1233. 1st.throBGhoBt the state for a representatiCe @a> so@eti@es enaDle the@ to ele=t a @ore Drilliant or an aDler @an. He ex=lBde none of the Dest @en fro@ DeinG ele=ted. The apportion@ent of @e@Ders of the enate a@onG the tates is not a==ordinG to nB@Ders. espe=iall> =onne=ted Hith the =hoi=e D> plBralit>/Hhen a @an in the re@ote part of the state. .. he is sBre to De the @an. If Ca=an=ies happen D> resiGnation or otherHise. to haCe se=Bred the GoCern@ent of the respe=tiCe states. @a> De =hosen to represent the people in another part of the state far distant. the =hoi=e of @ore than half of the@. perhaps oDnoxioBs at ho@e. It is indeed the onl> featBre of an> i@portan=e in the =onstitBtion of a =onfederated GoCern@ent.

and asso=iate Hith sB=h =o@pan> as Hill possess Cer> little of the feelinGs of the @iddlinG =lass of people. The poHers Hith Hhi=h the> are inCested Hill reEBire a @ore @inBte inCestiGation. as the s>ste@ noH stands. and therefore that the> shoBld re@ain so@e ti@e in offi=e to a=EBire it. it HoBld GiCe opportBnit> to DrinG forHard a Greater nB@Der of @en to serCe their =oBntr>. It Hill therefore De =onsidered as a @atter of deli=a=> to the =hara=ter of the senator not to retBrn hi@ aGain. and the inhaDitants of it Hill De the Great and the @iGht> of the earth. has not Deen exer=ised to the inFBr> of the GoCern@ent. it HoBld haCe a tenden=> to Hean hi@ fro@ his =onstitBents. It see@s an eCident di=tate of reason that Hhen a person aBthorises another to do a pie=e of DBsiness for hi@. It is rare that Hant of =o@petent aDilit> pro=Bres it. =ontinBe in offi=e for life. !or these reasons I HoBld shorten the ter@ of their serCi=e to foBr >ears. and afford the@ the adCantaGe of De=o@inG Detter a=EBainted Hith the =ondition and politi=s of their =onstitBents. These Drief re@arIs are all I shall @aIe on the orGaniAation of the senate. To preCent this in=onCenien=e I =on=eiCe it HoBld De Hise to deter@ine. to their state. o@e of the dBties Hhi=h are to De perfor@ed D> the enate. perhaps three HoBld De sBffi=ient. The> are one Dran=h of the leGislatBre. The offi=e Hill De honoraDle if not lB=ratiCe. It is proDaDle that senators on=e =hosen for a state Hill. Bnder =onfederation. It @a> operate @B=h to the pBDli= Denefit. and oBr senti@ents on the @atter @Bst De for@ed. nor do I see an> danGer of its DeinG so exer=ised Bnder the neH s>ste@. and therefore Bse all their inflBen=e and that of their friends to =ontinBe in offi=e. Hhen he does not =ondB=t a==ordinG to his pleasBre. "Bt still it is of eEBal i@portan=e that the> shoBld not De so lonG in offi=e as to De liIel> to forGet the hand that for@ed the@. and FBdi=ial poHers. This Dod> Hill possess a stranGe @ixtBre of leGislatiCe. Hhi=h in @> opinion Hill in so@e =ases =lash Hith ea=h other. of re=allinG their @e@Ders. This poHer in the state leGislatBres. ECer>Dod> a=EBainted Hith pBDli= affairs InoHs hoH diffi=Blt it is to re@oCe fro@ offi=e a person Hho is lonG Deen in it. and HoBld retBrn those. for the> Hill haCe it in their poHer to =onfer Great faCors/. 'en lonG in offi=e are Cer> apt to feel the@selCes independent.It is diffi=Blt to fix the pre=ise period for Hhi=h the senate shoBld De =hosen. !or it is to De re@e@Dered that there is to De a federal =it>. it see@s fit the> shoBld possess @ore staDilit>. The DBsiness of @aIinG treaties and so@e other Hhi=h it Hill De proper to =o@@it to the senate. "esides. and in this respe=t Hill possess eEBal poHers in all =ases Hith the hoBse of representatiCes. or De insensiDle of their interests. It fBrther appears to @e proper. Desides it Hill Defore lonG De =onsidered as disGra=efBl not to De reele=ted. A fBrther Denefit HoBld De deriCed fro@ sB=h an arranGe@ent. It is a @atter of opinion. It is seldo@ done ex=ept in =ases of Gross @is=ondB=t. D> attendinG to =ertain prin=iples. that the leGislatBres shoBld retain the riGht Hhi=h the> noH hold Bnder the =onfederation. as the> Hill for the @ost part of the ti@e De aDsent fro@ the state the> represent. for I =onsider the =laBse Hhi=h GiCes the hoBse of . see@ eCidentl> to point oBt the propriet> of their ter@ of serCi=e DeinG extended De>ond the period of that of the asse@Dl>. Hho had serCed. And this is @ore liIel> to De the =ase Hith the senate. Their friends Hill De nB@eroBs and poHerfBl. ix >ears is a lonG period for a @an to De aDsent fro@ his ho@e. 1. reEBires that the> shoBld haCe experien=e. A rotation in the senate HoBld also in @> opinion De of Great Bse. and so =ontinBe a lonGer period then that Dran=h Hho represent the de@o=ra=>. The persons Hho o==Bp> it Hill proDaDl> Hish to =ontinBe in it. that a senator shoBld not De eliGiDle after he had serCed for the period assiGned D> the =onstitBtion for a =ertain nB@Der of >ears. exe=BtiCe. as the> are desiGned to represent the aristo=ra=> of the =oBntr>. he shoBld retain the poHer to displa=e hi@. to for@ and pBrsBe interests separate fro@ those Hho appointed the@.

to a=EBies=e in @aIinG the@ the Dasis of the senate. not otherHise proCided for. In a dBe Dalan=ed GoCern@ent. . It has Deen a lonG estaDlished @axi@. In this He are GoCerned solel> D> the ideal eEBalities of soCereiGnties. and the state GoCern@ents an essential part. Jhas the poHerK to propose or =on=Br Hith a@end@ents. DBt as an exe=BtiCe Dran=h EBite too nB@eroBs. =o@pose the senate of the for@er. exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial depart@ents in GoCern@ent shoBld De Iept distin=t. and the leGislatiCe or a Dran=h of the@ FBdi=ial poHers in the last resort. tHo fro@ ea=h state. The> are a part of the FBdi=ial. The states DeinG soCereiGn and independent. (. CoBld He separate the aristo=rati=al and de@o=rati=al interest. and thereD> to @aIe it the interest and dBt> of the senators to preserCe distin=t. Hhi=h oBGht alHa>s to De Iept distin=tl> in CieH. . in Hhi=h the> are Foined Hith the president. "Bt still the @axi@ is a Good one. or at least that it shoBld onl> extend to =ertain leadinG featBres in a GoCern@ent. The> are a Dran=h of the exe=BtiCe in the appoint@ent of a@Dassadors and pBDli= @inisters. . it is perhaps aDsolBtel> ne=essar> to GiCe the exe=BtiCe EBalified leGislatiCe poHers. This poHer in the senate is Cer> i@properl> lodGed for a nB@Der of reasons / These shall De detailed in a fBtBre nB@Der. The arGB@ents in faCor of it I thinI =on=lBsiCe. . on refle=tion. )hether the for@inG of treaties. that a Dran=h of the leGislatBre shoBld not De inCested Hith the poHer of appointinG offi=ers. an> @ore than He =an for@ a GenBine representation of the people. I feel @ore disposed. "Bt I thinI it eEBall> eCident. There is a propriet> in the senateLs possessinG leGislatiCe poHers. I need not here repeat Hhat has so often and aDl> Deen adCan=ed on the sBDFe=t of a diCision of the leGislatiCe poHer into tHo Dran=hes.representatiCes the riGht of oriGinatinG Dills for raisinG a reCenBe as @erel> no@inal. Hith the exe=BtiCe. appertains to the leGislatiCe or the exe=BtiCe part of the GoCern@ent. a real representation of the aristo=ra=> and Dalan=e in the leGislatBre. soCereiGn to =ertain pBrposes. . soCereiGnties the> shall represent. that the leGislatiCe. is not larGe. I =an s=ar=el> i@aGine that an> of the adCo=ates of the s>ste@ Hill pretend. . for the> for@ the =oBrt of i@pea=h@ents. The> represent the states. and a separation of these poHers shoBld De soBGht as far as is pra=ti=aDle. It is not to De presB@ed that He =an for@ a GenBine senatorial Dran=h in the United tates. are all =onsidered eEBal. The senate is an asse@Dl> of (1 @e@Ders. that it Has ne=essar> to a==B@Blate all these poHers in the senate. De adCisaDle to asso=iate the leGislatBre. It is said. as Dodies politi=. and in the appoint@ent of all other offi=ers. the federal and state GoCern@ents for@inG one Hhole. ea=h Hith the other in the senate. And therefore that this @axi@ is not FBst. as a leGislatiCe Dran=h. This is the prin=ipal end Hhi=h shoBld De held in CieH in their appoint@ent. "RUTU Antifederalist No. I InoH. 1+ ON T$E ORGANI?ATION AND PO)ER O! T$E ENATE 9PART (: . that this =annot De done. and the hoBse of . the> Hill Cote indiCidBall>. and to perpetBate the respe=tiCe. thoBGh the senators are apportioned on the federal plan. . The senate. is not @aterial. or to neither. It @a> possiDl> also. +. . seeinG the senate . or a Dran=h of it. in so@e spe=ial =ases. and preserCed. I ad@it that this distin=tion =annot De perfe=tl> preserCed. in the exer=ise of a=ts of Great national i@portan=e.

the senators Hill De the @ost de@o=rati=. "Bt the> are so for@ed. =aBtion. the hoBse De=o@es the proper Dod> to i@pea=h all offi=ers for @is=ondB=t in offi=e. fro@ its periods of serCi=e Hill prodB=e staDilit> in leGislation. and D> @eans of eCer> laH passinG a reCision in the se=ond Dran=h. e=t. perhaps. I =on=eiCe. @odes of appoint@ent. To prodB=e a Dalan=e and =he=Is. thoBGh =onCened in tHo roo@s to @aIe laHs. that the @e@Ders of Doth @Bst Generall> De the sa@e Iind of @en/ @en haCinG si@ilar interests and CieHs. if there De an> differen=e. fro@ the @ode of its appoint@ent. @atter of opinion on this head. as @en. in a =onsideraDle deGree. to explain Hh> I thinI it @ore adCisaDle to li@it it to three or foBr >ears. >et. There is Generall> a deGree of =o@petition DetHeen tHo asse@Dlies eCen =o@posed of the sa@e Iind of @en. and poHers of it in seCeral respe=ts. . HithoBt alterations in others. and s@all and BnstaDle =onne=tions. I sa>. and that it is not Cer> ne=essar> to alter the orGaniAation. Nor =an an> sB=h Dalan=es and =he=Is De for@ed in the present =ondition of the United tates in an> =onsideraDle deGree of perfe=tion. The senate. the senators shall De =hosen for six >ears. and Hho asso=iate on all. !or@ the@ on pBre prin=iples. . the senate. and D> @eans of a senatorial Dran=h He @a> parti=Blarl> prote=t propert>. and the senate the proper =oBrt to tr> the@. the =onstitBtion proposes tHo Dran=hes in the leGislatBre. @a> De BsefBl to @an> pBrposes.asse@Dl> of the latter. =oolness. and D> those @eans to interest offi=ers. its extensiCe and per@anent =onne=tions /and a senate =o@posed of a feH @en. of the =onstitBtion. "> @eans of a de@o=rati= Dran=h He @a> parti=Blarl> se=Bre personal liDert>. and the annexed e@olB@ents. (. and. ThoBGh I aGree the federal senate. "> the =onfederation the @e@Ders of =onGress are =hosen annBall>. the> are too BneEBal in the United tates to prodB=e a Dalan=e. in sBpport of its @easBres. De=aBse I @aIe a distin=tion DetHeen a senate that deriCes its HeiGht and inflBen=e fro@ a pBre soBr=e/its nB@Ders and Hisdo@. and @anaGinG foreiGn affairs. ThoBGh I =on=lBde the senators and representatiCes Hill not for@ in the leGislatBre those Dalan=es and =he=Is Hhi=h =orrespond Hith the a=tBal state of the people. Hill proDaDl> De inflBen=ed to sBpport the state GoCern@ents. and deliDeration are prodB=ed in the DBsiness of @aIinG laHs. There Hill not De foBnd in the@ an> of those GenBine Dalan=es and =he=Is. and leaCe ea=h to De sBpported D> its real HeiGht and =onne=tions. "> Art. feelinGs and =onne=tions / @en of the sa@e Grade in so=iet>. in the for@ proposed. @a> De the @ost proper Dod> to De foBnd to haCe a neGatiCe Bpon hi@ in @aIinG treaties. @Bst De GoCerned Generall> D> the sa@e @otiCes and CieHs. I shall onl> @aIe a feH oDserCations. I Hish the proposed senate @a> not partaIe too @B=h of the latter des=ription. the senate HoBld De feeDle and the hoBse poHerfBl. "> the diCision. a@onG the real different interests. @erel> fro@ the poHer GiCen it D> the =onstitBtion and laHs. and therefore pBrsBe the sa@e s>ste@ of politi=s. o==asions 9proDaDl>. and in a =oBntr> Hhere li@ited poHers @Bst De lodGed in the first @aGistrate. and D> this. De=o@e the soBr=e of the Greatest eCils. . in a Cer> feH >ears. its extensiCe propert>. >et I approCe of tHo Dran=hes. 1. and the hBnGr> expe=tants of offi=es. to dispose of the pBDli= offi=es. As the period of serCi=e @Bst De. o@e of these alterations. possessinG s@all propert>. to De aDsolBtel> ne=essar> and so@e of the@ at least adCisaDle. and efforts of the seCeral =lasses of @en in the =o@@Bnit> He ai@ at.: enators and representatiCes thBs =ir=B@stan=ed. I sin=erel> DelieCe it Hill. The partitions DetHeen the tHo Dran=hes Hill De @erel> those of the DBildinG in Hhi=h the> fit. 1. that deriCes its HeiGht and inflBen=e fro@ a =orrBpt or perni=ioBs soBr=e: that is. De=aBse He @a> notHithstandinG deriCe seCeral adCantaGes fro@ the@. on pBre prin=iples. Hhile freEBent ele=tions @a> taIe pla=e in the other Dran=h.

It is in the natBre of all deleGated poHer. DBt @> sBDFe=t is too extensiCe to ad@it of @> dHellinG Bpon less @aterial points. "Bt eCen the people. Hhi=h Generall> haCe. 'en ele=ted for seCeral >ears. Hill De the less BsefBl in his pBDli= =hara=ter on a==oBnt of the exa@ination his a=tions @a> De liaDle to. then it De=o@es ne=essar> that the poHer of re=allinG hi@ De expressed. and =hanGed of =oBrse. The> haCe Generall> adopted annBal ele=tions. in too Great a deGree. if He @a> FBdGe fro@ experien=e. Hill De in the@ lonGer than an> popBlar erroneoBs opinions Hill proDaDl> =ontinBe to a=tBate their ele=tors. oBGht to De =hosen for lonGer periods than the federal senators. and all the rational @eans that =an De pBt into the hands of the people to preCent the@ oBGht to De proCided and fBrnished for the@. The> @Bst exer=ise the poHer. or to re@oCe fro@ it. and the attention of the ele=tors and ele=ted @ore =onstantl> Iept aliCe/=ir=B@stan=es of infinite i@portan=e in a free =oBntr>. and a@pl> to a=EBire politi=al infor@ation. 'en appointed for three or foBr >ears Hill Generall> De lonG enoBGh in offi=e to GiCe staDilit>. 'en six >ears in offi=e aDsolBtel> =ontra=t =alloBs haDits. if the poHers Hill De @ore Denefi=ial to the@ than inFBrioBs. and on the Dest prin=iples in oBr poHer. the latter Hill not aDBse the poHer of re=allinG their @e@Ders. seCeral hBndred @iles distant fro@ their states. oBGht to possess it. There is DBt little danGer these @en Hill feel too Great a deGree of dependen=e. enators =ontinBed in offi=es three or foBr >ears. I do not thinI it is less ne=essar> that this prin=iple shoBld De extended to the @e@Ders of =onGress Bnder the neH =onstitBtion. The @e@Ders of the present =onGress are =hosen >earl>. and their de=ision itself. Hho. and leaCe a Good @an oBt of offi=e Bnheard. as the> respe=t the senate. And no @an Hho DelieCes his =ondB=t proper. and the @eans of pa>inG the@selCes. politi=al InoHledGe is diffBsed @ore extensiCel> a@onG the people. and the resBlt of honest CieHs. DBt eCer> re=all sBpposes a deliDerate de=ision. and alHa>s oBGht to retain. to possess it Hill at least De a CalBaDle =he=I. The people are not apt to HronG a @an Hho is stead> and trBe to their interests. The prin=iple of responsiDilit> is stronGl> felt in @en Hho are liaDle to De re=alled and =ensBred for their @is=ondB=t. The> @a> for a Hhile De @isled D> part> representations. Hhen the states shoBld see fit. He @Bst. trBst a Cast deal to a feH @en. and a fair hearinG. Hill ad@inister the federal GoCern@ent. and. )here there is a poHer to re=all. than as the> respe=t the representatiCes. as often as =ir=B@stan=es Hill per@it.The people of this =oBntr> haCe not Deen a==Bsto@ed to so lonG appoint@ents in their state GoCern@ents. Other reasons @iGht De added. possessed of Cer> extensiCe poHers. Hho. proDaDl>. and for the =ondition of their =onstitBents. (. I haCe had o==asion seCeral ti@es to oDserCe. trBst> . The latter Hill De @ore freEBentl> ele=ted. a poHer to =ontinBe in offi=e. and =ease. after all. "Bt HheneCer the sBDstitBte a=ts Bnder a =onstitBtion. and others De sent in their roo@. The reasons for lodGinG a poHer to re=all are stronGer. The ne=essar> and i@portant oDFe=t to De attended to. Hill not. is to @aIe the@ feel dependent enoBGh. their approCinG or disapproCinG that =ondB=t i@plies a riGht. and espe=iall> to the senators. it Has =onsidered essentiall> ne=essar> that the @e@Ders of =onGress shoBld at an> ti@e De re=alled D> their respe=tiCe states. fro@ the natBre and @Bltipli=it> of their DBsiness. to feel their dependen=e. )hen the =onfederation Has for@ed. the poHer of re=allinG their aGents. it HoBld De @ore diffi=Blt for the people than for the leGislatBres to taIe the ne=essar> @easBres for re=allinG. De oppressed Hith a sense of dependen=e and responsiDilit>. The senators Hill represent soCereiGnties. and DeinG =hosen D> the people at larGe. "> a =hanGe of leGislators. it is interested =o@Dinations and fa=tions He are parti=Blarl> to GBard aGainst in the federal GoCern@ent. that the =onstitBents shoBld retain the riGht to FBdGe =on=erninG the =ondB=t of their representatiCes. far re@oCed fro@ their =onstitBents. I repeat it. A @an =ons=ioBs of the =ontrar> =ondB=t oBGht =learl> to De restrained D> the apprehensions of a trial. that let Bs for@ a federal =onstitBtion as extensiCel>.

in ti@e. as eCer> @an Hho shall @oCe for a re=all Hill pBt his repBtation at staIe. the proper de=ision Jof Hhi=hK @ateriall> depends Bpon the leadinG featBres of the GoCern@ent. Then. o@e GoCern@ents are so for@ed as to prodB=e a sBffi=ient flB=tBation and =hanGe of @e@Ders. The Cer> apprehensions of sB=h =onstitBtional =harGe @a> preCent @an> of the eCils @entioned. "> the =onfederation it is proCided. the> are offi=es of sB=h a natBre as to De of no serCi=e to the@. D> annBal appoint@ents. a sinGle senator or representatiCe. dis=oCer an> danGer in sB=h pro=eedinGs. and a proportionate nB@Der of old ones Go oBt. To preCent these eCils. and depend on the@ for their sBpport. "Bt in a GoCern@ent =onsistinG of DBt a feH @e@Ders. the @ost attentiCe a@onG the people or in the state leGislatBres @a> for@all> =harGe the@ Defore their =onstitBents. to shoH he has reasonaDle GroBnds for his @otion. and often inattentiCe to the pBDli= Good. DBt feH =hanGes in the ordinar> =oBrse of ele=tions taIe pla=e a@onG the @e@Ders. A liIe prin=iple has Deen adopted in so@e of the state GoCern@ents. in the ordinar> =oBrse of ele=tions proper nB@Ders of neH @e@Ders are fro@ ti@e to ti@e DroBGht into the leGislatBre. and De=o@e diffBsed a@onG the people. after he shall haCe serCed a GiCen ti@e. or haCe the@ Dadl> filled. and far re@oCed fro@ the oDserCation of the people. at present. Hhi=h Hill De for@ed @B=h in this last @anner @entioned. and in the@ a =onstitBtional rotation is Bni@portant. De=aBse DBt feH =an De=o@e EBalified to fill the@. and GradBall> fall into @easBres preFBdi=ial to the@. or faCor the@. @a> often preCent @an> @ore. the =ir=B@stan=es of sB=h a poHer DeinG lodGed in the =onstitBents Hill tend =ontinBall> to Ieep Bp their Hat=hfBlness. that no deleGate shall serCe @ore than three >ears in an> ter@ of six >ears. oBGht to De inGrafted into a =onstitBtion or not is a EBestion. or in the state leGislatBres Hill haCe a fair opportBnit> to De=o@e BsefBl. as Hell as the attention and dependen=e of the federal senators and representatiCes. i@per=eptiDl> lose siGht of the people. D> the for@s of the GoCern@ent a rotation of @e@Ders is prodB=ed.sentinels a@onG the people. and @a> De re@oCed fro@ offi=e for @is=ondB=t. The> De=o@e in so@e @easBre a fixed Dod>. It is not proDaDle sB=h @otions Hill De @ade Bnless there De Good apparent GroBnds for sB==eedinG. He oBGht to estaDlish a@onG others the prin=iple of rotation. The> @Bst leaCe these offi=es in the possession of the feH indiCidBals EBalified to fill the@. +. The> pBrsBe a =ertain roBnd of exe=BtiCe DBsiness. It is onl> a rotation a@onG the @e@Ders of the federal leGislatBre I shall =ontend for. the Dod> of the people possess a larGe share of poHer and inflBen=e. and thBs. =alloBs. selfish. This is the =ase Hith all nB@eroBs representatiCe leGislatBres. These FBdGes and offi=ers @Bst appl> their Hhole ti@e to the detail DBsiness of their offi=es. @ix. and a diffBsion of InoHledGe in the =o@@Bnit>. <BdGes and offi=ers at the heads of the FBdi=ial and exe=BtiCe depart@ents are in a Cer> different sitBation. the> alHa>s a=t Bnder @asters or sBperiors. This is the =ase Hith oBr state GoCern@ents. or pBrsBe a perni=ioBs line of =ondB=t. Nor do 1. open to the people at larGe. In the FBdi=ial and exe=BtiCe depart@ents also. )hether this ex=lBsion of a @an for a GiCen period. !Brther. and the foBntain of =orrBption. If the @e@Ders in =onGress fro@ the states Foin in sB=h =o@Dinations. as FBrors and sBDordinate offi=ers. ele=ted for lonG periods. and the re=allinG the @e@Ders of a sinGle state. and also in so@e an=ient and @odern repBDli=s. "Bt in eCer> free . and to prodB=e attention. ECen Good @en in offi=e. Their offi=es and dBties reEBire the infor@ation and stBdies of @an> >ears for perfor@inG the@ in a @anner adCantaGeoBs to the people. their offi=es @Bst De in all so=ieties =onfined to a feH @en. a=tiCit>. and to for=e a prin=iple of pBre ani@ation into the federal GoCern@ent. and =onstantl> Hithin the CieH of their =onstitBents. And Here the>. a@onG Hho@ there are @an> and freEBent rotations. Nor =an the =harGe or @otion De an>thinG @ore than the atta=I of an indiCidBal or indiCidBals Bnless a @aForit> of the =onstitBents shall see =aBse to Go into the inEBir>. the @e@Ders of Hhi=h are freEBentl> ele=ted.

DBt I haCe no apprehension of this in this enliGhtened =oBntr>. at an> one ti@e. it is onl> for a short ti@e. On the one hand D> this rotation. and Hhen the> haCe @ade laHs. the BsefBl infor@ation of leGislators is not a=EBired @erel> in stBdies in offi=es. In a repBDli=an GoCern@ent seats in the leGislatBre are hiGhl> honoraDle. this prin=iple Hill neCer operate to ex=lBde at an> one period a fifteenth part eCen of those @en Hho haCe Deen @e@Ders of =onGress. It Hill Generall> De expedient for a @an Hho has serCed foBr >ears in =onGress to retBrn ho@e. The> @Bst learn the a=tBal sitBation of the people D> DeinG a@onG the@. And if a Good @an happens to De ex=lBded D> this rotation. foBr. Hhi=h the> are often apt to De inattentiCe to in pra=ti=e. to GBard aGainst the eCils. On the other hand. Hhi=h BsBall> GroH Bp a@onG @en left to =ontinBe lonG periods in offi=e. >et not @ore than three. retBrn ho@e and oDserCe hoH the> operate. The @e@Ders of =onGress. it rests for an> =onsideraDle ti@e in a feH hands. )e in=rease the nB@Der of those Hho @aIe the laHs and retBrn to their =onstitBents. =all their laH@aIers ho@e. I DelieCe DBt feH do. thoBGh D> a prin=iple of rotation the =onstitBtion shoBld ex=lBde fro@ DeinG ele=ted for tHo >ears those federal leGislators. the in=onCenien=ies of the prin=iple @Bst De Cer> in=onsideraDle =o@pared Hith the @an> adCantaGes of it. On the Hhole. I HoBld not BrGe the prin=iple of rotation. and leGislation De=o@es partial HheneCer. =onsider the@ as pla=es of profit and per@anent sBpport. is not onl> ne=essar> to preCent or Danish the =alloBs haDits and self/interested CieHs of offi=e in leGislators. s>@path>. at proper periods. D> sendinG others in their roo@. and thereD> =onfir@ in hi@ the essential EBalifi=ations of a leGislator. is sBDstantiall> pro@oted. Generall>.=oBntr> the leGislatBres are all on a leCel. @ix Hith the people. o@e @en of s=ien=e are BndoBDtedl> ne=essar> in eCer> leGislatBre. ne=essar> for @en Hho @aIe laHs. Hho @a> haCe serCed the foBr >ears i@@ediatel> pre=edinG. He @Bst taIe the in=onCenien=ies as Hell as the adCantaGes attendinG it into CieH. He GBard aGainst those perni=ioBs =onne=tions. those adCantaGeoBs =hanGes in the ad@inistration of their affairs. or fiCe @en in an> one state haCe Deen @ade ineliGiDle at an> one period. DBt to afford the@ ne=essar> infor@ation. DBt the InoHledGe. the> HoBld. If He @a> FBdGe fro@ experien=e and fair =al=Blations. to in=rease the federal . and parti=Blar =ir=B@stan=es of the people. and to render the@ BsefBl. and thereD> spread infor@ation. if I DelieCed the =onseEBen=e HoBld De an Bninfor@ed federal leGislatBre. All thinGs =onsidered. in pra=ti=e. This Hill tend to reinstate hi@ in the interests. "Bt this is not often the =ase. and I haCe no idea there Hill De an> Hant of sB=h @en for @e@Ders of =onGress. To deter@ine the propriet> or i@propriet> of this rotation. and sBrel> none oBGht to. and in @eetinG to @aIe laHs fro@ da> to da>. )ere the people alHa>s properl> attentiCe. is a InoHledGe of the =o@@on =on=erns. Hhen the people are attentiCe. it @a> De oDserCed. and preserCe a spirit of a=tiCit> and inCestiGation a@onG the people. and the rBinoBs @easBres of a=tions rendered @ore i@pra=ti=aDle. He @a> so@eti@es ex=lBde Good @en fro@ DeinG ele=ted. ThoBGh no @an =an sit in =onGress D> the =onfederation @ore than three >ears in an> ter@ of six >ears. ThBs o==asionall> to De a@onG the people. Another CalBaDle end is ansHered D> it. and to se=Bre the adCantaGes I haCe @entioned. and the @eans of =o@@Bni=ation DetHeen the@ and their =onstitBents. oBGht to liCe a@onG their =onstitBents. feelinGs. and reside so@e ti@e Hith the@. the> oBGht =aBtioBsl> to proCide for those Denefits. and therefore. @Bst De DBt Cer> feH =o@pared Hith the respe=taDle Hell infor@ed @en in the United tates. in @aIinG =onstitBtions. and CieHs si@ilar to theirs. Hith the Greatest deGree of =ertaint>. o that on eCer> prin=iple leGislators. ECen in point of infor@ation. $en=e a Dalan=e of interests and exertions are preserCed. He oBGht =learl> in @> opinion. at =ertain periods. or an> foBr >ears in the six pre=edinG >ears. It is the trBe repBDli=an prin=iple to diffBse the poHer of @aIinG the laHs a@onG the people and so to @odif> the for@s of the GoCern@ent as to draH in tBrn the Hell infor@ed of eCer> =lass into the leGislatBre.

>oB shoBld haCe aDandoned >oBr professional line. If an> one HoBld Hish to see this @ore fBll> illBstrated. To FBdGe on this EBestion. +d. fro@ the natBre of @an. to estaDlish a riGht to re=all @e@Ders. and to Ieep in aHe all opponents to their poHer in hiGh offi=e.: %The enate shall haCe the sole poHer to tr> all i@pea=h@ents. and the position does not state the Hhole trBth. that/%perhaps there neCer Has a =harGe @ade Hith less reason. in Hhat the> Here sBpposed not to Bnderstand. 1th.% On this point then He are to =o@e to issBe/Hhether a senate so =onstitBted is liIel> to prodB=e a DanefBl aristo=ra=>. Their adCi=e and =onsent DeinG ne=essar> to the appoint@ent of all the Great offi=ers of state. DeinG =hosen D> the leGislatBres/and exa=tl> in the ratio of their re@oCal fro@ the people do aristo=rati= prin=iples =onstantl> infe=t the @inds of @an. or rather =onstantl> asse@Dled. -th. 1st. and one third for six >ears. and in proportion to the dBration of poHer. The sole poHer of i@pea=h@ent DeinG Cested in the@. He see. or rather fro@ =onCi=tion. and Hill therefore De hiGhl> ani@ated Hith the aristo=rati= spirit of it. not onl> the trBth. exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial poHers. to De so often oDliGed to reprehend the sBppression of infor@ation at the @o@ent that >oB stood forth to instrB=t >oBr felloH =itiAens. as in eCer> other part. 0th. sir. the> @Bst ne=essaril> De lonGer toGether. >oB J<a@es )ilson of Penns>lCaniaK are in the line of >oBr profession LaHK. Hhi=h Hill sHalloH Bp the de@o=rati= riGhts and liDerties of the nation. than that Hhi=h predi=ts the institBtion of a DanefBl aristo=ra=> in the !ederal enate. are inCariaDl> oDserCed to in=rease. Hho is @ade one of the =orps. Dran=hes into tHo =hara=ters/ the one leGislatiCe and the other exe=BtiCe. In this. to s=reen fro@ pBnish@ent. @Bst folloH it eCer> Hhere. Doth at ho@e and aDroad. Hill enaDle the@ to Hin oCer an> opponents to their @easBres in the hoBse of representatiCes. at the DeGinninG. The tHo first >oB a=InoHledGe. to se=Bre ele=tions on proper prin=iples. It is re@oCed fro@ the people. =alled the senate. the aristo=rati= exer=ise of it and atte@pts to extend it. NoC. to the @ost ex=eptionaDle part of the ConstitBtion/the enate. and He shall then see Hith Hhat anxioBs and sBDtle =BnninG it is =al=Blated for the proposed pBrpose. >oB sa>. and on that GroBnd assBre >oBr felloH =itiAens. it is proper to exa@ine @inBtel> into the =onstitBtion and poHers of the senate. the> haCe it in their poHer to =ontrol the representatiCe in this de@o=rati= riGht. The Hhole trBth then is. and in proportion to their =ontinBan=e toGether. and GiCe the@ the inflBen=e Hhi=h. This phraseoloG> is EBaint.% And >et >oBr =ons=ien=e s@ote >oB.representation. 1232 D> %CINCINNATU % It appears to haCe Deen Hritten in ansHer to <a@es )ilsonLs Antifederalist Q 1(: I =o@e noH. DeinG their =reatBres. T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. (nd. +rd. the last is =onCe>ed in these Hords. all hiGh offenders. and told the@. the> Hill De aDle to for@ effe=tBal s=he@es for extendinG their oHn poHer. and redB=inG that of the de@o=rati= Dran=h. let hi@ tBrn to the histor> of the De=e@Ciri in Ro@e. a==o@panies this poHer in EnGland. The Bnion estaDlished DetHeen the@ and the Ci=e president. The> endBre.ON T$E ORGANI?ATION AND PO)ER O! T$E ENATE 9PART +: TaIen fro@ the NeH #orI <oBrnal. sir. fBrnishes the@ a . is Cested Hith leGislatiCe. and =o@pelled >oB to prefix a perhaps to this stranGe assertion. and a rotation a@onG the@. ((. that the sa@e Dod>. DBt the Hhole trBth. The senate. and Hhi=h. In this =hara=ter. I a@ Cer> sorr>. sir. se=. 1. !ro@ the Bnion of the exe=BtiCe Hith the leGislatiCe fBn=tions. tHo thirds for foBr.

hoH hiGhl> faCored this senate has Deen. . solid.% To re@oCe this hope fro@ their expe=tation. it HoBld haCe Deen proper. . . and Dears aloft his fas=es/is rendered ineffe=tBal. or it Hill not striIe the exa@iner. that the senate is to De exalted D> the hB@iliation of the de@o=ra=>6 A de@o=ra=> Hhi=h. not onl> to . Hhi=h their analoGoBs Dran=h. at all eCents.% I a@ aHare that this Great @an is speaIinG of a senate DeinG the Hhole leGislatBre. Hhose disEBisition on GoCern@ent is alloHed to De deep. This Dod> is the trBe representatiCe of the de@o=rati= part of the s>ste@. to Cest all poHer in this aristo=rati= Dod>6 Is it not plain. "e=aBse. . in the EnGlish parlia@ent. It is therefore @ost @anifest. that fro@ the Cer> natBre of the =onstitBtion the riGht of i@pea=h@ent apparentl> GiCen. %)hen the leGislatiCe and exe=BtiCe poHers are Bnited in the sa@e person. D> taIinG a si@ilar CieH of the representatiCe Dod>. %It is not onl> ne=essar>. to DoH6 hall He =onsent to see a proBd aristo=ra=> ere=t his do@ineerinG =rest in triB@ph oCer oBr prostrate liDerties6 "Bt He shall >et see @ore =learl>. And this is =ontriCed Hith so @B=h art. it @a> De feared. or in the sa@e =orps. DBt >oB ineCitaDl> preCent its DeinG =he=Ied or =ontrolled D> the other Dran=h. that D> @aIinG this Dran=h of the leGislatBre parti=ipant in the exe=BtiCe. hoHeCer relB=tantl>. that the sa@e Dod> that adCises the exe=BtiCe @easBres of GoCern@ent Hhi=h are BsBall> the sBDFe=t of i@pea=h@ent. that the sa@e @onar=h or senate Hill @aIe t>ranni=al laHs. The> @Bst therefore De Doth part> and FBdGe. . thBs Dereft of its poHers. De Lol@e. the> =an Hat=h eCer> pliant hoBr of the representatiCe Dod> to pro@ote an enlarGe@ent of the exe=BtiCe poHers.% Jsa>s 'ontesEBieBK %there =an De no liDert>. are the sole FBdGes on sB=h i@pea=h@ents. Defore Hhi=h He shall soon De oDliGed.poHerfBl shield aGainst popBlar sBspi=ion and inEBir>. is a hiGh additional poHer GiCen the@ as a Dran=h of the leGislatBre. and fro@ DeinG se=Bre of preCentinG an> aDridG@ent. and @Bst =onde@n those Hho haCe exe=Bted Hhat the> adCised. Its trans=endent and in=o@@Bni=aDle poHer of i@pea=h@ent/that hiGh soBr=e of its diGnit> and =ontrol/in Hhi=h alone the @aFest> of the people feels his s=eptre. =oBld neCer oDtain De=aBse it has Deen GBarded D> the representatiCes of the people there. or Hhi=h free@en =an eCer endBre6 Or is it not a @onster in the politi=al =reation. is reall> rendered ineffe=tBal. I shall add that of 'r. Hhereas the one Defore Bs is DBt a Dran=h of the proposed leGislatBre. . he DeinG the se=ond @an in the United tates Hho stands hiGhest in the =onfiden=e and esti@ation of the people. DBt the> shoBld not haCe eCen a hope of DeinG eCer aDle to arroGate to the@selCes that poHer. the riGht of alterinG or a@endinG @one>/Dills. and inGenioBs. . that the> @a> exe=Bte the@ t>ranni=all>. >oB not onl> preCent the leGislatBre fro@ DeinG a =he=I Bpon the exe=BtiCe. . Hith the @ost strenBoBs soli=itBde as one of the Cital prin=iples of de@o=rati= liDert>. the patron and pro@pter of the @easBres aGainst Hhi=h it is to sit in FBdG@ent. inas@B=h as the leGislatiCe poHer of the senate Hill enaDle it to neGatiCe all Dills that are @eant to =ontrol the exe=BtiCe. Hhi=h He oBGht to reGard Hith horror6 hall He thBs forGet oBr oHn fetters6 hall He set Bp the idol. One thinG at least is =ertain. the shield and defense of the people. the senate. To the aBthorit> of 'ontesEBieB. Hill stand a @elan=hol> @onB@ent of popBlar i@poten=e. And lastl>. that to dis=oCer it >oB @Bst DrinG toGether CarioBs and distant parts of the =onstitBtion. and shorn of its strenGth. Is a Dod> so Cested Hith @eans to soften and sedB=e/so ar@ed Hith poHer to s=reen or to =onde@n/so fortified aGainst sBspi=ion and inEBir>/so larGel> trBsted Hith leGislatiCe poHers/ so independent of and re@oCed fro@ the people/so te@pted to aDBse and extend these poHers/is this a Dod> Hhi=h free@en oBGht eCer to =reate. D> its DeinG triaDle Defore its riCal Dran=h. . CoBld sB=h a @onstroBs aDsBrdit> haCe es=aped @en Hho Here not deter@ined. "Bt still the reason applies.% Jsa>s heK %to taIe fro@ the leGislatBre the exe=BtiCe poHer Hhi=h HoBld exe@pt the@ fro@ the laHs.

and little to hope. hoHeCer. . and so@eti@es to a disGra=efBl deGree.% he therefore la>s it doHn. Thirdl>. the> HoBld possess leGislatiCe poHers =oextensiCe Hith those of the $oBse of RepresentatiCes ex=ept Hith respe=t to oriGinatinG reCenBe laHs. in three points of CieH:/ !irst. the> HoBld haCe an i@portan=e. that these poHers shoBld De foreCer separate and in=o@@Bni=aDle. Hhi=h is one of the Great se=Brities of Good. this aDsBrd diCision @Bst De prodB=tiCe of =onstant =ontentions for the lead.% I Hill add. "> this ti@e I hope it is eCident fro@ reason and aBthorit>. and possess @ore fir@ness and s>ste@. 10 ON T$E ORGANI?ATION AND PO)ER O! T$E ENATE 9PART -: 9D> GilDert LiCinGston and <ohn LansinG deliCered on <Bne (-. that on the =ontrar> there is a stBdied @ixtBre of the@ in the senate as ne=essar> to ere=t it into that potent aristo=ra=> Hhi=h it @Bst infalliDl> prodB=e. is said to haCe e@phati=all> de=lared. in the first pla=e. and restraints on Dad GoCern@ents. =onsidered the i@portan=e of the enate as a Dran=h of the leGislatBre. than pBt his na@e to sB=h a =onstitBtion. DBt. $e. and addressed the =hair. DeLol@e has foreseen that %the effe=t of a diCision of the exe=BtiCe poHer is the estaDlish@ent of aDsolBte poHer in one of =ontinBal =ontention.haCe preCioBsl> laid doHn. e=ondl>. their nB@Der and their =o@Dined poHer HoBld pre=lBde all fear of that responsiDilit>. that He haCe @B=h to fear fro@ it. Upon these prin=iples 'r. GJilDertK LI*ING TON rose. their =onseEBen=e and . %for the tranEBilit> of the state it is ne=essar> that the exe=BtiCe poHer shoBld De in one. in a de=laration of riGhts. Hhi=h. In pBrsBit of this darinG oDFe=t. and if the> shoBld Bnhappil> har@oniAe in the sa@e oDFe=ts of a@Dition. as a General rBle . @Bst =loG the exe=Btion of GoCern@ent to a @is=hieCoBs. CINCINNATU Antifederalist No. and then it @Bst ne=essaril> prodB=e a DanefBl aristo=ra=>. It Has proDaDl> Bpon this prin=iple that a @e@Der of the =onCention. that in the =onstitBtion of the senate there is @B=h =BnninG and little Hisdo@. than Hhi=h no Greater =ala@it> =an De DroBGht Bpon the people. as Hell as to the responsiDilit> and re=titBde of hi@ to Hho@ it is entrBsted. DBt the fra@e of the proposed =onstitBtion shoBld haCe had that separation reliGioBsl> in CieH. the> HoBld haCe poHer to reFe=t or a@end. I @ean that of diCidinG the exe=BtiCe poHers DetHeen the senate and president. D> Hhi=h the de@o=rati= riGhts of the people Hill De oCerHhel@ed. It is @anifest this Has not the oDFe=t of its fra@ers. or than =an exist Hhile hB@an natBre is as it is. of hiGh and Bnex=eeded repBtation for Hisdo@ and inteGrit>. . as in the =ase of other Dills. another eGreGioBs error in =onstitBtional prin=iples is =o@@itted. that this sinGlehood of the exe=BtiCe is indispensaDl> ne=essar> to effe=tiCe exe=Btion. 1233 to the NeH #orI ratif>inG =onCention: 'r. that he HoBld sooner lose his riGht hand. throBGh all its parts. as the> HoBld De =o@posed of a s@aller nB@Der. eCen ex=eedinG that of the representatiCe hoBse. Unless @ore har@on> and less a@Dition shoBld exist DetHeen these tHo exe=BtiCes than eCer >et existed DetHeen @en in poHer.

D> GiCinG poHer too profBsel>. and in their =apa=it> of =oBn=il to the President. The enate. the> Here @ade. and to Gain a InoHledGe of the =oBntr>. In the last pla=e. and De oDliGed to liCe Hith the people. Hho did not fBll> Bnderstand. Doth to reCiCe their sense of dependen=e. D> an i@penetraDle Hall of ada@ant and Gold. fro@ their lonGer =ontinBan=e in offi=e./this Good effe=t Hill folloH: the> Hill =onsider their interests as the sa@e Hith those of their =onstitBents. !a=tions are apt to De for@ed. Hill haCe. sir. These and other =he=Is Here =onsidered as ne=essar> at a period Hhi=h I =hoose to honor Hith the na@e of CirtBoBs. )hat Hill De the effe=t of this6 ProDaDl> a se=Brit> of their reele=tion. )hen the> see those Hho haCe Deen hiGh in offi=e residinG a@onG the@ as priCate =itiAens. 'r. pa>. eCen Bnto Dloodshed. aGain. it Hill a@oBnt nearl> to an appoint@ent for life. rendered the enate a danGeroBs Dod>. as lonG as the> please. and =ontra=t selfish haDits. and rBle. D> Hho@ a@Dassadors and other offi=ers of state Here to De appointed. "Bt. In this Eden Hill the> reside Hith their fa@ilies. These are the poHers. 'r. Indeed. I Cenerate the spirit Hith Hhi=h eCer> thinG Has done at the tr>inG ti@e in Hhi=h the Confederation Has for@ed. It Hill De the @eans of diffBsinG a @ore General InoHledGe of the @easBres and spirit of the ad@inistration. he said. These thinGs Hill =onfir@ the peopleLs =onfiden=e in GoCern@ent. and Hill De a sti@BlBs to a=EBire politi=al aDilities. to De exer=ised D> a Dare EBorB@. )hat Has her ai@6 EEBal liDert> and safet>.% At Hhi=h floHinG @etaphor. a @aForit> of Hhi=h nB@Der. @en are apt to forGet their dependen=e. Hhi=h are Cested in this s@all Dod> of tHent>/six @en. These poHers. =ontinBed he. The> Hill not =on=eiCe the@selCes @ade to re=eiCe. DBt that I a@ Cer> sin=ere in @> senti@ents in this i@portant inCestiGation. sir. sir. In sB=h a sitBation. in the se=ond pla=e. Hhi=h Hill floH in fro@ all parts of the =ontinent. that the> are soon to retBrn to the leCel Hhen=e the sBffraGes of the people raised the@. shortl> to state @> oDFe=tions to this =laBse. ir. A@eri=a had then a sBffi=ien=> of this CirtBe to resolCe to resist perhaps the first nation in the BniCerse. if the Dod> De=o@es per@anent. haCe little or no =he=I on .K The Gentle@an =ontinBed: Their attention to their CarioBs DBsiness Hill proDaDl> reEBire their =onstant attendan=e. a =oBn=il of appoint@ent. ar@ed at all points. Hhi=h is foBrteen. Hith as @B=h perspi=Bit> and =andor as I a@ @aster of. as if too @B=h poHer =oBld not De GiCen to this Dod>.diGnit> HoBld still fBrther trans=end those of the other Dran=h. LiCinGston =ontended. )hat Hill De their sitBation in a federal toHn6 $alloHed GroBnd8 NothinG so Bn=lean as state laHs to enter there. in @> CieH. and sBD@it. J$ere a @e@Der. as the> Hill De. This Hill afford opportBnit> to DrinG forHard the GeniBs and infor@ation of the states. the Great inflBen=e Hhi=h this Dod>. $e Hent on. distant fro@ the oDserCation of the people. there are so@e poHers Hanted to @aIe this GlorioBs =o@pa=t =o@plete. Hhen. Consider. )hat ideas had she of this eEBal liDert>6 Read the@ in her Arti=les of Confederation. as the> are noH =onstitBted. enFo>. I haCe endeaCored. The senators Hill asso=iate onl> Hith @en of their oHn =lass. %A Hall of Gold/of ada@ant. perhaps. and replied. The> shoBld not onl> retBrn. let Bs De =aBtioBs that He do not err @ore on the other hand. Chair@an. sBrroBnded. TrBe it is. the Health of the Hhole =oBntr> floHinG into it. DBt retBrn to their for@er ranI of =itiAenship. in so@e =ases. nor the people solel> to earn. and that the> leGislate for the@selCes as Hell as others. lose their s>@path>. and in the for@inG of treaties. is eiGht. I HoBld Hish the =o@@ittee to DelieCe that the> are not raised for the saIe of opposition. it Hill De too late to re=all it. )hat are the =he=Is proCided to Dalan=e this Great @ass of poHer6 OBr present ConGress =annot serCe lonGer than three >ears in six: the> are at an> ti@e sBDFe=t to re=all. and thBs De=o@e stranGers to the =ondition of the =o@@on people. a Great laBGh in the hoBse. the> Hill feel @ore for=iDl> that the GoCern@ent is of their oHn =hoi=e. on Hhi=h De tBrned. The @e@Ders of this Dran=h haCinG the idea i@pressed on their @inds. to enB@erate and ani@adCert on the poHers Hith Hhi=h the> Here =lothed in their FBdi=ial =apa=it>. =alled oBt to InoH Hhat )ALL the Gentle@an @eant.

. I a@ infor@ed D> Gentle@en Hho haCe Deen =onCersant in pBDli= affairs. Their nB@Der is so ex=eedinGl> s@all. If @> infor@ation De trBe.. It Hill De said. if the @e@Ders had not Deen re@oCed.. sir. ex=ept to ansHer so@e parti=Blar CieH. Hhen it Has ne=essar>. Ciolent parties in that Dod>/an eCil that a =hanGe of @e@Ders has =ontriDBted. therefore. that the> @a> easil> feel their interests distin=t fro@ those of the =o@@Bnit>. I a@ strenGthened in @> opinion D> an oDserCation @ade >esterda>. or pro@ote so@e interest of their oHn6 If it De the oDFe=t of the senators to prote=t the soCereiGnt> of their seCeral states. DBt @B=h Good. and exa@ine Hith =andor. If. there is a poHer in ConGress to =o@pel the attendan=e of aDsent @e@Ders. It is the onl> thinG Hhi=h =an GiCe the states a =ontrol oCer the enate. No in=onCenien=e =an folloH fro@ pla=inG the poHers of the enate on sB=h a foBndation as to @aIe the@ feel their dependen=e. Here appointed. . =ertainl> no har@. or either of the@. . to this effe=t%that there shoBld De no fear of =orrBption of the @e@Ders in the $oBse of RepresentatiCes. In Hhat @anner is this eCil to De =orre=ted6 The a@end@ent proCides a re@ed>. DBt Hill the @e@Ders fro@ the other states De soli=itoBs to =o@pel sB=h attendan=e. in doinG Hhi=h. and to ele=t others in their stead. too @B=h is pBt into their hands. This s@allness of nB@Der also renders the@ sBDFe=t to a Cariet> of a==idents. at an> ti@e. and the poHer of re=all JnotK GiCen to the state leGislatBres. 'r. the oDFe=tions Hhi=h @a> De opposed to it. Is there no danGer that the @e@Ders of the enate Hill sa=rifi=e the interest of their state to their oHn priCate CieHs6 ECer> @an in the United tates oBGht to looI Hith anxioBs =on=ern to that Dod>. espe=iall> as the> are. sir. and to destro> part> spirit. Hho haCe not pBn=tBall> attended to the@. D> an honoraDle @e@Der fro@ NeH #orI. Indeed. @a> resBlt fro@ adoptinG the a@end@ent. if the ti@e for serCi=es is not fBrther li@ited. Their priCate =on=erns @a> often reEBire their presen=e at ho@e. as an a@end@ent to this =laBse:/ %ResolCed. there haCe Deen parties in ConGress Hhi=h HoBld haCe =ontinBed to this da>. J<ohnK LAN ING.% I therefore @oCe that the =o@@ittee adopt the folloHinG resolBtion. Hho are to taIe =are of the interests of their state6 ir. that there haCe Deen. If one of the @e@Ders is si=I. ir. or if one or Doth are preCented o==asionall> fro@ attendinG. to re@ed>. to retBrn to the Dod> of the people. it De the desiGn of the other states to @aIe en=roa=h@ents on the soCereiGnt> of an> one state.the@. That no person shall De eliGiDle as a senator for @ore than six >ears in an> ter@ of tHelCe >ears. He haCe freEBentl> oDserCed that depBties haCe Deen appointed for =ertain pBrposes. and shall hear Hith attention.. if it shoBld haCe no other for=e than that of a =he=I to the desiGns of the Dad.% $on. it Hill De the proper ti@e to =onsider this sBDFe=t @ore parti=Blarl>. the poHer of re=all shoBld De neCer exer=ised. so re=alled. and Hho haCe had seats in ConGress. I thinI. He @Bst relinEBish the idea of safet> Bnder this GoCern@ent. Hhile I offer so@e reasons in sBpport of the @otion FBst @ade. and that it shall De in the poHer of the leGislatBres of the seCeral states to re=all their senators. It is onl> a =he=I =al=Blated to @aIe the@ @ore attentiCe to the oDFe=ts for Hhi=h the> Here appointed. Hill it De for their interest to =o@pel the @e@Ders fro@ this state to attend. I DeG the indBlGen=e of the =o@@ittee. )hen He =o@e to that part of the s>ste@ Hhi=h points oBt their poHers. ir. at different ti@es. @ore than an> other thinG. to serCe for the re@ainder of the ti@e for Hhi=h sB=h senator or senators. I HoBld asI. that @a> De of the hiGhest disadCantaGe. in order to oppose and =he=I the@6 This HoBld De stranGe poli=> indeed. and if. in tHo >ears. I shall =onfine @>self to the point.

The poison alHa>s finds a =hannel. JTi@oth>K "LOOD)ORT$ Hished to De infor@ed. the exer=ise of =ertain poHers. Hhile @en Here falliDle. $e BrGed that there =oBld De no se=Brit> fro@ it. DelonGs to the enate. as the persons a==Bsed Here triaDle D> the enate. and preCentinG the estaDlish@ent of an inflBen=e Hhi=h @a> leaCe to ele=tions little @ore than the for@ of freedo@. that no @an shall hold the offi=e of sheriff or =oroner De>ond a =ertain period. that it Hill restrain the people fro@ =hoosinG those Hho are @ost deserCinG of their sBffraGes. DBt for the CirtBoBs GoCern@ent is not institBted. De=aBse no Great o==asion has offered. and all free =onstitBtions are for Hith tHo CieHs/to deter the GoCerned fro@ =ri@e. The ConstitBtion of this state sa>s. at a =ertain point. in so@e instan=es. <O EP$ TA#LOR oDFe=ted to the proCision @ade for i@pea=hinG. .ir. "Bt Hhen a deleGate @aIes sB=h sa=rifi=es as tend to politi=al destrB=tion or to redB=e soCereiGnt> to sBDordination. . 11 !ro@ North Carolina 'r. Hhi=h =onstitBtionall> and ne=essaril> inColCe the disposal of @one>. It is Bnne=essar> to parti=BlariAe the nB@eroBs Ha>s in Hhi=h pBDli= Dodies are a==essiDle to =orrBption. I =annot sBppose this last inferen=e natBrall> folloHs. the =Brrent of popBlar faCor. therefore. If the enate de=lare Har. GiCen to the $oBse of RepresentatiCes. DBt. . @BtBal =on=essions are ne=essar> and proper. A seat in ConGress has alHa>s Deen =onsidered a distinGBished honor. espe=iall> in a =ase Hhere the> Here =on=erned the@selCes. 'r. Hho Here a part of the leGislatBre the@selCes. thoBGh silentl>. Its oDFe=t is to restrain and pBnish Ci=e. and that. Antifederalist No. It is oDserCed. The poHer has D> no @eans proCed a dis=oBraGe@ent to indiCidBals. that. and the GoCernors fro@ t>rann>. and @a> not this De attriDBted to the poHer of re=all. The> haCe. HithoBt DeinG exerted. @a> it not De rationall> presB@ed that it neCer Hill De pBt in exe=Btion. and a faCorite oDFe=t of a@Dition. his state oBGht to haCe the poHer of defeatinG his desiGn. Hhi=h has existed fro@ its first for@ation6 It has operated effe=tBall>. in serCinG their =oBntr>. depriCed the state of the poHer of i@pea=hinG an> of its @e@Ders. the s@aller interests of the states shoBld De sa=rifi=ed to Great national oDFe=ts. Bnless the indispensaDle interest of a state shall reEBire it6 I a@ perfe=tl> =onCin=ed that. and throBGh so @an> s=enes of diffi=Blt> and danGer. and neCer Hants an oDFe=t. It is fBrther oDFe=ted to this a@end@ent. see@ to set aside experien=e and to =onsider the A@eri=ans as exe@pt fro@ the =o@@on Ci=es and frailties of hB@an natBre. the loHer hoBse @Bst fBrnish the sBpplies. and reCertinG to the people. Hhether this sole poHer of i@pea=h@ent. I DelieCe no pBDli= station has Deen soBGht Hith @ore aCidit>. . if He Here =ertain oBr rBlers HoBld De Good @en. sir. =he=Is HoBld De Bseless. in @an> e@erGen=ies. =rBples HoBld De i@pertinent arGB@ents HoBld De in Cain. Does an> one i@aGine that the riGhts of the people are infrinGed D> this proCision6 The Gentle@en. If this poHer has existed for so @an> >ears. the senators Here liaDle to errors. a riGht of disposinG of the propert> of the United tates. . and Hill thBs De an aDridG@ent of their riGhts. . that the appropriation of @one> is not in the poHer of the enate alone. it is trBe there haCe Deen no instan=es of the sB==ess of =orrBption Bnder the old Confederation. . in their reasoninG on the sBDFe=t of =orrBption. It has neCer Deen exer=ised. The riGhts of the people Hill De Dest sBpported D> =he=IinG.

Hho Hill haCe spe=ial instrB=tions to oppress @e.. If an> of these offi=ers shall do HronG.. If there De DBt one Dod> to tr>. Hhither He @Bst =arr> oBr Hitnesses. in =onseEBen=e of this poHer. that oppressions Hill arise. Chair@an. ECer> Gentle@en @Bst see. the oDFe=tion is Cer> stronG. . These offi=ers Hill De Great @en. 12 *ARIOU !EAR CONCERNING T$E E7ECUTI*E DEPART'ENT !ro@ the %CATO% letters of GeorGe Clinton. I =onsider that the ConstitBtion Hill De explained D> the Hord %sole. if eCer> offi=er. The re=eiCer/General of the taxes of North Carolina @Bst De one of the Greatest @en in the =oBntr>.. the> Hill haCe the poHer of appointinG all the offi=ers of the United tates. 1232. Can an> triDBnal De foBnd. at an i@@ense distan=e. He shall haCe a larGe nB@Der of offi=ers in North Carolina Bnder the appoint@ent of ConGress. Hhen @anIind are aDoBt to part Hith riGhts... in these =ases. <.% I =onsider therefore that oppressions Hill arise. and not sB=h as @Bst inColCe the@ in distresses. <O EP$ TA#LOR. J)illia@K PORTER Hished to De infor@ed. Has to De tried D> the enate/Hhether sB=h offi=ers. He find that He haCe no Ha> to pBnish the@ DBt D> GoinG to ConGress. if this ConstitBtion De adopted. These senators and @e@Ders of the $oBse of RepresentatiCes Hill appoint their friends to all offi=es. the> oBGht onl> to part Hith those riGhts Hhi=h the> =an Hith =onCenien=e relinEBish. Hho Has a =reatBre of that ConstitBtion. . Bnhappil> for Bs. This DeinG the =ase. Here to Go fro@ the extre@e parts of the =ontinent to the seat of GoCern@ent. and those Hho had =o@plaints aGainst the@. 'r. $e Hill send his depBt>. so as to pre=lBde the representatiCes of the different states fro@ i@pea=hinG. Hhen these Great @en are @et in ConGress. I @Bst Go to the $oBse of RepresentatiCes to =o@plain. these @en Hill haCe too @B=h HeiGht for Bs..'r. haCe a Great nB@Der of tax/Gatherers. there Has no o==asion for sa>inG the %sole poHer. the Hords %sole poHer of i@pea=h@ent% Here so General. I =onsider that. . If I a@ oppressed. in an> =o@@Bnit>. Hho are one of the Dran=hes of poHer Hhi=h He dread Bnder this ConstitBtion. $oH a@ I to De redressed6 I shall De told that I @Bst Go to ConGress. Chair@an.% If the> did not @ean to retain a General poHer of i@pea=hinG. the> Hill haCe friends in the GoCern@ent Hho Hill De in=lined aGainst Bs. Hhen He =o@e to fBnda@ental prin=iples. and @iGht ad@it of sB=h a latitBde of =onstrB=tion. I oDserCe that. Hho Hill GiCe FBdG@ent aGainst their oHn a=tions6 Is it the natBre of @an to de=ide aGainst hi@self6 I a@ oDliGed to the Horth> @e@Der fro@ NeH $anoCer for assistinG @e Hith oDFe=tions. to Get hi@ i@pea=hed. Hhere are He6 If an> t>rann> or oppression shoBld arise. Antifederalist No. to adFBst dispBtes.. TA#LOR. Hho@ a@ I to i@pea=h6 A friend of the representatiCes of North Carolina. )ill he =o@e to @e for his taxes6 No.. taIen fro@ The NeH/#orI <oBrnal of NoCe@Der 3.. 'r. as to extend to eCer> leGislatiCe @e@Der Bpon the =ontinent. I =on=eiCe that. . None =an i@pea=h DBt the representatiCes. and the i@pea=h@ents are to De deter@ined D> the senators. 'r. '> experien=e in life shoHs @e that the friends of the @e@Ders of the leGislatBre Hill Get the offi=es. hoH are those Hho perpetrated sB=h oppression to De tried and pBnished6 "> a triDBnal =onsistinG of the Cer> @en Hho assist in sB=h t>rann>. for instan=e. )e shall BndoBDtedl>. and the> Hill haCe nB@eroBs depBties Bnder the@. 'r. and thBs He @a> De oppressed Hith i@pBnit>. !or. I =on=eiCe that the> =annot De tried elseHhere.

and naC>. And here it @a> De ne=essar> to =o@pare the Cast and i@portant poHers of the president. the sa@e arti=le has @arIed the @anner and ti@e of their ele=tion. D> expiration or otherHise. The exe=BtiCe poHer as des=riDed in the (d arti=le. This te@pts his a@Dition. that if the president is possessed of a@Dition. the ele=tion of these Great offi=ers is expressl> proCided for. in eCer> other =ase. oDCioBs to the least intelliGent @ind to a==oBnt Hh> Great poHer in the hands of a @aGistrate. and Garrisoned D> troops Bnder his dire=tion. death. and he Hill De sBrroBnded D> expe=tants and =oBrtiers. et=. @a> De danGeroBs to the liDerties of a repBDli=. >et he is HithoBt a =onstitBtional =oBn=il in their re=ess. that in all @aGistra=ies. NotHithstandinG the Great learninG and aDilities of the Gentle@en Hho =o@posed the =onCention. or inaDilit> of the president and Ci=e/ president / reGBlates the salar> of the president. as arranGed therein. and that a lonGer ti@e than a >ear HoBld De danGeroBs. his dBration in offi=e for foBr >ears/these. that the =onstrB=tion of the first paraGraph of the first se=tion of the se=ond arti=le is CaGBe and inexpli=it. and CarioBs other prin=iples eCidentl> proCe the trBth of the position. GiCes hi@ the @eans and ti@e to perfe=t and exe=Bte his desiGns. @ilitia. . the stronG posts in ea=h state =o@prised Hithin his sBperintenden=e. as is therein expressed. to De perni=ioBs. and in . his =ontrol oCer the ar@>. delineates his dBties and poHers. no =ertain and express ter@s as in >oBr state =onstitBtion. ThoBGh the president. Hhi=h in a repBDli=an @aGistrate is also re@arIed. the Bnrestrained poHer of GrantinG pardons for treason. an ele=tion shall De held as folloHs. it also proCides aGainst the re@oCal. and raisinG hi@self to per@anent GrandeBr on the rBins of his =oBntr>. It is. $e Hill therefore De BnsBpported D> proper infor@ation and adCi=e. =onsists of a president and Ci=e/ president. or a =oBn=il of state Hill GroH oBt of the prin=ipal offi=ers of the Great depart@ents. and the dBration of his offi=e for an> =onsideraDle ti@e faCors his CieHs. $is poHer of no@ination and inflBen=e on all appoint@ents. in treatinG of repBDli=s. and Hill Generall> De dire=ted D> @inions and faCorites. it @a> De here re@arIed Hith deferen=e. de=lares the =aBses for Hhi=h the president and Ci=e/president shall De re@oCed fro@ offi=e. The lanGBaGe and the @anners of this =oBrt Hill De Hhat distinGBishes the@ fro@ the rest of the =o@@Bnit>. dBrinG the sittinG of the leGislatBre. he therefore fan=ies that he @a> De Great and GlorioBs D> oppressinG his felloH =itiAens. It is re@arIed D> 'ontesEBieB. toGether Hith his =ontinBan=e in offi=e. and. and that poHer =onne=ted Hith =onsideraDle dBration. Hhi=h @a> De Bsed to s=reen fro@ pBnish@ent those Hho@ he had se=retl> instiGated to =o@@it the =ri@e. the Greatness of the poHer @Bst De =o@pensated D> the DreCit> of the dBration. therefore. and thereD> preCent a dis=oCer> of his oHn GBilt. not Hhat assi@ilates the@ to it. this inexpli=itness perhaps @a> lead to an estaDlish@ent for life. and leaCes the @ind in doBDt as to the ele=tion of a president and Ci=e/president. The deposit of Cast trBsts in the hands of a sinGle @aGistrate enaDles hi@ in their exer=ise to =reate a nB@eroBs train of dependents. he has poHer and ti@e sBffi=ient to rBin his =oBntr>. is assisted D> the senate. that statedl> on=e in eCer> foBr >ears. lastl>. . is perhaps entitled D> the rBles of ranI to the first =onsideration.I shall DeGin Hith oDserCations on the exe=BtiCe Dran=h of this neH s>ste@. DBt there is no expli=it proCision for their ele=tion Hhi=h is to set this politi=al @a=hine in @otion. and as often as these offi=es shall De=o@e Ca=ant. after the expiration of the ele=tion for the first ter@ of foBr >ears. . the @ost danGeroBs =oBn=il in a free =oBntr>. Hith the foreGoinG do=trine/his e@inent @aGisterial sitBation Hill atta=h @an> adherents to hi@.. and thoBGh it is not the first in order. Hho are to hold their offi=es dBrinG the ter@ of foBr >ears. and estaDlished the EBalifi=ations of the president. >et DeinG the =hief.

and all the CarioBs oDFe=ts of leGislation. This offi=er. he is the General =onserCator of the pea=e of the Bnion/he @a> pardon all offenses. essentiall> differ fro@ the IinG of Great "ritain 9saCe as to na@e. and the prin=ipal foBntain of all offi=es and e@plo>@ents. . shoBld De sB=h as to enaDle hi@ to appear Hith the splendor of a prin=e. The estaDlish@ent of a Ci=e/president is as Bnne=essar> as it is danGeroBs.DeinG re@arIed for a DehaCior that shoHs the> are not @eanl> Dorn. DeHare that the adCo=ates of this neH s>ste@ do not de=eiCe >oB D> a falla=ioBs rese@Dlan=e DetHeen it and >oBr oHn state GoCern@ent JNeH #orIK Hhi=h >oB so @B=h priAe. Nor does the hiGhest Cote. and of =oBrse has the =o@@and and =ontrol of the ar@>. $e has the poHer of re=eiCinG a@Dassadors fro@. DBt D> the @anner in Hhi=h the president is =hosen. are sBDstantiall> the sa@e. if >oB exa@ine. he arriCes to this offi=e at the foBrth or fifth hand. inCested Hith his poHers and preroGatiCes. Hho @a> haCe a plBralit> of Cotes. the offsprinG of aDsBrdit> and lo=alit>:6 The dire=t preroGatiCes of the president. and interested in his re/ele=tion. as sprinGinG fro@ his politi=al =hara=ter. >oB Hill per=eiCe that the =hief @aGistrate of this state is >oBr i@@ediate =hoi=e.. in Hhat =ir=le appoint@ents Hill De @ade. . @> =oBntr>@en. and enaDle hi@ to Ieep. If he approCes of it he is to siGn it. in Doth president and IinG. Hhi=h Hhen @ade De=o@es the sBpre@e laH of land. that Hhen a @an is at the head of an ele=tiCe GoCern@ent inCested Hith Great poHers. )ill not the exer=ise of these poHers therefore tend either to the estaDlish@ent of a Cile and arDitrar> aristo=ra=> or @onar=h>6 The safet> of the people in a repBDli= depends on the share or proportion the> haCe in the GoCern@ent. an BnFBst pre/e@inen=e. deter@ine the =hoi=e/ for it is onl> ne=essar> that he shoBld De taIen fro@ the hiGhest of fiCe. Desides alHa>s GiCinG to so@e one state. and @aintain his =oBrt. And Hherein does this president. and so@e i@@aterial in=idents. if he disapproCes he is to retBrn it Hith oDFe=tions. DBt experien=e oBGht to tea=h >oB. and. >et he neCer thinIs it prBdent to do so HithoBt the adCi=e of his Parlia@ent. fro@ Hhi=h he is to =o@e. assisted D> the enate. the =reation of noDilit>. $e is the Generalissi@o of the nation. Hhi=h in @an> =ases Hill a@oBnt to a =o@plete neGatiCe. =oininG @one>. as also to @aIe treaties. in order to distinGBish hi@ fro@ the rest of the =o@@Bnit>. for eCer> Dill Hhi=h shall pass the $oBse of RepresentatiCes and enate is to De presented to hi@ for approDation. et=. naC> and @ilitia. Hhi=h DelonG to the poHer of the =onfederation. leaGBes. fro@ Hho@ De is to deriCe his sBpport /and therefore these poHers. re=eiCinG and sendinG e@Dassies. . @aIinG treaties. hoHeCer. and a Great inflBen=e on their appoint@ents to foreiGn =oBrts. CATO . #oB @Bst. or in other Hords. are a@onG the folloHinG: It is ne=essar>. and in this CieH he Hill haCe a Great share in the poHer of @aIinG pea=e. D> Hhi=h @eans an i@perfe=t aristo=ra=> DorderinG on @onar=h> @a> De estaDlished. and in adBlation to people of fortBne and poHer. for Hant of other e@plo>@ent. $e is a =onstitBent part of the leGislatiCe poHer. thereD> DlendinG the exe=BtiCe and leGislatiCe poHers. expressed or i@plied in this ConstitBtion. =ontrolled and =he=Ied D> a FBst and fBll representation of the people. that the =o@pensation for his serCi=es. in the Ha> he is ele=ted. and Hill De =onCin=ed that this GoCern@ent is no @ore liIe a trBe pi=tBre of >oBr oHn than an AnGel of DarIness rese@Dles an AnGel of LiGht. diCested of the preroGatiCe of inflBen=inG Har and pea=e. !or thoBGh it @a> De asserted that the IinG of Great "ritain has the express poHer of @aIinG pea=e or Har. and =o@@andinG standinG ar@ies and naCies. It is a @axi@ in repBDli=s that the representatiCe of the people shoBld De of their i@@ediate =hoi=e. his reCenBe. is @ade president of the senate. ex=ept in =ases of i@pea=h@ent. and allian=es Hith foreiGn states.

Antifederalist No. and HoBld not let the people =hoose for the@selCes.. This is a . and haCe an eEBal nB@Der of Cotes. )e InoH that there s=ar=el> eCer Has an ele=tion of sB=h an offi=er HithoBt the interposition of foreiGn poHers. I thinI He haCe eCer> thinG. the> Hill sBpport hi@. "Bt Hhen those are HeaI. >oB @a> haCe a stronG exe=BtiCe.. All the Great poHers of EBrope haCe interfered in an ele=tion Hhi=h tooI pla=e not Cer> lonG aGo. It is hiGhl> proDaDle the President Hill De =ontinBed in offi=e for life. JtheK de@o=rati=al. Hill Hish to @aIe A@eri=a entirel> her oHn. It is the interest of pain. to De in an inti@ate =onne=tion Hith the@. To Gain his faCor.. Perhaps the de@o=rati= Dran=h HoBld De Hell =onstrB=ted. if >oB GiCe the exe=BtiCe extensiCe poHers for so lonG a ti@e. The first oDFe=t in EnGland Has to destro> the @onar=h>. The exe=BtiCe is still Horse. and of =oBrse the GoCern@ent Has orGaniAed on its an=ient prin=iples. This EBadrennial poHer =annot De FBstified D> an=ient histor>. 1233. so@e Here HillinG her i@De=ilit> shoBld =ontinBe. $oH Hill >oB pBnish hi@ if he aDBse his poHer6 )ill >oB =all hi@ Defore the enate6 The> are his =oBnsellors and partners in =ri@e. $e is to De ele=ted D> a nB@Der of ele=tors in the =oBntr>. to apprehend fro@ sB=h interferen=es. It is thBs =hanGinG throBGhoBt the Hhole. or exe=BtiCe Dran=h.. there HoBld De no @eans of restorinG the GoCern@ent to its for@er orGaniAation. the other. )e InoH hoH @B=h the poHers of EBrope haCe interfered Hith Heden. The deleGation of poHer is. If eCer the GoCern@ent De =hanGed. THo =aBses preCail to @aIe the@ inter@eddle in sB=h =ases:/one is. onl> for one >ear. after losinG $olland. . 'r. and inflBen=e their deliDerations. to preserCe the Dalan=e of poHer. J)illia@K GRA# ON. the Dalan=e Hill not De preserCed. )here are >oBr =he=Is6 )e oBGht to De extre@el> =aBtioBs in this =oBntr>. As this GoCern@ent is orGaniAed. in=e the death of Charles 7II. . o@e poHers Here HillinG it shoBld De so. He shall find their poHers are perpetBall> Car>inG and flB=tBatinG throBGhoBt the Hhole. If he has a Good BnderstandinG Hith the enate. There is hardl> an instan=e Hhere a repBDli= trBsted its exe=BtiCe so lonG Hith @B=h poHer. in this respe=t. one Great oDFe=tion Hith @e is this: If He adCert to. to preserCe their trade. DBt the aristo=rati= Dran=h restored hi@. "Bt Here a reColBtion to happen here. it Hill proDaDl> De into a despotis@. Hhi=h =onCerted it into an aDsolBte GoCern@ent. Great "ritain Hill Hish to in=rease her inflBen=e D> a still =loser =onne=tion. )hen >oB haCe a stronG de@o=rati=al and a stronG aristo=rati=al Dran=h. if possiDle. fro@ the =ontiGBit> of her possessions in the Hestern he@isphere to the United tates. others Hished the =ontrar>. 'r. and at lenGth the =oBrt of !ran=e DroBGht aDoBt a reColBtion. . 13 ON T$E 'ODE O! ELECTING T$E PRE IDENT !ro@ a spee=h D> )illia@ Gra>son GiCen to the *irGinia ratif>inG =onCention on <Bne 13. Here it not for this defe=t. for then the loHer hoBse is to Cote D> states. or Hhen @ore than one haCe sB=h a @aForit>. These =aBses haCe prodB=ed interferen=es of foreiGn poHers in the ele=tion of the IinG of Poland. the> Hill Foin to preCent a dis=oCer> of his @isdeeds. that =oBntr> has Deen a repBDli=an GoCern@ent. aristo=rati=al. Chair@an. Consider the @eans of i@portan=e he Hill haCe D> =reatinG offi=ers. DBt the prin=iple is =hanGed Hhen no person has a @aForit> of the Hhole nB@Der of ele=tors appointed. it HoBld De danGeroBs to trBst the President Hith sB=h poHers. Can A@eri=a De free fro@ these interferen=es6 !ran=e. It see@s rather foBnded on a==ident than an> prin=iple of GoCern@ent I eCer heard of. nor is it Harranted D> @odern repBDli=s. than the de@o=rati= Dran=h. in @ost of the@.

a==ordinG to states. ( state ele=tors and 10 representatiCes . The nB@Der of ele=tors is eEBal to the nB@Der of representatiCes and senators. This perpetBation of poHer is totall> Bn=onGenial to the trBe spirit of repBDli=an GoCern@ents. The> GiCe. A person Hho is a faCorite of ConGress.. D> the +d =laBse of the lst se=tion of the (d arti=le. 12 ( 1+4 o that the President @a> De reele=ted D> the Coi=es of 12 aGainst 1+4.=aBtion to Bs not to trBst extensiCe poHers. in a repBDli=an GoCern@ent. . and as there is a @aterial distin=tion DetHeen the =arr>inG and prodB=tiCe states.. and tHo for the President. I haCe @ade an esti@ate Hhi=h shoHs Hith Hhat fa=ilit> the> Hill De aDle to reele=t hi@. As he is Cested Hith the poHer of @aIinG treaties./a @aForit> of its . In this =ase. and this oDserCation Hill appl> to eCer> part of it. ThBs @BtBal interest Hill lead the@ re=ipro=all> to sBpport one another. Antifederalist No. . to GBard effe=tBall> aGainst perpetBatinG an> portion of poHer. Hhile the @inorit> a@oBnts to 05. the> @a> do Hhat the> please. De ele=ted President. one hBndred and eiGht>/tHo Cotes.. ninet>/one. Let NeH $a@pshire De for hi@. @a>. if he Gets DBt tHo Cotes of ele=tors. therefore. I haCe an extre@e oDFe=tion to the @ode of his ele=tion.. It @a> De said that this is an extraCaGant =ase. I presB@e the seCen Eastern tates Hill alHa>s ele=t hi@. 14 T$E C$ARACTER O! T$E E7ECUTI*E O!!ICE D> Ri=hard $enr> Lee The Great oDFe=t is. CiA. it Hill often happen. . in the sa@e @an or fa@il>. the for@er Hill De disposed to haCe hi@ to the@selCes. In @> opinion. and Hill neCer happen. . D> the sBDseEBent =hoi=e of 10 representatiCes. if he haCe DBt tHo Cotes. Great or s@all. It Hill De a GoCern@ent of a fa=tion. Brel> the possiDilit> of sB=h a =ase oBGht to De ex=lBded.. for. Let there De fort>/fiCe Cotes for foBr different =andidates. haCinG a @aForit>. The total nB@Der of Coi=es 941 ele=tors and 10 representatiCes: is . + representatiCes is Rhode Island 1 1 Conne=ti=Bt 0 + NeH <erse> + DelaHare 1 1 GeorGia + ( North Carolina 0 + A @aForit> of seCen states is 10 ThBs the @aForit> of seCen states is DBt 10. Hhi=h he @a> easil> pBr=hase. . $e Hill a==o@@odate hi@self to their interests in for@inG treaties. and the> Hill =ontinBe hi@ perpetBall> in offi=e. On the one hand the first . the ele=tion is to De D> the representatiCes. The> are to Cote for tHo persons. $e is one of the fiCe hiGhest. 101 *oi=es in faCor of the President are.

De Hill retire Hith diGnit> to his estate. ineliGiDle. I thinI. first aGreed that the president shoBld De =hosen for seCen >ears. and let it haCe so@ethinG CalBaDle to itself to lose in =onCBlsions in the state. to asso=iate so@e faCorite son Hith hi@self. Hill BnFBstl> atte@pt to taIe fro@ the pBDli=. He @Bst irresistiDl> =on=lBde that this Hill De the =ase Hith nine tenths of the presidents. and GiCe so@e fa@il> per@anent poHer and interest in the =o@@Bnit>. to Gain friends and Cotes. is rather a @atter of opinion. It is said that a @an InoHinG that at a GiCen period he @Bst EBit his offi=e. for life. as D> the =onstitBtion there @Bst De a =onstant transfer of it fro@ one @an to another. nor Hith that pBDli= disapproDation Hhi=h DeinG left oBt. Hhereas the @an =onstantl> looIinG forHard to his fBtBre ele=tions. $e =an haCe no rational hopes or expe=tations of retaininG his offi=e after the expiration of a InoHn li@ited ti@e. and not fro@ the sB==ess of his riCals. )heneCer he shall haCe an> prospe=t of =ontinBinG the offi=e in hi@self and fa@il>. thBs leaCe his offi=e. As to pBDli= @onies. liIe the Ro@an =onsBls. in @> opinion. on the other. that this @ode is infinitel> preferaDle to the one finall> adopted. The sa@e =onstitBtion that @aIes a @an eliGiDle for a GiCen period onl>. to fo@ent strBGGles and =ontests. no address. and perhaps. No @an Hill Hish to De a @ere =>pher at the Dead of the GoCern@ent. . A @an so sitBated Hill haCe no per@anent interest in the GoCern@ent to lose. as to @aIe a first @aGistrate eliGiDle for life. DBt =lear it is. and tools =onstantl> e@plo>ed to aid his CieHs and soBnd his praise. he retires HithoBt pain. DBt alHa>s @B=h to Gain. De DBt Cer> little in this oDserCation. it HoBld De. it see@s. The =onCention. if not. D> =ontests and =onCBlsions in the state. he @a>. The serCile sBpporters of his Hishes Hill De pla=ed in all offi=es. Hill haCe DBt feH or no te@ptations to fill its dependent offi=es Hith his tools. not so lonG as to enaDle Khi@ to taIe an> @easBres to estaDlish hi@self. at all eCents. or an> parti=Blar set of @en. and to =reate hopes and expe=tations in hi@ and his fa@il> of oDtaininG Hhat the> haCe not. There =an. find an honoraDle sBpport and e@plo>@ent in so@e respe=taDle offi=e. oBGht to @aIe no @an eliGiDle till he arriCe to the aGe of fort> or fort>/fiCe >ears. or of =ontinBinG the offi=e in his fa@il>. On the Hhole. Hill haCe eCer> indB=e@ent Defore hi@ to fill all pla=es Hith his oHn props and dependents. and he @a> alHa>s riGidl> De @ade to a==oBnt for eCer> shillinG he shall re=eiCe. and la> in store the @eans of sBpport and splendor in his retire@ent. to in=rease the poHers and i@portan=e of it. i@plies. he Hill spare no artifi=e. A @an =hosen to this i@portant offi=e for a li@ited period and alHa>s afterHards rendered. al@ost as Hell to =reate a li@ited @onar=h> at on=e. and perhaps. )hen a @an shall Get the =hair.exe=BtiCe @aGistrate oBGht to re@ain in offi=e so lonG as to aCoid instaDilit> in the exe=Btion of the laHs. The Great oDFe=t of ea=h president then Hill De to render his GoCern@ent a GlorioBs period in the annals of his =oBntr>. In the latter =ase. D> la>inG Defore the@ the flatterinG prospe=t of GaininG @B=h HithoBt risIinG an>thinG. If He reason at all on the sBDFe=t. )e @a> haCe. at an> rate. and =onseEBentl> fro@ one fa@il> to another. Hill De GoCerned D> Cer> different =onsiderations. and other e@inent =hara=ters in repBDli=s. )hen a @an =onstitBtionall> retires fro@ offi=e. D> the =onstitBtion. his Greatest oDFe=t Hill De to Ieep it. and neCer after to De eliGiDle. and freEBentl> the sedB=inG and flatterinG hope of sB==eedinG. the president need handle none of the@. Hho @a> De reele=ted fro@ ti@e to ti@e. and in atte@pts of BsBrpation. and no exertions. for the first president. He a=tBall> te@pt the@ to distBrD the state. to taIe offi=e after hi@. A @an Hho @Bst. If he De a @an of fortBne. )hether seCen >ears is a period too lonG or not. one in a =entBr> or tHo afterHards 9if the GoCern@ent shoBld Hithstand the atta=Is of others: a Great and Good @an. DBt these are not eCents to De =al=Blated Bpon in the present state of hB@an natBre. he is sensiDle he retires De=aBse the laHs dire=t it. GoCerned D> sBperior @otiCes. to the aGGrandiAe@ent of his fa@il>. Hhen eliGiDle.

To De the foBntain of all honors in the United tates/ =o@@ander in =hief of the ar@>. D> the re@oCal.. death. and the da> on Hhi=h the> shall GiCe their Cotes. the> oBGht. and pBt their na@es doHn Bpon =allinG the >eas and na>s for that pBrpose/is in realit> to De a IinG. and that sB=h offi=ers shall a=t a==ordinGl>. . for the saIe of preserCinG the pea=e of the =o@@Bnit>. ConsiderinG these =laBses toGether. in =ase a popBlar offi=er shoBld thBs De de=lared the a=tinG president. or @ade perpetBal and hereditar>. He do not InoH that it is i@proDaDle. at on=e to De @ade hereditar>. Bntil the disaDilit> De re@oCed. and HithoBt an> Ciolent a=t.. I sBD@it this EBestion/Hhether in =ase of a Ca=an=> in the offi=e of president. 25 T$E PO)ER AND DANGEROU POTENTIAL O! $I ELECTED 'A<E T# %AN OLD )$IGLs% essa> fro@ The NeH/#orI <oBrnal of De=e@Der 11. onl> i@plies. resiGnation. at @ost. or a president shall De ele=ted. The ele=tion of a IinG Hhether it De in A@eri=a or Poland. it HoBld De an> Drea=h of the =onstitBtion6 There appears to @e to De an intended proCision for sBppl>inG the offi=e of president/not onl> for an> re@aininG portion of the foBr >ears. and then tell @e Hhat i@portant preroGatiCe the IinG of Great "ritain is entitled to Hhi=h does not also DelonG to the president dBrinG his =ontinBan=e . and =onGress shoBld de=lare that a =ertain offi=er. and sBffer sB=h offi=er to =ontinBe seCeral >ears. that he @iGht =ontinBe for life. If sB=h poHers as these are to De trBsted in the hands of an> @an. Hhere IinGs are ad@itted to rBle the> shoBld @ost =ertainl> De Cested Hith hereditar> poHer. J"BtK He do not InoH that it is i@possiDle. Hith the poHer of @aIinG treaties and of GrantinG pardons. >et I CentBre to pronoBn=e. . death. naC>. as se=retar> of foreiGn affairs. Hill De a s=ene of horror and =onfBsion. or inaDilit> of the president and Ci=e president. D> o@ittinG to appoint the ti@e for =hoosinG ele=tors of another president. as @B=h a IinG as the IinG of Great "ritain. and @ilitia.The =onstitBtion proCides onl> that the president shall hold his offi=e dBrinG the ter@ of foBr >ears. Bnless tHo thirds of Doth hoBses shall persist in ena=tinG it. for instan=e. )hen I sa> that oBr fBtBre president Hill De as @B=h a IinG as the IinG of Great "ritain. and I a@ perfe=tl> serioBs Hhen I de=lare. shall a=t as president.. It also proCides that in =ase of the re@oCal. as a friend to @> =oBntr>. In the first pla=e the offi=e of president of the United tates appears to @e to De =lothed Hith sB=h poHers as are danGeroBs. It also proCides that =onGress @a> deter@ine the ti@e of =hoosinG ele=tors. or eCen for his life. DBt @erel> D> neGle=ts and dela>s on the part of =onGress. 1232. I shall despair of an> happiness in the United tates Bntil this offi=e is either redB=ed to a loHer pit=h of poHer. to a=t as president. DBt in =ases of e@erGen=>/Bntil another president shall De ele=ted. T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. and to De Cested Hith an aBthorit> to pBt a neGatiCe Bpon all laHs. I onl> asI of @> readers to looI into the =onstitBtion of that =oBntr>. 'B=h as I aDhor IinGl> GoCern@ent. that one shall De =hosen eCer> foBrth >ear. . resiGnation. . =onGress @a> de=lare Hhat offi=er shall a=t as president. or inaDilit>. . that. Doth of the president and Ci=e/ president. that. . and a IinG too of the Horst Iind: an ele=tiCe IinG.

DBt that he shoBld not De =apaDle of DeinG =hosen a se=ond ti@e. to la> the foBndation for a @ilitar> GoCern@ent. and the lenGth of ti@e he shoBld =ontinBe in offi=e. is a sho=I al@ost too Great for hB@an natBre to endBre.in offi=e. B=h a @an HoBld die a thoBsand deaths rather than sinI fro@ the heiGhts of splendor and poHer. AN OLD )$IG Antifederalist No. =an =reate noDilit> Hhi=h oBr president =annot. and deepl> inColCed in deDt. . that it is perhaps a =han=e of one hBndred @illions to one that the next aGe Hill not fBrnish an exa@ple of so disinterested a Bse of Great poHer. The IinG of Great "ritain. the @oderation and loCe of liDert> Hhi=h possessed the @ind of oBr late General/and this =oBntr> Hill De inColCed at on=e in Har and t>rann>. that liIe Caesar. )e are =ertainl> aDoBt GiCinG oBr president too @B=h or too little. Bntil . to fra@e a =onstitBtion that shoBld set DoBnds to his poHer. in priCate life. He shall find so@e one Hho Hill De Cer> BnHillinG to part Hith the@. It Hill =ost a @an @an> strBGGles to resiGn sB=h e@inent poHers. se=Bre the liDert> of the sBDFe=t. that this @an is HithoBt the CirtBe. HithoBt trespassinG Bpon the DoBnds of proDaDilit>. Bnder pretense of a repBDli=. let Bs sBppose a fBtBre president and =o@@ander in =hief adored D> his ar@> and the @ilitia to as Great a deGree as oBr late illBstrioBs =o@@ander in =hief. Hhi=h =o@es to the sa@e thinG. to sa> so at on=e. 'ar=h 1+. It HoBld De infinitel> @ore prBdent to GiCe hi@ at on=e as @B=h as HoBld =ontent hi@. I HoBld therefore adCise @> =oBntr>@en serioBsl> to asI the@selCes this EBestion: )hether the> are prepared to re=eiCe a IinG6 If the> are. )e @a> also sBppose. 'an> of the @e@Ders Here desiroBs that the President shoBld De ele=ted for seCen >ears.. his poHers. 21 T$E PRE IDENTIAL TER' O! O!!ICE Part 1: LBther 'artin. On this sBDFe=t there Has a Great diCersit> of senti@ent Jat the Philadelphia =onstitBtional =onCentionK. for if on=e poHer is seiAed D> Ciolen=e. and not to De eliGiDle a se=ond ti@e. All the differen=e is. and He haCe onl> to sBppose one thinG @ore. the diGnit> of his for@er station. If He are not prepared to re=eiCe a IinG. Let Bs sBppose this @an to De a faCorite Hith his ar@>.. he @a> De at on=e a@DitioBs and poor. Others proposed that he shoBld not De aDsolBtel> ineliGiDle. let Bs =all another =onCention to reCise the proposed =onstitBtion. DBt D> no @eans. The GenBine Infor@ation Part (: An ex=erpt fro@ the 13th letter of %AGRIPPA% appearinG in The 'assa=hBsetts GaAette on !eDrBar> 0. 1233. 1233. and. and @aIe the IinGl> offi=e hereditar>. Hhile the> are at pea=e Bnder the se=Brit> of an hereditar> sB==ession. and for@ it aneH on the prin=iples of a =onfedera=> of free repBDli=s. shoBld Hant the CirtBes of General )ashinGton. not the least fraG@ent of liDert> Hill sBrCiCe the sho=I. that this @an @a> not haCe the @eans of sBpportinG. as far as possiDle. so that He @iGht De aDle to retain the rest in pea=e. To De tB@Dled headlonG fro@ the pinna=le of Greatness and De redB=ed to a shadoH of departed ro>alt>. and ere lonG. o far is it fro@ its DeinG i@proDaDle that the @an Hho shall hereafter De in a sitBation to @aIe the atte@pt to perpetBate his oHn poHer. and in the =oBrse of less than tHent> >ears He shall find that He haCe GiCen hi@ enoBGh to enaDle hi@ to taIe all.. into oDs=Brit> and Hret=hedness. and that the> are BnHillinG to part Hith their DeloCed =o@@ander in =hief/or to @aIe the thinG fa@iliar. Hhi=h is the Horst of all t>rannies. The se=ond arti=le relates to the exe=BtiCe/his @ode of ele=tion. it is trBe. Part +: !ro@ D> %A CU TO'ER% in the 'aine CB@Derland GaAette. DBt oBr president Hill haCe the poHer of @aIinG all the Great @en. that He shall De e@Droiled in =ontention aDoBt the =hoi=e of the @an.

$oHeCer disaGreeaDle it @iGht De to the @aForit> of the tates. +. A CU TO'ER . >et the Chief <Bsti=e is not disEBalified as a <BdGe. fro@ the poHers that the President is to enFo>. althoBGh a Cariet> of atte@pts Here @ade to alter that part of the s>ste@ D> those Hho Here of a =ontrar> opinion. the President Has to De =hosen for seCen >ears. se=t. not DeinG aDle to sB==eed in that atte@pt. )h> did oBr Horth> Chief <Bsti=e.. HithoBt an> li@itation as to ti@e. There Has a part> Hho atte@pted to haCe the President appointed dBrinG Good DehaCior. the> sB==eeded. for the pBrpose of =hoosinG the se=ond President. 1: %The exe=BtiCe poHer shall De Cested in a President of the United tates of A@eri=a. .. and D> laH e@poHer the Chief <Bsti=e of the Bpre@e <Bdi=ial CoBrt to a=t as President Bntil that ti@e. at Ca@DridGe the >ear past. As the propositions Here reported D> the =o@@ittee of the Hhole hoBse. Hh> not in one for the Hhole people6 )as it not as eas> to haCe said the President shoBld De =hosen eCer> foBrth >ear. and shall De =hosen sB==essiCel> fro@ the different states. The President ele=ted is not to re=eiCe an> other e@olB@ent. . in his address to the Grand <Br>. ResolCed. the riGhts of the people shoBld De as Hell GBarded. Hhi=h it has =ost the Dlood of thoBsands of oBr friends and felloH =itiAens to estaDlish. Therefore. in the =hief exe=BtiCe depart@ent. at lenGth. it HoBld a@oBnt nearl> to the sa@e thinG. if the President Has to De reeliGiDle HithoBt an> interCal of disEBalifi=ation. D> neCer losinG siGht of their oDFe=t. HoBld at on=e De renderinG oBr s>ste@ an ele=tiCe @onar=h>. and =hoosinG a proper ti@e for their pBrpose. and so it Has reported D> the =o@@ittee of detail. and the interests and inflBen=e Hith Hhi=h the> Hill De attended. in oDtaininG the alteration. and.. It Has oDFe=ted that the =hoi=e of a President to =ontinBe in offi=e dBrinG Good DehaCior.% "Bt sBppose the> shoBld thinI it for the pBDli= Good. in the >ear tHo thoBsand. after the first ele=tion.% $ere is no de=laration that a neH one shall De =hosen at the expiration of that ti@e. =hanGinG eCer> >ear.. and not to De eliGiDle at an> ti@e after.the expiration of a =ertain nB@Der of >ears. The sBpporters of the aDoCe proposition Hent Bpon the idea that the Dest se=Brit> for liDert> Has a li@ited dBration. that the> @iGht neCer =o@Dine aGainst the liDert> of the sBDFe=t%/if it is not a ne=essar> arti=le in a =onstitBtion6 If ne=essar> in a tate =onstitBtion. and a rotation of offi=e. to appoint the first TBesda> of epte@Der.. it appears to @e. In the sa@e @anner. The president shall De =hosen annBall> and shall serCe DBt one >ear. DBt. $e shall hold his offi=e dBrinG the ter@ of foBr >ears.. proCided foBr tates shoBld De satisfied Hith the @easBre. AGRIPPA I haCe one diffi=Blt> in @> @ind respe=tinG oBr ad@iraDle ConstitBtion. that ConstitBtion Hhi=h has =arefBll> separated and distinGBished the prin=ipal depart@ents of poHer... sin=e. I do not see DBt that the> are left HithoBt a re@ed>. %ConGress @a> deter@ine the ti@e of =hoosinG the ele=tors. and the da> on Hhi=h the> shall GiCe their Cotes. in Hhi=h the> repeatedl> failed. Art. Hhi=h I hope so@eDod> Hill atte@pt to re@oCe. =all Bpon the@ to sBpport %that free and ex=ellent ConstitBtion. the> then endeaCored to haCe hi@ reeliGiDle HithoBt an> restraint. and that. that the =onstitBtion latel> proposed for the United tates De re=eiCed onl> Bpon the folloHinG =onditions. as in the =onstitBtion of a tate. &inG oDserCes that this is not a =onfederation of tates/for the st>le is in the na@e of the people. as lonG as he liCes.. he Hill De al@ost aDsolBtel> =ertain of DeinG reele=ted fro@ ti@e to ti@e. Hhi=h Has not @ade Bntil Hithin the last tHelCe da>s Defore the ConCention adFoBrned. as to haCe said the RepresentatiCes shall De =hosen eCer> se=ond >ear6 The =eleDrated 'r. sir. . the proposition Has aGreed to in ConCention. on this point. here.

=hara=ters. I sa>. is irresponsiDle and independent/that he. on the plain si@ple DBsiness of ele=tion. @a> not onl> perpetBate his oHn personal ad@inistration. @anners. Is it then De=o@e ne=essar>. after all 9ex=eptinG so@e sB=h =hanGe as is not liIel> to happen tHi=e in the sa@e =entBr>: to intrBst ConGress Hith the final de=ision at last6 Is it ne=essar>. added to his Bn=ontrollaDle poHer oCer the ar@>. a =ertain nB@Der of ele=tors. nor a==oBntaDle to the@. and those aGain ele=tors of other ele=tors6 This see@s to De deGradinG the@ eCen DeloH the propheti=al =Brse denoBn=ed D> the Good old patriar=h. and of Hhi=h the Grand =onCention haCe =ertainl> the honor of DeinG the first inCentors.% appearinG in The &entB=I> GaAette on 'ar=h 1. at least. I sa>. and @ilitia. and triaDle onl> D> the senate. se=ondl>. 2( ON T$E ELECTORAL COLLEGE. Bnder all these adCantaGes and al@ost irresistiDle te@ptations. in a latitBde >et BnthoBGht of. An extraordinar> refine@ent this. for tHo persons. on the offsprinG of his deGenerate son: %serCant of serCants%. and then. 1233. Hhose interest in eCer> instan=e rBns parallel Hith his oHn. naC>. he @a> render his sBspensiCe poHer oCer the laHs as operatiCe and per@anent as that of G. that the president Hho is to De Cested Hith all this de@io@nipoten=e / Hho is not =hosen D> the =o@@Bnit>. the +d oCer the a=ts of the "ritish parlia@ent. of so @B=h i@portan=e as a president / inCested Hith leGislatiCe and exe=BtiCe poHers. e=. the> shall Cote for tHo. Hhose persons. is it rational. shall not De an inhaDitant of the sa@e state Hith the@selCes. D> a feH artfBl and dependent e@issaries in ConGress. and Hho =onseEBentl>. at least possiDle. naC>. . Or in other Hords. @a> exer=ise the =o@Dined aBthorit> of leGislation and exe=Btion. Hho are to De his oHn =oBn=il. or 9to saCe troBDle: @a> =hoose the@selCes. (. on so@e pretended piEBe. and Cote D> Dallot. Hho are all to De appointed D> hi@self. ON REELIGI"ILIT# O! T$E PRE IDENT "> an anon>@oBs Hriter %REPU"LICU . and =allinG the@ to his assistan=e/that he @a>. Hho is to De =o@@ander in =hief of the ar@>. toGether Hith his priCate interest in the offi=ers of all these different depart@ents. De sBpre@e =onserCator of laHs. the leGislatiCe Dod> of ea=h state is e@poHered to point oBt to their =onstitBents so@e @ode of =hoi=e. @ilitia. or prin=iples the> InoH nothinG of6 And. AGain I HoBld asI 9=onsiderinG hoH prone @anIind are to enGross poHer. and is onl> re@oCaDle on =onCi=tion of treason or DriDer>. haCe a te@porar> neGatiCe on all Dills and resolCes. and then to aDBse it: is it not proDaDle. and Bnder the @odest title of president. Hhi=h Cest the sBpre@e =ontinental exe=BtiCe poHer in a president/in order to the =hoi=e of Hho@. and Hho are neither the offi=ers of the people. in the trBe politi=al sense of the Hord. and so his =reatBres. =onCene and adFoBrn Doth hoBses of =onGress. I Go noH to Art. haBGhtil> . . Hho shall @eet in their respe=tiCe states. DBt also @aIe it hereditar>6 "> the sa@e @eans. . that a free people shoBld first resiGn their riGht of sBffraGe into other hands Desides their oHn. =o@@ission all offi=ers. and that for an offi=er too. he has the poHer of for@inG treaties and allian=es. he @a> a=EBire sB=h enor@oBs inflBen=e/as. et=. Grant reprieCes and pardons. one of Hho@. Upon his DeinG inCested Hith those poHers a se=ond or third ti@e.. that the> to Hho@ the> resiGn it shoBld De =o@pelled to =hoose @en. as to the@. 1. that the sa=red riGhts of @anIind shoBld thBs dHindle doHn to Ele=tors of ele=tors. @aIe treaties. and Hho is to =ontinBe foBr >ears. and @ore espe=iall> Hhen added to all this.Antifederalist No. one or Doth of Hho@ the> InoH nothinG of. .

fro@ si@ilar @otiCes and D> si@ilar @eans. The next prin=iple. or an> Dran=h of it/and that is T$E PEOPLE. I DelieCe that it is BniCersall> aGreed Bpon in this enliGhtened =oBntr>. . the> oBGht to De GoCerned D> the@selCes onl>. are in a state of slaCer>. haCe a riGht to deter@ine Hhether the> Hill @aIe laHs. there is NO LI"ERT#. or D> a deleGated aBthorit>. REPU"LICU Antifederalist No. and >et it is GroBnded Bpon a Cer> plain natBral prin=iple. The>. !or onl> sB=h an Bnion =an se=Bre oBr freedo@. and diCide poHers a@onG their rBlers. and diCision Hill ineCitaDl> destro> it. The appli=ation of this Great politi=al trBth. or do Doth in a =olle=tiCe Dod>. and GiCe Bs laH at the Da>onetLs point. either fro@ HithoBt or Hithin. and as far as the> are so. 1233. toHards Hhi=h the> haCe alread> atte@pted so larGe a stride6 To one of Hhi=h =hannels. Let Bnit> and liDert> De oBr @arI as Hell as oBr @otto. It is noH ti@e that the people shoBld aCail the@selCes of the sa@e @axi@. to diCide the people. To =on=lBde. it @o=Is the Bnited efforts of @anIind. in order to preCent their aDBsinG it. or rather to a =onflBen=e of Doth.and =onte@ptBoBsl>. and DeinG deriCed fro@ the@. ThanI heaCen He are not >et arriCed at that state. or D> their i@@ediate representatiCes. and onl> the>. to DrinG Bs into it. DBt if =onsolidated into a ro=I. It has alHa>s Deen the faCorite @axi@ of prin=es. ere=t the@selCes easil> into an oliGar=h>. He neCer Hill. DeleGation is a positiCe a=tBal inCestitBre. And Hhile He =ontinBe to haCe sense enoBGh to dis=oCer and dete=t. in order to GoCern the@. . He see@ to De fast GlidinG aHa>. DBt I shall pro=eed i@@ediatel> to that Hhi=h I =on=eiCe to De the next in order. tBrn oBr poor loHer hoBse 9the onl> shadoH of liDert> He shall haCe left: oBt of doors. . and the @o@ent He arriCe at it/fareHell liDert>. Or.% an anon>@oBs Hriter appeared in the JPhiladelphiaK Independent GaAetteer on <anBar> +. Hith respe=t to the people. I =an thinI of DBt one soBr=e of riGht to GoCern@ent. . ThBs a @oBntain of sand @a> pea=e @eal Jsi=K De re@oCed D> the feeDle hands of a =hild. that all poHer residinG oriGinall> in the people. and =an onl> fall in a General Hre=I of natBre. the sa@e @an. I shall not spend an> ti@e in explaininG a prin=iple so Hell and so Generall> Bnderstood. HithoBt Hhi=h it @Bst De =lear that no free GoCern@ent =an eCer sBDsist. is the DI*I ION O! PO)ER a@onG those Hho are =harGed Hith the exe=Btion of it. 2+ DOE T$E PRE IDENTIAL *ETO PO)ER IN!RINGE ON T$E EPARATION O! DEPART'ENT 6 %)ILLIA' PENN. If. or Dod> of @en. Hho are nearl> in the sa@e sitBation. Therefore if an> people are sBDFe=ted to an aBthorit> Hhi=h the> haCe not thBs a=tBall> =hosen/eCen thoBGh the> @a> haCe ta@el> sBD@itted to it/>et it is not their leGiti@ate GoCern@ent. is possessed Doth of the leGislatiCe and exe=BtiCe poHer. . or exe=Bte the@. has lonG Deen BnInoHn to the Horld. . Let Bs therefore =ontinBe Bnited in the =aBse of rational liDert>. and CirtBe en9TBGh to detest and oppose eCer> atte@pt. @a> not the senate. De=aBse it @a> De feared that the . The> are Hholl> passiCe. either of for=e or fraBd. sa>s 'ontesEBieB.

to the end it @a> De a GoCern@ent of laHs and not of @en% 9se=t. for one >ear. Doth leGislatiCe and exe=BtiCe. to Hhi=h he is =learl> entitled D> his preroGatiCe. It is therefore a politi=al error of the Greatest @aGnitBde. the exe=BtiCe Dran=h possesses @ore or less of the exe=BtiCe poHer. Hill =ertainl> De sBDordinate to it. Bnless tHo thirds of the hoBse afterHards =on=Br. it =annot De passed into a laH. there Hill De no DoBnds to their t>rann>. and if the> Doth haCe a share of ea=h otherLs aBthorit>. A DBrGher of a =ertain DoroBGh of HitAerland Has ele=ted "ailiff.sa@e @onar=h. Hhere the poHers of GoCern@ent are properl> diCided. the exe=BtiCe Dran=h. a==ordinG to the =onstitBtion of the pla=e. And here it @Bst appear sinGBlar that the state of 'assa=hBsetts/ Hhere the do=trine of a separate FBrisdi=tion is @ost positiCel> estaDlished. In the Dills of riGhts or =onstitBtions of NeH/ $a@pshire. 'assa=hBsetts.% In Penns>lCania and DelaHare. or to inter@eddle Hith it in an> @anner. and threatened to send hi@ to Fail. if the GoCernor refBses his assent to a Dill. !or Hhi=heCer of the tHo diCides its poHer Hith the other. The poor @an Has for=ed to =o@pl>. it see@s on the =ontrar> to De eCer>Hhere Hell Bnderstood and ad@itted De>ond =ontroCers>. and if the> haCe the poHer of infli=tinG penalties for offenses. the Chan=ellor and FBdGes of the Bpre@e CoBrt. DBt said to hi@. that sin=e the da>s of )illia@ III. 'ar>land. and of tr>inG the offenders. These tHo shoBld neCer De sBffered to haCe the least share of ea=h otherLs FBrisdi=tion. hortl> after his appoint@ent. and their friends. if he did not >ield hi@ an i@@ediate oDedien=e. NothinG =an De =learer. no IinG of EnGland has dared to exer=ise the neGatiCe oCer the a=ts of the tHo hoBses of parlia@ent. and ordered hi@ to pBll off his Doots. is also entrBsted Hith the appli=ation of that @one>. and the natBral disposition of @an to a@Dition and poHer @aIes it proDaDle that sB=h HoBld De the =onseEBen=e. %That the leGislatiCe. in order to exe=Bte the@ in a t>ranni=al @anner. or Chief 'aGistrate. Their interest as Hell as their poHers Hill De the sa@e. =onsistinG of the GoCernor. he sent for one of his neiGhDors. it is expressl> de=lared. The honest neiGhDor Has astonished. the> Hill taIe that opportBnit> of proCidinG for the@selCes. or the sa@e senate. %)hen I a@ appointed Dailiff in @> tBrn. >oB shall pBll off @> Doots and =lean the@ too. or either of the@. North/ Carolina and GeorGia. 91: I shall illBstrate this do=trine D> an exa@ple. and in Hhose Dill of riGhts these re@arIaDle Hords are to De foBnd. has @ore =ontrol oCer the leGislatBre than in an> other state. to alloH the exe=BtiCe poHer a neGatiCe. Hhi=h =onsists of a sinGle @aGistrate. +5: />et in that =o@@onHealth and NeH/$a@pshire. for the Dailiff Has Cested Hith poHer. the> Hill Cer> proDaDl> raise larGe sB@s. $e pBlled off his HorshipLs Doots. the> are effe=tBall> separated HithoBt an> parti=Blar de=laration of the prin=iple. and appoint the offi=ers. *irGinia. In Rhode/Island and Conne=ti=Bt. the> Hill De in fa=t DBt one Dod>. Hill ena=t t>ranni=al laHs. of Hhi=h the GoCernor is to De one. The people of Great "ritain haCe Deen so sensiDle of this trBth. Hhi=h has the poHer of raisinG @one> D> taxes. In the other states indeed.% The first and @ost natBral diCision of the poHers of GoCern@ent are into the leGislatiCe and exe=BtiCe Dran=hes. If the> are e@poHered to =reate offi=es. and appl> the@ to their oHn priCate Bses. This do=trine is not noCel in A@eri=a. and atte@pted to re@onstrate. that the sa@e Dod>. and Hhere the different FBrisdi=tions are inCiolaDl> Iept distin=t and separate. and the> Hill =o@Dine toGether aGainst the people. shall De foreCer separate and distin=t fro@ ea=h other. In NeH #orI the sa@e poHer is GiCen to a CoBn=il of ReCision. or an> three of the@. LiDert> therefore =an onl> sBDsist. DBt the Dailiff Has deter@ined to exert his aBthorit>. %The exe=BtiCe shall neCer exer=ise the leGislatiCe and FBdi=ial poHers. exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial depart@ents. or in fa=t an> Iind of =ontrol oCer the pro=eedinGs of the leGislatBre. !or there. Hhose GoCern@ents Here . Bppose for instan=e.

and =oBld not find an> solid GroBnd on Hhi=h to estaDlish a General rBle. DeinG on=e oBt of the arI of trBth. and that no se=t shall eCer De entitled to a preferen=e oCer the others. or to deliCer the Great seal. and Hhi=h alone =oBld haCe Deen their safest GBide. *irGinia and NeH/#orI are the onl> states Hhere there is a perfe=t liDert> of =ons=ien=e. all the offi=ers of GoCern@ent. and in the latter. and in DelaHare. DBt haCinG lost siGht of the oriGinal prin=iple Hhi=h the> had alread> estaDlished. DBt >et the> tried eCer> @ethod to introdB=e so@ethinG si@ilar to it. the Protestant. the =onstitBtion pres=riDes that the GoCernor shall siGn the Dills. The> reproDated the do=trine in the @ost express Hords. and afterHards DeinG as expressl> =ontradi=ted in the pra=ti=e. I =annot sa> an> thinG as to Conne=ti=Bt . the GoCernor has a sinGle Cote as a @e@Der of the Bpper hoBse. in NeH/ <erse>. The> haCe tried eCer> possiDle @ediB@. no tHo 9NeH $a@pshire and 'assa=hBsetts ex=epted: haCe done it exa=tl> in the sa@e @anner. are to De of the Christian reliGion. the @ost fatal =onseEBen=es @iGht ensBe. ad@itted in al@ost eCer> one of the A@eri=an states as a fBnda@ental @axi@ in the politi=s of a free =oBntr>.% #et in 'assa=hBsetts and 'ar>land. In GeorGia the laHs are to De reCised D> the GoCernor and CoBn=il. and in oBth/Carolina the =onstitBtion Goes so far as to de=lare the =reed of the estaDlished =hBr=h. and >et the> =oBld not Dear to part entirel> Hith it. The theor> of this General do=trine is eCer>Hhere estaDlished. ThBs He find it de=lared in eCer> one of oBr Dills of riGhts. the trinitarian se=ts. and the latter shoBld refBse to siGn the laHs. LiIe NoahLs doCe. and this is not the onl> instan=e that He find in the =onstitBtions of the different states. $ere then He see the Great leadinG prin=iple of the aDsolBte diCision of the leGislatiCe fro@ the exe=BtiCe FBrisdi=tion. and NeH <erse> has adopted this part of their =onstitBtion. thoBGh a feH states haCe so@eHhat sHerCed fro@ it in the pra=ti=e. Of those states Hho haCe alloHed the exe=BtiCe Dran=h to inter@eddle Hith the pro=eedinGs of the leGislatBre. the> =oBld not find elseHhere a pla=e to rest their feet. The idea of the neGatiCe. has had an effe=t Bpon ti@id @inds. It is =BrioBs to oDserCe hoH @an> different Ha>s the> haCe endeaCored to =on=iliate trBth Hith preFBdi=e. !ro@ Hhen=e He @Bst =on=lBde. "Bt in the first of these states. North/Carolina. %that there shall De a perfe=t liDert> of =ons=ien=e. althoBGh it has so lonG De=o@e oDsolete. Hhi=h is in the GoCernorLs =Bstod>. UnfortBnatel>. These fa=ts Hill no doBDt afford an interestinG paGe in the histor> of the =ontradi=tions of the hB@an @ind. the> do not stand sinGle. Penns>lCania has pro=eeded Bpon a @B=h @ore rational GroBnd. Hhi=h i@plies that he is DoBnd to deliCer it to the@. and GeorGia. and in oBth/Carolina the> are to De sealed Hith the Great seaK. for the spe=ial pBrpose of affixinG it to the laHs of the state. the> Groped aDoBt in the darI. their leGislatBre haCinG a parti=Blar seal of their oHn. and Bpon the @inds of those Hho =oBld not distinGBish DetHeen the for@ and spirit of the "ritish =onstitBtion.estaDlished Defore the reColBtion. haCe an ex=lBsiCe riGht to pBDli= e@plo>@ent. and their laHs reEBirinG onl> to De siGned D> the speaIer. that eCen the InoHledGe and fBll =onCi=tion of a neH politi=al trBth Hill not alHa>s i@@ediatel> =onEBer inCeterate haDits and preFBdi=es. In 'ar>land the Dills are to De siGned D> the GoCernor Defore the> =an De ena=ted. Hhi=h the =onstitBtion of EnGland GiCes to the @onar=h oCer the pro=eedinGs of the other Dran=hes of parlia@ent. DBt the> =an do no @ore than GiCe their opinion Bpon the@. It in 'ar>land or oBth/ Carolina a differen=e shoBld eCer arise DetHeen the leGislatBre and the GoCernor. a Foint =o@@ittee of Doth hoBses of leGislatBre is to Hait Bpon the =hief @aGistrate to re=eiCe and retBrn the Great seat. The> HoBld not Grant to the exe=BtiCe Dran=h an aDsolBte neGatiCe oCer the leGislatBre. and in Penns>lCania the @e@Ders of the leGislatBre. of a General prin=iple DeinG expressl> de=lared as a part of the natBral riGhts of the =itiAens.

The North/A@eri=an IntelliGen=er.% Hho Has inflBen=ed D> Tho@as Paine 9in %Co@@on ense:. to @aIe a sole@n paBse. inCented to GBll the people into its adoption. ex=ept the no@inal ele=tions of the president General and the illBstrioBs ConGress De sBpposed to haCe so@e =olor of that natBre. . for the Hhole. and April 4 of 1233 in either The !ree@anLs <oBrnal or. and a @ilitar> IinG. it is not @> intention. and I haCe not Deen infor@ed of their pra=ti=e. . has Deen for@ed D> an infernal FBnto of de@aGoGBes. Hith a standinG ar@> deCoted to his Hill. Its fra@ers Here Hell aHare that so@e appearan=e of ele=tion oBGht to De oDserCed. ADoBt 05 9these DeinG a EBorB@: of the Hell Dorn. A EBorB@ of 10 representatiCes. . the liDerties. that the people shall not De . This noCel s>ste@ of GoCern@ent. . that in la>inG doHn a politi=al s>ste@ it is safer to rel> on prin=iples than Bpon pre=edents. for HithoBt sB=h an appearan=e there Has not the s@allest proDaDilit> of their haCinG it orGaniAed and set in operation. I onl> @eant to shoH. as their =onstitBtions are silent on the sBDFe=t. )ho =an den> DBt the president General Hill De a IinG to all intents and pBrposes. Hrote the folloHinG sele=tion. . Doth deep and danGeroBs. "Bt this is a @ere de=eption. ti@es and =ir=B@stan=es. pla=es. . It is taIen fro@ + essa>s Hhi=h appearinG !eDrBar> 1 S (5. )ILLIA' PENN Antifederalist No. the @ost a==Brsed that eCer the Horld Hitnessed. )hether these reliGioBs restri=tions are riGht or HronG. ThBs oBr laHs are to De ad@inistered D> this t>rant.and Rhode/Island. are to haCe an Bn=ontrolled poHer. A =onspira=> aGainst the freedo@ of A@eri=a. It is the =aBse of freedo@ of a Hhole =ontinent of >oBrselCes and of >oBr felloH @en. "Bt let the Hheels of this GoCern@ent De on=e =leCerl> set in @otion. nor is it @> oDFe=t to exa@ine in the =oBrse of these disEBisitions. or at least the @ost i@portant part of the exe=BtiCe depart@ent is pBt in his hands. . There is not a tin=tBre of de@o=ra=> in the proposed =onstitBtion. Hhile the latter Car> Hith @en. Here it possiDle to estaDlish it. and >oBr =hara=ter of free =itiAens De =hanGed to that of the sBDFe=ts of a @ilitar> IinG/Hhi=h are ne=essar> =onseEBen=es of the adoption of the proposed =onstitBtion / let @e ad@onish >oB in the na@e of sa=red liDert>. . HoBld De a =o@poBnd of @onar=h> and aristo=ra=>. and to soli=it >oBr attention to a =aBse Hherein >oBrselCes and >oBr posterit> are =on=erned. OBr thirteen free =o@@onHealths are to De =onsolidated into one despoti= @onar=h>. and one of the @ost danGeroBs Iind too/a IinG ele=ted to =o@@and a standinG ar@>. . espe=iall> in reGard to the first ConGress. and of (1 senators. and ILll ansHer for it. 2. The sBn neCer shone Bpon a @ore i@portant one. De=aBse the for@er are /fixed and i@@BtaDle. Hith a IinG at their head.T$E PRE IDENT A 'ILITAR# &ING %P$ILADELP$IEN I . and propert> of eCer> =itiAen of A@eri=a. are to possess poHers that extend to the liCes. Per@it a free@an to address >oB. Is not this position oDCioBs6 Its eCiden=e is intBitiCe . "efore @artial laH is de=lared to De the sBpre@e laH of the land.

he is neither restrained nor assisted D> a priC> =oBn=il. . and the i@proper poHers deleGated to the@. and an aristo=rati=al ConGress of the Hell/Dorn/an iota of happiness. And to those add. . "Bt. or @ore properl>. fra@ed a s>ste@ of oppression that @Bst inColCe in its =onseEBen=es the @iser> of their oHn offsprinG. he shoHs Hhat he is not. as far as I re=olle=t. "Bt so fli@s> a palliatiCe =oBld s=ar=e es=ape the =ensBre of the @ost iGnorant adCo=ate for sB=h an offi=er. P$ILADELP$IEN I . or the s@allest neGle=t of @ilitia dBt>. no one has Deen foBnd Dold enoBGh to stand forth in defense of that danGeroBs and Bn=ontrolled offi=er. $is offi=ers =an Hantonl> infli=t the @ost disGra=efBl pBnish@ent on a pea=eaDle =itiAen.. HoBld De rendered the happiest and @ost poHerfBl nation in the BniCerse. o@e feeDle atte@pts haCe Deen @ade D> the adCo=ates of this s>ste@ of t>rann>. Hhi=h is a noCelt> in GoCern@ent. the President/ General. D> representinG the &inG of Great "ritain as possessed of @an> hereditar> preroGatiCes. the =o@@ander in =hief of a standinG ar@>. or of re=eiCinG a little @ore ho@aGe fro@ the rest of their felloH =reatBres. for the hopes of oDtaininG so@e lB=ratiCe e@plo>@ent. that the President is a &inG to all intents and pBrposes. that is. et=. I =hallenGe the politi=ians of the Hhole =ontinent to find in an> period of histor> a @onar=h @ore aDsolBte. espe=iall> in =hoosinG their IinG/the standinG ar@> Hill do that DBsiness for the@. is Cested Hith poHers ex=eedinG those of the @ost despoti= @onar=h He InoH of in @odern ti@es. endeaCored to =on=eal his i@@ense poHers. The President/General. or national strenGth =annot exist. And to =o@plete his Bn=ontrolled sHa>. and sin=e JthenK He hear of no fBrther atte@pts to proCe the ne=essit> of a &inG DeinG set oCer the free@en of A@eri=a. in toB=hinG on the President. .. DBt neGle=ts to shoH Hhat he reall> is. order hi@ oBt in the @ilitia to exer=ise. . In the first nB@Der the Hriter. "Bt this t>rant Hill De so @B=h his sBperior. Hho is to De oBr IinG after this GoCern@ent is estaDlished. to ansHer the oDFe=tions @ade to the s@allness of the nB@Der of representatiCes and senators. oBr neH &inG. and at the sa@e ti@e one of the @ost danGeroBs Iind too / an ele=tiCe &inG.. . and oBGht to roBse hi@ to oppose it at all eCents. ECer> free@an of A@eri=a oBGht to hold Bp this idea to hi@self: that he has no sBperior DBt God and the laHs. . as the proposed =onstitBtion Cests in the president General. that he =an at an> ti@e he thinIs proper. riGhts and poHers that he Has not possessed of. Hho. The Hriter of these essa>s has =learl> proCen. )hat a handso@e retBrn haCe these @en Jthe aBthors of the ConstitBtion @ade to the people of A@eri=a for their =onfiden=e8 ThroBGh the @is=ondB=t of these Dold =onspirators He haCe lost the @ost GlorioBs opportBnit> that an> =oBntr> eCer had to estaDlish a free s>ste@ of GoCern@ent. "Bt Bnder the proposed one =o@posed of an ele=tiCe IinG and a standinG ar@>. offi=ered D> his s>=ophants. the starCelinGs of the Cin=innati. Bnder pretense of disoDedien=e. The thoBGhts of a @ilitar> offi=er possessinG sB=h poHers. are sBffi=ient to ex=ite in the @ind of a free@an the @ost alar@inG apprehensions. and the h>dra @ade its Ha> fro@ the darI =on=laCe into the open liGht. A@eri=a Bnder one pBrel> de@o=rati=al. A feH pie=es Bnder the siGnatBre of An A@eri=an CitiAenL Here pBDlished i@@ediatel> after the ConstitBtion DroIe the shell. )hat a pitifBl fiGBre Hill these BnGratefBl @en @aIe in histor>. that he has a neGatiCe poHer oCer the pro=eedinGs of Doth Dran=hes of the leGislatBre. freedo@. and to @ar=h Hhen and Hhere he pleases.@B=h troBDled Hith fBtBre ele=tions.

Hhi=h shall =onsist of a senate and hoBse of representatiCes. . and all this Has done D> treat>. He find that all treaties @ade. Hhi=h has the Dest =han=e of possessinG CirtBe. )hen He =onsider the extent of treaties/that in filinG the tariff of trade.Antifederalist No. shall De the sBpre@e laH of the land. to de=lare the@selCes hereditar> and sBpre@e. that fro@ a @istaIen Aeal in faCor of that politi=al liDert> Hhi=h Has so re=entl> pBr=hased at so =ostl> a rate.% and it appeared in The PittsDBrGh GaAette on !eDrBar> 11.. 1233. . and to aDolish Hhat shadoH of the state =onstitBtions re@ain D> this poHer alone. and as the president and senate haCe all that inflBen=e Hhi=h arises fro@ the =reatinG and appointinG of all offi=es and offi=ers. B=h =hara=ters @a> also De expe=ted to pro@ise Bs sB=h extraCaGantl> flatterinG adCantaGes to arise fro@ it. as if it Has a==o@panied Hith sB=h @ira=BloBs diCine enerG> as diCided the Red ea. is entirel> ex=lBded. Hho =an doBDt DBt at a proper o==asion the> Hill sB==eed in sB=h an atte@pt6 And Hho =an doBDt DBt that @en Hill arise Hho Hill atte@pt it6 )ill the doinG so De a @ore flaGrant Drea=h of trBst. has Deen reGBlated. And fro@ this poHer of @aIinG treaties. is the first =laBse of the se=ond arti=le. =o@pared Hith the se=ond =laBse of the se=ond se=tion. nor is it lonG sin=e three neiGhDorinG poHers estaDlished a noDle@an of that nation Bpon the throne and reGBlated and altered the fBnda@ental laHs of that =oBntr>. . The first =laBse of the =onstitBtion assBres Bs. And in arti=le sixth. Bnder the aBthorit> of the United tates. It @a> De freel> Granted. are expe=tinG e@plo>@ents Bnder the proposed plan. at a =onCenient =risis. and in the se=ond =laBse of the se=ond arti=le. respe=tinG the GoCern@ent of pain.. an>thinG in the =onstitBtion or laHs of an> state to the =ontrar> notHithstandinG. and spoIe Hith thBnder on 'oBnt inai. or Hhi=h shall De @ade. and pBDli= =onfiden=e. as Hell as diCided the territor> thereof. than has alread> Deen pra=tised in order to introdB=e the proposed plan6 . and fBll as in=onsistent and danGeroBs. . and presentl> He find the @ost i@portant and @ost . and Hho are neCer =ontented. are Hell re@e@Dered. to indB=e oBr adoptinG thereof. eCen Good @en @a> GiCe it Jthe =onstitBtionK BnreasonaDle opposition. that D> treaties in EBrope the sB==ession and =onstitBtion of @an> soCereiGn states. and the FBdGes in eCer> state shall De DoBnd thereD>. "Bt that =lass of @en/Hho either pro@pted D> their oHn a@Dition or desperate fortBnes. it is de=lared that the president. =laBse se=ond. $ere the sBpre@e exe=BtiCe @aGistrate is offi=iall> =onne=ted Hith the hiGhest Dran=h of the leGislatBre. . Indeed. and the loHer hoBse altoGether Bseless. the hoBse of representatiCes. the i@posts and port dBties Generall> are or @a> De fixed D> a larGe =onstrB=tion Hhi=h interested rBlers are neCer at a less to GiCe to an> =onstitBtional poHer/ treaties @a> De extended to al@ost eCer> leGislatiCe oDFe=t of the General GoCern@ent. or those HeaI and ardent @en Hho alHa>s expe=t to De Gainers D> reColBtions. and the Har of the Grand allian=e. I see nothinG to hinder the president and senate.. The partition treat>. Of the sa@e Iind. that the leGislatiCe poHers shall De Cested in a ConGress. D> and Hith the =onsent of the senate. . DBt sB=h @en =annot De reasonaDl> =harGed Hith sordid personal interest as their @otiCe/De=aBse it is Great and sBdden =hanGes Hhi=h prodB=es opportBnities of prefer@ent. and to BrGe a thoBsand reasons for oBr real or sBpposed distresses. DBt alHa>s hasteninG fro@ one diffi=Blt> to another/ @a> De expe=ted to as=riDe eCer> ex=ellen=e to the proposed s>ste@. )ho is it that does not InoH. or a Greater deGree of Ciolen=e and perfid>. )e first find the president fBll> and aDsolBtel> Cested Hith the exe=BtiCe poHer. 20 A NOTE PROTE TING T$E TREAT#/ 'A&ING PRO*I ION O! T$E CON TITUTION The folloHinG essa> Has penned anon>@oBsl> D> %$A'PDEN. is to @aIe treaties.

0. In =onsiderinG the leGislators. there appear to De six different @odes in Hhi=h. It Hill De asIed. tHo interestinG EBestions parti=Blarl> arise: 1. or nearl> all.. thoBGh the s@all hoBse of representatiCes Hill =onsist of the natBral aristo=ra=> of the =oBntr>. shall De the endeaCor of $A'PDEN Antifederalist No. 1. )ith respe=t to the @aForit>. I do not doBDt the testi@on> of a diGnified sBpporter of the s>ste@. . for if an> =onsideraDle part of the exe=BtiCe poHer De Foined Hith the leGislatBre.inflBential portion of the exe=BtiCe poHer/e. it has not sB=h =ertain inflBential indB=e@ents to =orrBption. There are Good reasons for it. He haCe to =ontend. there @a> De an adCantaGeoBs distriDBtion of the poHer of appoint@ents. that Hhi=h operates in the seCeral states. it Hill as sBrel> =orrBpt that Dran=h Hith Hhi=h it is =o@Dined. (. . =o@pared Hith the nB@Der of offi=es for Hhi=h the> =an reasonaDl> =onsider . In =onte@platinG the ne=essar> offi=ers of the Bnion. and so nB@eroBs. in @> opinion. as poison Hill the hB@an Dod>. in Hhole or in part. and that the Greatness of those na@es Hho fra@e a GoCern@ent. nor preCent the eCils that resBlt fro@ its i@perfe=tions. . (. that I a@ a free@an. There haCe Deen DBt feH =oBntries in Hhi=h the leGislators haCe Deen a parti=Blar set of @en periodi=all> =hosen. =annot san=tif> its faBlts. as Hell as the senate. 21/22 AN ANTI!EDERALI T *IE) O! T$E APPOINTING PO)ER UNDER T$E CON TITUTION D> Ri=hard $enr> Lee . . +. >et not DeinG danGeroBsl> =o@Dined Hith the exe=BtiCe Dran=h. In @an> =oBntries the people haCe Gone on HithoBt eCer exa@ininG the prin=iples of GoCern@ent. are not Generall> @ade ineliGiDle to offi=e. the appoint@ent of all offi=ers/Cested in the senate. no doBDt. the appoint@ents @a> De @ade. 1. As to the first. D> the president and an exe=BtiCe =oBn=il. "Bt the prin=ipal reason is. A@onG all these. CiA. . . that the Greatest deGree of CirtBe @a> De expe=ted in the hoBse of representatiCes. and eCen for so@e ti@e afterHards. e@inent laH>ers. the leGislators are so freEBentl> =hosen. The> InoH that i@pli=it faith respe=tinG politi=s is the hand@aid to slaCer>. that the> Here all. D> the state GoCern@ents. Hhether the> oBGht to De eliGiDle to hold an> offi=es HhateCer dBrinG the period for Hhi=h the> shall De ele=ted to serCe. -. .. in relation to the sBDFe=t Defore Bs. and to =ontend Hith sB=h a deGree of @oderation and fir@ness. D> the president and the senate. hoH far the> oBGht to parti=ipate in the poHer of appoint@ents. Hith Hho@ the president onl> a=ts as a no@inatinG @e@Der. it is trBe that leGislators in foreiGn =oBntries. or in oBr state GoCern@ents. DBt Hith the plan to Hhi=h the> GaCe Dirth. D> the leGislatBre. It is on this a==oBnt that I haCe said aDoCe. as Hill Dest pro@ote politi=al se=Brit>. DBt I do doBDt the patriotis@ and politi=al CirtBe of seCeral of the @ost e@inentl> a=tiCe of the@. D> the president alone. and it is the =hara=ter of free@en to exa@ine and FBdGe for the@selCes. Therefore. D> the heads of the depart@ents. Hho is this that dares so Doldl> to arraiGn the =ondB=t and =ensBre the prodB=tion of a =onCention =o@posed of so =hosen a Dand of patriots6 To this I ansHer.G. "Bt it is not Hith the @en. .

therefore. A@onG the state leGislators. I shall endeaCor to shoH Hhat share in the distriDBtion of the poHer of appoint@ents the leGislatBre @Bst. lonGer =onGenial to the people. =hoose the@ freEBentl>. and opinions. if not ex=lBded. rather than fro@ propriet>. not one @an in a hBndred sent to the state leGislatBres is appointed to an> per@anent offi=e of profit. on an BnfortBnate =hanGe of a feH @e@Ders. feelinGs.. *irtBoBs patriots. DBt I presB@e onl> Hith sB=h @en as neCer oBGht to De =hosen leGislators in a free =oBntr>. in =o@@on Hith others. @aIe the@ ineliGiDle to offi=es. that rBlers oBGht freEBentl> to retBrn and @ix Hith the people. and Cer> different ones. is too s@all to raise his hopes or expe=tations. estaDlish rotation a@onG the@. This Hill BndoBDtedl> De the =ase Hith so@e @en. CoBld the federal leGislators De ex=lBded in the @anner proposed. The prin=ipal offi=ers in the exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial depart@ents @Bst haCe @ore per@anen=> in offi=e. therefore in oBr poHer to preserCe repBDli=an prin=iples for a series of aGes. or to haCe an> =onsideraDle inflBen=e Bpon his =ondB=t. nor Hill the> Hish to De Hithin the Cortex of inflBen=e. than the offi=ers of those depart@ents. De eliGiDle to offi=es of honor and profit. These feH @en @a> rationall> =onsider the@selCes as the fairest =andidates for a Cer> Great nB@Der of lB=ratiCe offi=es. and afterHards. as @en and =itiAens/others. Hill De =hosen in a >ear. ThroBGhoBt the United tates. . fro@ ne=essit>. Hill estee@ it a hiGher honor to De sele=ted as the GBardians of a free people. !or these and other reasons. Hherein I endeaCored to shoH the falla=> of the arGB@ent. Hill De @ere expe=tants for pBDli= offi=es. and Hill not attend as leGislators. The CalBaDle effe=ts of this prin=iple of @aIinG leGislators ineliGiDle to offi=es for a GiCen ti@e. He @a> a lonG Hhile preserCe the@ in a Hell for@ed leGislatBre. and GeneroBs @inds. An opposite prin=iple Hill inflBen=e Good @en. the> HoBld De left to a=t @B=h @ore fro@ @otiCes =onsistent Hith the pBDli= Good. A leGislatBre. has neCer >et Deen sBffi=ientl> attended to or =onsidered. @Bst De nB@eroBs. a leGislatBre in the natBre of thinGs is not for@ed for the detail DBsiness of appointinG offi=ers. In =onsiderinG the prin=iple of rotation I had o==asion to distinGBish the =ondition of a leGislator fro@ that of a @ere offi=ial @an. I need onl> =all to >oBr re=olle=tion @> oDserCations in a for@er letter. is =learl> not defensiDle. Offi=ers @a> De appointed D> the president and senate. I a@ assBred that it Has estaDlished D> the =onCention after lonG deDate. To this end He oBGht to taIe eCer> pre=aBtion to preCent leGislators De=o@inG @ere offi=e/ @en. This @ode. I =on=lBde the leGislatBre is not a proper Dod> for the appoint@ent of offi=ers in General. $en=e it @a> De inferred. All the reasoninG toB=hinG the leGislatBre Hill appl> to the senate. It is. taIe. a CalBaDle oDserCation in @an> Dills of riGhts. in all the depart@ents of GoCern@ent. that @en are GoCerned D> interested @otiCes. for General pBrposes. I need not addB=e fBrther arGB@ents to estaDlish a position so =lear. Hhi=h @Bst De=o@e Ca=ant in the >ear. Add to this. that the @e@Ders @Bst retBrn ho@e and @ix Hith the people. et=. and GiCe the@ as s@all a share as possiDle in the disposal of the@. there is also Generall> an i@propriet> in the sa@e @en @aIinG offi=es and fillinG the@. Bnless the> =an. it is in so@e deGree a periodi=al asse@DlaGe of the people. DBt on a fair =o@pBtation. for a @onth or tHo. @aIe the@ re=allaDle.the@selCes as =andidates. aCeraGinG the ele=tions. altered. If it is not. that the leGislatBre Hill re@ain lonGer Bn=orrBpted and CirtBoBs. The> Hill De satisfied Hith a reasonaDle =o@pensation for their ti@e and serCi=e. I thinI it HoBld De an i@portant point Gained. aDoBt foBr federal senators. and prett> =learl> a @aForit> of the federal leGislators. and a still Greater i@propriet> in their i@pea=hinG and tr>inG the offi=ers the> appoint. one @an in tHent> @a> De appointed in so@e =o@@ittee DBsiness. and thirt>/three representatiCes. It is said. )e a=EBire =ertain haDits. that the =han=e of an> indiCidBal @e@DerLs DeinG =hosen. as to the@selCes. fro@ a lonG =ontinBan=e in offi=e. in a free =oBntr>. freEBentl> for@ed. "Bt haCinG Gone throBGh Hith the different @odes of appoint@ent. (. Dire=tl> the reCerse of this Hill eCidentl> De foBnd trBe in the federal ad@inistration.

to De sBre. D> this BndBe =onne=tion. . other foreiGn @inisters. It has a part in tr>inG offi=ers for @is=ondB=t. and the president Hill De a @ere pri@Bs inter pares. that nations Hho haCe thoBGht liIe free/@en and philosophers aDoBt GoCern@ent. an BndBe inflBen=e oCer the representatiCes.. not one @an in ten thoBsand Hill disoDe> it. )hen a nB@Der of lonG pie=es appear. Dis=erninG repBDli=an @en of Doth parties see their CalBe. !Brther. and Bnder appearan=es of a Dalan=ed s>ste@. aristo=ra=>. representinG 1+ soCereiGn states. the >ear. ColB@es Hritten HithoBt eCer =o@inG to the point. It is one i@portant @eans to @aIe the GoCern@ent FBst and honest. and the i@proper @eans of fetterinG. DeinG poHers ne=essaril> =onne=ted. that the hoBse. that are to De expe=ted to @aIe pBDli= offi=ers honest and attentiCe in their DBsiness. A =oBn=il of appoint@ent @Bst Cer> proDaDl> sit all. HoBld fain proCe. or =ontrollinG the president or exe=BtiCe. dire=tl> or indire=tl>. In eCer> point of CieH. oHinG to the defe=ts of the =onfederation. not deterred D> sB=h a==Bsers and FBdGes. it appears extre@el> =lear to @e. "> GiCinG the senate. It is the proDaDle =han=e of es=apinG pBnish@ent that indB=es @en to transGress. is the Great foBntain of poHer. and in @anaGinG foreiGn =on=erns. He =ertainl> proGress fBll far enoBGh toHards this @ost BndesiraDle point in GoCern@ent. in DeinG the least nB@eroBs. in not proCidinG aGainst the @is=ondB=t of pBDli= offi=ers. =alled Cisionar>. !ro@ their hiGh soBndinG pro@ises. that the senate oBGht not Generall> to De a =oBn=il of appoint@ent. see nothinG DBt a parade of na@es. inFBre its =aBse @B=h @ore than @ost of its opponents. riGidl> and =onstantl> to hold Defore the e>es of those Hho exe=Bte it. DBt @anaGe the hoBse. proDaDl>. fro@ the hanIerinGs. and =ontaGion of offi=es. )e haCe alread> sBffered @an> and extensiCe eCils. in fa=t. De parti=Blar periods Hhen a Cer> popBlar president @a> haCe a Cer> i@proper inflBen=e Bpon the senate and Bpon the leGislatBre. Hill not onl> di=tate. at this period. liIe the trBe ad@irers of ro>al and senatorial roDes. et=. Hill not feel a shadoH of Dias. )hen He expe=t the laH to De pBn=tBall> exe=Bted. this sexennial senate of (1 @e@Ders. o@e of the@. Hho. He @Bst Foin that of appointinG a@Dassadors. HoBld repeatedl> @isDehaCe. The senate Hill De too i@portant and too expensiCe a Dod> for this. He GiCe the GoCern@ent in the Cer> oBtset a fatal and perni=ioBs tenden=> to . and in =reatinG offi=es it is too nB@eroBs for a =oBn=il of appoint@ent. Then the strea@s issBinG fro@ it Hill De less tainted Hith those eCils. the senate is to haCe a share in the i@portant Dran=h of poHer respe=tinG treaties. The leGislatBre. and partial extra=ts @ade fro@ histories and GoCern@ents. Hhi=h oBGht to De Iept pBre and BnDiased. A General opinion @Bst perCade the =o@@Bnit>. These are prin=iples no =andid @an Hho has FBst ideas of the essential featBres of a free GoCern@ent Hill =ontroCert. add to this. is disinterested.The senate is a Dran=h of the leGislatBre. Hho. after the people. spe=BlatiCe and anti/GoCern@ental/DBt in the trBe st>le of =oBrtiers. The> are. selfish politi=ians. Hith these effi=ient @eans of inflBen=e. Under sB=h =ir=B@stan=es @en Hill not dare transGress. to the president. @erel> to serCe a pBrpose. instead of the defense. The> are said to De of no CalBe D> e@pt> DoastinG adCo=ates for the =onstitBtion. ad@it the senate to a share of poHer in @aIinG treaties. If it has an adCantaGe of the leGislatBre. and to haCe their doBDts re@oCed. and oBGht to De Iept as pBre and Bn=orrBpt as possiDle. @en are led to expe=t a defense of it. I DelieCe. Diases. . as the =onstitBtion noH stands. DBt to order and di=tate in fa=t. and that the FBdGes Hho shall tr> i@pea=h@ents. in realit> GoCern alone. e@DarrassinG. or to feel an> deGree of responsiDilit>. !or Hith this poHer. There @a> also. It is not @erel> the nB@Der of i@pea=h@ents. Hill not in pra=ti=e De foBnd to De a Dod> to adCise. )hen He. the> expe=ted. The =onseEBen=e Hill De that the senate. it has a disadCantaGe in DeinG @ore Bnsafe. the Dod> to i@pea=h the@ for @is=ondB=t. pBnish@ent and dis@issal fro@ offi=e for @is=ondB=t. and . also. or near all. D> their HeaIness and =ondB=t. and flatterers of despotis@. and =onsBls. the>. in Hhi=h I =an =onte@plate this sBDFe=t. =ases EBoted DetHeen Hhi=h and oBrs there is not the least si@ilitBde. and eCer Hat=hfBl for the pBDli= Good. as a =ir=B@stan=e not Hell to De aCoided.

to the state GoCern@ents the appoint@ent of @ilitia offi=ers. than Bpon the oppressions of despoti= GoCern@ent for aGes toGether. And >et the inflBen=e arisinG fro@ the poHer of appoint@ents De less danGeroBs. neCer =an De. the first exe=BtiCe @aGistrate. D> re=ordinG and siGninG HhateCer the> adCise to De done. The> and the president. haCe an inflBen=e Bn@ixed Hith the leGislatiCe. . B=h a =oBn=il @a> De rationall> for@ed for the DBsiness of appoint@ents. if the> HoBld not De lessened D> the institBtion of sB=h a =oBn=il. fro@ its =hara=ter and sitBation. Hill properl> for@ an independent exe=BtiCe Dran=h. Hhether the =onstitBtion is fitted to the =ondition and =hara=ter of this people or not. is less than that the president and senate @Bst haCe. )hen He haCe assiGned to the leGislatBre the appoint@ent of a feH i@portant offi=ers. "Bt Hhen He =arefBll> exa@ine his pie=es. and aBthorise the leGislatBre. Hho @a> freEBentl> Hant adCi=e. and =oBrts of laH respe=tiCel>. or nB@Der Hanted. the expenses of the GoCern@ent HoBld not De in=reased. to the heads of the depart@ents. To GiCe the sole appoint@ent of it to the leGislatBre HoBld =onfer an BndBe and Bnne=essar> inflBen=e Bpon that Dran=h. adCised and dire=ted D> an exe=BtiCe =oBn=il of seCen or nine @e@Ders. Hhi=h oBGht to De the essen=e of all ColB@inoBs prodB=tions/He do not find the@. There is another adCantaGe: the residBB@ of poHer as to appoint@ents. +. And as sB=h a =oBn=il HoBld render the sessions of the senate Bnne=essar> @an> @onths in the >ear. and all liIe those HorIs of the Do>s. Hill add a danGeroBs HeiGht to the poHer itself. I thinI I need not dHell Bpon this arti=le. The Hriter appears =onstantl> to @oCe on a s@ooth sBrfa=e. as the fitness of this @ode of appoint@ent Hill perhaps a@pl> appear D> the eCident Bnfitness of the others. and the =oBnsellors alHa>s De @ade responsiDle for their adCi=e and opinions. The people @a> GiCe their Cotes for tHi=e the nB@Der of =oBnsellors Hanted. $e appears to De a =andid Good hearted @an. De=aBse in less danGeroBs hands/hands properl> adeEBate to possess it. The president @a> no@inate. $is pie=es appear to haCe DBt little relation to the Great EBestion. and the federal leGislatBre taIe tHi=e the nB@Der also fro@ the hiGhest =andidates.endeaCored to De free. if a salar> or the interest of a pBDli= or priCate deDt Has not paid at the @o@ent/the> see@ to la> @ore stress Bpon these trifles 9for trifles the> are in a free and happ> =oBntr>:. haCe often Deen the @ost @iseraDle. as estaDlished D> laH. B=h a =oBn=il for a >ear HoBld De less expensiCe than the senate for foBr @onths. to haCe a Good st>le and so@e plaBsiDle ideas. D> leGislatiCe a=ts. Hhereas the senate. to assiGn to the president alone. B=h =oBn=ils for@ a featBre in so@e of the Dest exe=BtiCes in the Bnion. and De far less =apaDle of responsiDilit>. to the president and senate the appoint@ent of those =on=erned in @anaGinG foreiGn affairs. and fro@ a@onG the@ =hoose the seCen or nine. The fittest re=epta=le for this residBar> poHer is =learl>. =reated for other pBrposes. Offi=ers @a> De appointed D> the president and an exe=BtiCe =oBn=il. HithoBt an oDFe=t. Hhi=h the exe=BtiCe neCer =an haCe Hhile =onne=ted Hith a poHerfBl Dran=h of the leGislatBre. To aBthorise the president to appoint his oHn =oBn=il HoBld De Bnsafe. than the =oBn=il proposed. to see Hhere the strenGth of the@ lies/Hhen the @ind endeaCors to fix on those @aterial parts. I haCe attentiCel> exa@ined his pie=es. the part of his HorI liIe the parts of a =oD/hoBse. Hhi=h the president and =oBn=il need possess. to @an> pBrposes. As to the lenGth> Hriter in NeH #orI. The> appear to De essential to eCer> first @aGistrate. a poHer to appoint all other ne=essar> offi=ers. "Bt to retBrn. are all eEBall> stronG and all eEBall> HeaI. If a sinGle riot in the =oBrse of fiCe hBndred >ears happened in a free =oBntr>. )hereas the senate. the appoint@ent of @an> inferior offi=ers/He shall then Hant to lodGe so@e Hhere a residBB@ of poHer. periodi=all> =hosen fro@ sB=h proportional distri=ts as the Bnion @a> for the pBrpose De diCided into. in @> opinion.

nor is there @B=h danGer that the exe=BtiCe Hill De Hantonl> HeaIened or strenGthened D> the leGislatBre D> thBs shiftinG the appoint@ents of inferior offi=ers. $ere aGain He are DroBGht to oBr Blti@atB@/is the leGislatBre so =onstrB=ted as to deserCe oBr =onfiden=e6 1. the Dest instrB=tor. the Horst @en. and heads of depart@ents. $is poHer. The leGislatBre @a>. shall dire=t/alHa>s IeepinG hi@. Art. as experien=e. and heads of depart@ents. It is a Good General rBle. Hill De tena=ioBs of the poHer of appoint@ent. that the FBdGes and prin=ipal offi=ers in the depart@ents Hill De aDle Hell infor@ed @en in their respe=tiCe Dran=hes of DBsiness. fro@ ti@e to ti@e. an exe=BtiCe too inflBential @a> De redB=ed Hithin proper DoBnds. @iGht De of essential serCi=e not onl> in pro@otinG Denefi=ial appoint@ents.-. @a> alHa>s De in=reased or de=reased D> the leGislatBre. or in the heads of depart@ents. the Horst adCi=e is at hand. (. in this respe=t. It is Cer> seldo@ He see a sinGle exe=BtiCe depend on a==idental adCi=e and assistan=e. and other =onsiderations. and rested on the adCi=e and opinions of others. Generall>. Offi=ers @a> De appointed D> the president alone. DBt ea=h sinGle exe=BtiCe has. Offi=ers @a> De appointed D> the state GoCern@ents. a Good leGislatBre Hill Bse this poHer to preserCe the Dalan=e and perpetBate the GoCern@ent. into seCeral hands. I thinI He @a> infer. the @ost interested =reatBres oDtrBde the@selCes. "Bt this. to De asse@Dled and =onsBlted on i@portant o==asions. Generall>. exe=BtiCe. oBGht to De Iept distin=t. so danGeroBs Hhen =olle=ted into the hands of one or a feH @en. and the heads of depart@ents. and for the =ondB=t of the offi=ers the> @a> appoint therein. respe=tinG appoint@ents.. as =ir=B@stan=es @a> reEBire. to taIe Da=I the poHer.% The proDaDilit> is. (. D> experien=e. A feeDle exe=BtiCe @a> De strenGthened and sBpported D> pla=inG in its hands @ore nB@eroBs appoint@ents. 1. fro@ experien=e. a share in the appoint@ent of offi=ers. Hithin =ertain DoBnds. in=e all @Bst De done D> leGislatiCe a=ts Hhi=h =annot De passed HithoBt the =onsent of the exe=BtiCe. This poHer of distriDBtinG appoint@ents. that the enate. De @ade D> the =oBrts of laH. in the =oBrts of laH. and @isdire=ts the @ind of hi@ Hho HoBld De infor@ed and adCised. DBt. As to this point. aBthorise the president alone to appoint parti=Blar inferior offi=ers. a Dran=h of the leGislatBre. or the =onsent of tHo/ thirds of Doth Dran=hes.. and FBdi=ial poHers. D> pla=inG @an> of the inferior appoint@ents in the =oBrts of laH. De Dest infor@ed as to proper persons to fill inferior offi=es in the@. and Hhen ne=essar>. "Bt in a free =oBntr>. DBt also in preserCinG the Dalan=e in GoCern@ent.. in the fifth pla=e. he has neCer done it alone. D> the =onstitBtion. I thinI the =onstitBtion stands Hell. This not onl> lodGes the appoint@ents in proper pla=es. It has Deen al@ost BniCersall> foBnd. e=t. Offi=ers. has its ex=eptions. JHasK aided JinK his deter@inations D>. Goes on/%"Bt =onGress @a> D> laH Cest the appoint@ent of sB=h inferior offi=ers as the> thinI proper in the president alone. Generall> foBnd ne=essar> and BsefBl. liIe other General rBles. Generall>. Hhen a @an has Deen aBthoriAed to exer=ise poHer alone. "> Art. and HithoBt these ex=eptions He . !ro@ these.. And it often happens Hhen adCi=e is Hanted. as the =onstitBtion noH stands. )e @a> fairl> assB@e. therefore. This proCes that a sele=t =oBn=il. $ere aGain the i@propriet> appears of the senateLs haCinG. that the> Hill feel the@selCes responsiDle for the exe=Btion of their seCeral Dran=hes of DBsiness. the respe=tiCe states are aBthorised ex=lBsiCel> to appoint the @ilitia offi=ers. @a> De appointed D> the heads of depart@ents or =oBrts of laH. for@ed to itself a reGBlar =oBn=il. that the> Hill. that the leGislatiCe. that i@partial and FBdi=ioBs appoint@ents of sBDordinate offi=ers Hill. Hhen it shall dee@ it expedient. and @B=h too sparinGl> part Hith a share of it to the =oBrts of laH. the exer=ise of an> =onsideraDle Dran=h of poHer oBGht to De Bnder so@e =he=Is and =ontrols. DBt it also tends to distriDBte and lodGe in different exe=BtiCe hands the poHers of appointinG to offi=es. of so@e Iind is. e=t. in a Hell for@ed disinterested leGislatBre. . al@ost alHa>s.

I DelieCe. to lessen the adCantaGes of i@pea=h@ents and responsiDilit>. of @aFor Generals and ad@irals. in all @ixed GoCern@ents.=annot for@ a Good GoCern@ent. haCe Deen assiGned to different hands/so@e are @ade D> the exe=BtiCe. I HoBld D> no @eans =ontend for the@ an> fBrther than it @a> De ne=essar> for redB=inG the poHer of the exe=BtiCe Hithin the DoBnds of safet>. ea=h in itself. of the =o@ptroller. as the hoBse. and the sBDdiCision of poHers. and se=retar> of Har. and that FBdGes shoBld appoint so@e sBDordinate offi=ers. Appoint@ents. It has Deen thoBGht adCisaDle D> the Hisest nations/that the leGislatBre shoBld so far exer=ise exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial poHers as to appoint so@e offi=ers FBdGe of the ele=tions of its @e@Ders. fro@ the General poHer to appoint federal offi=ers. and properl> Dalan=e its parts. the residBB@ shall De thoBGht to De too larGe and Bnsafe. presB@e that the federal leGislatBre Hill possess sBffi=ient InoHledGe and dis=ern@ent to @aIe FBdi=ioBs appoint@ents. Hith @an> adCantaGes and perhaps Hith DBt a feH in=onCenien=ies/and that is. in =arr>inG into exe=Btion the national s>ste@. and so@e D> the people. Hho @a> De at the heads of the Great depart@ents of DBsiness. and to pla=e an BndBe inflBen=e in the hands of the president and =oBn=il. If after @aIinG the dedB=tions alread> allBded to. I EBestion Hhether the Horld eCer saH. and so@e of the prin=ipal offi=ers in the @one> depart@ent. as these appoint@ents D> the leGislatBre tend to in=rease a @ixtBre of poHer. treasBrer. experien=e and a =riti=al inspe=tion of the parts of the GoCern@ent. I DelieCe. and in so@e not. so@e D> the FBdGes. ea=h part> @a> taIe the poHers =onGenial to it. and to shoH the danGer that Hill resBlt fro@ it. the senate. Offi=ers of the aDoCe des=ription are appointed D> the leGislatBres in so@e of the states. that the exe=BtiCe shoBld haCe a partial share in leGislation. perhaps of the FBdGes of the sBpre@e =oBrt. T$E !EDERAL !AR'ER Antifederalist No. 1233. and i@pea=h and tr> offi=ers for @is=ondB=t. of states attorne>s. and He haCe less need to De anxioBs aDoBt =he=Is. 1233. se=retar> of the ho@e depart@ent. are stronG and =o@plete. and reGBlate so far as to estaDlish rBles for their oHn pro=eedinGs. so@e D> the leGislatBre. The> Hill not often o==Br and the poHer to @aIe the@ oBGht to re@ain in safe hands. a fBrther dedB=tion @a> De @ade. The DBsiness of this paper Hill De to illBstrate this. The sBpre@e =oBrt Bnder this =onstitBtion HoBld De exalted aDoCe all other poHer in the GoCern@ent. @aster =oiner. 23/24 T$E PO)ER O! T$E <UDICIAR# 9PART 1: Part one is taIen fro@ the first part of the %"rBtBsLs% 10th essa> of The NeH/#orI <oBrnal on 'ar=h (5. D> GiCinG the appoint@ent of a feH Great offi=ers to the leGislatBre/as of the =o@@issioners of the treasBr>. of the sheriffs or @arshalls of the United tates. the Dalan=e is natBrall> prodB=ed. and FBdi=iar>. the exe=BtiCe. and sBDFe=t to no =ontrol. And He =an deter@ine onl> fro@ reason. in an> period . )here the @e@Ders of the GoCern@ent. Part tHo is part one of his 11th of the NeH #orI <oBrnal of April 15. hoH far it is proper to inter@ix those poHers. The appoint@ents of these offi=ers. )e @a>. $oHeCer. inColCe in the@ a Cariet> of =onsiderations.

"Bt I sa>. Hhile it has departed fro@ al@ost eCer> other prin=iple of their FBrisprBden=e. in the fBllest sense of the Hord. ThoBGh in @> opinion the FBdGes oBGht to hold their offi=es dBrinG Good DehaCior. of renderinG the FBdGes independent. for the> are DoBnd to deter@ine a==ordinG to the laHs passed Bnder the@. and neCer BndertaIe to =ontrol the@ D> adFBdGinG that the> are in=onsistent Hith the =onstitBtion/@B=h less are the> Cested Hith the poHer of GiCJinG anK eEBitaDle =onstrB=tion to the =onstitBtion. @eans no @ore than that the> hold their pla=es dBrinG Good DehaCior. and HithoBt adCertinG to this. to =ontrol an> of their de=isions. The FBdGes in EnGland. for the sBpre@e =oBrt are aBthorised in the last resort. There is no poHer aDoCe the@. Hh> the FBdGes in "ritain oBGht to De =o@@issioned dBrinG Good DehaCior. to deter@ine Hhat is the extent of the poHers of the ConGress. is this. that in EnGland. Hhi=h. The IinG. that the> @a> De pla=ed in a sitBation. do D> no @eans appl> to this =oBntr>. )hile the FBdGes held their pla=es at the Hill and pleasBre of the IinG. I DeG liDert> to @aIe one re@arI. The Great reason assiGned. And it reEBired the spirit of a @art>r for the FBdGes to deter@ine =ontrar> to the IinGLs Hill. the> are independent of the people. The> Here aDsolBtel> dependent Bpon hi@ Doth for their offi=es and liCinGs. on Hho@ the> depended not onl> for their offi=es. and the> =annot De =ontrolled D> the laHs of the leGislatBre. Bnder the idea. has @B=h stronGer indB=e@ents to . a =oBrt of FBsti=e inCested Hith sB=h i@@ense poHers. of the leGislatBre. that the reasons in faCor of this estaDlish@ent of the FBdGes in EnGland. it is trBe. to GiCe sB=h de=isions as HoBld tend to in=rease its poHers and preroGatiCes. DBt then their deter@inations are sBDFe=t to =orre=tion D> the hoBse of lords. and there is no poHer aDoCe the@ to set aside their FBdG@ent. Hhere He haCe Deen taBGht to DelieCe the =oBrts of laH are pBt Bpon the @ost prBdent estaDlish@ent. 'en pla=ed in this sitBation Hill Generall> soon feel the@selCes independent of heaCen itself. the> are on a Cer> different footinG. The> =onsider the@selCes DoBnd to de=ide a==ordinG to the existinG laHs of the land. I sBppose it a proper proCision proCided the> Here @ade properl> responsiDle. and >et pla=ed in a sitBation so little responsiDle. and in the seCeral states. to a==o@plish Hhi=h the aid of the =oBrts of laH Has ne=essar>. DBt also for their salaries. HithoBt folloHinG the =onstitBtion of EnGland. If the =roHn Hished to =arr> a faCorite point. holdinG his offi=e dBrinG life. and of eCer> poHer Bnder heaCen. hold their offi=es dBrinG their Good DehaCior. the> Here sBDFe=t to eCer> BndBe inflBen=e. in institBtinG a triDBnal in Hhi=h their errors @a> De =orre=ted. . D> GrantinG the@ their offi=es dBrinG Good DehaCior. and trans@ittinG it to his posterit> as an inheritan=e. and haCe fixed salaries . this s>ste@ has folloHed the EnGlish GoCern@ent in this. Jthe aBthors of the =onstitBtionK haCe @ade the FBdGes independent. In short. not to De inflBen=ed D> the =roHn. >et I thinI it is =lear. in the "ritish =onstitBtion. "Bt the FBdGes Bnder this =onstitBtion Hill =ontrol the leGislatBre. "efore I pro=eed to illBstrate the trBth of these refle=tions. There is no aBthorit> that =an re@oCe the@. I do not oDFe=t to the FBdGes holdinG their =o@@issions dBrinG Good DehaCior. and Hhi=h indeed trans=ends an> poHer Defore GiCen to a FBdi=ial D> an> free GoCern@ent Bnder heaCen. . the pleasBre of the IinG HoBld De siGnified to the FBdGes. The fra@ers of this =onstitBtion appear to haCe folloHed that of the "ritish.of it. I DelieCe the> in no instan=e assB@e the aBthorit> to set aside an a=t of parlia@ent Bnder the idea that it is in=onsistent Hith their =onstitBtion. Certain it is. The FBdGes in EnGland are Bnder the =ontrol of the leGislatBre. that the FBdi=ial Bnder this s>ste@ haCe a poHer Hhi=h is aDoCe the leGislatiCe. and their poHer is D> no @eans so extensiCe as that of the proposed sBpre@e =oBrt of the Bnion. The> are to GiCe the =onstitBtion an explanation. in renderinG the FBdGes independent.

+d. and in @an> =ases their poHer is sBperior to that of the leGislatBre. fro@ the people i@@ediatel>. for there is no =oBrt aDoCe the@ to Hhi=h appeals =an lie. It is expressl> de=lared D> the =onstitBtion. The sa@e arGB@ents. that the sa@e aBthorit> Hhi=h Cested the leGislatBre Hith their . There is no aBthorit> that =an re@oCe the@ fro@ offi=e for an> errors or Hant of =apa=it>. either in error or on the @erits. DBt also a==ordinG to the spirit and intention of it. for an> error in FBdG@ent JdBeK to Hant of =apa=it>. nor do the> des=end to their =hildren. so @B=h so as to De aDoCe =ontrol. and that. The> =annot De re@oCed fro@ offi=e or sBffer a di@inBtion of their salaries. Hhi=h Hill =on=lBde in faCor of the tenBre of the FBdGeLs offi=es for Good DehaCior. that the FBdGes =o@@itted the error fro@ Hi=Ied and =orrBpt @otiCes. %That the> shall at stated ti@es re=eiCe a =o@pensation for their serCi=es Hhi=h shall not De di@inished dBrinG their =ontinBan=e in offi=e. are =arried fro@ the hiGhest of the =oBrts of laH. Ci=e/ president. to Hho@ appeals. or =orre=t their errors. and the rest are in=lBded Bnder the General ter@s of hiGh =ri@es and @isde@eanors. and =onCi=tion of treason. those Hho appoint the FBdGes do not hold their offi=es for life. !or all the depart@ents of this GoCern@ent Hill re=eiCe their poHers. 1st. in error. or loHer their salaries. in faCor of liDert>.% "> this paraGraph. therefore. (nd. are re@oCaDle onl> for =ri@es. Hho are the soBr=e of poHer. The adFBdi=ations of this =oBrt are final and irreCersiDle. In this respe=t it differs fro@ the =oBrts in EnGland. hiGh =ri@es and @isde@eanors. and all =iCil offi=ers of the United tates. is that Hhi=h de=lares. Treason and DriDer> are na@ed. dBrinG Good DehaCior. not onl> a==ordinG to the natBral and oDCioBs @eaninG of the Hords. To proCe this I Hill shoH that there is no poHer aDoCe the@ that =an =ontrol their de=isions. or other hiGh =ri@es and @isde@eanors. "Bt these reasons do not appl> to this =oBntr>. Hhen the> oDtained the appoint@ent of the FBdGe. The poHer of this =oBrt is in @an> =ases sBperior to that of the leGislatBre. =an neCer De sBpposed to De in=lBded in these Hords. so far as the> are expressed in the =onstitBtion. The> Got fro@ the =roHn a =on=ession Hhi=h depriCed it of one of the @ost poHerfBl enGines Hith Hhi=h it @iGht enlarGe the DoBndaries of the ro>al preroGatiCe and en=roa=h on the liDerties of the people. in Hhi=h the FBdGes are in=lBded. that this =oBrt Hill De aBthorised to de=ide Bpon the @eaninG of the =onstitBtion. A @an @a> @istaIe a =ase in GiCinG FBdG@ent. I haCe shoHed. it Hill De ne=essar> to GiCe in eCiden=e so@e fa=ts that Hill shoH. for there the hoBse of lords is the hiGhest =oBrt. lose a =onsideraDle part of their HeiGht Hhen applied to the state and =ondition of A@eri=a. =iCil offi=ers. The leGislatBre =an onl> exer=ise sB=h poHers as are GiCen the@ D> the =onstitBtion. in a for@er paper. Errors in FBdG@ent. "Bt @B=h less =an it De shoHn. that %the president. and >et GiCe no eCiden=e of =orrBption or Hant of inteGrit>. for this plain reason. I haCe said that the FBdGes Bnder this s>ste@ Hill De independent in the stri=t sense of the Hord. $en=e the EnGlish nation Gained a Great point. To sBpport the =harGe. DBt aDoCe the leGislatBre. DriDer>. shall De re@oCed fro@ offi=e. There is no poHer aDoCe the@ that =an =orre=t their errors or =ontrol their de=isions. or @anifest that he is in=o@petent to the dis=harGe of the dBties of a FBdGe. the> =annot assB@e an> of the riGhts annexed to the FBdi=ial. )e haCe no hereditar> @onar=h.% The onl> =laBse in the =onstitBtion Hhi=h proCides for the re@oCal of the FBdGes fro@ offi=es. on i@pea=h@ent for.in=rease the preroGatiCes of his offi=e than those Hho hold their offi=es for stated periods or eCen for life. or Hant of =apa=it> to dis=harGe the dBties of the offi=e. that the natBre of oBr GoCern@ent reEBires that the =oBrts shoBld De pla=ed De>ond all a==oBnt @ore independent. In the exer=ise of this poHer the> Hill not De sBDordinate to.

)hen the ter@ for Hhi=h the> are =hosen shall expire. or else >oB estaDlish an aBthorit> independent. and there is no poHer proCided in this s>ste@ to =orre=t their =onstrB=tion or do it aHa>. HithoBt in so@e deGree @ixinG the leGislatiCe and FBdi=ial. for error. To haCe a GoCern@ent Hell ad@inistered in all its parts. D> a neH laH. perhaps. or Dod> of @en. it is reEBisite the different depart@ents of it shoBld De separated and lodGed as @B=h as @a> De in different hands. The FBdGes are sBpre@e and no laH. This is to De effe=ted D> @aIinG one =oBrt sBDordinate to another. it is of hiGh i@portan=e that poHerfBl =he=Is shoBld De for@ed to preCent the aDBse of it. Hill De DindinG on the@. are @ade a==oBntaDle to so@e sBperior for their =ondB=t in offi=e. in their DeinG a@enaDle to the people. and Desides it is fit that the> shoBld De pla=ed. AGreeaDle to these prin=iples I sBppose the sBpre@e FBdi=ial oBGht to De liaDle to De =alled to a==oBnt. and the FBdi=ial in one different fro@ either. and D> GiCinG the@ =oGniAan=e of the DehaCior of all offi=ers. Doth therefore are eEBall> Calid. "RUTU .. Perhaps no restraints are @ore for=iDle. in=onsistent Hith the sense the FBdGes pBt Bpon the =onstitBtion. the> =annot De a@enaDle to the@ i@@ediatel>. This responsiDilit> shoBld Blti@atel> rest Hith the people. the> Hill de=lare it Coid. "oth are deriCed fro@ the sa@e soBr=e. !or it is diffi=Blt. $en=e it is that the trBe poli=> of a repBDli=an GoCern@ent is. Cested the FBdi=ial Hith theirs. explanator> of the =onstitBtion. Hhi=h is repBGnant to the prin=iples of a free GoCern@ent. and therefore in this respe=t their poHer is sBperior to that of the leGislatBre. the leGislatBre pass an> laHs. D> so@e Dod> of @en. for an> @is=ondB=t. in a =ertain deGree in an independent sitBation. "Bt no sB=h poHer is in the leGislatBre. to =all to a==oBnt the seCeral offi=ers in GoCern@ent. As the people therefore oBGht not to ele=t the FBdGes. If. Hho Jthe people: Hill then haCe opportBnit> to displa=e the@ if the> disapproCe of their =ondB=t. @a> operate to the oppression of the people. to @aintain a perfe=t distin=tion DetHeen these seCeral depart@ents. "Bt still ea=h of these Dodies shoBld De a==oBntaDle for their =ondB=t.. DBt in =ases Hhere the> GiCe an explanation to the laHs or =onstitBtion of the =oBntr> =ontrar> to the sense of the parlia@ent /thoBGh the parlia@ent Hill not set aside the FBdG@ent of the =oBrt/>et. $en=e it is i@pra=ti=aDle. "Bt on this plan He at last arriCe at so@e sBpre@e. and D> this @eans to preCent a re=eption of sB=h de=isions. and the FBdi=ial hold their poHers independentl> of the leGislatBre. De=aBse their DBsiness reEBires that the> shoBld possess a deGree of laH InoHledGe. The leGislatiCe poHer shoBld De in one Dod>. oCer Hho@ there is no poHer to =ontrol DBt the people the@selCes. The leGislatBre in a free repBDli= are =hosen D> the people at stated periods. independent of the leGislatBre. and so also shoBld all other Great offi=ers in the tate. and their responsiDilit> =onsists. the> haCe aBthorit>. as the leGislatBre do of the FBdi=ial. and not a@enaDle at all. as Hell as for all other offi=ers Hhi=h do not sprinG fro@ the i@@ediate =hoi=e of the people.. Hho are not @ade a@enaDle to so@e sBperior offi=ers.poHers. )hen Great and extraordinar> poHers are Cested in an> @an. to fra@e it in sB=h @anner. Hho depend Bpon the people for their pla=es. that the> @a> @aintain fir@ness and steadiness in their de=isions. "Bt it HoBld De i@proper that the FBdi=ial shoBld De ele=tiCe. that all persons Hho are =on=erned in the GoCern@ent. to GiCe a =onstrB=tion to the =onstitBtion and eCer> part of it. if not i@possiDle. so@e other @ode of a@enaDilit> @Bst therefore De deCised for these. therefore. Hhi=h is a=EBired onl> D> a reGBlar edB=ation. to explain the for@er one. The sBpre@e =oBrt then haCe a riGht. the exe=BtiCe in another. Hhi=h in their exer=ise. This sBpre@e =ontrollinG poHer shoBld De in the =hoi=e of the people. In EnGland the FBdGes are not onl> sBDFe=t to haCe their de=isions set aside D> the hoBse of lords. than sB=h as arise fro@ responsiDilit> to so@e sBperior poHer.

throBGh the @ediB@ of the FBdi=ial poHer. nor =an the> De re@oCed fro@ offi=e for @aIinG eCer so @an> erroneoBs adFBdi=ations. if an> sB=h poHer there De. And the =oBrts of laH. of Great i@portan=e. not onl> for @aIinG. and (nd. The natBre and extent of the FBdi=ial poHer of the United tates. or the effe=t it Hill haCe in =hanGinG the internal poli=e and @ode of distriDBtinG FBsti=e at present sBDsistinG in the respe=tiCe states. 1233. No errors the> @a> =o@@it =an De =orre=ted D> an> poHer aDoCe the@. are to De pla=ed in a sitBation altoGether Bnpre=edented in a free =oBntr>. @oreoCer. proposed to De Granted D> the =onstitBtion. )ith a reGard to the natBre and extent of the FBdi=ial poHers. and hiGh =ri@es and @isde@eanors. InEBire. DBt I haCe not @et Hith an> Hriter Hho has dis=Bssed the FBdi=ial poHers Hith an> deGree of a==Bra=>. that the> Hill operate to a total sBDCersion of the state FBdi=iaries. This GoCern@ent is a =o@plete s>ste@. that the> Hill exer=ise the@ for the General Good. =onCi=tion of treason. To De aDle to do this. DBt Hhere these are HantinG or a@DiGBoBsl> expressed. . The real effe=t of this s>ste@ of GoCern@ent. And >et it is oDCioBs. 'B=h has Deen said and Hritten Bpon the sBDFe=t of this neH s>ste@ on Doth sides. Its adCo=ates InoH hoH to aCail the@selCes of these phrases. I haCe to reGret @> Hant of =apa=it> to GiCe that fBll and @inBte explanation of the@ that the sBDFe=t @erits. The> are to De rendered totall> independent. Hhether the =oBrts Hho are to exer=ise the@. That He @a> De enaDled to for@ a FBst opinion on this sBDFe=t.Antifederalist No. 35 T$E PO)ER O! T$E <UDICIAR# 9PART (: !ro@ the 11th essa> of %"rBtBs% taIen fro@ The NeH/#orI <oBrnal. Doth Hith respe=t to their offi=es and salaries. that He =an Gain DBt Cer> i@perfe=t ideas of the @anner in Hhi=h this GoCern@ent Hill HorI. not onl> to =arr> into exe=Btion the poHers expressl> GiCen. =lai@s oBr parti=Blar attention. DBt for exe=BtinG laHs. Hill therefore De DroBGht ho@e to the feelinGs of the people. Hhi=h Hill De =onstitBted D> it. DBt D> offi=ers sBDordinate to the@ to exe=Bte all their de=isions. I shall >et atte@pt to tra=e so@e of the leadinG featBres of it. A nB@Der of hard Hords and te=hni=al phrases are Bsed in this part of the s>ste@. are not onl> to de=ide Bpon the =onstitBtion and the laHs @ade in pBrsBan=e of it. as to aBthoriAe the =oBrts. the> GiCe sB=h an explanation to the te=hni=al ter@s as to aCoid the@. to exa@ine Hith =are the natBre and extent of the FBdi=ial poHer. in =onsiderinG it. a @an shoBld De possessed of a deGree of laH InoHledGe far De>ond Hhat I pretend to. HithoBt a thoroBGh inCestiGation of the poHers of the FBdi=iar> and of the @anner in Hhi=h the> Hill operate. is. Hhere oDFe=tions are @ade to the poHers GiCen to the FBdi=ial. This part of the plan is so @odelled. are so =onstitBted as to afford reasonaDle GroBnd of =onfiden=e. ThoBGh I a@ not =o@petent to GiCe a perfe=t explanation of the poHers Granted to this depart@ent of the GoCern@ent. if not to the leGislatiCe aBthorit> of the states. Exa@ine the natBre and extent of the FBdi=ial poHers. It is. Doth of the people and the leGislatBre. to sBppl> Hhat is HantinG D> their oHn de=isions. aDoBt the @eaninG of Hhi=h Gentle@en learned in the laH differ. <anBar> +1. De=aBse those Hho are to De Cested Hith it. lst. The onl> =aBses for Hhi=h the> =an De displa=ed. fro@ Hhi=h I presB@e it Hill appear. I shall. In a nB@Der of instan=es. DriDer>.

De=aBse there is no poHer proCided in the =onstitBtion that =an =orre=t their . HithoBt destro>inG its Cer> essen=e. DBt also in eEBit>. or else the tHo =laBses @ean exa=tl> the sa@e thinG. HithoBt DeinG =onfined to the Hords or letter. The opinions of the sBpre@e =oBrt. there =an De no estaDlished rBles and fixed prin=iples of eEBit> laid doHn. D> reason of its BniCersalit>. a==ordinG to Hhat appears to the@. Hhi=h had the> Deen foreseen the leGislator HoBld haCe expressed. and Hill reEBire an explanation of the natBre and extent of the poHers of the different depart@ents Bnder it. for sin=e in laHs all =ases =annot De foreseen. The> are aBthorised to deter@ine all EBestions that @a> arise Bpon the @eaninG of the =onstitBtion in laH. HhateCer the> @a> De. therefore. and the Hords Hill De Bnderstood. et=. it is not eas> to sa>. Bnder this =laBse. it is ne=essar>. . that Hhen the de=rees of the laH =annot De applied to parti=Blar =ases. . @a> De Bnderstood. De=aBse the next =laBse aBthorises the =oBrts to taIe =oGniAan=e of all =ases in laH and eEBit> arisinG Bnder the laHs of the United tates. . that it @eant no @ore than this. the =oBrts are to GiCe sB=h @eaninG to the =onstitBtion as =o@ports Dest Hith the =o@@on. in the @anner in Hhi=h those poHers are BsBall> exer=ised in the different states. se=t. The =ases arisinG Bnder the =onstitBtion @Bst De different fro@ those arisinG Bnder the laHs. the reason and spirit of the =onstitBtion. I =on=eiCe. or expressed.% The first arti=le to Hhi=h this poHer extends is. that @a> fro@ ti@e to ti@e =o@e Defore the@. not onl> the poHers of =oBrts of laH. (nd. )hat latitBde of =onstrB=tion this =laBse shoBld re=eiCe. "Bt this =annot De the @eaninG. And in their de=isions the> Hill not =onfine the@selCes to an> fixed or estaDlished rBles. =onCe>s as @B=h poHer to the General FBdi=ial as an> of the state =oBrts possess. This arti=le Cests the =oBrts Hith aBthorit> to GiCe the =onstitBtion a leGal =onstrB=tion. one HoBld sBppose. The FBdi=ial are not onl> to de=ide EBestions arisinG Bpon the @eaninG of the =onstitBtion in laH. all =ases in laH and eEBit> arisinG Bnder this =onstitBtion. %the =orre=tion of that. arises Hhat He =all eEBit>%. that the =oBrts Bnder the General GoCern@ent shoBld exer=ise. and the Hords Hill not De so Bnderstood as to Dear no @eaninG or a Cer> aDsBrd one. the laHs of the United tates. The> Jthe =oBrtsK Hill GiCe the sense of eCer> arti=le of the =onstitBtion. This arti=le. reGardinG their ordinar> and popBlar Bse. These rBles GiCe a =ertain deGree of latitBde of explanation. and redB=inG it to a positiCe laH. Hherein the laH. %The FBdi=ial poHer shall extend to all =ases in laH and eEBit> arisinG Bnder this =onstitBtion. and treaties @ade. either in laH or in eEBit>. A==ordinG to this @ode of =onstrB=tion.In arti=le +d.% !ro@ these re@arIs. DBt also that of =oBrts of eEBit>. %That eEBit>. Hhi=h is thBs defined D> GrotiBs. or Hhi=h shall De @ade. there shoBld so@eHhere De a poHer Cested of defininG those =ir=B@stan=es. %!ro@ this @ethod of interpretinG laHs 9sa>s "la=Istone: D> the reason of the@. or to explain it a==ordinG to the rBles laid doHn for =onstrBinG a laH. Bnder their aBthorit>. this last arti=le. "> this the> are e@poHered. thBs dependinG essentiall> Bpon ea=h indiCidBal =ase. Hill haCe the for=e of laH. is defi=ient. the aBthorit> and DBsiness of the =oBrts of laH. as DrinG into EBestion its @eaninG. as haCinG a CieH to it. and Generall> re=eiCed a==eptation of the Hords in Hhi=h it is expressed. the> Hill De explained D> the =ontext.% The sa@e learned aBthor oDserCes. rather than their Gra@@ati=al propriet>. The end of the =laBse Hill De attended to. At first CieH. )here Hords are dBDioBs. lst. DBt Hill deter@ine. Cests the FBdi=ial Hith a poHer to resolCe all EBestions that @a> arise on an> =ase on the =onstrB=tion of the =onstitBtion. The =ases arisinG Bnder the =onstitBtion @Bst in=lBde sB=h. to explain the =onstitBtion a==ordinG to the reasoninG spirit of it. it is said. (d.

errors. or =ontrol their adFBdi=ations. !ro@ this =oBrt there is no appeal. And I =on=eiCe the leGislatBre the@selCes. =annot set aside a FBdG@ent of this =oBrt. De=aBse the> are aBthorised D> the =onstitBtion to de=ide in the last resort. The leGislatBre @Bst De =ontrolled D> the =onstitBtion. and not the =onstitBtion D> the@. The> haCe therefore no @ore riGht to set aside an> FBdG@ent pronoBn=ed Bpon the =onstrB=tion of the =onstitBtion. than the> haCe to taIe fro@ the president. the =hief =o@@and of the ar@> and naC>. and =o@@it it to so@e other person. The reason is plain, the FBdi=ial and exe=BtiCe deriCe their aBthorit> fro@ the sa@e soBr=e. that the leGislatBre do theirs, and therefore in all =ases. Hhere the =onstitBtion does not @aIe the one responsiDle to. or =ontrollaDle D> the other. the> are altoGether independent of ea=h other. The FBdi=ial poHer Hill operate to effe=t. in the @ost =ertain. DBt >et silent and i@per=eptiDle @anner. Hhat is eCidentl> the tenden=> of the =onstitBtion: I @ean. an entire sBDCersion of the leGislatiCe. exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial poHers of the indiCidBal states. ECer> adFBdi=ation of the sBpre@e =oBrt. on an> EBestion that @a> arise Bpon the natBre and extent of the General GoCern@ent. Hill affe=t the li@its of the state FBrisdi=tion. In proportion as the for@er enlarGe the exer=ise of their poHers. Hill that of the latter De restri=ted. That the FBdi=ial poHer of the United tates. Hill lean stronGl> in faCor of the General GoCern@ent. and Hill GiCe sB=h an explanation to the =onstitBtion. as Hill faCor an extension of its FBrisdi=tion. is Cer> eCident fro@ a Cariet> of =onsiderations. lst. The =onstitBtion itself stronGl> =oBntenan=es sB=h a @ode of =onstrB=tion. 'ost of the arti=les in this s>ste@. Hhi=h =onCe> poHers of an> =onsideraDle i@portan=e. are =on=eiCed in General and indefinite ter@s. Hhi=h are either eEBiCo=al. a@DiGBoBs. or Hhi=h reEBire lonG definitions to Bnfold the extent of their @eaninG. The tHo @ost i@portant poHers =o@@itted to an> GoCern@ent. those of raisinG @one>. and of raisinG and IeepinG Bp troops. haCe alread> Deen =onsidered. and shoHn to De Bnli@ited D> an> thinG DBt the dis=retion of the leGislatBre. The =laBse Hhi=h Cests the poHer to pass all laHs Hhi=h are proper and ne=essar>. to =arr> the poHers GiCen into exe=Btion. it has Deen shoHn. leaCes the leGislatBre at liDert>. to do eCer>thinG. Hhi=h in their FBdG@ent is Dest. It is said. I InoH. that this =laBse =onfers no poHer on the leGislatBre. Hhi=h the> HoBld not haCe had HithoBt it/thoBGh I DelieCe this is not the fa=t. #et. ad@ittinG it to De. it i@plies that the =onstitBtion is not to re=eiCe an explanation stri=tl> a==ordinG to its letter, DBt @ore poHer is i@plied than is expressed. And this =laBse. if it is to De =onsidered as explanator> of the extent of the poHers GiCen. rather than GiCinG a neH poHer. is to De Bnderstood as de=larinG that in =onstrBinG an> of the arti=les =onCe>inG poHer. the spirit. intent and desiGn of the =laBse shoBld De attended to. as Helt as the Hords in their =o@@on a==eptation. This =onstitBtion GiCes sBffi=ient =olor for adoptinG an eEBitaDle =onstrB=tion. if He =onsider the Great end and desiGn it professedl> has in CieH. These appear fro@ its prea@Dle to De. %to for@ a @ore perfe=t Bnion. estaDlish FBsti=e. insBre do@esti= tranEBilit>. proCide for the =o@@on defense. pro@ote the General Helfare. and se=Bre the DlessinGs of liDert> to oBrselCes and posterit>.% The desiGn of this s>ste@ is here expressed. and it is proper to GiCe sB=h a @eaninG to the CarioBs parts. as Hill Dest pro@ote the a==o@plish@ent of the end, this idea sBGGests itself natBrall> Bpon readinG the prea@Dle. and Hill =oBntenan=e the =oBrt in GiCinG the seCeral arti=les sB=h a sense. as Hill the @ost effe=tBall> pro@ote the ends the =onstitBtion had in CieH. $oH this @anner of explaininG the =onstitBtion Hill operate in pra=ti=e. shall De the sBDFe=t of fBtBre inEBir>. (nd. Not onl> Hill the =onstitBtion FBstif> the =oBrts in in=lininG to this @ode of explaininG it. DBt the> Hill De interested in BsinG this latitBde of interpretation. ECer> Dod> of @en inCested Hith

offi=e are tena=ioBs of poHer, the> feel interested. and hen=e it has De=o@e a Iind of @axi@. to hand doHn their offi=es. Hith all its riGhts and priCileGes. Bni@paired to their sB==essors. The sa@e prin=iple Hill inflBen=e the@ to extend their poHer. and in=rease their riGhts, this of itself Hill operate stronGl> Bpon the =oBrts to GiCe sB=h a @eaninG to the =onstitBtion in all =ases Hhere it =an possiDl> De done. as Hill enlarGe the sphere of their oHn aBthorit>. ECer> extension of the poHer of the General leGislatBre. as Hell as of the FBdi=ial poHers. Hill in=rease the poHers of the =oBrts, and the diGnit> and i@portan=e of the FBdGes. Hill De in proportion to the extent and @aGnitBde of the poHers the> exer=ise. I add. it is hiGhl> proDaDle the e@olB@ent of the FBdGes Hill De in=reased. Hith the in=rease of the DBsiness the> Hill haCe to transa=t and its i@portan=e. !ro@ these =onsiderations the FBdGes Hill De interested to extend the poHers of the =oBrts. and to =onstrBe the =onstitBtion as @B=h as possiDle. in sB=h a Ha> as to faCor it, and that the> Hill do it. appears proDaDle. +rd. "e=aBse the> Jthe =oBrtsK Hill haCe pre=edent to plead. to FBstif> the@ in it JextendinG their poHersK. It is Hell InoHn. that the =oBrts in EnGland. haCe D> their aBthorit>. extended their FBrisdi=tion far De>ond the li@its set the@ in their oriGinal institBtion. and D> the laHs of the land. The =oBrt of ex=heEBer is a re@arIaDle instan=e of this. It Has oriGinall> intended prin=ipall> to re=oCer the IinGLs deDts. and to order the reCenBes of the =roHn. It had a =o@@on laH FBrisdi=tion. Hhi=h Has estaDlished @erel> for the Denefit of the IinGLs a==oBntants. )e learn fro@ "la=Istone. that the pro=eedinGs in this =oBrt are GroBnded on a Hrit =alled EBo @inBs. in Hhi=h the plaintiff sBGGests. that he is the IinGLs far@er or deDtor. and that the defendant hath done hi@ the da@aGe =o@plained of. D> Hhi=h he is less aDle to pa> the IinG. These sBits. D> the statBte of RBtland. are expressl> dire=ted to De =onfined to sB=h @atters as spe=iall> =on=ern the IinG. or his @inisters in the ex=heEBer. And D> the arti=Bli sBper =artas. it is ena=ted. that no =o@@on pleas De then=eforth held in the ex=heEBer =ontrar> to the for@ of the Great =harter. "Bt noH an> person @a> sBe in the ex=heEBer. The sBr@ise of DeinG deDtor to the IinG DeinG @atter of for@. and @ere Hords of =oBrse. the =oBrt is open to all the nation. )hen the =oBrts Hill haCe a pre=edent Defore the@ of a =oBrt Hhi=h extended its FBrisdi=tion in opposition to an a=t of the leGislatBre. is it not to De expe=ted that the> Hill extend theirs. espe=iall> Hhen there is nothinG in the =onstitBtion expressl> aGainst it6 And the> are aBthorised to =onstrBe its @eaninG. and are not Bnder an> =ontrol. This poHer in the FBdi=ial. Hill enaDle the@ to @oBld the GoCern@ent. into an> shape the> please. The @anner in Hhi=h this @a> De effe=ted He Hill hereafter exa@ine. "RUTU

Antifederalist No. 31 T$E PO)ER O! T$E <UDICIAR# 9PART +:

Part 1: fro@ the 1(th essa> D> %"rBtBs% fro@ the !eDrBar> 2th S 1-th 91233: issBes of The NeH/#orI <oBrnal Part (: TaIen fro@ the first half of the 1-th essa> !eDrBar> (3. 1233. In @> last. I shoHed. that the FBdi=ial poHer of the United tates Bnder the first =laBse of the se=ond se=tion of arti=le eiGht. HoBld De aBthorised to explain the =onstitBtion. not onl> a==ordinG to its letter. DBt a==ordinG to its spirit and intention, and haCinG this poHer. the> HoBld stronGl> in=line to GiCe it sB=h a =onstrB=tion as to extend the poHers of the General GoCern@ent. as @B=h as possiDle. to the di@inBtion. and finall> to the destrB=tion. of that of the respe=tiCe states. I shall noH pro=eed to shoH hoH this poHer Hill operate in its exer=ise to effe=t these pBrposes. . . . !irst. let Bs inEBire hoH the FBdi=ial poHer Hill effe=t an extension of the leGislatiCe aBthorit>. Perhaps the FBdi=ial poHer Hill not De aDle. D> dire=t and positiCe de=rees. eCer to dire=t the leGislatBre. De=aBse it is not eas> to =on=eiCe hoH a EBestion =an De DroBGht Defore the@ in a =oBrse of leGal dis=Bssion. in Hhi=h the> =an GiCe a de=ision. de=larinG. that the leGislatBre haCe =ertain poHers Hhi=h the> haCe not exer=ised. and Hhi=h. in =onseEBen=e of the deter@ination of the FBdGes. the> Hill De DoBnd to exer=ise. "Bt it is eas> to see. that in their adFBdi=ation the> @a> estaDlish =ertain prin=iples. Hhi=h DeinG re=eiCed D> the leGislatBre Hill enlarGe the sphere of their poHer De>ond all DoBnds. It is to De oDserCed. that the sBpre@e =oBrt has the poHer. in the last resort. to deter@ine all EBestions that @a> arise in the =oBrse of leGal dis=Bssion. on the @eaninG and =onstrB=tion of the =onstitBtion. This poHer the> Hill hold Bnder the =onstitBtion. and independent of the leGislatBre. The latter =an no @ore depriCe the for@er of this riGht. than either of the@. or Doth of the@ toGether. =an taIe fro@ the president. Hith the adCi=e of the senate. the poHer of @aIinG treaties. or appointinG a@Dassadors. In deter@ininG these EBestions. the =oBrt @Bst and Hill assB@e =ertain prin=iples. fro@ Hhi=h the> Hill reason. in for@inG their de=isions. These prin=iples. HhateCer the> @a> De. Hhen the> De=o@e fixed D> a =oBrse of de=isions. Hill De adopted D> the leGislatBre. and Hill De the rBle D> Hhi=h the> Hill explain their oHn poHers. This appears eCident fro@ this =onsideration. that if the leGislatBre pass laHs. Hhi=h. in the FBdG@ent of the =oBrt. the> are not aBthorised to do D> the =onstitBtion. the =oBrt Hill not taIe noti=e of the@, for it Hill not De denied. that the =onstitBtion is the hiGhest or sBpre@e laH. And the =oBrts are Cested Hith the sBpre@e and Bn=ontrollaDle poHer. to deter@ine in all =ases that =o@e Defore the@. Hhat the =onstitBtion @eans. The> =annot. therefore. exe=Bte a laH. Hhi=h in their FBdG@ent. opposes the =onstitBtion. Bnless He =an sBppose the> =an @aIe a sBperior laH GiCe Ha> to an inferior. The leGislatBre. therefore. Hill not Go oCer the li@its D> Hhi=h the =oBrts @a> adFBdGe the> are =onfined. And there is little roo@ to doBDt DBt that the> Hill =o@e Bp to those DoBnds. as often as o==asion and opportBnit> @a> offer. and the> @a> FBdGe it proper to do it. !or as on the one hand. the> Hill not readil> pass taHs Hhi=h the> InoH the =oBrts Hill not exe=Bte. so on the other. He @a> De sBre the> Hill not s=rBple to pass sB=h as the> InoH the> Hill GiCe effe=t. as often as the> @a> FBdGe it proper. !ro@ these oDserCations it appears. that the FBdG@ent of the FBdi=ial. on the =onstitBtion. Hill De=o@e the rBle to GBide the leGislatBre in their =onstrB=tion of their poHers. )hat the prin=iples are. Hhi=h the =oBrts Hill adopt. it is i@possiDle for Bs to sa>. "Bt taIinG Bp the poHers as I haCe explained the@ in @> last nB@Der. Hhi=h the> Hill possess Bnder this =laBse. it is not diffi=Blt to see. that the> @a>. and proDaDl> Hill. De Cer> liDeral ones.

)e haCe seen. that the> Hill De aBthoriAed to GiCe the =onstitBtion a =onstrB=tion a==ordinG to its spirit and reason. and not to =onfine the@selCes to its letter. To dis=oCer the spirit of the =onstitBtion. it is of the first i@portan=e to attend to the prin=ipal ends and desiGns it has in CieH. These are expressed in the prea@Dle. in the folloHinG Hords. CiA.. %)e. the people of the United tates. in order to for@ a @ore perfe=t Bnion. estaDlish FBsti=e. insBre do@esti= tranEBilit>. proCide for the =o@@on defense. pro@ote the General Helfare. and se=Bre the DlessinGs of liDert> to oBrselCes and oBr posterit>. do ordain and estaDlish this =onstitBtion.% et=. If the end of the GoCern@ent is to De learned fro@ these Hords. Hhi=h are =learl> desiGned to de=lare it. it is oDCioBs it has in CieH eCer> oDFe=t Hhi=h is e@Dra=ed D> an> GoCern@ent. The preserCation of internal pea=e/the dBe ad@ission of FBsti=e/and to proCide for the defense of the =o@@Bnit>/see@s to in=lBde all the oDFe=ts of GoCern@ent. "Bt if the> do not. the> are =ertainl> =o@prehended in the Hords. %to proCide for the General Helfare.% If it De fBrther =onsidered. that this =onstitBtion. if it is ratified. Hill not De a =o@pa=t entered into D> states. in their =orporate =apa=ities. DBt an aGree@ent of the people of the United tates as one Great Dod> politi=. no doBDt =an re@ain DBt that the Great end of the =onstitBtion. if it is to De =olle=ted fro@ the prea@Dle. in Hhi=h its end is de=lared. is to =onstitBte a GoCern@ent Hhi=h is to extend to eCer> =ase for Hhi=h an> GoCern@ent is institBted. Hhether external or internal. The =oBrts. therefore. Hill estaDlish this as a prin=iple in expoBndinG the =onstitBtion. and Hill GiCe eCer> part of it sB=h an explanation as Hill GiCe latitBde to eCer> depart@ent Bnder it. to taIe =oGniAan=e of eCer> @atter. not onl> that affe=ts the General and national =on=erns of the Bnion. DBt also of sB=h as relate to the ad@inistration of priCate FBsti=e. and to reGBlatinG the internal and lo=al affairs of the different parts. B=h a rBle of exposition is not onl> =onsistent Hith the General spirit of the prea@Dle. DBt it Hill stand =onfir@ed D> =onsiderinG @ore @inBtel> the different =laBses of it. The first oDFe=t de=lared to De in CieH. is %To for@ a @ore perfe=t Bnion.% It is to De oDserCed. it is not an Bnion of states or Dodies =orporate, had this Deen the =ase the existen=e of the state GoCern@ents @iGht haCe Deen se=Bred. "Bt it is a Bnion of the people of the United tates =onsidered as one Dod>. Hho are to ratif> this =onstitBtion if it is adopted. NoH to @aIe a Bnion of this Iind perfe=t. it is ne=essar> to aDolish all inferior GoCern@ents. and to GiCe the General one =o@plete leGislatiCe. exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial poHers to eCer> pBrpose. The =oBrts therefore Hill estaDlish it as a rBle in explaininG the =onstitBtion, to GiCe it sB=h a =onstrB=tion as Hill Dest tend to perfe=t the Bnion or taIe fro@ the state GoCern@ents eCer> poHer of either @aIinG or exe=BtinG laHs. The se=ond oDFe=t is %to estaDlish FBsti=e.% This @Bst in=lBde not onl> the idea of institBtinG the rBle of FBsti=e. or of @aIinG laHs Hhi=h shall De the @easBre or rBle of riGht. DBt also of proCidinG for the appli=ation of this rBle or of ad@inisterinG FBsti=e Bnder it. And Bnder this the =oBrts Hill in their de=isions extend the poHer of the GoCern@ent to all =ases the> possiDl> =an. or otherHise the> Hill De restri=ted in doinG Hhat appears to De the intent of the =onstitBtion the> shoBld do. to Hit. pass laHs and proCide for the exe=Btion of the@. for the General distriDBtion of FBsti=e DetHeen @an and @an. Another end de=lared is %to insBre do@esti= tranEBilit>.% This =o@prehends a proCision aGainst all priCate Drea=hes of the pea=e. as Hell as aGainst all pBDli= =o@@otions or General insBrre=tions, and to attain the oDFe=t of this =laBse fBll>. the GoCern@ent @Bst exer=ise the poHer of passinG laHs in these sBDFe=ts. as Hell as of appointinG @aGistrates Hith aBthorit> to exe=Bte the@. And the =oBrts Hill adopt these ideas in their expositions. I @iGht pro=eed to the other =laBse. in the prea@Dle. and it HoBld appear D> a =onsideration of all of the@ separatel>. as it does D> taIinG the@ toGether. that if the spirit of this s>ste@ is to De InoHn fro@ its de=lared end and

This Hill =ertainl> GiCe the first =laBse in that arti=le a =onstrB=tion Hhi=h I =onfess I thinI the @ost natBral and Gra@@ati=al one. This sa@e @anner of explaininG the =onstitBtion. Hho is to restrain the@6 Indeed. that the FBdi=ial of the United tates haCe =oGniAan=e of =ases DetHeen =itiAens of the sa@e state. et=. (nd. if explained in an eEBitaDle @anner. =lai@inG lands /Bnder Grants of different states. I pro=eed. that it is @> de=ided opinion. DBt to =o@prehend =ases DetHeen =itiAens of the sa@e state not in=lBded in the foreGoinG ex=eption. An> person. %to estaDlish FBsti=e. Bnder this =onstitBtion. I Hill freel> =onfess. and redB=e the state leGislatBres to nothinG. A ColB@inoBs Hriter in faCor of this s>ste@. to all =iCil =ases that @a> arise saCe sB=h as arise DetHeen =itiAens of the sa@e state. Hhi=h. that the =oBrts haCe sBffi=ient GroBnd in the exer=ise of this poHer. has taIen Great pains to =onCin=e the pBDli=. that %the =itiAens of ea=h state shall De entitled to all the priCileGes and i@@Bnities of . 'oreoCer. and there is =ertainl> as Good reason Hh> indiCidBals. nothinG =an stand Defore it. and a Cer> i@portant one too. DBt still this Hill BndoBDtedl> De an ex=ellent aBxiliar> to assist the =oBrts to dis=oCer the spirit and reason of the =onstitBtion. Hhi=h aBthorises the ConGress to @aIe all laHs Hhi=h shall De proper and ne=essar> for =arr>inG into effe=t the foreGoinG poHers. and Hhen applied to an> and eCer> of the other =laBses GrantinG poHer. to deter@ine. Hill per=eiCe that the> either expressl> or D> i@pli=ation extend to al@ost eCer> thinG aDoBt Hhi=h an> leGislatiCe poHer =an De e@plo>ed.% This sBpposes that this =annot De done Bnder the existinG GoCern@ents of the states. Hho Hill perBse the 0th se=tion Hith attention. Hill fix a @eaninG. Hill operate poHerfBll> in extra=tinG the spirit fro@ the@. =o@plete FBrisdi=tion of all =iCil =aBses. I @iGht instan=e a nB@Der of =laBses in the =onstitBtion. as those Hho liCe in different states. And if the> do. liCinG in the sa@e state. !or one of the Great ends of the =onstitBtion is. Perhaps it is so. shoBld haCe FBsti=e. I HoBld here oDserCe. are i@plied in other parts of the =onstitBtion. is ne=essar> to GiCe the =oBrts of laH. expressl>. NothinG @ore. in Hhat @anner this poHer Hill in=rease the FBrisdi=tion of the =oBrts. "Bt. D> an> sBpposed riGht the leGislatBres of the respe=tiCe states @a> haCe to reGBlate an> of their lo=al =on=erns. that the part> Hho DrinGs the sBit is a =itiAen of a different state fro@ the one aGainst Hho@ the sBit is DroBGht and there =an De little doBDt DBt that the =oBrt Hill taIe =oGniAan=e of the @atter. Hith this ex=eption to those of that des=ription. so it pro=eeds in the different parts Hith the sa@e idea. in Hhi=h @ost of the poHers are enB@erated. that the =oBrts oBGht to taIe =oGniAan=e of sB=h =aBses Bnder the poHers of the =onstitBtion. and this a@oBnts to the sa@e thinG as General and Bnli@ited poHers of leGislation in all =ases. to aBthorise the ConGress to do an> thinG Hhi=h in their FBdG@ent Hill tend to proCide for the General Helfare. and to e@Dra=e eCer> oDFe=t to Hhi=h an> GoCern@ent extends. If this eEBitaDle @ode of =onstrB=tion is applied to this part of the =onstitBtion. I shoBld draH oBt @> re@arIs to an BndBe lenGth. therefore. its spirit is to sBDCert and aDolish all the poHers of the state GoCern@ents. to inEBire. that this =laBse @eans nothinG: for that the sa@e poHers expressed in this. the =onstitBtion expressl> de=lares. NothinG @ore is ne=essar> than to set forth in the pro=ess. and I presB@e enoBGh has Deen said to shoH. to the 1(th =laBse of the sa@e se=tion. I presB@e there Hill De no diffi=Blt> in a==o@plishinG this. As it sets oBt in the prea@Dle Hith this de=lared intention. that the leGislatBre haCe no DoBnds set to the@ D> this =onstitBtion.desiGn in the prea@Dle. HoBld extend the poHers of the GoCern@ent to eCer> =ase. that the FBdi=ial poHer extends.

In sB=h =ases. and Bnder sB=h reGBlations as the ConGress shall @aIe. A@Dassadors. to defend hi@self aGainst a sBit. In the for@er. Bnder this =onstitBtion. Hho Hill attend to the =onne=tion of this paraGraph Hith the one that pre=edes it. in all =ases Hhere the> =o@e in EBestion Defore the@. in this paraGraph. Hhether =iCil or =ri@inal. throBGh inadCerten=> or Hant of infor@ation. In all the other =ases Defore @entioned. Doth for their persons and their serCants. that in proportion as the General GoCern@ent a=EBires poHer and FBrisdi=tion. has FBstl> Deen =onsidered as one of the @ost oDFe=tionaDle parts of the =onstitBtion. (. )here the =onstitBtion GiCes the@ =on=Brrent FBrisdi=tion. and exe@ptions. if this s>ste@ Hill not operate to effe=t this Hith as @B=h =elerit>. the sBpre@e =oBrt shall haCe appellate FBrisdi=tion. has Deen dispBted D> so@e. the laHs of the United tates @Bst preCail. to Hhi=h the poHer of the FBdi=ial shall extend. ThBs @a> a =itiAen of a state De =o@pelled. the sBpre@e =oBrt shall haCe oriGinal FBrisdi=tion.. in sB=h =ases. to Hhi=h the poHer of the . appeals @a> De had fro@ the inferior =oBrts to the sBpre@e. There is no =ri@inal @atter. The appellate FBrisdi=tion Granted to the sBpre@e =oBrt. restri=ted. !or this se=tion is intended to define all =ases. =lai@. DBt sB=h as are in=lBded Bnder so@e one of the =ases spe=ified in this se=tion. the laHs of the state leGislatBres @Bst De repealed. therefore. the> Hill adFBdGe all laHs @ade D> the states. Bntil the> De=o@e so triflinG and Bni@portant. )here the =onstitBtion GiCes the General GoCern@ent ex=lBsiCe FBrisdi=tion. as those Hho haCe the ad@inistration of it Hill thinI prBdent to sBffer it. that he is a =itiAen of another. The re@aininG oDFe=tions of the FBdi=ial poHer shall De =onsidered in a fBtBre paper. at Great expense and in=onCenien=>. De=aBse the> are the sBpre@e laH. art. appeals Hill lie to the sBpre@e =oBrt. as to GiCe fBll effe=t to the laHs of the Bnion on the sa@e sBDFe=t. all the =ases. >et I EBestion @B=h the propriet> of GiCinG the sBpre@e =oBrt oriGinal FBrisdi=tion in all =ases of this Iind. is a =itiAen of that =oBntr>. the =itiAen of one state Hill. as not to De Horth haCinG. +. DroBGht aGainst hi@ in the sBpre@e =oBrt. for a =itiAen of one state to set forth.% AlthoBGh it is proper that the =oBrts of the General GoCern@ent shoBld haCe =oGniAan=e of all @atters affe=tinG a@Dassadors. DBt I presB@e the point Hill appear =lear to an> one. and are entitled D> the laH of nations. This I InoH. in eCer> =ase to Hhi=h the FBdi=ial poHer extends. and those in Hhi=h a state shall De a part>. or so =onstrBed. D> the liDeral =onstrB=tion Hhi=h the FBdGes @a> GiCe the =onstitBtion. to =ertain priCileGes. are enB@erated. he Hill De sBDFe=t to an a=tion in the sBpre@e =oBrt. Doth as to laH and fa=t.. The se=ond paraGraph of se=t. It is oDCioBs that these =oBrts Hill haCe aBthorit> to de=ide Bpon the Calidit> of the laHs of an> of the states.=itiAens in the seCeral states. other pBDli= @inisters and =onsBls. to Hhi=h the FBdi=ial poHer of the United tates Hill extend. hoBld a sBit De DroBGht aGainst sB=h an one D> a =itiAen. And in trBth. and other pBDli= @inisters. and =onsBls. I a@ @B=h @istaIen. for inadCertentl> =o@@en=inG an a=tion aGainst the @ost @enial serCant of an a@Dassador for a FBst deDt. those of the states Hill lose their riGhts. "> this arti=le. foreiGn @inisters. All the offi=ers =on=erned in issBinG or exe=BtinG the pro=ess Hill De liaDle to liIe a=tions. of eCer> des=ription. in a sBit. !ro@ these re@arIs it is eas> to see. in all =ri@inal as Hell as =iCil =aBses. De a =itiAen of eCer> state. ex=ept in the feH instan=es in Hhi=h the sBpre@e =oBrt Hill haCe oriGinal FBrisdi=tion. Coid aD inilio. Hith sB=h ex=eptions. for he that is entitled to all the priCileGes and i@@Bnities of a =oBntr>..% It Hill therefore De no fi=tion. Under this poHer. The @eanest serCant of an a@Dassador is exe@pted D> the laH of nations fro@ DeinG sBed for deDt. is in these Hords: %In all =ases affe=tinG a@Dassadors.

The @eaninG then is. I asI. It is =ertain hoHeCer. De Bnderstood in the aDoCe sense. to =ri@inal =ases. ex=ept in those Hhi=h affe=t a@Dassadors. to De explained different Ha>s. @a> De sBDFe=ted to intoleraDle oppression. "> this @eans. as extendinG to =ri@inal =ases. D> the adCo=ates and opponents to the =onstitBtion. or otherHise the> HoBld not so freEBentl> =harGe the@ Hith Hant of =andor. If De is a=EBitted no other =oBrt =an =all Bpon hi@ to ansHer for the sa@e =ri@e. and dilator>. It is =ontrar> to the sense of oBr laHs. Doth Hith respe=t to the fa=ts and the laH Hhi=h @a> arise Bnder it. The> . the sBpre@e =oBrt shall haCe appellate FBrisdi=tion. the sBpre@e =oBrt shall haCe appellate FBrisdi=tion. the sBperior triDBnal Hill re/ exa@ine all the fa=ts as Hell as the laH. and danGeroBs to oBr liCes and liDerties. . and still the offi=er of the GoCern@ent Hho prose=Btes @a> appeal to the sBpre@e =oBrt. . if the> Hill GiCe the@selCes ti@e for refle=tion. it alloHs appeals in sB=h =ases. and Hhether it Hill not render the ad@inistration of FBsti=e intoleraDl> DBrdenso@e. %in all the other =ases Defore @entioned. other pBDli= @inisters and =onsBls. )hether the appellate FBrisdi=tion as it respe=ts =iCil @atters. a @an @a> haCe had eCer so fair a trial. fro@ the express Hords of it. Hill not proCe inFBrioBs to the riGhts of the =itiAens. for I haCe not Deen fortBnate enoBGh to see in an> pBDli=ation this =laBse taIen Bp and =onsidered. Doth as to laH and fa=t. I =onfess I do not InoH Hhat the adCo=ates of the s>ste@ HoBld @aIe it @ean. Hill Dest appear. to pro=Bre the attendan=e of Hitnesses. and those in Hhi=h a state shall De a part>. and proCide the @eans of their defense. It has Deen the fate of this =laBse. the FBdGes deter@ine Doth on the laH and the fa=t. Appeals fro@ an inferior to a sBperior =oBrt. et=. . . so as @an> ti@es to render the =aBse in the =oBrt of appeals Cer> different fro@ Hhat it Has in the =oBrt DeloH. the sBpre@e =oBrt shall haCe aBthorit> to reexa@ine the Hhole @erits of the =ase. that in an the =iCil =ase enB@erated. D> Hhat part of this s>ste@ does it appear. as pra=tised in the =iCil laH =oBrts. and exposed to heaC> and insBpportaDle =harGes. the> do not ad@it the explanation Hhi=h those Hho oppose the =onstitBtion GiCe it. If the appellate FBrisdi=tion of the sBpre@e =oBrt. are Hell Bnderstood. intri=ate. "Bt D> this s>ste@. If then this se=tion extends the poHer of the FBdi=ial. . If the poHer of the FBdi=ial is not extended to =ri@inal @atters D> this se=tion. and appeals are alloHed fro@ the inferior to the sBperior =oBrts. as it has of @ost of those aGainst Hhi=h BnansHeraDle oDFe=tions haCe Deen offered. HithoBt the interCention of a FBr>. As oBr taH noH stands. and destrB=tiCe of those priCileGes Hhi=h haCe eCer Deen held sa=red D> A@eri=ans. at a Great distan=e fro@ their pla=es of residen=e. persons Hho @a> haCe disoDliGed those Hho exe=Bte the General GoCern@ent. a person =harGed Hith a =ri@e has a riGht to a fair and i@partial trial D> a FBr> of his =oBntr>. The> @a> De Iept in lonG and rBinoBs =onfine@ent. The Hhole @atter @a> haCe a se=ond hearinG. haCe Deen a=EBitted D> eCer so respe=taDle a FBr> of his =oBntr>. that the> haCe an> =oGniAan=e of the@6 I DelieCe it is a neH and BnBsBal thinG to alloH appeals in =ri@inal @atters. for alleGinG that it taIes aHa> the trial D> FBr>. Hhen He haCe =onsidered the natBre and operation of this poHer.% )ho are the sBpre@e =oBrt6 Does it not =onsist of the FBdGes6 . "Bt in all these =ases it is de=lared. and their Cerdi=t is final. In these =oBrts. that this is the sense of this part of the s>ste@ appears to @e =lear. I =an s=ar=el> DelieCe there =an De a =onsiderate =itiAen of the United tates that Hill approCe of this appellate FBrisdi=tion.FBdi=ial shall rea=h. on the Hhole @erits. and freEBentl> neH fa=ts Hill De introdB=ed. the ter@ is perfe=tl> intelliGiDle.

1233. and the> @a> point oBt the @ode in Hhi=h the =oBrt shall pro=eed in DrinGinG Bp the =aBses Defore the@. or Hrit of error. "RUTU Antifederalist No. DBt that this @a> De proCided for D> the leGislatBre. Bpon the @erits of the =ase. that the inferior =oBrts are al@ost entirel> Bseless. that =ertain =ases shall not De sBDFe=t to the appellate FBrisdi=tion. He shall De left Btterl> at a loss to GiCe it a @eaninG. 1233 NeH #orI <oBrnal: It @a> still De insisted that this =laBse Jon appellate FBrisdi=tionK does not taIe aHa> the trial D> FBr> on appeals. that it Has one of the prin=ipal =aBses Hhi=h ex=ited the insBrre=tion in that state. "Bt sBpposinG the ConGress @a> Bnder this =laBse estaDlish the trial D> FBr> on appeals. JThere areK Cer> feH sensiDle and @oderate @en in that state DBt Hhat Hill ad@it. DBt the> are alHa>s taIen as estaDlished in the inferior =oBrt. and in @ost of the states in the Bnion. The natBral @eaninG of this paraGraph see@s to De no @ore than this. The =onseEBen=e is Hell InoHn. to another =oBrt and FBr>. are the fa=ts re/exa@ined. it is rare that a =ase of an> i@portan=e is not =arried D> appeal to the sBpre@e =oBrt. A pra=ti=e of this Iind preCails in the eastern states: a=tions are there =o@@en=ed in the inferior =oBrts. for the> haCe the sa@e FBrisdi=tion as to fa=t. after the> are deter@ined in the sBDordinate =oBrts. If He Bnderstand the appellate FBrisdi=tion in an> other Ha>. Hhen the> are =arried Bp. An appeal fro@ one =oBrt and FBr>. stranGer to an> sB=h FBrisdi=tion: no appeals =an lie fro@ an> of oBr =o@@on laH =oBrts. or D> =ertiorari. in the >ear past. The =o@@on laH is a. the @anner of their taIinG eCiden=e to estaDlish the fa=ts. NeH/#orI <oBrnal: Part (: The final seG@ent of the 10th essa> 9'ar=h (5. Bnder that paraGraph Hhi=h aBthorises the@ to for@ reGBlations and restri=tions for the =oBrt in the exer=ise of this poHer. as the> haCe as to the laH. and an appeal lies fro@ the@ on the Hhole @erits to the sBperior =oBrts. and ansHer Cer> little pBrpose. It does not see@ to @e that it Hill render this arti=le @B=h less ex=eptionaDle. and the FBrisdi=tion of the inferior =oBrts is @erel> no@inal. *er> feH a=tions are deter@ined in the loHer =oBrts. is a thinG altoGether BnInoHn in the laHs of oBr state JNeH #orIK. Hhen a =aBse is on=e Defore the@. and no roo@ is left for a FBr> on appeals to the sBpre@e =oBrt. 3( T$E PO)ER O! T$E <UDICIAR# 9PART -: Part 1: Part ( of %"rBtBsL% 1-th essa> 9fro@ the 'ar=h 1. "Bt in no =ase. . an> @ore than the> =an depriCe the@ of the riGht of deter@ininG on the laH. and the @ethod of the =oBrtLs pro=eedinG. "Bt I presB@e the> =annot taIe fro@ the =oBrt the riGht of de=idinG on the fa=t.Hill therefore haCe the sa@e aBthorit> to deter@ine the fa=t as the> Hill haCe to deter@ine the laH. saCe onl> to a==B@Blate =osts aGainst the poor deDtors Hho are alread> BnaDle to pa> their FBst deDts. The onl> Ha> in Hhi=h the> =an Go Bp fro@ an inferior to a sBperior triDBnal is D> haDeas =orpBs Defore a hearinG. that ConGress @a> de=lare. this has proCed so DBrdenso@e to the people in 'assa=hBsetts.

the expedient of taIinG the deposition of Hitnesses in HritinG shoBld De adopted. Hhere all the eCiden=e is taIen in HritinG. the =osts in the last @entioned =oBrt. in order to se=Bre a dBe and i@partial distriDBtion of FBsti=e. Hhere Hitnesses are exa@ined CiCa Co=e. that the ad@inistration of FBsti=e Bnder the poHers of the FBdi=ial Hill De dilator>. The offi=ers of the General =oBrt Hill De @ore diGnified than those of the states. There is so@ethinG in the @anner in Hhi=h a Hitness deliCers his testi@on> Hhi=h =an not De =o@@itted to paper. that the =osts in the sBpre@e General =oBrt Hill ex=eed either of oBr =oBrts. It is Btterl> i@possiDle that the sBpre@e =oBrt =an @oCe into so @an> different parts of the Union. the expense of taIinG Hritten testi@on> HoBld De. The Hant of aDilit> or inteGrit>. as to pBt it oBt of the poHer of the poor and @iddlinG =lass of =itiAens to =ontest a sBit in it. In this =ase parties @Bst traCel @an> hBndred @iles. No @an of @iddlinG fortBne. !ro@ these re@arIs it appears. has not Deen oDFe=ted aGainst the =oBrts of the respe=tiCe states. it appears. that it @Bst De at the seat of the General GoCern@ent. These extraordinar> poHers in this =oBrt are the @ore oDFe=tionaDle. The troBDle and expense to the parties HoBld De endless and intoleraDle. and Hhi=h >et Cer> freEBentl> GiCes a =o@plexion to his eCiden=e. Hith their Hitnesses and laH>ers. Hhi=h has so FBstl> Deen the Doast of oBr forefathers as Hell as oBrselCes is taIen aHa> Bnder the@. is @B=h less than those in the sBpre@e =oBrt. are in @an> =ases so exorDitant and the pro=eedinGs so dilator> that the sBitor had al@ost as Hell GiCe Bp his de@and as to prose=Bte his sBit. DBt D> no @eans so @B=h as to GiCe a =han=e of FBsti=e to the poor and @iddlinG =lass. to GiCe eCiden=e Defore the sBpre@e =oBrt. !ro@ all these =onsiderations. the presB@ption is. De=aBse there does not appear the least ne=essit> for the@. If to aCoid the expense and in=onCenien=e of =allinG Hitnesses fro@ a Great distan=e. No @an =an sa> Hhere the sBpre@e =oBrt are to hold their sessions. the =oBrts of FBsti=e in all the states haCe eCer Deen foBnd read> to ad@inister FBsti=e Hith . and therefore the poorer and @iddlinG =lass of =itiAens Hill De Bnder the ne=essit> of sBD@ittinG to the de@ands of the ri=h and the lordl>. "esides. ThBs the =harGes attendinG a sBit in oBr =o@@on pleas. Hell InoH that the> ex=eed De>ond all =o@parison those of the =o@@on laH =oBrts. hoHeCer. the laH>ers of the @ost aDilit> Hill pra=ti=e in the@. and these are @B=h loHer than those in the =oBrt of =han=er>. that the expense attendinG sBits in the sBpre@e =oBrt Hill De so Great. that to preCent this oppression. in =ases that Hill =o@e Bnder the =oGniAan=e of this =oBrt. HoBld HorI infinitel> @ore @is=hief than an> sB=h poHer =an do in a sinGle state. the sBpre@e =oBrt Hill sit in different parts of the Bnion. o far as I haCe Deen infor@ed. or a disposition to render FBsti=e to eCer> sBitor. Those Hho are a=EBainted Hith the =osts that arise in the =oBrts. and that the trial D> FBr>. it HoBld not help the @atter. If it De said. =an sBstain the expense of sB=h a laH sBit. and the troBDle and expense of attendinG the@ Hill De Greater. as to @aIe it =onCenient or eCen toleraDle to attend Defore the@ Hith Hitnesses to tr> =aBses fro@ eCer> part of the United tates. Cer> different fro@ Hhat it HoBld Dear if =o@@itted to HritinG. that this HoBld onl> @aIe the oppression so@eHhat @ore toleraDle. it @a> De replied. that it Hill De attended Hith sB=h an heaC> expense as to a@oBnt to little short of a denial of FBsti=e to the poor and @iddlinG =lass of people Hho in eCer> GoCern@ent stand @ost in need of the prote=tion of the laH. It is of Great i@portan=e in the distriDBtion of FBsti=e that Hitnesses shoBld De exa@ined fa=e to fa=e. Indeed. The =osts a==rBinG in =oBrts Generall> adCan=e Hith the Grade of the =oBrts."Bt the operation of the appellate poHer in the sBpre@e FBdi=ial of the United tates. enor@oBs. to prose=Bte or defend a sBit. )e haCe FBst reason to sBppose. that the parties shoBld haCe the fairest opportBnit> of =ross exa@ininG the@ in order to DrinG oBt the Hhole trBth.

or other pBDli= @inisters. sB=h as respe=t a@Dassadors. The FBdGes there GaCe a de=ision. that %no state shall pass an> laH i@pairinG the oDliGation of =ontra=ts. Hho are to De aBthorised to oriGinate and in the first instan=e to tr> all the =ases . . I Hill not sa> eCaded the laH.% It has also de=lared. and the FBdGes in eCer> state Hill De DoBnd thereD>. that the> haCe inCariaDl> stronGl> in=lined to the other side. !or %this =onstitBtion Hill De the sBpre@e laH of the land. "Bt these eCils haCe not happened fro@ an> defe=t in the FBdi=ial depart@ents of the states. "Bt as this s>ste@ noH stands. in others. !or it has proCided. oDliGinG the =reditor to re=eiCe on exe=Btion other propert> than @one> in dis=harGe of his de@and. eCer> =ase that =an arise Bnder the =onstitBtion or laHs of the United tates oBGht in the first instan=e to De tried in the =oBrt of the state. haCe oBr =oBrts. It HoBld De folloHinG. It is trBe in so@e of the states. No pretext therefore =an De for@ed. haCe Bnifor@l> re=eiCed the stri=test =onstrB=tion D> the FBdGes. or @aIe an> thinG DBt Gold and silCer =oin a tender in pa>@ent of deDts. for oBGht I see. !or their de=isions haCe Deen sB=h as to GiCe FBst GroBnd of =onfiden=e in the@. ex=ept those Hhi=h @iGht arise DMtHeen states. This @ethod HoBld preserCe the Good old Ha> of ad@inisterinG FBsti=e. The state =oBrts HoBld De Bnder sBffi=ient =ontrol. on all =ases in Hhi=h the laHs of the Bnion are =on=erned. In this Ha>. there is to De as @an> inferior =oBrts as ConGress @a> see fit to appoint. All the a=ts of oBr leGislatBre. and so Hill the =oBrts of the General GoCern@ent De Bnder oDliGation to oDserCe the laHs @ade D> the General leGislatBre not repBGnant to the =onstitBtion. a==ordinG to the pra=ti=e of the =oBrts in EnGland and of this state. and there is no ne=essit> of lodGinG these poHers in the JfederalK =oBrts. in opposition to the Hords of the statBte. Hhi=h has FBstl> rendered herself infa@oBs. if Hrits of error Here alloHed fro@ the state =oBrts to the sBpre@e =oBrt of the Bnion. "Bt so far haCe the FBdi=ial Deen fro@ GiCinG BndBe latitBde of =onstrB=tion to laHs of this Iind.% These prohiDitions GiCe the @ost perfe=t se=Brit> aGainst those atta=Is Bpon propert> Hhi=h I a@ sorr> to sa> so@e of the states haCe DBt too Hantonl> @ade. DBt so li@ited its operation as to HorI the least possiDle inFBsti=e. or DetHeen foreiGners and =itiAens. Hhi=h Hill FBstif> GiCinG sB=h poHers to the sBpre@e General =oBrt. tender laHs haCe Deen passed. an> thinG in the =onstitBtion and laHs of an> state to the =ontrar> notHithstandinG. and in seCeral of the states laHs haCe Deen @ade BnfaCoraDle to the =reditor and tendinG to render propert> inse=Bre. and the deDtor aBthorised to dis=harGe his deDts Hith it. in order to GBard aGainst the eCils FBstl> =o@plained of. the pra=ti=e of the =oBrts in EnGland. %that no state shall e@it Dills of =redit. . and preserCe the inesti@aDle riGht of trial D> FBr>. on this prin=iple: that a =onstrB=tion a==ordinG to the Hords of it HoBld =ontradi=t the fBnda@ental @axi@s of their laHs and =onstitBtion. paper @one> has Deen @ade. HoBld DrinG FBsti=e to eCer> @anLs door. fro@ the =ondB=t of the FBdi=ial =oBrts Jof the statesK. that the> Hill finall> adhere to the prin=iples of re=titBde.% The =oBrts of the respe=tiCe states @iGht therefore haCe Deen se=Brel> trBsted Hith de=idinG all =ases DetHeen @an and @an. The sa@e thinG has taIen pla=e in Rhode/Island. on the sBDFe=t of se=Brit> of propert> Bnder this =onstitBtion. and haCe Deen extended to no =ases DBt to sB=h as =a@e Hithin the stri=t letter of the laH. Hhi=h is al@ost the onl> thinG I HoBld Hish to =op> in their GoCern@ent. and perhaps sB=h as =all in EBestion the =lai@ of lands Bnder Grants fro@ different states. D> tena=ioBsl> adherinG to her paper @one> s>ste@. . and perhaps to all =ases in Hhi=h a foreiGner is a part>.pro@ptitBde and i@partialit> a==ordinG to the laHs of the land. Hhi=h haCe Deen =harGed Hith DeinG of this =o@plexion. at a depre=iated CalBe. Hhether =itiAens of the sa@e state or of different states. The =oBrts indeed are DoBnd to taIe noti=e of these laHs. Indeed. as near as oBr =ir=B@stan=es Hill ad@it.

fallinG Bnder the des=ription of this arti=le. There is no se=Brit> that a trial D> FBr> shall De had in these =oBrts. DBt the trial here Hill soon De=o@e. as it is in 'assa=hBsettsL inferior =oBrts. JaK @ere @atter of for@, for an appeal @a> De had to the sBpre@e =oBrt on the Hhole @erits. This =oBrt is to haCe poHer to deter@ine in laH and in eEBit>. on the laH and the fa=t. and this =oBrt is exalted aDoCe all other poHer in the GoCern@ent. sBDFe=t to no =ontrol, and so fixed as not to De re@oCaDle. DBt Bpon i@pea=h@ent. Hhi=h is @B=h the sa@e thinG as not to De re@oCaDle at all. To oDCiate the oDFe=tions @ade to the FBdi=ial poHer. it has Deen said. that the ConGress. in for@inG the reGBlations and ex=eptions Hhi=h the> are aBthorised to @aIe respe=tinG the appellate FBrisdi=tion. Hill @aIe proCision aGainst all the eCils Hhi=h are apprehended fro@ this arti=le. On this I HoBld re@arI. that this Ha> of ansHerinG the oDFe=tion @ade to the poHer. i@plies an ad@ission that the poHer is in itself i@proper HithoBt restraint, and if so. Hh> not restri=t it in the first instan=e. The FBst Ha> of inCestiGatinG an> poHer GiCen to a GoCern@ent. is to exa@ine its operation sBpposinG it to De pBt in exer=ise. If Bpon inEBir>. it appears that the poHer. if exer=ised. HoBld De preFBdi=ial. it oBGht not to De GiCen. !or to ansHer oDFe=tions @ade to a poHer GiCen to a GoCern@ent. D> sa>inG it Hill neCer De exer=ised. is reall> ad@ittinG that the poHer oBGht not to De exer=ised. and therefore oBGht not to De Granted. I haCe. in the =oBrse of @> oDserCation on this =onstitBtion. affir@ed and endeaCored to shoH. that it Has =al=Blated to aDolish entirel> the state GoCern@ents. and to @elt doHn the states into one entire GoCern@ent. for eCer> pBrpose as Hell internal and lo=al. as external and national. In this opinion the opposers of the s>ste@ haCe Generall> aGreed / and this has Deen Bnifor@l> denied D> its adCo=ates in pBDli=. o@e indiCidBals indeed. a@onG the@. Hill =onfess that it has this tenden=>. and s=rBple not to sa> it is Hhat the> Hish, and I Hill CentBre to predi=t. HithoBt the spirit of prophe=>. that if it is adopted HithoBt a@end@ents. or so@e sB=h pre=aBtions as Hill insBre a@end@ents i@@ediatel> after its adoption. that the sa@e Gentle@en Hho haCe e@plo>ed their talents and aDilities Hith sB=h sB==ess to inflBen=e the pBDli= @ind to adopt this plan. Hill e@plo> the sa@e to persBade the people. that it Hill De for their Good to aDolish the state GoCern@ents as Bseless and DBrdenso@e. Perhaps nothinG =oBld haCe Deen Detter =on=eiCed to fa=ilitate the aDolition of the state GoCern@ents than the =onstitBtion of the FBdi=ial. The> Hill De aDle to extend the li@its of the General GoCern@ent GradBall>. and D> insensiDle deGrees. and to a==o@@odate the@selCes to the te@per of the people. Their de=isions on the @eaninG of the =onstitBtion Hill =o@@onl> taIe pla=e in =ases Hhi=h arise DetHeen indiCidBals. Hith Hhi=h the pBDli= Hill not De Generall> a=EBainted. One adFBdi=ation Hill for@ a pre=edent to the next. and this to a folloHinG one. These =ases Hill i@@ediatel> affe=t indiCidBals onl>. so that a series of deter@inations Hill proDaDl> taIe pla=e Defore eCen the people Hill De infor@ed of the@. In the @eanti@e all the art and address of those Hho Hish for the =hanGe Hill De e@plo>ed to @aIe =onCerts to their opinion. The people Hill De told that their state offi=ers. and state leGislatBres. are a DBrden and expense HithoBt affordinG an> solid adCantaGe, that all the laHs passed D> the@ @iGht De eEBall> Hell @ade D> the General leGislatBre. If to those Hho Hill De interested in the =hanGe. De added those Hho Hill De Bnder their inflBen=e. and sB=h Hho Hill sBD@it to al@ost an> =hanGe of GoCern@ent Hhi=h the> =an De persBaded to DelieCe Hill ease the@ of taxes. it is eas> to see the part> Hho Hill faCor the aDolition of the state GoCern@ents HoBld De far fro@ DeinG in=onsideraDle. In this sitBation. the General leGislatBre @iGht pass one laH after another. extendinG the General and aDridGinG the state FBrisdi=tions. and to san=tion their pro=eedinGs HoBld haCe a =oBrse of de=isions of the FBdi=ial to Hho@ the

=onstitBtion has =o@@itted the poHer of explaininG the =onstitBtion. If the states re@onstrated. the =onstitBtional @ode of de=idinG Bpon the Calidit> of the laH is Hith the sBpre@e =oBrt, and neither people. nor state leGislatBres. nor the General leGislatBre =an re@oCe the@ or reCerse their de=rees. $ad the =onstrB=tion of the =onstitBtion Deen less J@ore6K Hith the leGislatBre. the> HoBld haCe explained it at their peril. If the> ex=eedJedK their poHers. or soBGht to find in the spirit of the =onstitBtion. @ore than Has expressed in the letter. the people fro@ Hho@ the> deriCed their poHer =oBld re@oCe the@. . . . Indeed. I =an see no other re@ed> that the people =an haCe aGainst their rBlers for en=roa=h@ents of this natBre. A =onstitBtion is a =o@pa=t of a people Hith their rBlers, if the rBlers DreaI the =o@pa=t. the people haCe a riGht and oBGht to re@oCe the@ and do the@selCes FBsti=e. "Bt in order to enaDle the@ to do this Hith the Greater fa=ilit>. those Hho@ the people =hoose at stated periods shoBld haCe the poHer in the last resort to deter@ine the sense of the =o@pa=t. If the> deter@ine =ontrar> to the BnderstandinG of the people. an appeal Hill lie to the people at the period Hhen the rBlers are to De ele=ted. and the> Hill haCe it in their poHer to re@ed> the eCil. "Bt Hhen this poHer is lodGed in the hands of @en independent of the people. and of their representatiCes. and Hho are not =onstitBtionall> a==oBntaDle for their opinions. no Ha> is left to =ontrol the@ DBt Hith a hiGh hand and an oBtstret=hed ar@. "RUTU

Antifederalist No. 3+ T$E !EDERAL <UDICIAR# AND T$E I UE O! TRIAL "# <UR#
D> LBther 'artin of 'ar>land . . . . in all those =ases. Hhere the General GoCern@ent has FBrisdi=tion in =iCil EBestions. the proposed ConstitBtion not onl> @aIes no proCision for the trial D> FBr> in the first instan=e. DBt. D> its appellate FBrisdi=tion. aDsolBtel> taIes aHa> that inesti@aDle priCileGe. sin=e it expressl> de=lares the Bpre@e CoBrt shall haCe appellate FBrisdi=tion Doth as to laH and fa=t. hoBld. therefore. a FBr> De adopted in the inferior =oBrt. it HoBld onl> De a needless expense. sin=e. on an appeal. the deter@ination of that FBr>. eCen on EBestions of fa=t. hoHeCer honest and BpriGht. is to De of no possiDle effe=t. The Bpre@e CoBrt is to taIe Bp all EBestions of fa=t, to exa@ine the eCiden=e relatiCe thereto, to de=ide Bpon the@. in the sa@e @anner as if the> had neCer Deen tried D> a FBr>. Nor is trial D> FBr> se=Bred in =ri@inal =ases. It is trBe that. in the first instan=e. in the inferior =oBrt. the trial is to De D> FBr>. In this. and in this onl>. is the differen=e DetHeen =ri@inal and =iCil =ases. "Bt. sir. the appellate FBrisdi=tion extends. as I haCe oDserCed. to =ases =ri@inal. as Hell as =iCil. and on the appeal the =oBrt is to de=ide not onl> on the laH DBt on the fa=t. If. therefore. eCen in =ri@inal =ases. the General GoCern@ent is not satisfied Hith the Cerdi=t of the FBr>. its offi=er @a> re@oCe the prose=Btion to the Bpre@e CoBrt, and there the Cerdi=t of the FBr> is to De of no effe=t. DBt the FBdGes of this =oBrt are to de=ide Bpon the fa=t as Hell as the laH. the sa@e as in =iCil =ases. ThBs. sir. FBr> trials. Hhi=h haCe eCer Deen the Doast of the EnGlish =onstitBtion/Hhi=h haCe Deen D> oBr seCeral state =onstitBtions so =aBtioBsl> se=Bred to Bs/FBr> trials. Hhi=h haCe so lonG Deen =onsidered the sBrest Darrier aGainst arDitrar> poHer. and the palladiB@ of liDert>.

Hith the loss of Hhi=h the loss of oBr freedo@ @a> De dated. are taIen aHa> D> the proposed for@ of GoCern@ent. not onl> in a Great Cariet> of EBestions DetHeen indiCidBal and indiCidBal. DBt in eCer> =ase. Hhether =iCil or =ri@inal. arisinG Bnder the laHs of the United tates. or the exe=Btion of those laHs. It is taIen aHa> in those Cer> =ases Hhere. of all others. it is @ost essential for oBr liDert> to haCe it sa=redl> GBarded and preserCed: in eCer> =ase. Hhether =iCil or =ri@inal. DetHeen GoCern@ent and its offi=ers on the one part. and the sBDFe=t or =itiAen on the other. Nor Has this the effe=t of inattention. nor did it arise fro@ an> real diffi=Blt> in estaDlishinG and se=BrinG FBr> trials D> the proposed ConstitBtion if the ConCention had Hished to do so, DBt the sa@e reason inflBen=ed here as in the =ase of the estaDlish@ent of the inferior =oBrts. As the> =oBld not trBst state FBdGes. so HoBld the> not =onfide in state FBries. The> alleGed that the General GoCern@ent and the state GoCern@ents HoBld alHa>s De at Carian=e/that the =itiAens of the different states HoBld enter into the CieHs and interests of their respe=tiCe states. and therefore oBGht not to De trBsted in deter@ininG =aBses in Hhi=h the General GoCern@ent Has an> Ha> interested. HithoBt GiCinG the General GoCern@ent an opportBnit>. if it disapproCed the Cerdi=t of the FBr>. to appeal. and to haCe the fa=ts exa@ined into aGain. and de=ided Bpon D> its oHn FBdGes. on Hho@ it Has thoBGht a relian=e @iGht De had D> the General GoCern@ent. the> DeinG appointed Bnder its aBthorit>. ThBs. sir. in =onseEBen=e of this appellate FBrisdi=tion. and its extension to fa=ts as Hell as to laH. eCer> arDitrar> a=t of the General GoCern@ent. and eCer> oppression of all that Cariet> of offi=ers appointed Bnder its aBthorit> for the =olle=tion of taxes. dBties. i@post. ex=ise. and other pBrposes. @Bst De sBD@itted to D> the indiCidBal. or @Bst De opposed Hith little prospe=t of sB==ess. and al@ost a =ertain prospe=t of rBin. at least in those =ases Hhere the @iddle and =o@@on =lass of =itiAens are interested. in=e. to aCoid that oppression. or to oDtain redress. the appli=ation @Bst De @ade to one of the =oBrts of the United tates/D> Good fortBne. shoBld this appli=ation De in the first instan=e attended Hith sB==ess. and shoBld da@aGes De re=oCered eEBiCalent to the inFBr> sBstained. an appeal lies to the Bpre@e CoBrt. in Hhi=h =ase the =itiAen @Bst at on=e GiCe Bp his =aBse. or he @Bst attend to it at the distan=e. perhaps. of @ore than a thoBsand @iles fro@ the pla=e of his residen=e. and @Bst taIe @easBres to pro=Bre Defore that =oBrt. on the appeal. all the eCiden=e ne=essar> to sBpport his a=tion. Hhi=h. eCen if Blti@atel> prosperoBs. @Bst De attended Hith a loss of ti@e. a neGle=t of DBsiness. and an expense. Hhi=h Hill De Greater than the oriGinal GrieCan=e. and to Hhi=h @en in @oderate =ir=B@stan=es HoBld De Btterl> BneEBal.

Antifederalist No. 3- ON T$E LAC& O! A "ILL O! RIG$T
"> %"RUTU % )hen a DBildinG is to De ere=ted Hhi=h is intended to stand for aGes. the foBndation shoBld De fir@l> laid. The ConstitBtion proposed to >oBr a==eptan=e is desiGned. not for >oBrselCes alone. DBt for Generations >et BnDorn. The prin=iples. therefore. Bpon Hhi=h the so=ial =o@pa=t is foBnded. oBGht to haCe Deen =learl> and pre=isel> stated. and the @ost express and fBll de=laration of riGhts to haCe Deen @ade. "Bt on this sBDFe=t there is al@ost an entire silen=e.

If He @a> =olle=t the senti@ents of the people of A@eri=a. fro@ their oHn @ost sole@n de=larations. the> hold this trBth as self/eCident. that all @en are D> natBre free. No one @an. therefore. or an> =lass of @en. haCe a riGht. D> the laH of natBre. or of God. to assB@e or exer=ise aBthorit> oCer their felloHs. The oriGin of so=iet>. then. is to De soBGht. not in an> natBral riGht Hhi=h one @an has to exer=ise aBthorit> oCer another. DBt in the Bnited =onsent of those Hho asso=iate. The @BtBal Hants of @en at first di=tated the propriet> of for@inG so=ieties: and Hhen the> Here estaDlished. prote=tion and defense pointed oBt the ne=essit> of institBtinG GoCern@ent. In a state of natBre eCer> indiCidBal pBrsBes his oHn interest, in this pBrsBit it freEBentl> happened. that the possessions or enFo>@ents of one Here sa=rifi=ed to the CieHs and desiGns of another, thBs the HeaI Here a pre> to the stronG. the si@ple and BnHar> Here sBDFe=t to i@positions fro@ those Hho Here @ore =raft> and desiGninG. In this state of thinGs. eCer> indiCidBal Has inse=Bre, =o@@on interest. therefore. dire=ted that GoCern@ent shoBld De estaDlished. in Hhi=h the for=e of the Hhole =o@@Bnit> shoBld De =olle=ted. and Bnder sB=h dire=tions. as to prote=t and defend eCer> one Hho =o@posed it. The =o@@on Good. therefore. is the end of =iCil GoCern@ent. and =o@@on =onsent. the foBndation on Hhi=h it is estaDlished. To effe=t this end. it Has ne=essar> that a =ertain portion of natBral liDert> shoBld De sBrrendered. in order that Hhat re@ained shoBld De preserCed. $oH Great a proportion of natBral freedo@ is ne=essar> to De >ielded D> indiCidBals. Hhen the> sBD@it to GoCern@ent. I shall not inEBire. o @B=h. hoHeCer. @Bst De GiCen. as Hill De sBffi=ient to enaDle those to Hho@ the ad@inistration of the GoCern@ent is =o@@itted. to estaDlish laHs for the pro@otinG the happiness of the =o@@Bnit>. and to =arr> those laHs into effe=t. "Bt it is not ne=essar>. for this pBrpose. that indiCidBals shoBld relinEBish all their natBral riGhts. o@e are of sB=h a natBre that the> =annot De sBrrendered. Of this Iind are the riGhts of =ons=ien=e. the riGht of enFo>inG and defendinG life. et=. Others are not ne=essar> to De resiGned in order to attain the end for Hhi=h GoCern@ent is institBted, these therefore oBGht not to De GiCen Bp. To sBrrender the@. HoBld =oBntera=t the Cer> end of GoCern@ent. to Hit. the =o@@on Good. !ro@ these oDserCations it appears. that in for@inG a GoCern@ent on its trBe prin=iples. the foBndation shoBld De laid in the @anner I Defore stated. D> expressl> reserCinG to the people sB=h of their essential riGhts as are not ne=essar> to De parted Hith. The sa@e reasons Hhi=h at first indB=ed @anIind to asso=iate and institBte GoCern@ent. Hill operate to inflBen=e the@ to oDserCe this pre=aBtion. If the> had Deen disposed to =onfor@ the@selCes to the rBle of i@@BtaDle riGhteoBsness. GoCern@ent HoBld not haCe Deen reEBisite. It Has De=aBse one part exer=ised fraBd. oppression and Ciolen=e. on the other. that @en =a@e toGether. and aGreed that =ertain rBles shoBld De for@ed to reGBlate the =ondB=t of all. and the poHer of the Hhole =o@@Bnit> lodGed in the hands of rBlers to enfor=e an oDedien=e to the@. "Bt rBlers haCe the sa@e propensities as other @en, the> are as liIel> to Bse the poHer Hith Hhi=h the> are Cested. for priCate pBrposes. and to the inFBr> and oppression of those oCer Hho@ the> are pla=ed. as indiCidBals in a state of natBre are to inFBre and oppress one another. It is therefore as proper that DoBnds shoBld De set to their aBthorit>. as that GoCern@ent shoBld haCe at first Deen institBted to restrain priCate inFBries. This prin=iple. Hhi=h see@s so eCidentl> foBnded in the reason and natBre of thinGs. is =onfir@ed D> BniCersal experien=e. Those Hho haCe GoCerned. haCe Deen foBnd in all aGes eCer a=tiCe to enlarGe their poHers and aDridGe the pBDli= liDert>. This has indB=ed the people in all =oBntries. Hhere an> sense of freedo@ re@ained. to fix Darriers aGainst the en=roa=h@ents of their rBlers. The =oBntr> fro@ Hhi=h He haCe deriCed oBr oriGin. is an e@inent exa@ple of this. Their @aGna =harta and Dill of riGhts haCe lonG Deen the Doast. as Hell as the se=Brit> of that nation. I need sa> no @ore. I presB@e. to an A@eri=an. than that this prin=iple is a fBnda@ental one. in all the ConstitBtions of oBr oHn tates, there is not one

the @ore astonishinG. It is. that sB=h de=larations of riGhts. as that of an> tate GoCern@ent/it rea=hes to eCer> thinG Hhi=h =on=erns hB@an happiness/life. or has =ertain express reserCation of riGhts interHoCen in the Dod> of the@. for the poHer of the for@er is as =o@plete to the pBrpose of reEBirinG Dail. eCer> thinG Hhi=h is not reserCed is GiCen. DBt in the latter. respe=tinG propert>. There is the sa@e reason. HithoBt oath or affir@ation. It has Deen said. in ansHer to this oDFe=tion. and sB=h trial shall De in the tate Hhere the said =ri@es shall haCe Deen =o@@itted. it is de=lared D> all the tates. that %the trial of all =ri@es. Granted to the General GoCern@ent D> this ConstitBtion. shoBld De restrained Hithin proper li@its. in this =ase. Hith respe=t to eCer> oDFe=t to Hhi=h the> extend. %that ex=essiCe Dail shoBld not De reEBired. hoHeCer reEBisite the> @iGht De in the ConstitBtions of the tates. That it is essential to the se=Brit> of life and liDert>. and he shall De fBll> heard D> hi@self or =oBnsel. as in that of the tate GoCern@ents.of the@ DBt Hhat is either foBnded on a de=laration or Dill of riGhts. that the exer=ise of poHer. to sear=h sBspe=ted pla=es. he shall not De =o@pelled to a==Bse. and appl> the@ to the =ase in EBestion. that a @an shall De fBrnished Hith a fBll and plain des=ription of the =harGes aGainst hi@6 That he shall De alloHed to prodB=e all proof he =an in his faCor6 That he shall see the Hitnesses aGainst hi@ fa=e to fa=e. !or the se=Brit> of life. or seiAe an> person. the reCerse of the proposition preCails. saCe onl>. that trial of fa=ts De in the Ci=init> Hhere the> happen. liDert>. that sB=h de=larations shoBld @aIe a part of their fra@es of GoCern@ent. are GrieCoBs and oppressiCe. that no @an shall De held to ansHer for a =ri@e Bntil he is @ade fBll> a=EBainted Hith the =harGe DroBGht aGainst hi@. or =arried fro@ &entB=I> to Ri=h@ond for trial for an offense sBpposed to De =o@@itted. %that in all =ontroCersies at laH. riGhts and aBthorit>. De=aBse. therefore. as in that of a parti=Blar tate6 The poHers Cested in the neH ConGress extend in @an> =ases to life. his papers or propert>. nor ex=essiCe fines i@posed. and propert> are Bnder its =ontrol. i@posinG fines. That all Harrants. therefore. the Dills of riGhts of @ost of the tates haCe de=lared. he @a> De DroBGht fro@ NiaGara to NeH #orI. that at a ti@e Hhen the pBlse of liDert> Deat hiGh. or propert>. or that he shall De fBll> heard in his oHn defense D> hi@self or =oBnsel6 !or the se=Brit> of liDert> it has Deen de=lared. and eCer> thinG Hhi=h is not GiCen is reserCed. in =ri@inal prose=Btions. that this Grand se=Brit> to the riGhts of the people is not to De foBnd in this ConstitBtion. that this @ode of reasoninG is rather spe=ioBs than solid. and no restraint is laid Bpon the@ in its exer=ise. GrantinG sear=h Harrants.% No @an is se=Bre of a trial in the =oBnt> Hhere he is =harGed to haCe =o@@itted a =ri@e. %in the for@er =ase. the an=ient @ode of trial D> FBr> is one of the Dest se=Brities of the riGhts of the people. The poHers. in =ertain =ases. ex=ept in =ases of i@pea=h@ent. as the other.% These proCisions are as ne=essar> Bnder the General GoCern@ent as Bnder that of the indiCidBal tates. and Hhen an appeal Has @ade to the people to for@ ConstitBtions for the GoCern@ent of the@selCes. nor =rBel or BnBsBal pBnish@ents infli=ted. and seiAinG persons. are not ne=essar> in the General ConstitBtion. per@it @e to instan=e so@e of the arti=les of the Dills of riGhts of the indiCidBal tates. Are not proCisions of this Iind as ne=essar> in the General GoCern@ent. To set this @atter in a =lear liGht. infli=tinG pBnish@ents. are as =o@plete. shall De D> FBr>.% It reEBires DBt little attention to dis=oCer. )hat se=Brit> is there. !or the pBrpose of se=BrinG the propert> of the =itiAens. and oBGht to re@ain sa=red and inCiolaDle. !ro@ this it appears. it Has their BniCersal sense. the> are aBthoriAed to proCide for the pBnish@ent of a Cariet> of =apital =ri@es. or fBrnish eCiden=e aGainst hi@self/the Hitnesses aGainst hi@ shall De DroBGht fa=e to fa=e. papers.% .

are =ontained or i@plied in the General ones Granted D> this ConstitBtion. to sBpport this ConstitBtion. the =ontrar> is eCidentl> the fa=t. the ConstitBtion of the United tates. that the liDert> of the press shoBld De held sa=red. and @Bst re=eiCe a . Hith the laHs Hhi=h shall De @ade in pBrsBan=e thereof. sB=h as. if it had Deen. "esides. on its oHn Dotto@. or Hith treaties @ade. and are Bnder no =ontrol in the exer=ise of it. or laHs of an> tate. is the sBpre@e laH. if it is possiDle for the people of A@eri=a to a==ede to it. DBt positiCel> expressed. =an li@it the poHer Granted D> this. all other for@s Hhi=h are in existen=e at the ti@e of its adoption. Of Hhat aCail Hill the ConstitBtions of the respe=tiCe tates De to preserCe the riGhts of its =itiAens6 hoBld the> De pled. This is expressed in positiCe and BneEBiCo=al ter@s in the sixth arti=le: %That this ConstitBtion. or restrain an> laHs @ade in pBrsBan=e of it.% It is therefore not onl> ne=essaril> i@plied thereD>. Hhile the> totall> o@itted others of @ore i@portan=e. in the natBre of thinGs. and that the @ilitar> shoBld De Iept Bnder stri=t sBDordination to. shall De passed. I @iGht pro=eed to instan=e a nB@Der of other riGhts. the> HoBld not haCe @ade =ertain reserCations. and the @e@Ders of the seCeral tate leGislatBres. Hhat propriet> is there in these ex=eptions6 Does this ConstitBtion an> Hhere Grant the poHer of sBspendinG the haDeas =orpBs. and the laHs of the United tates Hhi=h shall De @ade in pBrsBan=e thereof. It stands. !or it DeinG a plan of GoCern@ent re=eiCed and ratified D> the Hhole people. shall De DoBnd. D> oath or affir@ation. Hh> the fra@ers of this ConstitBtion o@itted a Dill of riGhts. and @B=h @ore so. and of the seCeral tates. that these are i@plied in the General poHers Granted. DBt the instan=es addB=ed are sBffi=ient to proCe that this arGB@ent is HithoBt foBndation. that the Hrit of haDeas =orpBs shall not De sBspended. and all exe=BtiCe and FBdi=ial offi=ers. or Grant titles of noDilit>6 It =ertainl> does not in express ter@s. pass Dills of attainder. )ith eEBal trBth it @a> De said. and the FBdGes in eCer> tate shall De DoBnd thereD>. )e find the> haCe. or Hhi=h shall De @ade. and DeinG the last Hilt. Bnder the aBthorit> of the United tates. that ele=tions shoBld De free. to the =ontrar> notHithstandinG. Hill De an oriGinal =o@pa=t. Hhether of the General or tate GoCern@ents. an> thinG in the ConstitBtion. If eCer> thinG Hhi=h is not GiCen is reserCed. No priCileGe. the =iCil poHer. The onl> ansHer that =an De GiCen is. or se=Bred D> the tate GoCern@ents.% %The senators and representatiCes Defore/@entioned.Does not the sa@e ne=essit> exist of reserCinG this riGht Bnder their national =o@pa=t. >et nothinG of this is to De foBnd in this neH s>ste@. Ca=ate eCer> for@er aGree@ent in=onsistent Hith it. that a Dill of riGhts is less ne=essar> in the General ConstitBtion than in those of the tates. The sa@e se=Brit> is as ne=essar> in this ConstitBtion. for the General GoCern@ent Hill haCe the sole poHer to raise and to pa> ar@ies. and the laHs @ade in pBrsBan=e thereof. Hhi=h Here as ne=essar> to De reserCed. Bnless in =ases of reDellion. therefore. reserCed D> the Dills of riGhts. in the ninth se=tion of the first arti=le de=lared. or Hhi=h shall De @ade. shall De the sBpre@e laH of the land. that all the poHers Hhi=h the Dills of riGhts GBard aGainst the aDBse of. are DoBnd D> oath to sBpport it./that no title of noDilit> shall De Granted D> the United tates. et=. it is eCident that the reason here assiGned Has not the trBe one. In the Dills of riGhts of the tates it is de=lared. or ex post fa=to laH. to @aIe ex post fa=to laHs. o far is it fro@ DeinG trBe. This s>ste@. the ansHer HoBld De. that the different tate ConstitBtions are repealed and entirel> done aHa>. and all leGislatBres and FBdi=ial offi=ers. that as standinG ar@ies in ti@e of pea=e are danGeroBs. the> are not to De Iept Bp. Doth of the United tates. so far as the> are in=onsistent Hith this. and =ontrolled D>. that a Hell reGBlated @ilitia is the proper and natBral defense of a free GoCern@ent. Bnder the aBthorit> of the United tates. as in that of the tates6 #et nothinG is said respe=tinG it. @Bst >ield to it./that no Dill of attainder. and all treaties @ade.

The @ost i@portant arti=le in an> ConstitBtion @a> therefore De repealed. eCen HithoBt a leGislatiCe a=t. The> HoBld insist Bpon the ex=eptionaDle =laBse DeinG altered Defore the> HoBld ratif> the =ontra=t. I shall state. are the sBpre@e laH of the land. that I =annot help sBspe=tinG that persons Hho atte@pt to persBade people that sB=h reserCations Here less ne=essar> Bnder this ConstitBtion than Bnder those of the tates. 30 CONCLUDING RE'AR& : E*IL UNDER CON!EDERATION E7AGGERATED. OBGht not a GoCern@ent. Cested Hith sB=h extensiCe and indefinite aBthorit>. Hhen it is =onsidered. "RUTU Antifederalist No. and nB@Der of reasons BrGed for adoptinG the s>ste@. and the> haCe poHer to GiCe it an> for@ the> please. and sBpersede the ConstitBtions of all the tates. And hen=e it Has of the hiGhest i@portan=e. and afterHards proposinG a@end@ents. possiDle. I asI. This Hill appear the @ore ne=essar>. and to lead >oB into an aDsolBte state of CassalaGe. D> and Hith the adCi=e and =onsent of tHo/thirds of the senate. Bnder the aBthorit> of the United tates. an re@arI Bpon. and deliCered.=onstrB=tion D> itself. HithoBt an> referen=e to an> other. to haCe Deen restri=ted D> a de=laration of riGhts6 It =ertainl> oBGht. . adopt it first. . that not onl> the ConstitBtion and laHs @ade in pBrsBan=e thereof. CON TITUTION 'U T "E DRA TICALL# RE*I ED "E!ORE ADOPTION "> 'elan=thon @ith 9a %PLE"IAN%: . Hhi=h at first Cie HoBld appear to ad@it of no repl>. eCen the apprehension of it6 The instrB@ent is >et in the hands of the people. HoBld aGree to @aIe alteration aGreeaDle to their desire. It is aGreed. o =lear a point is this. I do not find an> li@itation or restri=tion to the exer=ise of this poHer. The poHer to @aIe treaties. and then a@end it. and then adopt it6 'ost =ertainl> the latter @ode of pro=eedinG is @ore =onsistent Hith oBr ideas of prBden=e in the ordinar> =on=erns of life If @en Here aDoBt enterinG into a =ontra=t respe=tinG their priCate =on=erns it HoBld De hiGhl> aDsBrd in the@ to siGn and seal an instrB@ent =ontaininG stipBlations Hhi=h are =ontrar> to their interests and Hishes. that the @ost pre=ise and express de=larations and reserCations of riGhts shoBld haCe Deen @ade. is Cested in the president. are HilfBll> endeaCorinG to de=eiCe. the plan is defe=tiCe/that so@e of the poHers Granted are danGeroBs/others not Hell defined/and a@end@ents are ne=essar> Hh> then not a@end it6 )h> not re@oCe the =aBse of danGer. . B=h as haCe =o@e Bnder @> oDserCation. And is a =o@pa=t for the GoCern@ent of oBrselCes and oBr posterit> of less @o@ent than =ontra=t DetHeen indiCidBals6 Certainl> not. after its exe=Btion. it is not siGned. that the parties. "Bt it is =ontended. a Cariet> of oDFe=tions are @ade. DBt alt treaties @ade. and. "Bt to this reasoninG. sealed. Bnder the expe=tation. . Hh> not a@end.

!ro@ this hiGh HroBGht pi=tBre. all =lasses and =allinGs of @en a@onGst Bs are prote=ted in their CarioBs pBrsBits. It is trBe. the s=orn of foreiGn nations. DBrinG its existen=e feH people Here in a sitBation to in=rease their fortBnes. rather than to an> defe=t in oBr GoCern@ents. no nation @ena=es Bs Hith . priCate faith and =redit are disreGarded. DBt these are to De i@pBted to the BnaCoidaDle =ir=B@stan=es of thinGs.It is insisted. that the laHs and @aGistrates are =onde@ned and set at naBGht. that Hhen the Har Has oCer. and read> to DreaI oCer eCer> DoBnd set to it D> the GoCern@ent. and arts of des=ription. )e haCe FBst e@erGed fro@ a lonG and expensiCe Har. and loss of propert>. 'one> Has s=ar=e. On this head. The =oBntr> Has delBGed Hith arti=les i@ported fro@ aDroad. as not t ad@it of a dela> in for@inG a neH GoCern@ent. Those Hho =an re@e@Der oBr sitBation after the ter@ination of the Har pre=edinG the last. and reaps the frBit Hhi=h the DoBnt> of heaCen DestoHs on his honest toil. @an> indiCidBals laDor Bnder e@Darrass@ents. and re=eiCes the reHard of his laDor. The @e=hani= is exer=ised in his art. and still left Bs laDorinG Bnder the HeiGht of a hBGe deDt to persons aDroad. nor the @ore to De dreaded hand of leGal oppression. Hhat is there in oBr =ondition that threatens Bs Hith an> i@@ediate danGer6 )e are at pea=e Hith all the Horld. and @an> indiCidBals Here extre@el> e@Darrassed Hith deDts. the prodB=e of the =oBntr> @B=h loHer than it has Deen sin=e the pea=e. that priCate e@Darrass@ents and distresses inCade the hoBse of eCer> @an of @iddlinG propert>. These are the trBe soBr=es to Hhi=h He are to tra=e all the priCate diffi=Blties of indiCidBals. Neither the hand of priCate Ciolen=e. or of ti@e sBffi=ient to deliDerate and aGree Bpon the a@end@ents Hhi=h are proper. all the poHers of rhetori=.. are rea=hed oBt to distress Bs. The @er=hant driCes his =o@@er=e. and se=Bred D> the laHs in the possession and enFo>@ent of the propert> oDtained in those pBrsBits. desolations. The laHs are as Hell exe=Bted as the> eCer Here. ar e@plo>ed to paint the =ondition of this =oBntr>.. @> =oBntr>@en. one HoBld sBppose that He Here in a =ondition the @ost deploraDle of an> people Bpon earth. haCinG none to @aIe hi@ afraid6 Does not eCer> one folloH his =allinG HithoBt i@pedi@ents and re=eiCe the reHard of his Hell/earned indBstr>6 The far@er =BltiCates his land. and none =an depriCe hi@ of the Gain he honestl> a=EBires. )ith reGard to oBr pBDli= and national =on=erns. that He are in a state of the @ost GrieCoBs =ala@it> at ho@e. in the @ost hideoBs an friGhtfBl =olors. and the ridi=Ble of the Horld. )hat is >oBr =ondition6 Does not eCer> @an sit Bnder his oHn Cine and Bnder his oHn fiG/tree. to their trBe soBr=es. "Bt Hill a neH GoCern@ent relieCe >oB fro@ these6 . and that He are =onte@ptiDle aDroad. Hill re=olle=t that oBr =ondition Has si@ilar to the present. that the present sitBation of oBr =oBntr> is sB=h. #oBr present =ondition is sB=h as is =o@@on to taIe pla=e after the =on=lBsion of a Har. in this or an> other =oBntr>. and pBDli= =redit is prostrate. DBt ti@e and indBstr> soon re=oCered Bs fro@ it. to =all >oBr attention to a serioBs and soDer esti@ate of the sitBation in Hhi=h >oB are pla=ed. and inse=Brit> threatens eCer> @an in afflBent =ir=B@stan=es: in short. too @an> of Bs. that aGri=BltBre is HithoBt en=oBraGe@ent trade is lanGBishinG. that a spirit of li=entioBsness is ra@pant. Add to these. D> Hhi=h alone eCer> =oBntr> @Bst De pla=ed in a prosperoBs =ondition. HithoBt inColCinG oBrselCes in a state of anar=h> and =onfBsion. DeDts =ontra=ted Defore the Har Here left Bnpaid Hhile it existed. and indBstr>. "Bt sBffer @e. instead of reassB@inG oBr old haDits of frBGalit>. that Here sBffered dBrinG the late Har. tooI Bp the profBse Bse of foreiGn =o@@odities. DBt @an> to di@inish the@. Hhile I tra=e the e@Darrass@ents Bnder Hhi=h >oB laDor. )e are told. and these Here left a DBrden too heaC> to De ho@e at the =o@@en=e@ent of pea=e. and this happened althoBGh He did not experien=e the raCaGes. and the =ash of the =oBntr> has Deen sent to pa> for the@.

HoBld haCe fBll e@plo> to Ieep in aHe those Hho are opposed to it in their oHn GoCern@ents. are as =BrioBs as the> are fBtile. ad@it the s>ste@ the> =ontend for needs a@end@ents. Hho fra@ed this plan. . that oBr GoCern@ent does not stand in need of refor@. that a =oBntr> diCided a@onG the@selCes. that alterations are ne=essar> in oBr federal =onstitBtion. If the =onCention. And it is eEBall> trBe. to insinBate. It is ad@itted D> all parties. I do not @ean D> this. . The state GoCern@ents ansHer the pBrposes of preserCinG the pea=e. Bpon a EBestion Hhere eCen the adCo=ates for it. . . HoBld De @ore liIel> to fiGht aGainst than for it. In Doth these states the Dod> of the =o@@on people. or reEBire that He shoBld adopt a s>ste@ @ateriall> defe=tiCe. )e @a> safel> taIe ti@e to deliDerate and a@end. The reasoninGs @ade Bse of to persBade Bs. Hill appear Cisionar> and =hi@eri=al. and fro@ hen=e it is inferred. and s=ar=el> Hritten Bpon at all. The idea of JNeH #orIK DeinG atta=Ied D> the other states. "Bt it is said that if He postpone the ratifi=ation of this s>ste@ Bntil the ne=essar> a@end@ents are first in=orporated. No @an of =andor. Hhi=h has Deen relied Bpon as a prodB=tiCe fBnd to dis=harGe the national deDt has at lenGth Deen DroBGht to @arIet. OBr pBDli= deDt has Deen lessened in CarioBs Ha>s. HoBld @aIe Har Bpon a sister state6 . that shoBld indB=e Bs to a==ept the proffered s>ste@. Hill BndertaIe to sa> on Hhi=h side the @aForit> of the people are. it is trBe. as to De indB=ed to >ield to ea=h other =ertain points. Can it then De presB@ed. DBt the =ir=B@stan=es of oBr =ase do D> no @eans oDliGe Bs to pre=ipitate this DBsiness. and to a==o@@odate the@selCes to ea=h otherLs opinions. nor are He =alled Bpon D> an> =aBse of sBffi=ient i@portan=e to atta=I an> nation. Hho alHa>s do the fiGhtinG of a =oBntr>. the sBDFe=t of a neH for@ of GoCern@ent had Deen little thoBGht of. it Has the General opinion. HithoBt in the @eanti@e haAardinG a =ondition. as it respe=ts oBr national affairs. and eCen preFBdi=es. There is @ore reason to hope for this. Conne=ti=Bt. and it Has the anxioBs Hish of eCer> trBe friend to . and the Hestern territor>. De=aBse the sBDFe=t has re=eiCed a fBll dis=Bssion. It had Deen the sBDFe=t of @an> Hell/ Hritten essa>s. and the @inds of the people @B=h Detter InoHn than the> Here Hhen the =onCention sat. and a =onsideraDle part a=tBall> applied to its redB=tion. that fBrther =hanGes =annot De hoped for. . >et the opposition to it has Deen nB@eroBs and for@idaDle. and proCidinG for present exiGen=ies. there is reason to expe=t. haCe a==eded to it. . D> a larGe @aForit> of their =onCention. shoBld a =iCil Har De DloHn Bp. Here possessed of sB=h a spirit of @oderation and =ondes=ension. . that it Has the effe=t of @BtBal =on=essions and a spirit of a==o@@odation. that there Has Great diCersit> of senti@ents in for@inG the proposed =onstitBtion. that so@e alterations Here reEBisite in the federal s>ste@. if He =onsider that thoL seCeral of the@ haCe adopted the neH =onstitBtion. that there is nothinG spe=ial. after a lonG and dBDioBs =ontest in their =onCention. The idea is preposteroBs. FBdGinG fro@ their pBDli= pro=eedinGs. I @ention these thinGs to shoH.Har. and prodB=e an Bnion of senti@ents on the points oDFe=ted to. has adopted it D> an in=onsideraDle @aForit>. Horse than the present. I shoBld sBppose that the =ontrar> inferen=e Has the fair one. and in the Cer> a=t has @arIed it Hith a stiG@a in its present for@. OBr =ondition as a nation is in no respe=t Horse than it has Deen for seCeral >ears past. that no alterations =an De aGreed Bpon preCioBs to the adoption of the s>ste@. This sBDFe=t had Deen =onte@plated D> al@ost eCer> thinIinG @an in the Bnion. the =onseEBen=e Hill De a =iCil Har a@onG the states. DBt it is a fa=t Hell InoHn. It is alleGed. HithoBt taIinG sBffi=ient ti@e to =onsider and a@end it. that a =onsideraDle part of those Hho Coted for it in the =onCention. The eastern states fro@ Hho@ He are told He haCe @ost to fear. that a larGe proportion of the >eo@anr> of the =oBntr> are aGainst it. Hish to see it altered. 'assa=hBsetts. that this sa@e spirit Hill =ontinBe and preCail in a fBtBre =onCention. in an> =onsideraDle deGree. in oBr present sitBation. PreCioBs to the @eetinG of the =onCention. It is trBe.

. It is also Horth> of noti=e. De=aBse it Has not InoHn to the people Bntil after it Has proposed. Bntil the> had asse@Dled and heard it proposed in that Dod>: @B=h less had the people an> =on=eption of sB=h a plan Bntil after it Has pro@BlGated. in =iCil =ases. "Bt the assertion is not trBe to an> =onsideraDle extent.. . "Bt it is fBrther said. In this there is an Bnion of senti@ents in the opposers. that it =ontains @aterial errors. and eCer> oDFe=tion to it stated. and aDle opponents haCe Hritten aGainst it. The poHer of the General leGislatBre to alter and reGBlate the ti@e. are of a lo=al natBre. De=aBse those Hho oDFe=t to it do not entirel> =on=Br in their oDFe=tions. . that another =onCention HoBld =on=Br in sB=h a@end@ents as HoBld EBiet the fears of the opposers. in =onCersation and in print. in=e then. There is a re@arIaDle Bnifor@it> in the oDFe=tions @ade to the =onstitBtion. pla=e and @anner of holdinG ele=tions. the deDates of the =onCention Here Iept an i@penetraDle se=ret. it has Deen the oDFe=t of BniCersal attention/it has Deen thoBGht of D> eCer> refle=tinG @an/Deen dis=Bssed in a pBDli= and priCate @anner. or sB=h as affe=t an> parti=Blar state. its defe=ts haCe Deen pointed oBt. The opposers to the =onstitBtion BniCersall> aGree in this oDFe=tion. and De=aBse the riGht of trial D> FBr> is not se=Bred in the FBdi=ial =oBrts of the General GoCern@ent. a riGht to la> and =olle=t taxes. . that there =an De no prospe=t of pro=BrinG alterations Defore it is a==eded to. The =onstitBtion has Deen opposed. on the =ontrar>. De=aBse the FBdi=ial poHer @a> extend to @an> =ases Hhi=h oBGht to De reserCed to the de=ision of the tate =oBrts. . I Hill CentBre to sa>. De=aBse it GiCes to the leGislatBre an Bnli@ited poHer of taxation Doth Hith respe=t to dire=t and indire=t taxes. that this @a> De BrGed aGainst atte@ptinG alterations after it is re=eiCed. i@posts and ex=ises of eCer> Iind and des=ription. and to an> a@oBnt. dBties. aDle adCo=ates haCe Hritten in its faCor. De=aBse those Hho oppose it do not aGree a@onG the@selCes Hith respe=t to the a@end@ents that are ne=essar>. Hhi=h Hill sHalloH Bp that of the indiCidBal states. and reEBires i@portant a@end@ents. neCer entered the @inds of the leGislatBres Hho appointed the =onCention. to haCe an entire =hanGe in the natBre of oBr federal GoCern@ent/to alter it fro@ a =onfederation of states. It has Deen said that the representation in the General leGislatBre is too s@all to se=Bre liDert>. that the idea of a GoCern@ent si@ilar to the one proposed. This then DeinG the General senti@ent. Doth of the friends and foes of the s>ste@.. . All the opposers are aGreed in this oDFe=tion. NeH #orI and GeorGia are eEBall> interested. The s>ste@ Has therefore neCer pBDli=l> dis=Bssed.A@eri=a. Hith as @B=h for=e as Defore. To this I repl>. to that of one entire GoCern@ent. and no opportBnit> Has GiCen for Hell infor@ed @en to offer their senti@ents Bpon the sBDFe=t. has Deen stated as an arGB@ent aGainst the adoption of the s>ste@. In this there has Deen as General a =on=Brren=e of opinion as in the for@er. is =al=Blated to and Hill effe=t sB=h a =onsolidation of the tates. "Bt it Has DeCer in the =onte@plation of one in a thoBsand of those Hho had refle=ted on the @atter. It has Deen oDFe=ted too that the neH s>ste@ . on the @ost i@portant points. nor indeed =oBld De. in Hhi=h the people of NeH $a@pshire. And Hhat is the resBlt6 It =annot De denied DBt that the General opinion is. the> are sB=h as =on=ern the prin=iples of General liDert>. that Cer> feH of the @atters foBnd faBlt Hith in it. it is that He @Bst re=eiCe an> s>ste@ of GoCern@ent proposed to Bs. )hile it Has aGitated. and of DBt Cer> feH of the @e@Ders Hho =o@posed it. and effe=t a Great deGree of Bnion on the sBDFe=t6 // An eCent @ost deCoBtl> to De Hished. and therefore. or to ansHer the intention of representation. as to sBpplant and oCertBrn the state GoCern@ents.. . if it =on=lBdes an>thinG. =an it De doBDted. . The opposers to the =onstitBtion haCe said that it is danGeroBs.

FBdi=ial. aGree. Consider. Atte@pts haCe Deen @ade. and GiCe >oB hearts to @aIe a proper esti@ate of >oBr inCalBaDle priCileGes. as the shades in a fine pi=tBre. 'a> heaCen inspire >oB Hith Hisdo@. and in these there is a Great deGree of Bnani@it> of senti@ent in the opposers. and exe=BtiCe poHers in the enate. It Has represented either as haCinG no defe=ts. it affords eCiden=e that the> are sin=ere. to set off the pie=e to the Greater adCantaGe. the> do not =hanGe fro@ =onCi=tion. )hen a t>rann> is estaDlished. that there are in it Great defe=ts. the little deGree of responsiDilit> Bnder Hhi=h the Great offi=ers of GoCern@ent Hill De held. that it is ne=essar> it shoBld De a@ended. or HithoBt proper alterations. Hhile on the other hand. the> Here so triflinG and in=onsideraDle. are also oDFe=ted to the =onstitBtion. to alar@ >oB Hith the fear of =onseEBen=es. noH ad@it it is Cer> i@perfe=t. >oB are to De the prin=ipal losers. >oB haCe FBst =aBse to distrBst those Hho BrGe the adoption of a Dad =onstitBtion. and then a@end it/Hhile the other sa>. Bnder the Bn=ertain prospe=t of GettinG it a@ended. Hhen >oB =onsider that the adCo=ates for the =onstitBtion haCe shifted their GroBnd. the <eHish laHGiCer. its sBpporters =ried it Bp as the @ost perfe=t prodB=tion of hB@an Hisdo@. Hhile it Hill depress the @an> to the extre@e of poCert> and Hret=hedness. to De trans@itted to >oBr posterit> Bni@paired. Hhile Bn and 'oon endBre. The onl> EBestion DetHeen Bs. that the @en Hho for@ed it Here as reall> Bnder the GBidan=e of DiCine ReCelation. In @en of this des=ription >oB haCe reason to pla=e =onfiden=e. it GiCes reason to DelieCe. the Great and Hell/Dorn are Generall> the for@er. for to sB=h I prin=ipall> address @>self. Hhose proCiden=e =ondB=ts the affairs of all @en. or shall He a@end it Defore He adopt it6 Co@@on sense Hill point oBt Hhi=h is the @ost rational. @oderation and fir@ness. >et the one side tell >oB. and I thinI the> are BnansHeraDle.The @ixtBre of leGislatiCe. the oDFe=tions to the plan aDl> stated. as to pronoBn=e. #oB haCe heard that Doth sides on this Great EBestion. =hoose sB=h @en as Hill adopt it. or if it had. One Gentle@an in Philadelphia Hent so far in the ardor of his enthBsias@ in its faCor. and none =an De apprehended @ore dreadfBl. )hen the> are shiftinG. a@end preCioBs to its adoption. the >eo@anr> of the =oBntr>. Bnder the delBsiCe expe=tation of @aIinG a@end@ents after it is a==eded to. It @Bst De re=olle=ted. and the> are ad@itted to De BnansHeraDle. that the> serCed onl>. OBr part is to a=t riGht. DBt refle=t there are =onseEBen=es on Doth sides. after He haCe re=eiCed it. is si@pl> thisMhall He a==ede to a Dad =onstitBtion. as Has 'oses. )hen @en are Bnifor@ in their opinions. I haCe stated to >oB @> reasons for the latter. . the EBestion has Deen dis=Bssed. and @a> the> De @aintained in this oBr =oBntr>. ConseEBen=es are Bnder the =ontrol of that all/Hise and all/ poHerfBl DeinG. A PLE"EIAN . #oBr FealoBs> of sB=h =hara=ters shoBld De the @ore ex=ited. The sa@e @en Hho held it al@ost perfe=t. and He @a> then haCe =onfiden=e that the =onseEBen=es Hill De faCoraDle. Hhi=h is the @ost se=Bre line of =ondB=t. and the liDert> Granted D> the s>ste@ to estaDlish and @aintain a standinG ar@> HithoBt an> li@itation or restri=tion. The path in Hhi=h >oB shoBld HalI is plain and open Defore >oB. De Bnited as one @an. if the =onstitBtion shoBld proCe oppressiCe. . and the @iddlinG =lass the latter. there are alHa>s @asters as Hell as slaCes. Their lanGBaGe is noH =hanGed. . and dire=t >oBr =hoi=e to sB=h @en as haCe Deen Bnifor@ in their opposition to the proposed s>ste@ in its present for@. and Hill De repeated. than entailinG on oBrselCes and posterit> a GoCern@ent Hhi=h Hill raise a feH to the heiGht of hB@an Greatness and Health. Bnion. and preserCe the@ to >oB. >oB the =o@@on people. that Hhen this plan Has first annoBn=ed to the pBDli=.

Thus. The Complete Anti-Federalist. and the )ederal )armer 0either #elancton Smith. e.nti/)ederalist authors included Cato 0likely 1eorge Clinton2. 1'.The Anti-Federalist Papers are a collection of articles. who collected 8% of the most significant papers and arranged them in an order closely resem!ling that of the 8% Federalist Papers.g. mostly operating under pen names. The most fre+uently cited modern collection. which was added later. was produced !y . or #ercy "tis 6arren2. Speeches !y 7atrick . &1' in $orden(s arrangement argues against )ederalist *o. $rutus 0likely 3o!ert 4ates2. it is a matter of opinion what writings specifically are included and in what order they are !est presented. "ne of the ma or points of the articles was the danger the new Constitution would !ring without a statement of indi-idual rights. "ne nota!le presentation is that !y #orton $orden.enry and Smith are often included as well.nti/)ederalist concerns were addressed in the $ill of 3ights. the authors of these articles. Some of the . #a or .er!ert Storing and is considered the authoritati-e compendium on the pu!lications. unlike the Federalist Papers. Unlike the Federalist Papers written in support of the Constitution. written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 United States Constitution.enry 5ee. were not engaged in a strictly organized pro ect. Centinel 0Samuel $ryan2. . 3ichard .

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